Science.gov

Sample records for organizational influence processes

  1. Phenomenological Study: How Organizational Structures and Change Processes Influence Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte Clay

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions create organizational structures for younger students with limited work experience. New generations of adult students require different organizational structures to improve success. The current phenomenological qualitative study addressed the lack of consensus of what types of organizational structures in higher education…

  2. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  3. A Dual Process Model of Organizational Commitment: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R.

    2002-01-01

    Data from 2,443 Korean employees were used to test a dual-process model theorizing that job satisfaction and organizational support are key emotional and cognitive processes influencing organizational commitment. Results show that the two processes operate through independent channels to influence the impact of work experience on commitment.…

  4. Experimental Studies of the Influence of Organizational Effectiveness and Succession on the Administrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusky, Oscar

    The present study, part of a larger investigation, attempted to examine the separate and joint effects of succession and effectiveness on administrative processes in laboratory-created 3-level formal organizations. Specifically, the investigation concerned itself with the impact of these two elements on communication relationships between managers…

  5. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  7. Organizational Leadership Process for University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamosa-Villalba, Ricardo; Delgado, Dario J.; Camacho, Heidi P.; Paéz, Ana M.; Valdivieso, Raúl F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper relates the "Agile School", an emerging archetype of the enterprise architecture: "Processes of Organizational Leadership" for leading and managing strategies, tactics and operations of forming in Higher Education Institutions. Agile School is a system for innovation and deep transformation of University Institutions…

  8. Personality and organizational influences on aerospace human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Individual and organizational influences on performance in aerospace environments are discussed. A model of personality with demonstrated validity is described along with reasons why personality's effects on performance have been underestimated. Organizational forces including intergroup conflict and coercive pressures are also described. It is suggested that basic and applied research in analog situations is needed to provide necessary guidance for planning future space missions.

  9. Tools for the Improvement of Organizational Learning Processes in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C.; Pacitti, Bernice J.; da Silva Gomes, Jorge F.; Pearson, Alan W.

    2002-01-01

    From case studies of organizational learning in research and development companies, learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning, and product innovation project review. Organizational learning involved parallel rather than linear processes of information acquisition, distribution, and interpretation and…

  10. Adapting to Diversity: Organizational Influences on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Skinner, Elizabeth Fisk

    1990-01-01

    A model of institutional adaptation to diversity emerged from case studies of 10 public universities. The model depicts state policy influencing the priorities and practices of work groups within a university. The resulting adaptation of organizational culture leads to improvements in participation and graduation for minorities. (Author/MSE)

  11. The Organizational Communication Process in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunbayi, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers on the effectiveness of organizational communication in their schools and whether the perceptions differed between teachers in primary and junior high schools as a function of gender, age, marital status, seniority, and rank. Data were collected from a sample of 334 teachers in 63 schools, working in…

  12. Community College Mission Influence on Culture: An Organizational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Gerome

    2013-01-01

    Strong agreement of mission and culture has been found in more effective colleges (Fjortoft & Smart, 1994). For leaders, the culture of an organization provides the context for which decisions about organizational change processes can be made (Malm, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore the culture present within a community college…

  13. Integrating Individual Learning Processes and Organizational Knowledge Formation: Foundational Determinants for Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.; Kim, Hong Min

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the link between learning processes and knowledge formation through an integrated literature review from both academic and practical viewpoints. Individuals' learning processes and organizational knowledge creation were reviewed by means of theoretical and integrative analysis based on a lack of empirical research on the…

  14. A Case Study on the Influence of Organizational Culture on Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhihui

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to probe the influence of the organizational culture on language classroom at a newly-established local college. It firstly reviews the knowledge of the organizational culture and finds out its features, and then discusses how the organizational culture was greatly influenced by the host educational environment. On the basis of…

  15. The Mediating Influence of Organizational Characteristics in the Relationship between Organizational Type and Relational Power: An Extension of Psychological Empowerment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Lindsay A.; Speer, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Processes of psychological empowerment for members of community-based organizations may be strongly influenced by organizational factors. Using survey data from a random sample of urban residents (n = 974), the present study examines how individual perceptions of empowering features of organizations (group-based belief system, role opportunity,…

  16. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  17. OSUL2013: Fostering Organizational Change through a Grassroots Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides background on planning and organizational culture change in libraries and describes a grassroots planning process taking place at the Ohio State University Libraries. Now in its third phase, the process aims to create a long-term plan for the organization while fostering a more collaborative, innovative culture.

  18. Are employees' ratings of coworkers' organizational citizenship behavior influenced by their own perceptions of organizational justice?'.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Sonmez, Yener

    2005-08-01

    Partial correlation analysis of questionnaire data from 62 of 65 employees of a Turkish company indicated that employees' own perceptions of organizational justice in terms of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were related to how they rated their coworkers' organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, all three two-way interactions between the justice variables were related to organizational citizenship behavior. PMID:16279309

  19. The influence of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and fairness perceptions on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Schappe, S P

    1998-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that job satisfaction, perceptions of procedural justice, and organizational commitment are all significant correlates of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Those variables were studied collectively to determine their relative effects on OCB. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when all three of the variables were considered concurrently, only organizational commitment accounted for a unique amount of variance in OCB. PMID:9540226

  20. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  1. Bureaucratic Structure, Organizational Processes, and Three Dimensions of School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that schools with more participative processes and less structure have higher levels of perceived organizational effectiveness, teacher job satisfaction, and student achievement than schools with less participative climates and more structure. A sample of 114 school units and 1,632 teachers…

  2. Supporting Cross-Organizational Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Samuil; Vonk, Jochem; Vidyasankar, Krishnamurthy; Grefen, Paul

    E-contracts express the rights and obligations of parties through a formal, digital representation of the contract provisions. In process intensive relationships, e-contracts contain business processes that a party promises to perform for the counter party, optionally allowing monitoring of the execution of the promised processes. In this paper, we describe an approach in which the counter party is allowed to control the process execution. This approach will lead to more flexible and efficient business relations which are essential in the context of modern, highly dynamic and complex collaborations among companies. We present a specification of the process controls available to the consumer and their support in the private process specification of the provider.

  3. The Innovation Process: An Organizational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Managers and researchers alike have tended to concentrate on the wrong problems in the administration of technological change. The most difficult and critical problems in the development process appear to be in the linkages that tie together all the stages between inception and application or use. (Author/WM)

  4. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  5. Organizational Influences on Health Professionals' Experiences of Moral Distress in PICUs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Sarah; Austin, Wendy J; Garros, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative study (secondary analysis) that explored the organizational influences on moral distress for health professionals working in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) across Canada. Participants were recruited to the study from PICUs across Canada. The PICU is a high-tech, fast-paced, high-pressure environment where caregivers frequently face conflict and ethical tension in the care of critically ill children. A number of themes including relationships with management, organizational structure and processes, workload and resources, and team dynamics were identified. This study provides a rare and important multi-disciplinary perspective on this topic and the findings have implications for administrators and leaders who seek to improve the moral climate of healthcare delivery. PMID:25643755

  6. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  7. Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.

    PubMed

    Levin, R; Bhak, K; Moy, E; Valente, E; Griner, P F

    1998-06-01

    At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director. PMID:9653400

  8. The role of organizational trust in safety climate's influence on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kath, Lisa M; Magley, Vicki J; Marmet, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Based on elements of social exchange theory and other conceptualizations of trust, a model was developed situating organizational trust as a central component to the relationship that safety climate has with organizational outcomes. Specifically, the model specified that two facets of safety climate--upward safety communication and management attitudes toward safety--would be positively related to organizational trust. Increased levels of trust would then predict increased motivation to engage in safe job-related behaviors, increased job satisfaction, and decreased turnover intentions. Another hypothesis investigated whether job safety relevance would moderate the relationship between safety climate and trust. Online survey research was conducted with 599 employees from 97 work groups across a New England grocery store chain. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated support for trust mediating the relationship between safety climate and organizational outcomes; further, the relationship between safety climate and trust was stronger within work groups where safety was more relevant. PMID:20538105

  9. The Influence of National and Organizational Culture on the Use of Performance Improvement Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.; Klein, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the influence of national and organizational culture on the use of various performance improvement interventions. Data on intervention use were collected from practitioners in the United States and South Asia. Results revealed that orientation programs, organizational communication, instructor-led training, and…

  10. Cynicism about organizational change: an attribution process perspective.

    PubMed

    Wanous, John P; Reichers, Arnon E; Austin, James T

    2004-06-01

    The underlying attribution process for cynicism about organizational change is examined with six samples from four different organizations. The samples include hourly (n=777) and salaried employees (n= 155) from a manufacturing plant, faculty (n=293) and staff (n=302) from a large university, managers from a utility company (n=97), and young managers (n=65) from various organizations who were attending an evening MBA program. This form of cynicism is defined as the combination of Pessimism (about future change efforts) and a Dispositional attribution (why past efforts to change failed). Three analyses support this definition. First, an exploratory factor analysis (from the largest sample) produced two factors, one composed of Pessimism and the Dispositional attribution items and the second of the Situational attribution items. Second, the average correlation (across several samples) between Pessimism and Dispositional attribution is much higher (.59) than the average correlation between Pessimism and Situational attribution (.17). Third, scores on two different trait-based measures of cynicism correlate highest with the Dispositional attribution component of cynicism. A practical implication is that organizational leaders may minimize cynicism by managing both employees' pessimism about organizational change and employees' attributions about it. Specific suggestions for how this might be done are offered. PMID:15362427

  11. Relationship between organizational justice and organizational safety climate: do fairness perceptions influence employee safety behaviour?

    PubMed

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Haybatollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between organizational justice, organizational safety climate, job satisfaction, safety compliance and accident frequency. Ghanaian industrial workers participated in the study (N = 320). Safety climate and justice perceptions were assessed with Hayes, Parender, Smecko, et al.'s (1998) and Blader and Tyler's (2003) scales respectively. A median split was performed to dichotomize participants into 2 categories: workers with positive and workers with negative justice perceptions. Confirmatory factors analysis confirmed the 5-factor structure of the safety scale. Regression analyses and t tests indicated that workers with positive fairness perceptions had constructive perspectives regarding workplace safety, expressed greater job satisfaction, were more compliant with safety policies and registered lower accident rates. These findings provide evidence that the perceived level of fairness in an organization is closely associated with workplace safety perception and other organizational factors which are important for safety. The implications for safety research are discussed. PMID:24934417

  12. Complementary Role of Organizational Learning Capability in New Service Development (NSD) Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limpibunterng, Tharinee; Johri, Lalit M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of organizational learning capability in relation to leadership tasks performed by executives and organizational performance by bridging the concepts of organizational learning and NSD. Design/methodology/approach: The NSD processes of seven telecom service providers in Thailand are…

  13. Six Community College Presidents: Organizational Pressures, Change Processes and Approaches to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A total of six Maryland community college presidents were guided through conversations to identify the organizational challenges and uncertainties that have forced organizational changes in their respective colleges. Another thrust of the research was to discover what organizational change processes these presidents have implemented to overcome…

  14. Influence of organizational functioning on client engagement in treatment.

    PubMed

    Greener, Jack M; Joe, George W; Simpson, D Dwayne; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Lehman, Wayne E K

    2007-09-01

    This study focused on the relationship between organizational functioning factors measured in a staff survey using the Texas Christian University (TCU) Organizational Readiness for Change assessment and client-level engagement measured by the TCU Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment in drug treatment programs. The sample consisted of 531 clinical and counseling staff and 3,475 clients from 163 substance abuse treatment programs located in nine states from three regional Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. Measures of client engagement in treatment (rapport, satisfaction, and participation) were shown to be higher in programs with more positive staff ratings of organizational functioning. In particular, these programs had fewer agency needs and more favorable ratings for their resources, staff attributes, and climate. These findings help establish the importance of addressing organizational factors as part of an overall strategy for improving treatment effectiveness. PMID:17433863

  15. From Organizational Learning to Organizational Performance: The Influence of Individual Learning and Intrapreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carlos; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2007-01-01

    Companies must survive in a competitive business arena that has become increasingly complex, demanding learning at both the individual and organizational levels. We suggest that the intersection of individual learning and intrapreneurship may help employees apply their knowledge more strategically to better support the learning of the organization…

  16. Considerations for implementing an organizational lessons learned process.

    SciTech Connect

    Fosshage, Erik

    2013-05-01

    This report examines the lessons learned process by a review of the literature in a variety of disciplines, and is intended as a guidepost for organizations that are considering the implementation of their own closed-loop learning process. Lessons learned definitions are provided within the broader context of knowledge management and the framework of a learning organization. Shortcomings of existing practices are summarized in an attempt to identify common pitfalls that can be avoided by organizations with fledgling experiences of their own. Lessons learned are then examined through a dual construct of both process and mechanism, with emphasis on integrating into organizational processes and promoting lesson reuse through data attributes that contribute toward changed behaviors. The report concludes with recommended steps for follow-on efforts.

  17. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  18. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  19. The Influence of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Organizational Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sheldon; Ruderman, Marion

    Research on justice in organizational behavior has emphasized distributive rather than procedural justice. Distributive justice focuses on the fairness of rewards, while procedural justice focuses on the fairness of the procedures used in allocating rewards. To examine the procedural-distributive justice distinction as it relates to organizatonal…

  20. Power and Influence Styles in Programme Planning: Relationship with Organizational Political Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baiyin; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    Adult educators (n=226) recalled incidents of power and influence behaviors in designing and planning programs. Cluster analysis identified four behaviors: shotgun, tactician, ingratiator, and bystander. These power and influence styles related to organizational contexts. Planners' personal characteristics did not affect choice of style. (SK)

  1. Organizational Climate and Informal Helping Processes in Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ronald J.; Weir, Tamara

    1978-01-01

    This investigation examines the relationship of managers' descriptions of organizational climate to their participation in informal helping interactions at work. Three distinct aspects of organizational climate, derived from Likert and Argyris, were related to several areas of helper and helpee behavior and disclosure of problems and help-seeking…

  2. Influencing the legislative process

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.

    1994-12-31

    This basic premise--that environmental policy results from a multitude of responses to a variety of problems--explains to some extent the general lack of coordination between major environmental protection programs. It also suggests why there has been so much new legislation and regulation in the last decade and a half. Solutions have been proposed and adopted to address a myriad of problems, from leaking underground storage tanks to catastrophic releases of toxic materials. In the absence of broader environmental goals or policy, these individual solutions often gain a life of their own and their passage becomes a high priority for their sponsors. Given this situation, the best way an individual can influence environmental policy is to become involved in solving a problem--in making one`s voice heard in the decision-making process. But influencing the outcome of a decision-making process can be difficult at best, and is impossible without an understanding of the process itself.In addition to knowing the process, it is also important to understand the role played by the professionals involved in the process, the way in which decision makers view the world, and the ways in which a position or opinion on a particular issue can be best brought to the attention of decision makers.

  3. Changing the Organizational Structure to Affect Perceived Bureaucracy, Organizational Processes, Loyalty, Job Satisfaction, and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.; Miskel, Cecil

    Schools are functioning in an era of rapid change and increasing mobility. In an effort to mobilize the organizational structure to meet the standards being dictated by society, the school district reorganized the administrative structure to emphasize decentralized decision-making for direct educational functions. The hypothesis was made that…

  4. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Wanberg, Connie R

    2003-10-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover. PMID:14516244

  5. Process-oriented integration and coordination of healthcare services across organizational boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tello-Leal, Edgar; Chiotti, Omar; Villarreal, Pablo David

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents a methodology that follows a top-down approach based on a Model-Driven Architecture for integrating and coordinating healthcare services through cross-organizational processes to enable organizations providing high quality healthcare services and continuous process improvements. The methodology provides a modeling language that enables organizations conceptualizing an integration agreement, and identifying and designing cross-organizational process models. These models are used for the automatic generation of: the private view of processes each organization should perform to fulfill its role in cross-organizational processes, and Colored Petri Net specifications to implement these processes. A multi-agent system platform provides agents able to interpret Colored Petri-Nets to enable the communication between the Healthcare Information Systems for executing the cross-organizational processes. Clinical documents are defined using the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture. This methodology guarantees that important requirements for healthcare services integration and coordination are fulfilled: interoperability between heterogeneous Healthcare Information Systems; ability to cope with changes in cross-organizational processes; guarantee of alignment between the integrated healthcare service solution defined at the organizational level and the solution defined at technological level; and the distributed execution of cross-organizational processes keeping the organizations autonomy. PMID:22434534

  6. How abusive supervisors influence employees' voice and silence: the effects of interactional justice and organizational attribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this research we investigated the influence of abusive supervision on employees' prosocial voice and silence, as well as clarified the roles of interactional justice (as a mediator) and organizational attribution (as a moderator). Moreover, we examined a mediated moderating model stipulating that interactional justice mediated the moderating effect of organizational attribution on the focal relationship. A scenario experiment was employed in Study 1, and after analyzing data from 196 employees, we found that abusive supervision influenced employees' prosocial voice and silence via interactional justice. In Study 2, data were collected from 379 employees in two waves separated by 1 week. The results not only replicated the findings of Study 1 but also indicated that organizational attribution buffered the abusive supervision-voice and silence relationship, and that interactional justice mediated this moderating effect. PMID:25492100

  7. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice. PMID:27356446

  8. How To Optimize Organizational Effectiveness through Leadership: The Case for a Process-Based Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieley, James B.

    This paper presents the issues relating to, the rationale, and the methodology for the implementation of a process-based organizational structure. Following an overview of leadership theory and traditional organizational structure, a model of the circular organization is presented. In the circular organization, the leader occupies a middle, rather…

  9. Organizational Conflict Management as Disputing Process: The Problem of Social Escalation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Calvin; Thomas, Cheryl King

    1992-01-01

    Develops an instrument to study organizational conflict management as a disputing process involving the social escalation from grievance to conflict and dispute stages. Finds differences in dispute process according to different strengths of informal relations. (SR)

  10. Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cameron; Spataro, Sandra E; Flynn, Francis J

    2008-05-01

    How can individuals attain influence in organizations? Prior research has identified structural determinants of influence, such as formal authority and position in a social network. However, indirect evidence suggests that influence might also stem from personal characteristics. The authors tested whether influence can stem from the fit between the person and his or her organization (P-O fit). Consistent with expectations, extraverts attained more influence in a team-oriented organization, whereas conscientious individuals attained more influence in an organization in which individuals worked alone on technical tasks. Further, these effects held up after controlling for formal authority, job performance, and demographic characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The multiple ways in which individuals can gain influence are discussed. PMID:18457498

  11. Organizational Influences on Sex Composition of College and University Faculty: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Rebecca L.; Perrucci, Carolyn C.

    1984-01-01

    The student body size and the percentage of female deans affect the odds at both universities and colleges that a faculty member is a woman. Proximity to a large urban area and student selectivity affect the faculty sex composition of colleges; federal funding and nepotism were organizational influences at universities. (Author/RM)

  12. Blended Families: The Influence of Organizational and Managerial Culture in Mergers of Career-Oriented Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambach, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study is constructed to offer insight on the infrequently investigated influence of organizational culture before and after a merger between higher education institutions. Respondents were selected from volunteers to form three strata of employees; staff, mid-level management which included some faculty members, and upper…

  13. Organizational Influences and Constraints on Community College Web-Based Media Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Sheila M.; Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Various organizational, departmental, and interdepartmental factors influence how an educational institution practices public relations. These factors may enable or hinder the ways in which communication practitioners build and maintain relationships with the media. Higher education institutions are especially in need of public relations efforts.…

  14. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  15. The Influence of Investment in Workplace Learning on Learning Outcomes and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonhee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of workplace learning has been recognized in research and practice, there is little empirical support that describes how workplace learning, including both formal and informal learning, is linked to organizational performance. This study investigated the influence of investment in workplace learning on learning outcomes and…

  16. Economic, organizational, and institutional impact of the survivability validation process

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, G.

    1993-08-01

    This paper addresses some of the key economic, organizational, and institutional issues associated with the development and use of survivability validation protocols. It discusses factors affecting protocols, considerations for protocol selection, test- bed/simulator/analysis tool availability, organizational issues affecting protocol use, deviations precluding adherence to validated protocols, and protocol advantages. Knowledge of these factors will assist developers of survivability validation protocols in designing more flexible protocols that can be tailored for differing circumstances without losing the fidelity or assurance that the protocol will produce the desired survivability level.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Managing Business Process Risk Using Rich Organizational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M. Zahidul; Bhuiyan, Moshiur; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya

    Business processes represent the operational capabilities of an organization. In order to ensure process continuity, the effective management of risks becomes an area of key concern. In this paper we propose an approach for supporting risk identification with the use of higher-level organizational models. We provide some intuitive metrics for extracting measures of actor criticality and vulnerability from organizational models. This helps direct risk management to areas of critical importance within organization models. Additionally, the information can be used to assess alternative organizational structures in domains where risk mitigation is crucial. At the process level, these measures can be used to help direct improvements to the robustness and failsafe capabilities of critical or vulnerable processes. We believe our novel approach, will provide added benefits when used with other approaches to risk management during business process management, that do not reference the greater organizational context during risk assessment.

  18. Analyzing the nursing organizational structure and process from a scheduling perspective.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Broos; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The efficient and effective management of nursing personnel is of critical importance in a hospital's environment comprising approximately 25 % of the hospital's operational costs. The nurse organizational structure and the organizational processes highly affect the nurses' working conditions and the provided quality of care. In this paper, we investigate the impact of different nurse organization structures and different organizational processes for a real-life situation in a Belgian university hospital. In order to make accurate nurse staffing decisions, the employed solution methodology incorporates shift scheduling characteristics in order to overcome the deficiencies of the many phase-specific methodologies that are proposed in the academic literature. PMID:23456371

  19. “Does Organizational Culture Influence the Ethical Behavior in the Pharmaceutical Industry?”

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2011-01-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer’s V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India. PMID:24826027

  20. Professional and organizational commitment in paediatric occupational therapists: the influence of practice setting.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Francine M; Hinojosa, Jim

    2010-09-01

    The professional and organizational commitment of paediatric occupational therapists working in two distinct practice settings, schools and medically based settings, was investigated. A web-based survey program was used to administer a questionnaire to occupational therapists employed in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The study employed social identity theory as a guiding perspective in understanding therapists' professional and organizational commitment. One hundred and fifty-seven paediatric therapists responded to the Professional Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire to gauge their commitment to both the profession and their employing organizations. Results indicated that paediatric therapists, regardless of employment setting, have high professional commitment. Paediatric occupational therapists employed in medically based settings indicated statistically significant higher organizational commitment than their school-based counterparts. For therapists that work in school settings, the presence of a professional cohort did not influence professional commitment scores. As the study employed a web-based survey methodology, only individuals who were members of associations and had access to a computer and the Internet were able to participate. Further study might include widening the participant pool as well as adding additional instruments to explore both professional and organizational commitment on a more national scale. PMID:20806287

  1. "Does organizational culture influence the ethical behavior in the pharmaceutical industry?".

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2011-12-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India. PMID:24826027

  2. Training and Organizational Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Knowledge Management Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Azmawani Abd; Ng, Siew Imm; Sambasivan, Murali; Wong, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Training alone is not sufficient to enhance organizational effectiveness to a greater level because not all knowledge obtained from the training is properly transferred and applied to the organization. This study aims to investigate whether efforts invested by Malaysian manufacturers in employee training and knowledge transfer affect…

  3. Acute and Chronic Effects of Alcohol Use on Organizational Processes in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Linda J.; Lee, Catherine L.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects selected on the basis of their drinking histories (alcoholics, heavy drinkers, and social drinkers, N=24) were tested on a series of tasks in order to assess organizational processes in memory. (Editor)

  4. Organizational Structures and Processes, Perceived School Effectiveness, Loyalty, and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The findings suggest that more effective schools, as perceived by teachers, are characterized by more participative organizational processes, less centralized decision-making structures, more formalized general rules, and more professional activity. (Author)

  5. An empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior in Taiwan's facilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzai-Zang; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hong, Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Although the social exchange relationships between employers and employees are increasingly important to the performance of safety management systems, the psychological effects of work attitudes on this relationship have been less studied. Using a sample of first-line operators and their supervisors from 188 facilities in Taiwan which had Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18000 (OHSAS 18000) certification, the current research conducted an empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Work attitude was used to disclose the psychological effect. Research results indicated that (a) safety climate was a significant predicator of OCB, (b) the psychological effect significantly influenced social exchange relationships, and (c) job satisfaction showed a stronger mediating influence than organizational commitment due to the frequent top management turnover. Discussions and implications are also addressed. PMID:17888235

  6. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  7. The Interaction of Principal and Teacher Instructional Influence as a Measure of Leadership as an Organizational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen M.; Marriott, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the design and test of a measure of school leadership as an organizational quality through the interaction of principal and teacher instructional influence. The Organizational Leadership Model hypothesizes four distinct conditions of school leadership, and the analysis investigates the relationship between teacher,…

  8. Organizational Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Krogh, George; Roos, Johan

    This book is intended to give readers an observational scheme for understanding the process of organizational knowledge development at the individual and social levels. Chapter 1 examines devising a concept of organizational knowledge. In chapter 2, the place of epistemology within philosophy is discussed along with organizational, cognitivist,…

  9. Workplace Bullying and Its Influence on the Perception of Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourssi-Alfash, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies in the literature on workplace bullying concentrated on identifying the characteristics of who the bully and the bullied are, bullying behaviors and acts, and the effects of these bullying practices. However, there is not much in the literature about the perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior…

  10. Organizational Factors that Influence Information Technology Diffusion in Academic Health Sciences Centers

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify the organizational factors which influence the diffusion of end user online literature searching, the computer-based patient record, and electronic mail systems in academic health sciences centers in the United States. Design: A total of 1335 individuals working in informatics and library areas at 67 academic health sciences centers in the U.S. were surveyed. Multivariate techniques were used to evaluate the relationship between the set of six organizational factors and two measures of innovation diffusion. Measurements: A Guttman-like scale was developed to measure infusion, or depth or sophistication, of each of the three innovations at each institution. Diffusion was measured by a question previously developed for another study. Six independent variables were measured via five formerly developed scales and one new one. Results: The overall response rate was 41%. The set of organizational variables produced significant results in the diffusion of each of the three innovations, with individual variables influencing diffusion to varying degrees. The same set produced significant results in relation to infusion only for online searching. There was little or no correlation between infusion and diffusion for each innovation. Conclusion: Organizational attributes are important predictors for diffusion of information technology innovations. Individual variables differ in their effect on each innovation. The set of attributes seems less able to predict infusion. It is recommended that both infusion and diffusion be measured in future studies because there is little relation between them. It is further recommended that individuals charged with implementing information technology in the health sciences receive training in managing organizational issues. PMID:9067876

  11. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    PubMed Central

    Stamarski, Cailin S.; Son Hing, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  12. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  13. Strengthening affective organizational commitment: the influence of fairness perceptions of management practices and underlying employee cynicism.

    PubMed

    English, Brian; Chalon, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cynicism, the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices, and affective organizational commitment. High levels of affective organizational commitment have been shown to reduce voluntary turnover in the nursing workforce. Previous research suggests that "unfair" management practices and employee cynicism lead to lower commitment. It is not clear, however, whether the perceived fairness of particular practices influences affective commitment beyond that accounted for by underlying employee cynicism. Data were obtained from a study involving 1104 registered nurses that formed part of a larger investigation of the general well-being of nurses in Western Australia. Only nurses who were permanent or employed on fixed term or temporary contracts were included. Findings indicated that although higher levels of cynicism among nurses were associated with lower levels of affective commitment, their perception of the fairness of change management and personnel practices influenced their affective commitment over and above their cynicism. The perceived fairness of management practices is an important influence on nurses' affective commitment beyond that accounted for by cynicism. The implication for managers is that the affective organizational commitment of nurses is likely to be strengthened by addressing the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices notwithstanding their beliefs about the integrity of the organization. PMID:21248545

  14. The influence of organizational context on the use of research by nurses in Canadian pediatric hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizational context is recognized as an important influence on the successful implementation of research by healthcare professionals. However, there is relatively little empirical evidence to support this widely held view. Methods The objective of this study was to identify dimensions of organizational context and individual (nurse) characteristics that influence pediatric nurses’ self-reported use of research. Data on research use, individual, and contextual variables were collected from registered nurses (N = 735) working on 32 medical, surgical and critical care units in eight Canadian pediatric hospitals using an online survey. We used Generalized Estimating Equation modeling to account for the correlated structure of the data and to identify which contextual dimensions and individual characteristics predict two kinds of self-reported research use: instrumental (direct) and conceptual (indirect). Results Significant predictors of instrumental research use included: at the individual level; belief suspension-implement, research use in the past, and at the hospital unit (context) level; culture, and the proportion on nurses possessing a baccalaureate degree or higher. Significant predictors of conceptual research use included: at the individual nurse level; belief suspension-implement, problem solving ability, use of research in the past, and at the hospital unit (context) level; leadership, culture, evaluation, formal interactions, informal interactions, organizational slack-space, and unit specialty. Conclusions Hospitals, by focusing attention on modifiable elements of unit context may positively influence nurses’ reported use of research. This influence of context may extend to the adoption of best practices in general and other innovative or quality interventions. PMID:24034149

  15. Creating aging-enriched social work education:a process of curricular and organizational change.

    PubMed

    Hooyman, Nancy; St Peter, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The CSWE Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education Project, funded by the John A. Hartford foundation, aimed to change curricula and organizational structure in 67 GeroRich projects so that all students would graduate with foundation knowledge and skills to work effectively with older adults and their families. The emphasis was on change processes to infuse and sustain gerontological competencies and curricular resources in foundation courses. This article presents lessons learned and strategies for engaging faculty, practitioners and students in the curriculum and organizational change process. PMID:17200068

  16. Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-10-01

    In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market

  17. Coordination processes and outcomes in the public service: the challenge of inter-organizational food safety coordination in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lie, Amund

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Norway implemented a food safety reform programme aimed at enhancing inter-organizational coordination processes and outcomes. Has this programme affected inter-organizational coordination processes and outcomes, both vertically and horizontally – and if so how? This article employs the concept of inter-organizational coordination as an analytical tool, examining it in the light of two theoretical perspectives and coupling it with the empirical findings. The argument presented is that the chances of strong coordination outcomes may increase if inter-organizational processes feature a clear division of labour, arenas for coordination, active leadership, a lack of major conflicting goals, and shared obligations. PMID:22069794

  18. Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf

    Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.

  19. Sociological Factors Influencing the Organizational Justice Perceptions of Women in Information Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzinger, Monica J.; Lemons, Mary A.

    There is a tremendous shortage of information technology (I') talent in the United States today. Reports suggest that the demand for such talent will continue to increase. Despite the need for qualified personnel, women are underrepresented in this field. Those entering the profession often leave. This article discusses possible sociological factors influencing the number of women entering a career in information technology and their advancements to management positions. The relationship of these variables with perceptions of organizational justice in career advancement is considered. Members of Systers, an on-line forum for women in technology, were surveyed and the results are presented.

  20. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  1. Influence of School Organizational Characteristics on the Outcomes of a School Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Hebert, David; deMoor, Carl; Hearn, Marsha Davis; Resnicow, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the impact of school organizational characteristics on outcomes of a teacher health behavior change program. Organizational, dietary, and psychologic data from intervention and control schools indicated that teachers at intervention schools with high organizational climate, organizational health, and job satisfaction reported better…

  2. Implementing organizational systems to measure outcome-related processes of end-stage renal disease care.

    PubMed

    Capelli, J P

    1994-08-01

    The process to implement a continuous quality improvement program for the patient with end-stage renal disease requires a basic understanding of the complex medical and often psychological circumstances that affect these patients. The organizational elements require, therefore, a recognition and integration of functions from all those involved in delivering care. This includes the medical, nursing, social work, dietary, and technical staff. In the development and establishment of the quality assessment and improvement program at Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center, experience has identified certain basic elements to use in the organizational and functional aspects of the system to achieve a measurable level of success. The primary element in establishing such a program begins with the commitment at the highest level of the organizational structure. Selection of leadership whose responsibility is to provide education and direction of staff participants should follow. Through leadership, education, and early staff involvement, physician support is gained that provides the operational elements for a successful program. A multidisciplinary team, representative of the various aspects of care, can then develop a quality assessment and improvement plan that establishes clinical indicators used to measure various quality components. A data collection and review process is the next phase of implementation of the organizational system to measure the various types of outcome and/or processes of care. The process is one of continued education based on outcome data for all staff members involved in care. PMID:8048443

  3. Communicative Process as a Behavioral System: Research Implications for Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert S.

    The two words, "communication"--defined as the sharing of experience--and "process"--referred to as the movement of interrelated events or actions toward an identifiable goal--may be usefully viewed together as the goal-oriented combination of variables designed to produce at least a single communicative event. In an organizational setting, the…

  4. The Coaching and Mentoring Process: The Obvious Knowledge and Skill Set for Organizational Communication Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Robert H.; Barker, Randolph T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the uses of coaching and mentoring as they apply to organizational communication professors. The authors contend that these professors already are proficient at coaching and mentoring and the coaching and mentoring processes are routinely undertaken as part of their standard university teaching responsibilities. As coaches,…

  5. Development of an Instrument for the Measurement of Leadership Commitment to Organizational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to create a new instrument designed to examine the commitment of an organization's leadership to following organizational processes, as measured by stakeholder perceptions. This instrument was designed to aid in closure of a gap in the field of leadership studies relative to the impact that a leader's…

  6. Task Characteristics, Structural Characteristics, Organizational Relationships, and Communication Processes: A Contingency Approach to Job Performance. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petelle, John L.; Garthright-Petelle, Kathleen

    A study examined the relationships between (1) employee job performance and organizational relationships, (2) employee job performance and communication processes, (3) organizational relationships and communication processes, and (4) task characteristics and structural characteristics. Data were gathered from approximately 200 employees of a state…

  7. Exploring the usefulness of two conceptual frameworks for understanding how organizational factors influence innovation implementation in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors important to the successful implementation of innovations in health care settings; (2) discuss each in relation to the literature; and (3) briefly demonstrate how each may be applied to 3 initiatives involving the implementation of a specific innovation-synoptic reporting tools-in cancer care. Synoptic reporting tools capture information from diagnostic tests, surgeries, and pathology examinations in a standardized, structured manner and contain only the information necessary for patient care. The frameworks selected were the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and an organizational framework of innovation implementation; these frameworks arise from different disciplines (nursing and management, respectively). The constructs from each framework are examined in relation to the literature, with each construct applied to synoptic reporting tool implementation to demonstrate how each may be used to inform both practice and research in this area. By improving our understanding of existing frameworks, we enhance our ability to more effectively study and target implementation processes. PMID:23512560

  8. Contractor relationships and inter-organizational strategies in NASA's R and D acquisition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiltinan, J.

    1976-01-01

    Interorganizational analysis of NASA's acquisition process for research and development systems is discussed. The importance of understanding the contractor environment, constraints, and motives in selecting an acquisition strategy is demonstrated. By articulating clear project goals, by utilizing information about the contractor and his needs at each stage in the acquisition process, and by thorough analysis of the inter-organizational relationship, improved selection of acquisition strategies and business practices is possible.

  9. Improving hospital efficiency: a process model of organizational change commitments.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit; Huising, Ruthanne; Golden, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Improving hospital efficiency is a critical goal for managers and policy makers. We draw on participant observation of the perioperative coaching program in seven Ontario hospitals to develop knowledge of the process by which the content of change initiatives to increase hospital efficiency is defined. The coaching program was a change initiative involving the use of external facilitators with the goal of increasing perioperative efficiency. Focusing on the role of subjective understandings in shaping initiatives to improve efficiency, we show that physicians, nurses, administrators, and external facilitators all have differing frames of the problems that limit efficiency, and propose different changes that could enhance efficiency. Dynamics of strategic and contested framing ultimately shaped hospital change commitments. We build on work identifying factors that enhance the success of change efforts to improve hospital efficiency, highlighting the importance of subjective understandings and the politics of meaning-making in defining what hospitals change. PMID:24132582

  10. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  11. Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

  12. Individual Participation in Organizational Information Commons: The Impact of Team Level Social Influence and Technology-Specific Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yu; Fulk, Janet; Shumate, Michelle; Monge, Peter R.; Bryant, J. Alison; Matsaganis, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This research extended earlier public goods research on individual incentives to use an organizational information commons that was based in Marwell and Oliver's (1993) collective action model. A revised theoretical model that incorporated team-level social influence and technology-specific competence was proposed. The model was tested using…

  13. Half-Way Out: How Requiring Outside Offers to Raise Salaries Influences Faculty Retention and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2015-01-01

    This institutional case study examines the influence of a policy requiring outside offers for faculty salary increases on institutional retention efforts and faculty organizational commitment. Outside offers and policies governing them are rarely examined, and studied here from the perspective of administrators, leaving faculty, and faculty who…

  14. Process Maturity and Organizational Structure as a Framework for Performance Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrinjar, Rok; Dimovski, Vlado; Škerlavaj, Miha; Indihar Šternberger, Mojca

    Business and technological change threatens organizational sustainability, which depends on a balance between change and order. Few organizations can control the forces that affect them, but they can control the way in which they deal with those forces. Organizations today face increasing pressures to integrate their processes across disparate divisions and functional units, in order to remove inefficiencies as well as to enhance manageability. Although many enterprises acknowledge the need to be quick and responsive in a global economy and market that is constantly changing, many are not adequately structured to do so. The functional/divisional organizational structure, the legacy form industrial age and one of the major agility inhibitors, is still predominant.

  15. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  16. Professional practice leadership roles: the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a professional practice environment for nurses.

    PubMed

    Lankshear, Sara; Kerr, Michael S; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Professional practice leadership (PPL) roles are those roles responsible for expert practice, providing professional leadership, facilitating ongoing professional development, and research. Despite the extensive implementation of this role, most of the available literature focuses on the implementation of the role, with few empirical studies examining the factors that contribute to PPL role effectiveness. This article will share the results of a research study regarding the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a high-quality professional practice environment for nurses. Survey results from nurses and PPLs from 45 hospitals will be presented. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model and relationships between the key variables of interest. Results indicate that there is a direct and positive relationship between PPL organizational power and achievement of PPL role functions, as well as an indirect, partially mediated effect of PPL influence tactics on PPL role function. There is also a direct and positive relationship between PPL role functions and nurses' perceptions of their practice environment. The evidence generated from this study highlights the importance of organizational power and personal influence as significantly contributing to the ability of those in PPL roles to achieve desired outcomes. This information can be used by administrators, researchers, and clinicians regarding the factors that can optimize the organizational and systematic strategies for enhancing the practice environment for nursing and other health care professionals. PMID:23044835

  17. [Independent medical processing enterprises as innovative organizational model for market of medical services].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Iu L; Matveev, S A; Makhnev, D A; Korsun, K Iu

    2006-01-01

    In Russia, current stage of health care development is characterized by occurrence of various problems. Most of them are related to cooperation between participators of market of medical services. Different options are proposed to resolve cooperation problems embedded into medical services market with emphasis on development of ultimately different medical processing enterprise with brand-new organizational and functional structure. Its functioning is based on process management logistics. The company broad professional experience allows to implement above-mentioned managerial structure and make it function as well as claims positive perspectives of described option. PMID:16739625

  18. Organizational ergonomics of occupational health methods and processes in a Brazilian oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bau, Lucy M S; Farias, Jean P; Buso, Sandro A; Passero, Carolina R Marcon

    2012-01-01

    Organizational ergonomics refers to the optimization of social technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies and processes. The relevant topics include communications, management of resources, work projects, temporal organization of work, team work, participative project, new work paradigms, cooperative work, organizational culture, network organizations and quality management (IEA, 2000). The purpose of this study was the reorganization of the methods and processes of the occupational health sector (SMS/SO - Portuguese acronym of the area) of a petrochemical company. The work involved thirty professionals: a coordinator, two occupational physicians, one cardiologist, one occupational dentist, two occupational nurses, eleven occupational health technicians, one social worker, one nutritionist, one phonoaudiologist, one ophthalmologist, one biochemist, two ergonomists, three administrative assistants, one administrator and one psychologist, during a six-month period. The methodology that was used sought to establish a cooperative alliance focused on change, transformation and acquisition of skills, reflecting directly on the attitudes and performance of the leaderships and their work teams. In addition to the feedback practice, the following supporting tools were used for the study's success: "Functional Polyvalence Matrix", "Management of Failures", 5W2H", "6M", "5 Why" and "process mapping". The intended results after the organization ergonomics restructuring process will allow the leader to help his or her team to make a diagnosis of the problems, identify options, develop strategies, establish targets and action plans, remove barriers, review contexts and implement the business management fundaments: planning, organization, management, coordination and control. The transformation possibilities allow us to consider some hypothesis: Before: Focus only on results. After: Engage collaborators to create sustainable results. Before: Operating

  19. Influence of HRM Practices on Organizational Commitment: A Study among Software Professionals in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, A. K.; Anantharaman, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Although organizational commitment has been discussed frequently in organizational psychology for almost four decades, few studies have involved software professionals. A study in India reveals that HRM practices such as employee-friendly work environment, career development, development oriented appraisal, and comprehensive training show a…

  20. A Model of Stress and Coping and Their Influence on Individual and Organizational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Nancy G.; Lewin, Jeffrey E.; Sager, Jeffrey K.

    2009-01-01

    A model of coping with stress is proposed in which coping mediates the relationship among organizational stressors and personal characteristics, and job-related strains and organizational outcomes. Study results, based on a sample of professional salespeople, provide overall support for most of the hypothesized relationships among work-related…

  1. The Influence of Organizational Culture on Affinity for Knowledge Management Practices of Registered Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problems of hospitals' duplicated effort and ad hoc knowledge management (KM) practices. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the focus and type of organizational culture in order to describe and predict the relationship between organizational culture and the affinity for KM of nurses working in health…

  2. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  3. The Influence of Distributed Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…

  4. How Organizational Culture as Perceived by Senior Administrators Influences the Adoption of Information Technology Systems in Two 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between university culture, organizational characteristics, and central IT systems adoption within two four-year public universities. A qualitative multi-case methodology was used to examine the influence of organizational cultures and characteristics on personal perceptions, actions,…

  5. An Exploration of Two Mid-Level Faculty Developers' Influence on Organizational Learning as Transformational Leaders in Two California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Devon Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    Researchers argue that a California Community College's capacity for improvement and reform, given the multitude of concerns and organizational barriers associated with education institutions will require transformation of current practices to influence organizational learning (O'Banion, 1997; Cohen, 1996). Extant literature has demonstrated the…

  6. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  7. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from 415 primary teachers…

  8. A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Rajesh

    Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting

  9. The Organizational Learning Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Notes that organizational communication and organizational learning share a common focus on how message processing occurs in institutional settings and how they affect and are affected by people and relationships. Proposes that the assessment of organizational learning represents an assessment of a subset of communication processes in an…

  10. Change In(ter)Ventions to Organizational Learning: Bravo to Leaders as Unifying Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Roland K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between change interventions and organizational learning. It seeks to identify the process through which team learning is developed, the factors that affect organizational learning and its influences on organizational effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach: Two groups of…

  11. Instituting organizational learning for quality improvement through strategic planning nominal group processes.

    PubMed

    White, D B

    2000-01-01

    Healthcare managers are faced with unprecedented challenges as characterized by managed care constraints, downsizing, increased client needs, and a society demanding more responsive services. Managers must initiate change for quality, efficiency, and survival. This article provides information and strategies for (a) assessing the change readiness of an organization, (b) conducting an organizational diagnosis, (c) instituting a team culture, (d) developing a change strategy, (e) integrating the strategy with a quality improvement process, and (f) identifying the leadership skills to implement organization renewal. Nominal group processes, namely, SWOT and the Search Conference, are described, and case examples are provided. The implementation strategies have been used successfully in a variety of milieus; practical advice for success is described in detail. PMID:11184022

  12. The Influence of Organizational Systems on Information Exchange in Long-Term Care Facilities: An Institutional Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Sienna; Ratner, Pamela A; Phinney, Alison; MacKinnon, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered care is heavily dependent on effective information exchange among health care team members. We explored the organizational systems that influence resident care attendants' (RCAs) access to care information in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted an institutional ethnography in three LTC facilities. Investigative methods included naturalistic observations, in-depth interviews, and textual analysis. Practical access to texts containing individualized care-related information (e.g., care plans) was dependent on job classification. Regulated health care professionals accessed these texts daily. RCAs lacked practical access to these texts and primarily received and shared information orally. Microsystems of care, based on information exchange formats, emerged. Organizational systems mandated written exchange of information and did not formally support an oral exchange. Thus, oral information exchanges were largely dependent on the quality of workplace relationships. Formal systems are needed to support structured oral information exchange within and between the microsystems of care found in LTC. PMID:26758177

  13. An Extended Case Study Methoology for Investigating Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Factors on Human-Automation Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltai, Kolina Sun; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Johnson, Walter; Cacanindin, Artemio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Forces newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the cases politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerabilityhigh risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  14. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Process in Public Higher Education Institutions and Effects on Organizational Performance: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Bill D.

    2011-01-01

    Public undergraduate higher education institutions face a number of seemingly intractable problems. Among those problems are cost, accountability and access. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award process is designed to help organization of any type address problems of organizational performance. This process has been used by manufacturing,…

  15. Improvement of Organizational Performance and Instructional Design: An Analogy Based on General Principles of Natural Information Processing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    The process of improving organizational performance through designing systemic interventions has remarkable similarities to designing instruction for improving learners' performance. Both processes deal with subjects (learners and organizations correspondingly) with certain capabilities that are exposed to novel information designed for producing…

  16. The Impact of the Learning Organization Environment on the Organizational Learning Process in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Cho, Sei Hyoung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purposes of the current paper are to: provide theoretically clear concepts of the learning organization (LO) and organizational learning (OL) process; and empirically test the relationships among research constructs--environmental aspects of the LO and three types of OL processes at the levels of individual, group/team, and…

  17. The influence of organizational characteristics on employee solidarity in the long-term care sector

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde MH; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-01-01

    Aim This article is a report of a study that identifies organizational characteristics explaining employee solidarity in the long-term care sector. Background Employee solidarity reportedly improves organizations’ effectiveness and efficiency. Although general research on solidarity in organizations is available, the impact of the organizational context on solidarity in long-term care settings is lacking. Design Cross-sectional survey. Method The study was carried out in Dutch long-term care. A total of 313 nurses, managers and other care professionals in 23 organizations were involved. Organizational characteristics studied were centralization, hierarchical culture, formal and informal exchange of information and leadership style. The study was carried out in 2009. Findings All organizational characteristics significantly correlated with employee solidarity in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analyses hierarchical culture, centralization, exchange of formal and informal information and transformational leadership appears to be important for solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in long-term care organizations, but not transactional and passive leadership styles. Conclusion The study increased our knowledge of solidarity among nurses, managers and other professionals in the long-term care settings. Organizational characteristics that enhance solidarity are high levels of formal and informal information exchange, less hierarchical authority, decentralization and transformational leadership styles. PMID:22551056

  18. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    PubMed

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  19. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  20. The Influence of the Early Retirement Process on Satisfaction with Early Retirement and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiro, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group…

  1. Organizational Influences in Technology Adoption Decisions: A Case Study of Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational level decision factors in technology adoption in the context of digital libraries. A qualitative case study approach was used to investigate the adoption of a specific technology, XML-based Web services, in digital libraries. Rogers' diffusion of innovations and Wenger's communities of…

  2. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  3. The Influence of Social and Organizational Support on Transfer of Training: Evidence from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homklin, Tassanee; Takahashi, Yoshi; Techakanont, Kriengkrai

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on integrating social and organizational support as moderators into the main analysis model of the relationship between learning -- specifically perceived knowledge retained -- and its transfer as perceived by participants. We used hierarchical regression analysis in order to test our hypotheses. Results were generally…

  4. Learning the Ropes or Being Hung: Organizational Socialization Influences on New Rural High School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Linda M.

    New principals face many challenges as they begin their profession. They must discover how to fit into the existing work group at their school (organizational socialization), while remaining distinct enough to contribute creatively to the growth and development of the school (leadership succession). As part of a larger phenomenological study, 10…

  5. Influence of Trainee Characteristics, Instructional Satisfaction, and Organizational Climate on Perceived Learning and Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo Hun; Morris, Michael Lane

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effect of transfer variables on trainee characteristics, instructional satisfaction, and organizational factors of perceived learning and training transfer made by a group of trainees who attended a financial training program conducted for a Korean conglomerate. Data analyses revealed several variables in the three domains…

  6. Organizational Factors that Influence E-Learning Development and Implementation in the Corporate Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng-Kwei; Schwen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In the context of Autoparts, a multinational manufacturer for automotive electronics, Lotus Notes was employed to create an e-learning system. This system was titled "Using Notes for Case-based Learning Environments" (UNCLE). The UNCLE project attempted to encapsulate knowledge and understanding of those organizational factors that might influence…

  7. The Influence of School Leadership on Classroom Participation: Examining Configurations of Organizational Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine; Stevens, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this paper we call for studying school leadership and its relationship to instruction and learning through approaches that highlight the role of configurations of multiple organizational supports. A configuration-focused approach to studying leadership and other essential supports provides a valuable addition to existing tools in…

  8. Routinization of HIV Testing in an Inpatient Setting: A Systematic Process for Organizational Change.

    PubMed

    Mignano, Jamie L; Miner, Lucy; Cafeo, Christina; Spencer, Derek E; Gulati, Mangla; Brown, Travis; Borkoski, Ruth; Gibson-Magri, Kate; Canzoniero, Jenna; Gottlieb, Jonathan E; Rowen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released revised recommendations for routinization of HIV testing in healthcare settings. Health professionals have been challenged to incorporate these guidelines. In March 2013, a routine HIV testing initiative was launched at a large urban academic medical center in a high prevalence region. The goal was to routinize HIV testing by achieving a 75% offer and 75% acceptance rate and promoting linkage to care in the inpatient setting. A systematic six-step organizational change process included stakeholder buy-in, identification of an interdisciplinary leadership team, infrastructure development, staff education, implementation, and continuous quality improvement. Success was measured by monitoring the percentage of offered and accepted HIV tests from March to December 2013. The targeted offer rate was exceeded consistently once nurses became part of the consent process (September 2013). Fifteen persons were newly diagnosed with HIV. Seventy-eight persons were identified as previously diagnosed with HIV, but not engaged in care. Through this process, patients who may have remained undiagnosed or out-of-care were identified and linked to care. The authors propose that this process can be replicated in other settings. Increasing identification and treatment will improve the individual patient's health and reduce community disease burden. PMID:26042762

  9. Co-operation at work: a process-oriented perspective on joint activity in inter-organizational relations.

    PubMed

    Wehner, T; Clases, C; Bachmann, R

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the authors present a conceptual framework for analysing co-operation between organizations as a situated process, highlighting co-operation, co-ordination and co-construction as different modes of joint activity. Within this framework, the analysis of unexpected events becomes a crucial issue. The analytic power of reconstructing the (psycho-) logics of unexpected events in inter-organizational relations will be demonstrated in the presentation of selected outcomes of a research project on the dynamics of producer-supplier relationships in the German automobile industry. Also in this empirical part, the significance of trust and confidence in inter-organizational relations will be reflected. PMID:10929832

  10. The Superintendent's Organizational Approach to Defined Autonomy and the Goal Implementation Process as It Impacts Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultgen, Merrl Kent

    2010-01-01

    This single-case study addresses the lack of qualitative research describing the instructional role of the superintendent. Guiding this study are two research questions, "How does the goal implementation process as an element of the superintendent's organizational approach impact student success?" and "How does defined autonomy as an element of…

  11. Implementing Organizational Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Strategies on Paid Time: Process Evaluation of the UCLA WORKING Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Jammie M.; Glenn, Beth A.; Cole, Brian L.; McCarthy, William; Yancey, Antronette

    2012-01-01

    Integrating organizationally targeted wellness strategies into the routine conduct of business has shown promise in engaging captive audiences at highest risk of obesity and obesity-related health consequences. This paper presents a process evaluation of the implementation of the University of California, Los Angeles, Working Out Regularly Keeps…

  12. A Theoretical Approach to the Organizational Knowledge Formation Process: Integrating the Concepts of Individual Learning and Learning Organization Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the link between individual learning processes and continuous organizational knowledge formation through an integrated literature review of these perspectives from both academic and practical viewpoints. In the current fierce economic environment, individual knowledge is regarded as the most valuable asset…

  13. How the Organizational Learning Process Mediates the Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices on Performance in Korean Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sei Hyoung; Song, Ji Hoon; Yun, Suk Chun; Lee, Cheol Ki

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to examine the structural relationships among several workplace-related constructs, including strategic human resource management (HRM) practices, organizational learning processes, and performance improvement in the Korean business context. More specifically, the research examined the mediating effect of…

  14. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  15. Components of Organizational Competence: Test of a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Joseph A.; And Others

    The study was designed to identify and isolate critical organizational processes that influence the effective performance of command and control functions in complex organizations, with the aim of improving ability to control these factors. A framework was developed based on "Organizational Competence"--the capacity of an organization to cope with…

  16. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  17. Predicting employee intentions to support organizational change: an examination of identification processes during a re-brand.

    PubMed

    Jimmieson, Nerina L; White, Katherine M

    2011-06-01

    This study examined if organizational identification can account for the mechanisms by which two-change management practices (communication and participation) influence employees' intentions to support change. The context was a sample of 82 hotel employees in the early stages of a re-brand. Identification with the new hotel fully mediated the relationship between communication and adaptive and proactive intentions to support change, as well as between participation and proactive intentions. PMID:21361983

  18. The influence of prior commitment on the reactions of layoff survivors to organizational downsizing.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie

    2004-01-01

    Nurses (N = 179; Study 1) and managers (N = 154; Study 2) participated in 2 panel studies examining the relationship among prior commitment (affective and continuance commitment and perceived organizational support), coping strategies, and survivors' attitudes and perceptions during and following downsizing. In Study 1, perceived organizational support was significantly positively related to control-oriented coping, job satisfaction, and intention to remain and negatively related to perceived job insecurity and burnout 2 years later. In Study 2, coping mediated the relationship between the prior commitment variables and job alienation, health symptoms, and burnout following the downsizing. Control-oriented coping was associated with elevated levels of health symptoms and burnout following the downsizing, suggesting that control-oriented coping may have positive effects in the short term but potentially harmful effects in the long term. PMID:14700457

  19. Process and outcome evaluation of an organizational-level stress management intervention in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Gregor J; Brauchli, Rebecca; Inauen, Alice; Füllemann, Désirée; Fridrich, Annemarie; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-09-01

    This field study evaluates the process and outcome of an organizational-level stress management intervention (SMI) in eight companies, taking into account the lessons learned from previous evaluation research. It utilizes the RE-AIM evaluation framework to capture the Reach and Adoption of the intervention in the companies, the appraisal of the Implementation process and the project's Effectiveness and Maintenance with a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. It applies an adapted research design in the context of a field study involving entire organizations, retrospectively assigning study participants to comparison groups. The results of a longitudinal analysis (n = 1400) showed that the SMI had a positive impact on the participants' job demands and resources, when controlled for baseline levels. Qualitative data analysis revealed that the companies had built capacities for ongoing health promotion and showed what issues must be borne in mind when implementing such projects. The study also showed that participation in such interventions alone does not suffice to achieve the desired impact, but that the individual participants' appraisal of the intervention and the collective involvement of the teams must be further researched to fully understand how change occurs. PMID:24395958

  20. Knowledge Management Capabilities and Organizational Performance: An Investigation into the Effects of Knowledge Infrastructure and Processes on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taejun

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the most important assets for surviving in the modern business environment. The effective management of that asset mandates continuous adaptation by organizations, and requires employees to strive to improve the company's work processes. Organizations attempt to coordinate their unique knowledge with traditional means as well…

  1. Integration of Treatment Innovation Planning and Implementation: Strategic Process Models and Organizational Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Sustained and effective use of evidence-based practices in substance abuse treatment services faces both clinical and contextual challenges. Implementation approaches are reviewed that rely on variations of plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles, but most emphasize conceptual identification of core components for system change strategies. A 2-phase procedural approach is therefore presented based on the integration of TCU models and related resources for improving treatment process and program change. Phase 1 focuses on the dynamics of clinical services, including stages of client recovery (cross-linked with targeted assessments and interventions), as the foundations for identifying and planning appropriate innovations to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Phase 2 shifts to the operational and organizational dynamics involved in implementing and sustaining innovations (including the stages of training, adoption, implementation, and practice). A comprehensive system of TCU assessments and interventions for client and program-level needs and functioning are summarized as well, with descriptions and guidelines for applications in practical settings. PMID:21443294

  2. Organizational factors influencing health information technology adoption in long-term-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiankai; Wang, Yangmei; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is an important sector of the health care industry. However, the adoption of health information technology (HIT) systems in LTC facilities lags behind that in other sectors of health care. Previous literature has focused on the financial and technical barriers. This study examined the organizational factors associated with HIT adoption in LTC facilities. A survey of 500 LTC facilities in Texas enabled researchers to compile HIT indexes for further statistical analyses. A general linear model was used to study the associations between the clinical/administrative HIT indexes and organizational factors. The empirical outcomes show that the size of an LTC facility has a significant association with HIT adoption. Rural LTC facilities, especially freestanding ones, adopt less HIT than their urban counterparts, whereas freestanding LTC facilities have the lowest HIT adoption overall. There is not enough evidence to support ownership status as a significant factor in HIT adoption. Some implications are proposed, but further research is necessary. PMID:24463588

  3. Organizational Leader Sensemaking in Healthcare Process Changes: The Development of the Electronic Medical Records Expectation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenmy, Kelly Rouse

    2011-01-01

    Physicians play a unique role in the adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) within the healthcare organization. As leaders, they are responsible for setting the standards for this new technology within their sphere of influence while concurrently being required to learn and integrate EMR into their own workflow and process as the recipients…

  4. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory. PMID:15189005

  5. The Influence of Mandatory Arrest Policies, Police Organizational Characteristics, and Situational Variables on the Probability of Arrest in Domestic Violence Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, David

    2005-01-01

    Prior research into factors predicting arrest in domestic violence cases is limited in three regards: (a) no examination of whether mandatory arrest policies are associated with increased risk of arrest across multiple jurisdictions; (b) little consideration of whether police organizational characteristics influence arrest in such cases; and (c)…

  6. A Mixed-Method Exploration of School Organizational and Social Relationship Factors That Influence Dropout-Decision Making in a Rural High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farina, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory mixed-method study explored the dropout phenomenon from an ecological perspective identifying the school organizational (academics, activities, structure) and social relationship (teachers, peers) factors that most significantly influence students' decisions to leave school prior to graduation at a rural high school in south…

  7. Organizational Learning, Change Process, and Evolution of Management Systems: Empirical Evidence from the Basque Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aramburu, Nekane; Saenz, Josune; Rivera, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between the organizational learning capacity of manufacturing companies in the Spanish Basque Region and their management systems. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, an ad hoc questionnaire was devised and addressed to the Chief Executive Officers of a representative…

  8. Patient, Physician and Organizational Influences on Variation in Antipsychotic Prescribing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Lave, Judith R.; Gellad, Walid F.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians face the choice of multiple ingredients when prescribing drugs in many therapeutic categories. For conditions with considerable patient heterogeneity in treatment response, customizing treatment to individual patient needs and preferences may improve outcomes. Aims of the Study To assess variation in the diversity of antipsychotic prescribing for mental health conditions, a necessary although not sufficient condition for personalizing treatment. To identify patient caseload, physician, and organizational factors associated with the diversity of antipsychotic prescribing. Methods Using 2011 data from Pennsylvania’s Medicaid program, IMS Health’s HCOS™ database, and the AMA Masterfile, we identified 764 psychiatrists who prescribed antipsychotics to ≥10 patients. We constructed three physician-level measures of diversity/concentration of antipsychotic prescribing: number of ingredients prescribed, share of prescriptions for most preferred ingredient, and Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). We used multiple membership linear mixed models to examine patient caseload, physician, and healthcare organizational predictors of physician concentration of antipsychotic prescribing. Results There was substantial variability in antipsychotic prescribing concentration among psychiatrists, with number of ingredients ranging from 2-17, share for most preferred ingredient from 16%-85%, and HHI from 1,088-7,270. On average, psychiatrist prescribing behavior was relatively diversified; however, 11% of psychiatrists wrote an average of 55% of their prescriptions for their most preferred ingredient. Female prescribers and those with smaller shares of disabled or serious mental illness patients had more concentrated prescribing behavior on average. Discussion Antipsychotic prescribing by individual psychiatrists in a large state Medicaid program varied substantially across psychiatrists. Our findings illustrate the importance of understanding physicians

  9. Impression Management Messages and Reactions to Organizational Reward Allocations: The Mediating Influence of Fairness and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Jasmine; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationships among impression-management messages, evaluations of reward allocations (fairness and responsibility), and reaction to rewards (anger, approval of manager, and overall job satisfaction). Finds that impression-management messages directly influence fairness and responsibility, and indirectly influence anger and approval. (SR)

  10. Organizational factors influencing implementation of evidence-based practices for integrated treatment in behavioral health agencies.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Caroline A; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. PMID:24772411

  11. Organizational Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Integrated Treatment in Behavioral Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Caroline A.; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. PMID:24772411

  12. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  13. Bringing Creativity into Being: Underlying Assumptions That Influence Methods of Studying Organizational Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    We compare different epistemological frameworks for the effective collection of creativity data. We suggest that researchers' epistemological approaches can significantly influence collection methods and subsequent outcomes. Classic sociological epistemological approaches--functionalism, interpretivism, radical humanism, and radical structuralism…

  14. WORKPLACE SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORK–FAMILY CONFLICT: A META-ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF GENERAL AND WORK–FAMILY-SPECIFIC SUPERVISOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    PubMed Central

    KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work–family support. Results show work–family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work–family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work–family conflict via organizational work–family support. These results demonstrate that work–family-specific support plays a central role in individuals’ work–family conflict experiences. PMID:21691415

  15. Recognizing dynamic scenes: influence of processing orientation.

    PubMed

    Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan; Garsoffky, Bärbel

    2011-04-01

    From face recognition studies, it is known that instructions are able to change processing orientation of stimuli, leading to an impairment of recognition performance. The present study examined instructional influences on the visual recognition of dynamic scenes. A global processing orientation without any instruction was assumed to lead to highest recognition performance, whereas instructions focusing participants' attention on certain characteristics of the event should lead to a local processing orientation with an impairment of visual recognition performance as a direct consequence. Since the pattern of results provided evidence for this hypothesis, theoretical contributions were discussed. PMID:21667754

  16. Speaker sex influences processing of grammatical gender.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Spoken words carry linguistic and indexical information to listeners. Abstractionist models of spoken word recognition suggest that indexical information is stripped away in a process called normalization to allow processing of the linguistic message to proceed. In contrast, exemplar models of the lexicon suggest that indexical information is retained in memory, and influences the process of spoken word recognition. In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a) produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker "matched" the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender "mismatched." No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing. This result also raises questions regarding the widespread assumption about the cognitive independence and automatic nature of grammatical processes. PMID:24236155

  17. Speaker Sex Influences Processing of Grammatical Gender

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Spoken words carry linguistic and indexical information to listeners. Abstractionist models of spoken word recognition suggest that indexical information is stripped away in a process called normalization to allow processing of the linguistic message to proceed. In contrast, exemplar models of the lexicon suggest that indexical information is retained in memory, and influences the process of spoken word recognition. In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a) produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker “matched” the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender “mismatched.” No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing. This result also raises questions regarding the widespread assumption about the cognitive independence and automatic nature of grammatical processes. PMID:24236155

  18. ‘Talking a different language’: an exploration of the influence of organizational cultures and working practices on transition from child to adult mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizational culture is manifest in patterns of behaviour underpinned by beliefs, values, attitudes and assumptions, which can influence working practices. Cultural factors and working practices have been suggested to influence the transition of young people moving from child to adult mental health services. Failure to manage and integrate transitional care effectively can lead to young people losing contact with health and social care systems, resulting in adverse effects on health, well-being and potential. Methods The study aim was to identify the organisational factors which facilitate or impede transition of young people from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS) from the perspective of health professionals and representatives of voluntary organisations. Specific objectives were (i) to explore organizational cultures, structures, processes and resources which influence transition from child to adult mental health services; (ii) identify factors which constitute barriers and facilitators to transition and continuity of care and (iii) make recommendations for service improvements. Within an exploratory, qualitative design thirty four semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and social care professionals working in CAMHS and AMHS in four NHS Mental Health Trusts and four voluntary organizations, in England. Results A cultural divide appears to exist between CAMHS and AMHS, characterized by different beliefs, attitudes, mutual misperceptions and a lack of understanding of different service structures. This is exacerbated by working practices relating to communication and information transfer which could impact negatively on transition, relational, informational and cross boundary continuity of care. There is also evidence of a cultural shift, with some positive approaches to collaborative working across services and agencies, involving joint posts, parallel working, shared clinics and

  19. Organizational Paradigm Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This collection of essays explores a new paradigm of higher education. The first essay, "Beyond Re-engineering: Changing the Organizational Paradigm" (L. Edwin Coate), suggests a model of quality process management and a structure for managing organizational change. "Thinking About Consortia" (Mary Jo Maydew) discusses cooperative effort and…

  20. Organizational Influences and Quality-of-Life Issues During the Professional Socialization of Certified Athletic Trainers Working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A

    2006-01-01

    Context: Health professionals are exposed to critical influences and pressures when socialized into their work environments. Little is known about the organizational socialization of certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate context. Objective: To discuss the organizational influences and quality-of-life issues as each relates to the professional socialization of ATs working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: A qualitative design of in-depth interviews and follow-up electronic interviews was used to examine the organizational socialization of ATs. Setting: Participants associated with Division I athletic programs from 4 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts volunteered for the study. Participants: A total of 11 men and 5 women participated in the study, consisting of 14 ATs and 2 athletic directors. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively. A peer review, member checks, and data source triangulation were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: Two categories emerged that provide insight into the experiences that affected the professional socialization of the ATs: organizational influences and quality-of-life issues. The data indicate that the participants in this study were heavily influenced by the bureaucratic tendencies of the Division I athletic organizations in which they worked. The participants were extremely concerned about the diminished quality of life that may result from being an AT in this context. They were, however, able to maintain a commitment to delivering quality care to the student-athletes despite these influences. High work volume and low administrative support were commonly cited as problems, thus creating concern about diminished quality of life and the fear of burnout. Conclusions: The AT's role appears not only rewarding but also challenging. The reward is working closely with patients and developing an interpersonal

  1. Teacher-Parent Relationships: Influence of Gender and Education on Organizational Parents' Counterproductive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alessandro; Addimando, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the influence of parent's demographics (gender and educational level) and a contextual variable (school grade) on counterproductive parents' behavior during interaction with teachers. Data were gathered by administering the Italian version of the Challenging Parent Standard Questionnaire (Pepe 2010) to a sample…

  2. Do Charismatic Presidents Influence College Applications and Alumni Donations? Organizational Identity and Performance in US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.; Samuels, Elias; Kleinman, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The effect of charismatic leadership on organizational performance is contested. Yet despite the lack of consistent evidence of the value of charismatic leadership to organizations, presidential searches have increasingly favored charismatic candidates. This study shows how organizational identity mediates the relationship between charismatic…

  3. The influence of emotion on face processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden one's thought-action repertoire, which may manifest as a widened attentional scope in cognitive processing. The present study directly tests this hypothesis by examining the influences of induced emotions (positive, neutral and negative) on holistic processing of face (Experiment 1) and face discrimination (Experiment 2). In both experiments, emotions induced with images from the International Affective Picture System significantly interacted with face processing. That is, positive emotions engendered greater holistic face encoding in a composite-face task in Experiment 1 and more accurate face discrimination in Experiment 2, relative to the neutral condition. In contrast, negative emotions impaired holistic face encoding in the composite-face task and reduced face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these results provide further support for the attentional broadening effect of positive affect by demonstrating that induced positive emotions facilitate holistic/configural processing. PMID:25621898

  4. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  5. The Influence of Organizational Image on College Selection: What Students Seek in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampaloni, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities rely on their image to attract new members. This study focuses on the decision-making process of students preparing to apply to college. High school students were surveyed at college open houses to identify the factors most influential to their college application decision-making. A multi-methods analysis found that…

  6. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  7. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed Central

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1–like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. PMID:24880633

  8. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  9. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  10. The Process of Social Influence: Readings in Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisecker, Thomas D., Ed.; Parson, Donn W., Ed.

    An attempt to synthesize primarily experimental studies of the process of social influence is presented. The point is made that each of us is involved in the process of social influence, both because we often attempt to influence someone else, and because we are constantly targets for attempts at social influence. This book is divided into four…

  11. Exploring factors that influence work analysis data: A meta-analysis of design choices, purposes, and organizational context.

    PubMed

    DuVernet, Amy M; Dierdorff, Erich C; Wilson, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Work analysis is fundamental to designing effective human resource systems. The current investigation extends previous research by identifying the differential effects of common design decisions, purposes, and organizational contexts on the data generated by work analyses. The effects of 19 distinct factors that span choices of descriptor, collection method, rating scale, and data source, as well as project purpose and organizational features, are explored. Meta-analytic results cumulated from 205 articles indicate that many of these variables hold significant consequences for work analysis data. Factors pertaining to descriptor choice, collection method, rating scale, and the purpose for conducting the work analysis each showed strong associations with work analysis data. The source of the work analysis information and organizational context in which it was conducted displayed fewer relationships. Findings can be used to inform choices work analysts make about methodology and postcollection evaluations of work analysis information. PMID:25867165

  12. A cluster randomized trial of an organizational process improvement intervention for improving the assessment and case planning of offenders: a Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Michael S; Prendergast, Michael; Melnick, Gerald; Stein, Lynda A; Welsh, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Organizational Process Improvement Intervention (OPII), conducted by the NIDA-funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies consortium of nine research centers, examined an organizational intervention to improve the processes used in correctional settings to assess substance abusing offenders, develop case plans, transfer this information to community-based treatment agencies, and monitor the services provided by these community based treatment agencies. Methods/Design A multi-site cluster randomized design was used to evaluate an inter-agency organizational process improvement intervention among dyads of correctional agencies and community based treatment agencies. Linked correctional and community based agencies were clustered among nine (9) research centers and randomly assigned to an early or delayed intervention condition. Participants included administrators, managers, and line staff from the participating agencies; some participants served on interagency change teams while other participants performed agency tasks related to offender services. A manualized organizational intervention that includes the use of external organizational coaches was applied to create and support interagency change teams that proceeded through a four-step process over a planned intervention period of 12 months. The primary outcome of the process improvement intervention was to improve processes associated with the assessment, case planning, service referral and service provision processes within the linked organizations. Discussion Providing substance abuse offenders with coordinated treatment and access to community-based services is critical to reducing offender recidivism. Results from this study protocol will provide new and critical information on strategies and processes that improve the assessment and case planning for such offenders as they transition between correctional and community based systems and settings. Further, this study extends current

  13. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  14. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  15. Role Clarity and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Butterfield, D. Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Role clarity was examined in terms of its relationship with personal outcomes and organizational effectiveness. Organizational level as moderator of such relationship was also investigated. Hypotheses based on prior research were confirmed. Role clarity was positively related to perceptions of job satisfaction, personal influence, organizational…

  16. PLANNED CHANGE AND ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH--FIGURE AND GROUND. CHAPTER 2, CHANGE PROCESSES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILES, MATTHEW B.

    PLANNED CHANGE, CONDITIONED BY THE STATE OF THE SYSTEM IN WHICH IT OCCURS, MUST TAKE THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH AS A PRIMARY TARGET. THE HEALTHY SCHOOL SYSTEM IS ABLE TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY AND TO DEVELOP INTO A MORE FULLY FUNCTIONING SYSTEM. OF TEN ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH DIMENSIONS APPLICABLE TO SCHOOLS, THREE ARE TASK CENTERED…

  17. Organizational Structures and Processes to Support and Sustain Effective Technical Assistance in a State-Wide Multi-Tiered System of Support Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Russell, Christine; Dyer, Stephanie; Metcalf, Terri; Rahschulte, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the national proliferation of technical assistance as a driver for school reform and as a model for embedded and sustained professional development, very little is known about the organizational structures and processes needed to support technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a structured needs assessment process…

  18. Community Opinion and Satisfaction with the Leadership at an Urban Community Educational Learning Center during an Organizational Transformation Process: A Frontline Perspective from Community Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Joseph Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study examined selected community stakeholders' perception of the current leadership at their local community educational learning center during an organizational transformation and cultural change process. The transition from a community college to an educational learning center, mandated in 2006 by the Accredition Commission and agreed on…

  19. The Role of Organizational Learning in Transformational Leadership and Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Chang, Jen-Chia

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is an important factor affecting organizational innovation. Many studies show that transformational leadership has positive and significant influence on organizational innovation. Based on a literature review and previous work, this study aims to investigate the influence of transformational leadership on organizational innovation and…

  20. Stroke unit Nurse Managers' views of individual and organizational factors liable to influence evidence-based practice: A survey.

    PubMed

    Drury, Peta; McInnes, Elizabeth; Hardy, Jennifer; Dale, Simeon; Middleton, Sandy

    2016-04-01

    The uptake of evidence into practice may be impeded or facilitated by individual and organizational factors within the local context. This study investigated Nurse Managers of New South Wales, Australia, stroke units (n = 19) in their views on: leadership ability (measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory), organizational learning (measured by the Organizational Learning Survey), attitudes and beliefs towards evidence-based practice (EBP) and readiness for change. Overall Nurse Managers reported high-level leadership skills and a culture of learning. Nurse Managers' attitude towards EBP was positive, although nursing colleague's attitudes were perceived as less positive. Nurse Managers agreed that implementing evidence in practice places additional demands on staff; and almost half (n = 9, 47%) reported that resources were not available for evidence implementation. The findings indicate that key persons responsible for evidence implementation are not allocated sufficient time to coordinate and implement guidelines into practice. The findings suggest that barriers to evidence uptake, including insufficient resources and time constraints, identified by Nurse Managers in this study are not likely to be unique to stroke units. Furthermore, Nurse Managers may be unable to address these organizational barriers (i.e. lack of resources) and thus provide all the components necessary to implement EBP. PMID:25943688

  1. Organizational influence of the postnatal testosterone surge on the circadian rhythm of core body temperature of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms such as activity, body temperature, and hormone secretion. Circadian rhythms coordinated by the SCN often show sex differences arising from both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. In males, little is known about the organizational role of testosterone on the circadian regulation of core body temperature (CBT) in adulthood. To explore this, we castrated or sham-operated male rats on the day of birth, and at 4 months of age, implanted them with transmitters that measured CBT rhythms under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. This study revealed a significantly earlier rise in CBT during the light phase in neonatally castrated males. Subsequently, we found that treating neonatally castrated males with testosterone propionate (TP) in adulthood did not reverse the effect of neonatal castration, thus indicating an organizational role for testosterone. In contrast, a single injection of TP at the time of neonatal surgery, to mimic the postnatal surge of testosterone, coupled with TP treatment in adulthood, normalized the circadian rise in CBT. In a final study we examined CBT circadian rhythms in intact adult male and female rats and detected no differences in the rise of CBT during the light phase, although there was a greater overall elevation in female CBT. Together, results of these studies reveal an early organizational role of testosterone in males on the timing of the circadian rise of CBT, a difference that does not appear to reflect "defeminization". PMID:19272357

  2. Improving Family Engagement: The Organizational Context and Its Influence on Partnering with Parents in Formal Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Family engagement is widely considered a key component of high-quality early care and education (ECE). While most efforts to improve the quality of family engagement focus on teacher training, strong evidence from health care research suggests that the organizational context is a critical determinant of the quality of client-professional…

  3. Maximizing the Value of 360-Degree Feedback: A Process for Successful Individual and Organizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornow, Walter W.; London, Manuel

    Ways in which organizations can enhance their use of "360-degree feedback" are presented. The book begins with a review of the process itself, emphasizing that 360-degree feedback should be a core element of self-development. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 describes how to maximize the value of the process for individual development,…

  4. Error analysis using organizational simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Fridsma, D. B.

    2000-01-01

    Organizational simulations have been used by project organizations in civil and aerospace industries to identify work processes and organizational structures that are likely to fail under certain conditions. Using a simulation system based on Galbraith's information-processing theory and Simon's notion of bounded-rationality, we retrospectively modeled a chemotherapy administration error that occurred in a hospital setting. Our simulation suggested that when there is a high rate of unexpected events, the oncology fellow was differentially backlogged with work when compared with other organizational members. Alternative scenarios suggested that providing more knowledge resources to the oncology fellow improved her performance more effectively than adding additional staff to the organization. Although it is not possible to know whether this might have prevented the error, organizational simulation may be an effective tool to prospectively evaluate organizational "weak links", and explore alternative scenarios to correct potential organizational problems before they generate errors. PMID:11079885

  5. The meta-volition model: organizational leadership is the key ingredient in getting society moving, literally!

    PubMed

    Yancey, Antronette K

    2009-10-01

    This paper argues that substantive and sustainable population-wide improvements in physical activity can be achieved only through the large scale adoption and implementation of policies and practices that make being active the default choice and remaining inactive difficult. Meta-volition refers to the volition and collective agency of early adopter leaders who implement such changes in their own organizations to drive productivity and health improvements. Leaders, themselves, are motivated by strong incentives to accomplish their organizational missions. The meta-volition model (MVM) specifies a cascade of changes that may be sparked by structural integration of brief activity bouts into organizational routine across sectors and types of organizations. MVM builds upon inter-disciplinary social ecological change models and frameworks such as diffusion of innovations, social learning and social marketing. MVM is dynamic rather than static, integrating biological influences with psychological factors, and socio-cultural influences with organizational processes. The model proposes six levels of dissemination triggered by organizational marketing to early adopter leaders carried out by "sparkplugs," boisterous leaders in population physical activity promotion: initiating (leader-leader), catalyzing (organizational-individual), viral marketing (individual-organizational), accelerating (organizational-organizational), anchoring (organizational-community) and institutionalizing (community-individual). MVM embodies public-private partnership principles, a collective investment in the high cost of achieving and maintaining active lifestyles. PMID:19744510

  6. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D.; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K.; Burton, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions. PMID:27242605

  7. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K; Burton, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions. PMID:27242605

  8. An Analysis of the Use of Social Software and Its Impact on Organizational Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Miguel, Félix; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Hernández-García, Ángel

    This article proposes a study on the implementation rate of the most relevant 2.0 tools and technologies in Spanish enterprises, and their impact on 12 important aspects of business processes. In order to characterize the grade of implementation and the perceived improvements on the processes two indexes, Implementation Index and Impact Rate, have been created and displayed in a matrix called "2.0 Success Matrix". Data has been analyzed from a survey taken to directors and executives of large companies and small and medium businesses.

  9. A Process Assessment Model for Evaluation, Improvement & Accountability in Effectively Meeting Organizational Purpose and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    A process for evaluating the effectiveness of educational organizations, with a focus on accountability, is described. An evaluation of 15 pilot-test school districts in the Arizona Career Ladder Project reveals the existence of a major discrepancy between meeting program requirements and achieving program success. A theoretical model of…

  10. Organizational cynicism: bases and consequences.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R

    2000-08-01

    Organizational cynicism is the belief that an organization lacks integrity, which, when coupled with a powerful negative emotional reaction, leads to disparaging and critical behavior. In this article, the author attempts to theoretically clarify the process by which five forms of cynicism develop in the workplace and to empirically relate them to affective outcomes. Societal, employee, and organizational change cynicisms may be attributed to psychological contract violations; work cynicism may be related to burnout; and person-role conflict and personality cynicism may be related to innate hostility. Empirically, personality cynicism emerged as the strongest predictor of organizational cynicism, adversely affecting all of the criteria. Other forms of cynicism had more selective effects. Organizational change cynicism induced job dissatisfaction and alienation, and employee cynicism affected organizational commitment. Societal cynicism actually increased both job satisfaction and commitment. Both personality and work cynicisms were related to organizational citizenship indirectly, through alienation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:10950198

  11. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  12. The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912

  13. Organizational Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imran, Muhammad Kashif; Ilyas, Muhammad; Aslam, Usman; Ubaid-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The transformation of firms from resource-based-view to knowledge-based-view has extended the importance of organizational learning. Thus, this study aims to develop an organizational learning model through transformational leadership with indirect effect of knowledge management process capability and interactive role of…

  14. Organizational Learning and School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silins, Halia Claudia; Mulford, William Richard; Zarins, Silja

    2002-01-01

    Examines nature of organizational learning and leadership practices and processes that foster organizational learning in Australian high schools. Uses a path model to test relationships between school-level factors and school outcome measures in terms of students' participation in and engagement with school. Discusses importance of…

  15. On The Human, Organizational, and Technical Aspects of Software Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    Information systems are designed, constructed, and used by people. Therefore, a software design process is not purely a technical task, but a complex psycho-socio-technical process embedded within organizational, cultural, and social structures. These structures influence the behavior and products of the programmer's work such as source code and documentation. This chapter (1) discusses the non-technical (organizational, social, cultural, and psychological) aspects of software development reflected in program source code; (2) presents a taxonomy of the social disciplines of computer science; and (3) discusses the socio-technical software analysis methods for discovering the human, organizational, and technical aspects embedded within software development artifacts.

  16. The Influence of Process Drama on Elementary Students' Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…

  17. A multiple case study of rape victim advocates' self-care routines: the influence of organizational context.

    PubMed

    Wasco, Sharon M; Campbell, Rebecca

    2002-10-01

    This study assumes that rape victim advocates who provide community outreach services to victimized women must adjust to a heightened awareness of sexual violence to do their jobs. Using qualitative methodology, this multiple case study explored rape victim advocates' strategies for incorporating repeated exposure to sexual assault into their daily lives as well as ways that organizations can support such endeavors. Findings suggest that advocates' self-care routines draw upon various personal resources (i.e., cognitive, physical, social, spiritual, verbal), and serve 2 roles for coping with rape-related pain: (a) cathartic releasing of traumatic material, and (b) improving capacity to integrate the traumatic material into one's life. Additionally, over 20 organizational characteristics that workers perceive to be supportive (e.g., weekly meetings, flexible hours) were identified. Nonparametric and categorical statistical analyses were used to analyze the relationship between organizational support and self-care routines, finding that advocates working in organizations with higher levels of support utilize more strategies that are integrative in nature. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12188058

  18. The influence of family-supportive supervisor training on employee job performance and attitudes: An organizational work-family intervention.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Hammer, Leslie B; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd E

    2016-07-01

    Training supervisors to increase their family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) has demonstrated significant benefits for employee physical health, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions among employees with high levels of family-to-work conflict in prior research in a grocery store context. We replicate and extend these results in a health care setting with additional important employee outcomes (i.e., employee engagement, organizational commitment, and supervisor ratings of job performance), and consider the role of the 4 dimensions underlying the FSSB. Using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 143 health care employees completed surveys at 2 time periods approximately 10 months apart, along with their supervisors who provided ratings of employees' job performance. Between these surveys, we offered their supervisors FSSB training; 86 (71%) of these supervisors participated. Results demonstrated significant and beneficial indirect effects of FSSB training on changes in employee job performance, organizational commitment, engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions through changes in employee perceptions of their supervisor's overall FSSBs. Further analyses suggest that these indirect effects are due primarily to changes in the creative work-family management dimension of FSSB. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26652264

  19. Situating social influence processes: dynamic, multidirectional flows of influence within social networks.

    PubMed

    Mason, Winter A; Conrey, Frederica R; Smith, Eliot R

    2007-08-01

    Social psychologists have studied the psychological processes involved in persuasion, conformity, and other forms of social influence, but they have rarely modeled the ways influence processes play out when multiple sources and multiple targets of influence interact over time. However, workers in other fields from sociology and economics to cognitive science and physics have recognized the importance of social influence and have developed models of influence flow in populations and groups-generally without relying on detailed social psychological findings. This article reviews models of social influence from a number of fields, categorizing them using four conceptual dimensions to delineate the universe of possible models. The goal is to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations to build models that incorporate the detailed, microlevel understanding of influence processes derived from focused laboratory studies but contextualized in ways that recognize how multidirectional, dynamic influences are situated in people's social networks and relationships. PMID:18453465

  20. Influence of weather-climatic conditions on biospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorushko, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The significance of meteorological processes and phenomena in the biosphere functioning is revealed. The influence of various weather conditions on human health is considered; the factors and mechanisms of their action are described. The impact of meteorological processes on animals is discussed and concrete examples of such impacts are presented. The influence of meteorological processes and phenomena on plants at different stages of their life (pollination, growth, ripening, transport of seeds, damage, and death) and on some abiotic natural components is shown. It is inferred that weather-climatic conditions have a great influence on biospheric processes.

  1. Organizational Innovation: Current Research and Evolving Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Lloyd A.; Boise, William B.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual framework for organizational innovation can evolve from such ideas as the process of innovation, the climate(s) required, the organizational and societal space affected by an innovation, innovation radicalness, and innovation strategies such as organizational development, functional specialization, and periodicity. (Author/WM)

  2. Processing Mode Causally Influences Emotional Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Ed; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies are reported showing that emotional responses to stress can be modified by systematic prior practice in adopting particular processing modes. Participants were induced to think about positive and negative scenarios in a mode either characteristic of or inconsistent with the abstract-evaluative mind-set observed in depressive rumination, via explicit instructions (Experiments 1 and 2) and via implicit induction of interpretative biases (Experiment 3), before being exposed to a failure experience. In all three studies, participants trained into the mode antithetical to depressive rumination demonstrated less emotional reactivity following failure than participants trained into the mode consistent with depressive rumination. These findings provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that processing mode modifies emotional reactivity and support the processing-mode theory of rumination. PMID:18540752

  3. An Analysis of Relationships Between Perceived Leader Behavior of Elementary School Principals and Organizational Processes of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitler, Fred C.; Long, John V.

    This paper discusses results of multiple regression analysis and prediction of certain perceived leader behaviors given measures of organizational characteristics. The "Profile of a School" was used with the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, Form XII. Results indicate that significant proportions of variance in leader behavior subscales…

  4. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-06-07

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures.

  5. Ghosts: Gateway to Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Tim; Had, Gary

    2001-01-01

    "Ghosts" are elements that influence an organization's view of itself, its ways of working, and its culturally specific attitudes; they exert an indirect influence over everything that happens within an organization. Successful organizational change requires identifying and integrating these ghosts. (JOW)

  6. Influence of academical institutes on educational processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyakov, S. M.

    Murmansk is in the most northern European part of Russia and has problems with a higher educational system and with preparation of some necessary specialists for organizations of our region. They are consequencies of social and economical changes in the Russian society. But it gives a chance to revalue our system of higher education and a role of society and academical institutes in the process of education. During several years the Russian government supports a program ``Integration of basic science and higher school'' which has an aim to unite efforts of educational and academical organizations for to solve some educational and scientific problems of higher school using a potential of academical society. We decided to use the support of our government for solving of the part of our problems. In 1999 we had offered to organize a regional scientific student conference devoted to natural-science problems of the Arctic region and the project was supported. The first experience of the conference was obtained during the May 2000 when in Murmansk it was conducted the 1st regional scientific student conference devoted to physics and methods investigation of high-latitude atmosphere. The conference was organized by the Polar Geophysical Institute of the Kola Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with the Murmansk State Pedagogical University and the Murmansk State Technical University. It had a broad response and continuation. This year we shall conduct already the 5th conference ''Natural-science problems of the Arctic region'' which will take place in April. We receive reports of students from the Murmansk region and also from Arkhangelsk, Novgorod, Petrozavodsk, Sankt-Petersburg, Tumen, Yakutsk and other regions of Russia. It is experience of involving in the conference students from other regions of Russia which do investigations in the field. We plan to organize during the conference (as a part of it) a videoconference. We hope that those

  7. A multidimensional analysis of ethical climate, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Chen; You, Ching-Sing; Tsai, Ming-Tien

    2012-07-01

    The high turnover of nurses has become a global problem. Several studies have proposed that nurses' perceptions of the ethical climate of their organization are related to higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment and thus lead to higher organizational citizenship behaviors. This study uses hierarchical regression to understand which types of ethical climate, facets of job satisfaction, and the three components of organizational commitment influence different dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors. Questionnaires were distributed to 450 nurses, and 352 usable questionnaires were returned. The findings of the article suggest that hospitals can increase organizational citizenship behaviors by influencing an organization's ethical climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Hospital administrators can foster within organizations, the climate types of caring, law and code and rules climate, satisfaction with coworkers, and affective commitment and normative commitment that increase organizational citizenship behavior, while preventing organizations from developing the type of instrumental climate and continuance commitment that decreases it. PMID:22753457

  8. Study of the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcomes using hierarchical linear modeling methodology.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Elena A; Hernandez, S Robert; Shewchuk, Richard M; Leddy, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of organizational culture influence organizational outcomes, specially, individual employee job satisfaction. The study was conducted in the health care industry in the United States. It examined the data on employee perceptions of job attributes, organizational culture, and job satisfaction, collected by Press Ganey Associates from 88 hospitals across the country in 2002-2003. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test how organizational culture affects individual employee job satisfaction. Results indicated that some dimensions of organizational culture, specifically, job security and performance recognition, play a role in improving employee job satisfaction. PMID:16849991

  9. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  10. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth. PMID:25983725

  11. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recentlymore » developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.« less

  12. Factors Influencing the Creation of a Wiki Culture for Knowledge Management in a Cross-Generational Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro, Kenneth L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Initiatives within organizations that promote sharing of knowledge may be hampered by generational differences. Research on relationships between generations and technology-based knowledge sharing campaigns provides little managerial guidance for practitioners. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to identify the factors that influence the…

  13. The Influence of Training and Position Power on Leader Behavior. Organizational Research. Technical Report 75-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai-Dalton, Renate

    Using Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, which postulates that the behavior of a leader depends on the interaction between leadership style and the degree to which the environment gives the leader control and influence, a study investigated the effects of training and changes in position power on the behavior of three types…

  14. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  15. Organizational Communication: ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents abstracts from "Resources in Education" on (1) teaching about women in organizational communication; (2) communication as part of job satisfaction; and (3) research in organizational communication. (PD)

  16. Facilitators of Organizational Learning in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ngoc Thuy; Swierczek, Fredric William

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of organizational factors such as leadership commitment, incentives and interaction on learning outcomes defined as performance improvement and organizational climate. Design/methodology/approach: Different aspects of knowledge acquisition, sharing and utilization were examined,…

  17. Organizational Climate and Strategic Change in Higher Education: Organizational Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the development of information strategies in 12 United Kingdom higher education institutions and highlighted the influence of different styles of management on organizational climate. Findings identify six issues that affect the climate of security or insecurity within different higher education institutions. (SLD)

  18. Peer influence processes for youth delinquency and depression.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew D; Crea, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the multiple factors that account for peer influence processes of adolescent delinquency and depression using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Random-effects longitudinal negative binomial models were used to predict depression and delinquency, controlling for social connection variables to account for selection bias. Findings suggest peer depression and delinquency are both predictive of youth delinquency, while peer influences of depression are much more modest. Youth who are more connected to parents and communities and who are more popular within their networks are more susceptible to peer influence, while self-regulating youth are less susceptible. We find support for theories of popularity-socialization as well as weak-ties in explaining social network factors that amplify or constrain peer influence. We argue that practitioners working with youth should consider network-informed interventions to improve program efficacy and avoid iatrogenic effects. PMID:26066630

  19. The Relevance of Organizational Subculture for Motivation to Transfer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Toby Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Although human resource development practitioners and researchers emphasize organizational culture as a major contributor to employee learning and development, results from this study suggest organizational subculture has greater influence on employee-related learning motivation. The relationships among organizational culture, organizational…

  20. Embracing the Institutional Mission: Influences of Identity Processing Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Lauren A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different information processing styles influence how effectively students adapt to a college environment. During the college years, individuals shape and refine their values and principles while they also develop a life-long philosophy. The present study examined how student ego-identity development (n = 1,249) was…

  1. Competing Processes of Sibling Influence: Observational Learning and Sibling Deidentification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    Although commonly cited as explanations for patterns of sibling similarity and difference, observational learning and sibling deidentification processes have rarely been examined directly. Using a person-oriented approach, we identified patterns in adolescents' perceptions of sibling influences and connected these patterns to sibling similarities…

  2. A Review of the Interpersonal Influence Process in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Dixon, David N.

    This article reviews research conducted on the interpersonal influence process in counseling, specifically those studies relating to counselor expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The review is organized and analyzed in terms of variables affecting the client's perception of critical counselor characteristics and effects of the…

  3. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  4. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. PMID:26378365

  5. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  6. Recognizing and Managing Multiple Organizational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesecke, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a framework for identifying organizational processes or models within the context of the organization's decision-making processes. Five organizational models appropriate to academic libraries are presented: rational, political bargaining, garbage can, bureaucratic, and participatory. Guidelines for managers include how to distinguish…

  7. A Study of Organizational Behavior of Colleges of Education of Maharashtra State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Geeta R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study Organizational Behavior of Colleges of Education of Maharashtra state in India. Organizational behavior was studied at three process level i.e. individual process level, team process level and organizational process level. The differences were found out if any, in the Organizational Behavior, in between the…

  8. How the gaze of others influences object processing.

    PubMed

    Becchio, Cristina; Bertone, Cesare; Castiello, Umberto

    2008-07-01

    An aspect of gaze processing, which so far has been given little attention, is the influence that intentional gaze processing can have on object processing. Converging evidence from behavioural neuroscience and developmental psychology strongly suggests that objects falling under the gaze of others acquire properties that they would not display if not looked at. Specifically, observing another person gazing at an object enriches that object of motor, affective and status properties that go beyond its chemical or physical structure. A conceptual analysis of available evidence leads to the conclusion that gaze has the potency to transfer to the object the intentionality of the person looking at it. PMID:18555735

  9. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  10. Organizational Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

    Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

  11. Rigid facial motion influences featural, but not holistic, face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Ge, Liezhong; Lee, Kang

    2012-03-15

    We report three experiments in which we investigated the effect of rigid facial motion on face processing. Specifically, we used the face composite effect to examine whether rigid facial motion influences primarily featural or holistic processing of faces. In Experiments 1-3, participants were first familiarized with dynamic displays in which a target face turned from one side to another; then at test, participants judged whether the top half of a composite face (the top half of the target/foil face aligned or misaligned with the bottom half of a foil face) belonged to the target face. We compared performance in the dynamic condition to various static control conditions in Experiments 1-3, which differed from each other in terms of the display order of the multiple static images or the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the images. We found that the size of the face composite effect in the dynamic condition was significantly smaller than that in the static conditions. In other words, the dynamic face display influenced participants to process the target faces in a part-based manner and consequently their recognition of the upper portion of the composite face at test became less interfered with by the aligned lower part of the foil face. The findings from the present experiments provide the strongest evidence to date to suggest that the rigid facial motion mainly influences facial featural, but not holistic, processing. PMID:22342561

  12. Multidimensional Organizational Communication as a Vehicle for Successful Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlestig, Helene

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how principals and teachers view their organizational communication processes, in successful and less successful schools. By dividing the organizational communication process into three dimensions--information, affirmation, and interpretation--different actions and expressions are visualized. To meet organizational needs, all…

  13. Influences on particle shape in underwater pelletizing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, O. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Musialek, M. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Geiger, K. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: matthias.musialek@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Underwater pelletizing has gained high importance within the last years among the different pelletizing technologies, due to its advantages in terms of throughput, automation, pellet quality and applicability to a large variety of thermoplastics. The resulting shape and quality of pellets, however, differ widely, depending on material characteristics and effects not fully understood yet. In an experimental set-up, pellets of different volumes and shapes were produced and the medium pellet mass, the pellet surface and the bulk density were analyzed in order to identify the influence of material properties and process parameters. Additionally, the shaping kinetics at the die opening were watched with a specially developed camera system. It was found that rheological material properties correlate with process parameters and resulting particle form in a complex way. Higher cutting speeds were shown to have a deforming influence on the pellets, leading to less spherical s and lower bulk densities. More viscous materials, however, showed a better resistance against this. Generally, the viscous properties of polypropylene proofed to be dominant over the elastic ones in regard to their influence on pellet shape. It was also shown that the shapes filmed at the die opening and the actual form of the pellets after a cooling track do not always correlate, indicating a significant influence of thermodynamic properties during the cooling.

  14. The influence of cryogenic processes on the erosional Arctic shoreface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Are, F.; Reimnitz, E.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H.-W.; Rachold, V.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal dynamics and shoreface relief in ice-free seas are a function of hydrodynamic interactions between the sea and bottom sediments. In the Arctic, additional, cryogenic factors such as permafrost and the action of sea ice influence coastal processes. The goal of our paper is to assess this influence, mainly on the profile shape. Mathematical analyses of the shape of 63 shoreface profiles from the Laptev, Beaufort, and Chukchi Seas were carried out. The shapes of Arctic shoreface profiles and those of ice-free seas are compared. We found that large ice and silt content in perennially frozen sediments composing Arctic coasts favor their erosion. Sea ice plays an important role in sediment transport on the shoreface and correspondingly changes shoreface relief significantly. Some effects of ice intensify coastal erosion considerably, but others play a protective role. The overall influence of cryogenic processes on Arctic coasts composed of loose sediments is seen in that the average rate of coastal retreat is larger than in the temperate environments, even though Arctic coasts are protected by a continuous ice cover most of the year. The shape of the shoreface profile in the Arctic does not differ from that in ice-free seas, and is satisfactorily described by the Bruun/Dean equilibrium profile equation. The explanation of this fact is that all changes of the profile shape, caused by cryogenic processes, are short lived and quickly eliminated by wave action.

  15. Communication and Organizational Commitment: Perceived Organizational Support as a Mediating Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Myria Watkins

    1992-01-01

    Finds that university employee perceptions regarding top management-employee communication relationship, quality of top management's communication, and superior-subordinate communication are strongly related to organizational commitment. Finds that perceived organizational support (influenced by the top management-employee communication…

  16. Assessment of Organizational Trust: Italian Adaptation and Factorial Validity of the Organizational Trust Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Bromiley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Trust influences interactions among individuals and organizations but has been an elusive concept to define and measure. The Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) measures three dimensions of organizational trust, as defined by Cummings and Bromiley (in: Kramer and Tyler (eds) Trust in Organizations, 1996), believing or feeling that others: keep…

  17. Influences of Multisensory Experience on Subsequent Unisensory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Ladan; Wozny, David R.; Kim, Robyn; Seitz, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory perception has been the focus of intense investigation in recent years. It is now well-established that crossmodal interactions are ubiquitous in perceptual processing and endow the system with improved precision, accuracy, processing speed, etc. While these findings have shed much light on principles and mechanisms of perception, ultimately it is not very surprising that multiple sources of information provides benefits in performance compared to a single source of information. Here, we argue that the more surprising recent findings are those showing that multisensory experience also influences the subsequent unisensory processing. For example, exposure to auditory–visual stimuli can change the way that auditory or visual stimuli are processed subsequently even in isolation. We review three sets of findings that represent three different types of learning ranging from perceptual learning, to sensory recalibration, to associative learning. In all these cases exposure to multisensory stimuli profoundly influences the subsequent unisensory processing. This diversity of phenomena may suggest that continuous modification of unisensory representations by multisensory relationships may be a general learning strategy employed by the brain. PMID:22028697

  18. Fairness influences early signatures of reward-related neural processing.

    PubMed

    Massi, Bart; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-12-01

    Many humans exhibit a strong preference for fairness during decision-making. Although there is evidence that social factors influence reward-related and affective neural processing, it is unclear if this effect is mediated by compulsory outcome evaluation processes or results from slower deliberate cognition. Here we show that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and late positive potential (LPP), two signatures of early hedonic processing, are modulated by the fairness of rewards during a passive rating task. We find that unfair payouts elicit larger FRNs than fair payouts, whereas fair payouts elicit larger LPPs than unfair payouts. This is true both in the time-domain, where the FRN and LPP are related, and in the time-frequency domain, where the two signals are largely independent. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that fairness affects the early stages of reward and affective processing, suggesting a common biological mechanism for social and personal reward evaluation. PMID:25962511

  19. Organizational Decision-Making and the Change Agent: The Controlled Use of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    This document asks whether a stress situation created in an organization could be controlled and used to influence the decisionmaking process. The hypothesis tested was that stress induced intentionally by a change agent in a target agency, with consequent generation of strain between the actors of the organizational, would result in the…

  20. A Case Study of Relationships between Organizational Culture and Curricular Change in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Prudence; Froyd, Jeffrey E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Richardson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    We examined two curricular change efforts at a small, midwestern engineering and science college in order to explore how organizational culture influences curricular change processes. We found that the failure of one effort (measured by inability to sustain the curriculum over time) and the success of the other (the curriculum continues to be…

  1. Organizational Attractiveness as an Employer on College Campuses: An Examination of the Applicant Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turban, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of job applicants and examination of recruitment processes conducted at nine universities indicated that applicants' attraction to an employer was influenced by familiarity with the firm and the social context. No differences in perceptions of organizational attributes or attraction to the firm appeared between those who had and had not…

  2. The influence of retrieval processes in verbal overshadowing.

    PubMed

    Meissner, C A; Brigham, J C; Kelley, C M

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of eyewitness memory have observed deleterious effects of producing a verbal description on later identification accuracy of a previously viewed face, an effect termed verbal overshadowing (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). The present research investigated whether the phenomenon of verbal overshadowing may be constrained by variation in participants' initial retrieval processes, such that verbalization of a previously viewed stimulus could produce either positive or negative influences on subsequent attempts at recollection. To assess the validity of this hypothesis, we manipulated participants' response criterion during the verbal description task. As predicted, variation in response criterion significantly influenced not only the quality of the description generated but also accuracy on a subsequent identification task. This retrieval-based effect was found to persist despite either a postdescription delay (Experiment 1) or source-monitoring instructions at the time of the identification task (Experiment 2). We conclude that retrieval-based processes exert a powerful influence over the accuracy of verbalization and subsequent identification of a target face. PMID:11277460

  3. A Study of the 4-H Organizational Leadership Development Process in Cannon, Knox, McMinn, Sullivan and Pickett Counties, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lyle A.; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine the nature of the present 4-H organizational leadership in five counties, to identify organizational leader problems, and to determine methods and procedures for correcting these problems. It was proposed to solve the problems by preparing a plan that would cover the following leadership development phases: 4-H…

  4. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  5. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  6. Patterns of Organizational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Ronald G.

    1969-01-01

    Patterns of relationships were identified between indices of organizational conflict and several measures of each of five organizational variables. The measures were adapted from 1500 questionnaires and 600 interviews in 28 public high schools. (Author)

  7. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  8. Organizational Transformation from the Inside Out: Reinventing the MIT Center for Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanon, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    The 2-year process by which the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Organizational Learning transformed into the self-governed Society for Organizational Learning illustrates new ways of conceiving organizations, the capabilities required for change, and critical elements of the process: diverse representation, grounding in business…

  9. Influences of consolidation processes on local paper structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yongjoo

    The accurate measurement of the structural parameters such as thickness, grammage, apparent density and surface topography, and the proper evaluation of the variation of each parameter, are very important not only for predicting the end use properties of the paper, but also for diagnosing the pa permaking processes. The difficulty of the measurement of thickness at fine scale ˜1 mm has been an impediment to the understanding of local paper structure. To address this problem, a twin laser profilometer instrument (TLP) for non-contacting measurement of local thickness and surface topography was developed, characterized and calibrated in this work. The fundamental relationships between structural parameters were reexamined with various handsheet samples. The effects of wet pressing on the local paper structure were evaluated using laboratory static press and commercial press felts. The different press pressure had no significant influence on the local density variation of the handsheet samples. The influences of felts on the surface topography were also successfully observed. The different densification effects of soft nip and hard nip calendering processes were evaluated by direct comparison of structural parameters before and after processing. The much higher selective reduction in local thickness (larger reduction for the thicker area) by the hard nip calendering process resulted in different relationships between structural parameters. The various periodic variations in the paper structure were also detected, analyzed and identified. The effects of different forming elements such as the conventional foil system and the velocity induced drainage (VID) system on the paper structure and end use properties were evaluated with pilot machine trials and commercial product produced using different forming elements. Generally, the VID samples showed better formation, less two sidedness in the fine distribution through thickness direction, and less densification during

  10. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  11. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this article, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  12. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1996-12-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this paper, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  13. The Inter-Organizational Summit on Education and Training (ISET) 2010 survey on the influence of the Houston conference training guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Jerry J; Perry, William; Ruff, Ronald M; Shear, Paula K; Breting, Leslie M Guidotti

    2012-11-01

    A conference specific to the education and training of clinical neuropsychology was held in 1997, which led to a report published in the Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (Hannay, J., Bieliauskas, L., Crosson, B., Hammeke, T., Hamsher, K., & Koffler, S. (1998). Proceedings of the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 13, 157-250.). The guidelines produced by this conference have been referred to as the Houston Conference (HC) guidelines. Since that time, there has been considerable discussion, and some disagreement, about whether the HC guidelines produced a positive outcome in the training of neuropsychologists. To explore this question and determine how widely the HC guidelines were implemented, a meeting was held in 2006. Present and past leaders of the American Psychological Association Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology), the National Academy of Neuropsychology, and the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology met to discuss the possible need for an Inter-Organizational Summit on Education and Training (ISET). A decision was reached to have the ISET Steering Committee conduct a survey of clinical neuropsychologists that could address the extent to which HC guidelines were present in the specialty and whether the influence of the HC guidelines was positive. An online survey was constructed, with data gathered in 2010. The current paper presents and discusses the ISET survey results. Specific findings need to be viewed cautiously due to the relatively low response rate. However, with some direct parallels to a larger recent survey of clinical neuropsychologists, the following general conclusions appear well founded: (a) the demographics of respondents in the ISET survey are comparable with a recent larger professional practice survey and thus may reasonably represent the specialty; (b) the HC guidelines appear to have been widely adopted by training

  14. The Bikestuff Simulation: Experiencing the Challenge of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollag, Keith; Parise, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 2-hour experiential simulation that helps students understand (a) the challenge of even simple organizational changes, (b) the importance of communication between change agents and organizational members, and (c) the source of resistance to organizational change efforts. Teams of students compete to process the most…

  15. Library Evaluation and Organizational Learning: A Questionnaire Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Nien

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on organizational learning, particularly in the context of evaluation and organizational change. These concepts are discussed in terms of academic libraries. As part of this discussion, a model entitled Processes and Phases of Organizational Learning (PPOL) was developed which is a visual representation of the range of…

  16. Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zins, Joseph E.; Illback, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an update of our 1984 chapter on organizational interventions in educational settings. Our view of the organizational change process is described, followed by a discussion of the gap between current theory and practice. We describe several examples of promising organizational change initiatives, followed by our observations of future…

  17. Dimensionality of Organizational Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain organizational goals and survive. Leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning This paper builds on prior research concerning…

  18. Emerging Organizational Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carchidi, Daniel M.; Peterson, Marvin W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of emerging higher educational organizational structures focuses on the increasing importance of distance education. Considers the emerging organizational landscape, three types of network organizations, six organization archetypes, organizational forms that support distance education, and implications for higher education planners. (DB)

  19. The Reciprocal Influence of Organizational Culture and Training and Development Programs: Building the Case for a Culture Analysis within Program Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissack, Heather C.; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that training designers can, and should, account for organizational culture during training needs assessments. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing the approach and arguments in Giddens' structuration theory, the paper conceptually applies these tenets to training and development programs…

  20. Cadmium--influence on biochemical processes of the human organism.

    PubMed

    Boguszewska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are too well-known environmental pollutants of particularly dangerous effect to human health. Because of their wide usage in many industrial branches they are present everywhere in the air, water and soils. Food contamination by heavy elements is hard to avoid and it is a result of environmental contamination by dusts, industrial gases, sewage, waste and coal burning processes. One of the most harmful heavy metals, widely spread in nature is cadmium. Toxic cadmium action involves free oxygen generation and inactivation of protein containing cysteine residues with -SH groups. It influences many metabolic processes causing great damage in many organs. Cadmium can also interact with some essential elements leading to their homeostasis disorders. PMID:16146140

  1. The Organizational Meaning of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adria, Marco; Boechler, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Practitioners and theorists have given attention recently to the role and status of research activities in Canadian university continuing education units. For individuals in units that are increasing the proportion of their organizational activities devoted to research, there will be an ongoing process of cognitive change and development as a new…

  2. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  3. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  4. Essays in economics: 1. Pre-committed government spending and partisan politics. 2. Investment in energy efficiency: Do the characteristics of firms matter? 3. Information processing and organizational structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William Edward, Jr.

    1. Spending commitments requiring future outlays are important for understanding partisan politics because they prevent a conservative government from scaling back spending programs. In a one-government-good model, a "stubborn liberal" policy maker can use precommitted spending to prevent a later conservative government from imposing spending cuts. In a model where parties differ about spending priorities, re-election uncertainty creates a bias towards higher government spending and higher taxes. 2. The literature on energy efficiency provides examples of profitable technologies that are not universally adopted. Theory indicates that firms should undertake all investments with a positive net present value, and that the discount rate for computing the present value of a project should be the return available on other projects in the same risk class, not on characteristics of the firm. This model is tested by examining whether firms' characteristics influence their decision to join the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program. A discrete choice regression is estimated over a sample of participating and non-participating firms. Missing values in the data matrix are replaced with multiple imputations using the EM algorithm. The results show that: (1) substantial improvements in the power of hypothesis tests can be achieved through imputation of missing data, and (2) characteristics of firms do affect their decision to join Green Lights. 3. Standard theories of the firm stress profit maximization as the foundation for derivation of predictable behavior. Yet evidence continues to accumulate that firms do not act as required by the neoclassical framework. Instead of being represented by ever more elaborate maximization models, the firm can be modeled simply as a network of information-processing agents. The actions of the firm are then a function only of the network structure and the information-processing capabilities of the agents. This approach can be

  5. Influence of atomic processes on the implosion of plasma liners

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang Lina; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2012-08-15

    The influence of atomic physics processes on the implosion of plasma liners for magneto-inertial nuclear fusion has been investigated numerically by using the method of front tracking in spherically symmetric geometry and equation of state models accounting for dissociation and ionization. Simulation studies of the self-collapse of argon liners to be used in the Los Alamos Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) program have been performed as well as studies of implosion of deuterium and argon liners on plasma targets. Results show that atomic processes in converging liners reduce the temperature of liners and increase the Mach number that results in the increase of the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain. For deuterium and argon liners imploding on plasma targets, dissociation and ionization increased the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain by the factor of 1.5 (deuterium) and 2 (argon) correspondingly. Similarly, ionization during the self-collapse of argon liners leads to approximately doubling of the Mach number and the stagnation pressure. The influence of the longitudinal density spread of the liner has also been investigated. The self-collapse stagnation pressure decreased by the factor of 8.7 when the initial position of the liner was shifted from the merging radius (33 cm) to the PLX chamber edge (137.2 cm). Simulations with and without the heat conduction demonstrated that the heat conduction has negligible effect on the self-collapse pressure of argon liners.

  6. New technology and organizational innovation: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Questions with regard to organization behavior and decision theory are explored in relation to the decision-making process of a major private electric utility, Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., that chose to innovate with nuclear power. The character of the firm is such, relative to size, service area, organizational structure, and socio-political environment, that its experience is important for the further development of theories of organizational innovation. The research attempts to understand the political, economic, and social constraints that limited the set of solutions available to the utility in its search for a suitable electricity-generating mode from the early 1950's to the early 1960's. Two contrasting models of organizational decision-making behavior are used to interpret case-study findings. The initial model is from the electric-utility literature and consists essentially of an economic or benefit/cost model of organizational decision making. The second model is developed from the organizational theory literature and is more complex in the sense that factors other than economics such as organizational inertia, the corporate structure of the utility, fuel-supply history and fuel diversification, electricity-demand-growth expectations, the financial environment, and the psychological appeal of the new technology had important influences on Niagara Mohawk's decision to build Nine Mile Point One. Findings of the case study tend to support the second model in that economics was a necessary but not sufficient reason for Niagara Mohawk to have innovated with nuclear power plants.

  7. Exploring the Influence of New Technology Planning and Implementation on the Perceptions of New Technology Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Al

    2007-01-01

    This study explored influences that perceptions of new technology implementation and planning processes, and dimensions of organizational climate have on perceptions of new technology deployment effectiveness. It also examined the extent to which dimensions of organizational climate moderates the relationships among new technology implementation,…

  8. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  9. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  10. [A survey to assess nursing organizational well-being in several hospitals in Rome, Italy.].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Rosaria; Sili, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to evaluate perceived organizational well-being of nurses in several prominent hospitals in Rome (Italy). The term "organizational well-being" refers to all of the organizational processes and practices that stimulate the dynamics of working relationships leading to the promotion and improvement of quality of life, and of the degree of physical, psychological and social well-being in the work environment. In total 853 nurses from several hospitals in Rome participated in the survey. Results show on one hand, mainly satisfactory nursing working conditions, but on the other, a lack of professional fulfilment, no influence by nurses in the decision-making processes, and a lack of career development opportunities, all of which lead to a total mistrust toward the hospital management. PMID:17786171

  11. A Review of Qualitative Data Gathering Methods and Their Applications To Support Organizational Strategic Planning Processes. Study Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Phillip C.; Geroy, Gary D.

    Exploring existing methodologies to determine whether they can be adapted or adopted to support strategic goal setting, this paper focuses on information gathering techniques as they relate to the human resource development professional's input into strategic planning processes. The information gathering techniques are all qualitative methods and…

  12. Cultural influences on social feedback processing of character traits

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Chenbo; Han, Shihui; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others') character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic) after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] and in Beijing (behavior). We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more). Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback). Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step toward a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture. PMID:24772075

  13. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06-1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  14. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06–1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  15. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  16. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21166326

  17. Bibliography on Organizational Change in Schools, Selected, Annotated, and Indexed. Strategies of Organizational Change Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkel, Philip J.; Burr, Ann

    The sources annotated in this bibliography contain ideas that the school administrator can use to enable organizational change to happen more surely, with less frustration. Most of the entries deal with processes or structures in schools or their environments. Many describe projects of organizational change. Some sources concerning other kinds of…

  18. Organizational Justice Perceptions of Virginia High School Teachers: Relationships to Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William R. Travis

    2012-01-01

    An emergent research base suggests that teacher perceptions of fairness with respect to interactions with school administrators, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes have much to contribute to our understanding of effective schools. This study focused on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship…

  19. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  20. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  1. Guidance for Incorporating Organizational Factors Into Nuclear Power Plant Risk Assessments - Phase 1 Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    J. Julius; A. Mosleh; M. Golay; V. Guthrie; J. Wreathall; A. Spurgin; B. Hannaman; D. Ziebell

    2002-12-31

    EPRI sponsored this study in order to help determine the influence of organizational factors on plant safety, risk, and economics. PRA tools provide excellent models for answering the question, ''How does change in an organizational factor impact the risk value?''

  2. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  3. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948

  4. Influence of the Mold Current on the Electroslag Remelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Mathilde; Dussoubs, Bernard; Jardy, Alain; Escaffre, Jessica; Poisson, Henri

    2016-08-01

    The electroslag remelting process is widely used to produce high value-added alloys. The use of numerical simulation has proven to be a valuable way to improve its understanding. In collaboration with Aubert & Duval, the Institute Jean Lamour has developed a numerical transient model of the process. The consumable electrode is remelted within a mold assumed to be electrically insulated by the solidified slag skin. However, this assumption has been challenged by some recent studies: the solidified slag skin may actually allow a part of the melting current to reach the mold. In this paper, the evolution of our model, in order to take into account this possibility, is presented and discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data, while several sensitivity studies show the influence of some slag properties and operating parameters on the quality of the ingot. Even, a weakly conductive solidified slag skin at the inner surface of the mold may be responsible for a non-negligible amount of current circulating between the slag and crucible, which in turn modifies the fluid flow and heat transfer in the slag and ingot liquid pool. The fraction of current concerned depends mainly on the electrical conductivities of both the liquid and solidified slag.

  5. Influence of the Mold Current on the Electroslag Remelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Mathilde; Dussoubs, Bernard; Jardy, Alain; Escaffre, Jessica; Poisson, Henri

    2016-06-01

    The electroslag remelting process is widely used to produce high value-added alloys. The use of numerical simulation has proven to be a valuable way to improve its understanding. In collaboration with Aubert & Duval, the Institute Jean Lamour has developed a numerical transient model of the process. The consumable electrode is remelted within a mold assumed to be electrically insulated by the solidified slag skin. However, this assumption has been challenged by some recent studies: the solidified slag skin may actually allow a part of the melting current to reach the mold. In this paper, the evolution of our model, in order to take into account this possibility, is presented and discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data, while several sensitivity studies show the influence of some slag properties and operating parameters on the quality of the ingot. Even, a weakly conductive solidified slag skin at the inner surface of the mold may be responsible for a non-negligible amount of current circulating between the slag and crucible, which in turn modifies the fluid flow and heat transfer in the slag and ingot liquid pool. The fraction of current concerned depends mainly on the electrical conductivities of both the liquid and solidified slag.

  6. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  7. Influence of global climatic processes on environment The Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmyansky, Mikhael; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kartashov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    One of the most actual problems of the present is changes of environment of Arctic regions under the influence of global climatic processes. Authors as a result of the works executed by them in different areas of the Russian Arctic regions, have received the materials characterising intensity of these processes. Complex researches are carried out on water area and in a coastal zone the White, the Barents, the Kara and the East-Siberian seas, on lake water areas of subarctic region since 1972 on the present. Into structure of researches enter: hydrophysical, cryological observations, direct measurements of temperatures, the analysis of the drill data, electrometric definitions of the parametres of a frozen zone, lithodynamic and geochemical definitions, geophysical investigations of boreholes, studying of glaciers on the basis of visual observations and the analysis of photographs. The obtained data allows to estimate change of temperature of a water layer, deposits and benthonic horizon of atmosphere for last 25 years. On the average they make 0,38⁰C for sea waters, 0,23⁰C for friable deposits and 0,72⁰C for atmosphere. Under the influence of temperature changes in hydrosphere and lithosphere of a shelf cryolithic zone changes the characteristics. It is possible to note depth increase of roof position of the cryolithic zone on the most part of the studied water area. Modern fast rise in temperature high-ice rocks composing coast, has led to avalanche process thermo - denudation and to receipt in the sea of quantity of a material of 1978 three times exceeding level Rise in temperature involves appreciable deviation borders of the Arctic glacial covers. On our monitoring measurements change of the maintenance of oxygen in benthonic area towards increase that is connected with reduction of the general salinity of waters at the expense of fresh water arriving at ice thawing is noticed. It, in turn, leads to change of a biogene part of ecosystem. The executed

  8. Individualism/collectivism and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Dávila de León, María Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2011-08-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are workplace activities that exceed an employee's formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. We explored the roles of the dispositional traits of individualism and collectivism in the prediction of OCB. The relationship was examined in the context of other constructs known to influence OCB, specifically, motives and identity as an organizational citizen. A total of 367 employees in 24 organizations completed surveys measuring individualism/collectivism, OCB motives, strength of organizational citizen role identity, and amount of OCB. The results showed collectivism to be a significant predictor of Organizational Concern and Prosocial Values motives, role identity, and OCB. Individualism predicted Impression Management motives and was a significant negative predictor of a role identity as one who helps others. The findings are discussed with regard to previous research in OCB. PMID:21774892

  9. Delayering and span of control: a model to assess appropriate management size during downsizing. A continuing process of organizational renewal.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, M R

    1995-01-01

    Health-care organizations are continuing to seek effective methods of "downsizing" or "rightsizing" their workforce in response to economic pressures imposed by local and national health-care reform. Staff reductions often appear haphazard or reactionary and typically include an "across-the-board" methodology to achieve a predetermined financial goal. In contrast, review of the literature suggests that chances of success improve when the approach is more thoughtful and based on sound principles. A key component of all successful strategies is proper sizing and restructuring of the management staff. This article presents one possible model that allows an organization to rationally assess management structure and carry out an effective downsizing strategy. The process considers the number of management layers in the organization, the number of individuals a manager supervises (span of control), and the relative complexity of the work performed. Critical to success is an effective training component to educate "surviving" managers on techniques needed to "do more with less." PMID:10152578

  10. Role Identity: At the Intersection of Organizational Socialization and Individual Sensemaking of New Principals and Vice-Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodzki, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This study of one mid-sized Canadian school district employed a case study approach to uncover and document the influences of organizational socialization, sensemaking, and perceptions of self-efficacy on the development of administrators' role identities. Findings describe formal and informal socialization processes experienced by administrators,…

  11. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes. PMID:22149204

  12. An Investigation of the Knowledge Claims Supporting Goal Based Planning and Organizational Culture as Keys to Excellence in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; And Others

    Two independent bodies of organizational theory and research are developing around separate concepts associated with organizational effectiveness: goal-based behavior (intention) and organizational climate (distinction). Although both variables have been found to influence organizational effectiveness, findings have been inconsistent. The term…

  13. Organizational Theory, Organizational Communication, Organizational Knowledge, and Problematic Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Robert D.; Zaug, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    Argues that three traditions of theory about organizational communication have special relevance to the ideas of problematic integration theory. Indicates the implications of theoretic currents and notes that the main implication is that problematic integration looks very different in the context of a complex communication system. (SG)

  14. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23171231

  15. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-10-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness.

  16. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

  17. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  18. The Influence of Communication Processes on Group Outcomes: Antithesis and Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of communication processes on group outcomes is discussed from two perspectives, one in which influence does not exist and one in which influence is central. Formal models for both perspectives are presented as a means of bracketing discussion of the role of communication processes in group outcomes. The implications of these models…

  19. Managing Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watwood, Britt; And Others

    Based on studies comparing leadership in two rural community colleges undergoing change and examining the management of change at Maryland's Allegany College, this paper presents a conceptual framework and model for managing organizational change. First, a framework for understanding the community college chair's role in organizational change is…

  20. Changing Organizational Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on changing organizational forms. "Goal Integration in a Multi-divisional Organization" (Richard J. Torraco, Mary Finnegan), reports on a study that examined how goals are integrated into organizational activities once they have been identified, proposes a model of goal integration, and develops…

  1. Managing a successful organizational change.

    PubMed

    Conner, D R; Newman, J A

    1988-06-01

    To survive in today's competitive environment, hospitals must prepare themselves to effectively manage organizational changes such as downsizing or mergers. By analyzing the change process and understanding key roles, managers will be likely to ensure a smooth and successful transition. And a smooth and well-managed change will produce positive results by reducing the amount of time needed for the change to take affect, minimizing or avoiding productivity declines, keeping morale high, and encouraging confidence in hospital leadership. PMID:10287602

  2. Applications of Holland's Theory in Industrial and Organizational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchinsky, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Contributions of Holland's theory to industrial/organizational psychology include the following: (1) person-environment congruence, a major influence in organizational behavior; (2) the notion that individuals should be self-directed participants in career exploration and the use of occupational information; and (3) use of vocational interest…

  3. Organizational Leadership: The Case of the School Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    1981-01-01

    Findings from three studies of school superintendents' daily behavior and work attitudes indicate that superintending means mediating and communicating; that superintendents are constrained by social and organizational structures but do exert important organizational influence; and that dominant notions about leaders' social contexts,…

  4. A Comparative Case Study of Veteran Superintendent's Leadership and Organizational Processes in Addressing the Academic Achievement of Students in Low Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Catherine Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This research study investigated the leadership behaviors and organizational frames utilized by two veteran superintendents of medium sized school districts in California to address issues of academic performance in their respective districts as perceived by the superintendents and their respective board members and principals. Current…

  5. THE REGRESSION MODEL OF IRAN LIBRARIES ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to drawing a regression model of organizational climate of central libraries of Iran’s universities. Methods: This study is an applied research. The statistical population of this study consisted of 96 employees of the central libraries of Iran’s public universities selected among the 117 universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health by Stratified Sampling method (510 people). Climate Qual localized questionnaire was used as research tools. For predicting the organizational climate pattern of the libraries is used from the multivariate linear regression and track diagram. Results: of the 9 variables affecting organizational climate, 5 variables of innovation, teamwork, customer service, psychological safety and deep diversity play a major role in prediction of the organizational climate of Iran’s libraries. The results also indicate that each of these variables with different coefficient have the power to predict organizational climate but the climate score of psychological safety (0.94) plays a very crucial role in predicting the organizational climate. Track diagram showed that five variables of teamwork, customer service, psychological safety, deep diversity and innovation directly effects on the organizational climate variable that contribution of the team work from this influence is more than any other variables. Conclusions: Of the indicator of the organizational climate of climateQual, the contribution of the team work from this influence is more than any other variables that reinforcement of teamwork in academic libraries can be more effective in improving the organizational climate of this type libraries. PMID:26622203

  6. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research. PMID:22856467

  7. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835

  8. Visual thinking in organizational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Charles E.

    1991-06-01

    The ability to visualize the relationship among elements of large complex databases is a trend which is yielding new insights into several fields. The author demonstrates the use of 'visual thinking' as an analytical tool to the analysis of formal, complex organizations. Recent developments in organizational design and office automation are making the visual analysis of workflows possible. An analytical mental model of organizational functioning can be built upon a depiction of information flows among work group members. The dynamics of organizational functioning can be described in terms of six essential processes. Furthermore, each of these sub-systems develop within a staged cycle referred to as an enneagram model. Together these mental models present a visual metaphor of healthy function in large formal organizations; both in static and dynamic terms. These models can be used to depict the 'state' of an organization at points in time by linking each process to quantitative data taken from the monitoring of the flow of information in computer networks.

  9. Organizational transformation into the operational phase of the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, Michiel; Rutten, René; Alvarez Martin, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we review various organizational issues encountered when GRANTECAN, the Spanish organization responsible for the construction and operation of the GTC telescope, evolved from the construction phase of a large telescope facility into the phase of scientific operation. GRANTECAN now operates and further develops the 10.4m segmented telescope, GTC. The advent of operational pressures to scientifically exploit the telescope enforced a number of organizational changes as priorities shifted towards achieving the best possible level of operational effectiveness. In this paper we will treat the GRANTECAN experience as a case study of the limitations and problems that were encountered throughout this change. We will focus on the processes and strategies applied in order to achieve the necessary changes. We will place our experience in the framework of the McKinsey 7S model, highlight a number of key performance indicators, and will indicate the organizational changes that have taken place, that influenced the way the objectives are achieved. We will present a forward look based on our experience to date.

  10. Appreciative Inquiry as an Organizational Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinetz, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Defines appreciative inquiry as a change model that uses traditional organizational development processes (team building, strategic planning, business process redesign, management audits) in a new way, both as a philosophy and as a process. Emphasizes collaboration, participation of all voices, and changing the organization rather than the people.…

  11. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  12. Influence of Process Parameter on Grit Blasting as a Pretreatment Process for Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Linke, T. F.; Sommer, J.; Liao, X.

    2016-01-01

    In thermal spraying, uncoated substrates usually require roughening. As the most common roughening method, grit blasting increases the surface area and produces undercuts in almost all cases, which facilitate mechanical interlocking and thus promote the bonding between the substrate and coating. The effects of grit blasting parameters, i.e., the particle size, the blasting angle, the stand-off distance, and the pressure, on the resulting surface topography are investigated. Furthermore, the efficiency and wear behavior of the blasting media are analyzed. Influences of three different blasting media, corundum, alumina zirconia, and steel shot, on the surface roughening, are compared. By varying adjusted blasting parameters, different initial conditions (surface topography) are created. Subsequently, the substrate is coated, and the coating bond strength is measured. One of the main results of this publication is that alumina zirconia and steel grit show a longer lifetime than pure alumina as a blasting media. Moreover, it has been shown that the blasting parameters such as grain size, working pressure, and history (wear status) of the abrasive particles have a significant effect on the resulting surface topography. Additionally, systematical analysis in this study shows that the blasting parameters such as stand-off distance and blasting angle have a small influence on the results of the blasting process. Another important conclusion of this study is that the conventional surface parameters that have been analyzed in this study did not turn out to be suitable for describing the relationship between the surface topography of the substrate and resulting bond strength.

  13. Conflict Sociology-A Perspective for Organizational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostetter, David; Deluca, Nicholas

    This paper reports research which utilizes a qualitative approach in order to document and describe the process of complex organizational conflict. Qualitative research methodology and conflict sociology can be relevant to analysis of organizational processes. The qualitative approach is interpreted to include techniques such as observation, event…

  14. Organizational Variables on Nurses’ Job Performance in Turkey: Nursing Assessments

    PubMed Central

    TOP, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of organizational variables on hospital staff nurses’ job performance as reported by staff nurses in two cities in Turkey. Hospital ownership status, employment status were examined for their effect on this influence. Methods: The reported influence of organizational variables on job performance was measured by a questionnaire developed for this study. Nurses were asked to evaluate the influence of 28 organizational variables on their job performance using a five-point Likert-type scale (1- Never effective, 5- Very effective). The study used comparative and descriptive study design. The staff nurses who were included in this study were 831 hospital staff nurses. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, t-test, ANOVA and factor analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The study showed the relative importance of the 28 organizational variables in influencing nurses’ job performance. Nurses in this study reported that workload and technological support are the most influential organizational variables on their job performance. Factor analysis yielded a five-factor model that explained 53.99% of total variance. Conclusion: Administratively controllable influence job organizational variables influence job performance of nurses in different magnitude. PMID:23641403

  15. Adolescent Identity Formation and the Organizational Structure of High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedeck, Raoul A.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes aspects of the size and organizational structure of high schools which reduce human contact and have a negative influence on the sense of community, the development of relationships, and the formation of personal identity. (Author/SJL)

  16. Grassroots Organizational Battles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Michael

    1976-01-01

    The author presents these three ground rules for engaging in organizational conflict: (1) take the offensive; (2) take the cue for the second move from the opponent's defensive response; and (3) know when to execute a "strategic retreat." (HMV)

  17. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  18. The Influence of Contrast on Coherent Motion Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Lilleskaret, Gry; Wright, Craig M.; Power, Garry F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to investigate how manipulating the contrast of the signal and noise dots in a random dot kinematogram (RDK), influenced on motion coherence thresholds in adults with dyslexia. In the first of two experiments, coherent motion thresholds were measured when the contrasts of the signal and noise dots in an RDK were…

  19. Leader Influences on Training Effectiveness: Motivation and Outcome Expectation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaduto, Anne; Lindsay, Douglas; Chiaburu, Dan S.

    2008-01-01

    Training effectiveness is a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors. Social exchanges in the work environment have received less attention compared with other training effectiveness predictors. We focus on the extent to which leaders (through their relationships and exchanges with followers) influence skill…

  20. Beyond the Self: External Influences in the Career Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the wide spectrum of external influences that affect career decision making across the life span and, in particular, how these factors may directly or indirectly alter one's career trajectory and the extent of one's work volition. Career development practitioners are encouraged to respect externally…

  1. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

  2. The Process of Native American Influence on the Education of Native American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Frank W.; Barlow, Donald A.

    The vast majority of American Indian students are educated in public school districts controlled by locally elected school boards. If Indian parents are to influence the education of their children they must become knowledgeable in political methods of influencing local school boards. The process of Indian influence in educational decisions was…

  3. Evolving to organizational learning.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, B L

    2000-02-01

    To transform in stride with the business changes, organizations need to think of development as "organizational learning" rather than "training." Companies need to manage learning as a strategic competitive advantage for current and future business rather than as a perk for individuals. To position themselves for success in a dynamic business environment, companies need to reframe their concept of learning and development to a mindset of organizational learning. PMID:11184906

  4. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

  5. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  6. The Prevalence and Severity of Burnout among Physiotherapists in an Arabian Setting and the Influence of Organizational Factors: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Imam, Dalia Muhammed; Al-Sobayel, Hana Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Burnout has been shown to be present in different health professions, but the prevalence among physiotherapists working in an Arabian setting has not been established. [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the burnout levels of physiotherapists working in Saudi Arabia and the association of burnout with work and organization-related factors. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted at government hospitals in Saudi Arabia. One hundred and nineteen Saudi physiotherapists were included. They electronically completed a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Areas of Worklife Survey. [Results] Participants showed a moderate degree of burnout as reflected by mean scores of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The majority of participants demonstrated moderate to high burnout levels across the three subscales. A significant association was found between the exhaustion subscale and the subspecialty in which participants worked. A strong association was found between workload and exhaustion subscale scores. [Conclusion] This study was the first to explore burnout and related factors among physiotherapists in an Arabian setting. A moderate degree of burnout and associations of burnout with work and organizational factors were found. The findings may help human resource planning and managing the physiotherapy services. PMID:25202179

  7. The Art and Science of Personnel Selection: Assessing "Goodness of Fit" with Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, John E.; Birk, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of personnel selection as an element of performance improvement and suggests that how well a potential employee will fit into the organizational culture should be a selection criteria. Describes five steps to integrate organizational culture into the personnel selection process, including an internal organizational cultural…

  8. "Relaaax, I Remember the Recession in the Early 1980s...": Organizational Storytelling as a Crisis Management Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, David M.; Nikolovska, Irena; Desiderio, Katie P.; Guterman, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider organizational storytelling as a communications tool in which stories are used to reduce the stress and anxiety of organizational members during a crisis. While there is much consensus among organizational scholars detailing storytelling's active role in such processes as organizational learning and…

  9. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  10. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  11. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  12. Minimal Processing: Its Context and Influence in the Archival Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzalski, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Since its publication in 2005, Mark A. Greene and Dennis Meissner's "More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing" has led to much discussion and self-examination within the archival community about working through backlogs. This article discusses the impact of Greene and Meissner's work and considers the questions and…

  13. The Impact of Organizational Learning on Innovativeness in Spanish Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo González Del Campo, Jesús David Sánchez; Škerlavaj, Miha

    Innovativeness is a key factor regarding the survival and progress of a company in modern business environments. The question is how to facilitate innovativeness in organizations. This article studies the impact of the organizational learning process on innovativeness. We understand innovativeness as a combination of (1) innovative culture and (2) technological and process innovation. Organizational learning is a consecutive process of (1) information acquisition, (2) information distribution, (3) information interpretation, and (4) behavioral and cognitive changes. New knowledge obtained through organizational learning improves innovativeness. As a methodological framework, we use the partial least square (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling on data from 107 Spanish companies. The results show that organizational learning has a strong positive direct impact on process, product, and service innovations. In addition, the impact of organizational learning on innovation is also indirect, via innovative culture.

  14. Impact of Information Needs on Organizational Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. E.; Tulett, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the contingency approach to organizational design, information processing as a critical contingent of design, and use of organismic and mechanistic structures within an independent merchant bank. Proposes that a more appropriate model is needed which takes into account the changing nature of information processing and is flexible enough…

  15. Organizational change tactics: the evidence base in the literature.

    PubMed

    Packard, Thomas; Shih, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Planned organizational change processes can be used to address the many challenges facing human service organizations (HSOs) and improve organizational outcomes. There is massive literature on organizational change, ranging from popular management books to academic research on specific aspects of change. Regarding HSOs, there is a growing literature, including increasing attention to implementation science and evidence-based practices. However, research which offers generalizable, evidence-based guidelines for implementing change is not common. The purpose of the authors was to assess the evidence base in this organizational change literature to lay the groundwork for more systematic knowledge development in this important field. PMID:25491004

  16. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  17. Contextual Influences on Eating Behaviors: Heuristic Processing and Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviors are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviors, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims, and labeling strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  18. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  19. Expectations from preceding prosody influence segmentation in online sentence processing

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work examining prosodic cues in online spoken-word recognition has focused primarily on local cues to word identity. However, recent studies have suggested that utterance-level prosodic patterns can also influence the interpretation of subsequent sequences of lexically ambiguous syllables (Dilley, Mattys, & Vinke, Journal of Memory and Language, 63:274–294, 2010; Dilley & McAuley, Journal of Memory and Language, 59:294–311, 2008). To test the hypothesis that these distal prosody effects are based on expectations about the organization of upcoming material, we conducted a visual-world experiment. We examined fixations to competing alternatives such as pan and panda upon hearing the target word panda in utterances in which the acoustic properties of the preceding sentence material had been manipulated. The proportions of fixations to the monosyllabic competitor were higher beginning 200 ms after target word onset when the preceding prosody supported a prosodic constituent boundary following pan-, rather than following panda. These findings support the hypothesis that expectations based on perceived prosodic patterns in the distal context influence lexical segmentation and word recognition. PMID:21968925

  20. Reference evapotranspiration changes in China: natural processes or human influences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Xiaohong

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we systematically analyze the changing properties of reference evapotranspiration (ETref) across China using Penman-Monteith (P-M) method, exploring the major sensitive meteorological variables for ETref, and investigating influences of human activities, mainly urbanization in this study, on ETref changes in both space and time. We obtain some important conclusions: (1) decreasing annual and seasonal ETref is observed in the east, south and northwest China. However, a long strip lying between these regions is identified to be characterized by increasing ETref; (2) in the regions east to 100°E, the net total solar radiation is the main cause behind the decreasing ETref. In northwest China, however, relative humidity is recognized as the most sensitive variable for the ETref; (3) in the east and south China, urbanization greatly influences the ETref by directly decreasing net solar radiation. The increased air pollution and aerosols in the highly urbanized regions are the main driving factors causing decreasing net radiation; and (4) this study reveals accelerating hydrological cycle from south to north China. Besides, increasing ETref in the source regions of large rivers in China may pose new challenges for the basin-scale water resource management. The results of this study highlight the integrated effects of climate changes and human activities on ETref changes in different regions of China, which will be of great scientific and practical merits in in-depth understanding of hydrological cycle alterations under the changing environment in China.

  1. Employees’ Organizational Identification and Affective Organizational Commitment: An Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  2. Employees' organizational identification and affective organizational commitment: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  3. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  4. Influences on the Talent Development Process of Non-Classical Musicians: Psychological, Social and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Sara; Richards, Hugh; Collins, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Twelve professional, non-classical musicians were interviewed about the impact of internal and external factors on their development as musicians. The data were qualitatively analyzed, and observations concerning psychological characteristics of developing excellence (PCDEs), social and environmental influences are reported. The insights of the…

  5. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  6. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Darko; Murić, Branka; Pantelić, Dejan; Panić, Bratimir

    2009-07-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  7. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  8. Confirmation of ETI: initial organizational response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2003-08-01

    Perhaps the most crucial responses to the confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligence will come from organizations, rather than from individual people. Among the key organizations that will help shape humanity's response are political institutions such as the US Congress, administrative bodies such as the US Department of State, security agencies, the military, professional societies, and the media. Although popular culture and individual beliefs will affect organizational performance, organizational reactions will depend also on organizational cultures and traditions, administrative structures, communication patterns, decision-making processes, and the actions of other organizations. Prompt and effective responses may be blocked by sociopolitical constraints, jurisdictional disputes, cumbersome structures and procedures, stresses that frequently slow and distort information processing, and potentially counterproductive efforts to maintain positive organizational images. Efforts undertaken by governmental agencies will be hampered by public perceptions of low credibility. Foresight and advance preparation are among the steps that organizations may take to prepare for contact, but conservative values, skepticism towards SETI, and competing organizational priorities make serious preparation unlikely.

  9. The Relationship between Organizational Learning Practices and the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Chien-Chi; McLean, Gary N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between organizational learning practices and the learning organization based on a literature review. A conceptual framework is provided to analyze the relationship. When organizational learning processes are fulfilled, the organization has more opportunities to approach becoming a learning organization. The…

  10. Strategic HRD Practices as Key Factors in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Chien-Chi; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between strategic HRD practices and organizational learning were explored through a literature review. Organizations that learn and develop their SHRD practices have more opportunities to obtain and integrate the nine SHRD outcomes in the learning process: organizational missions and goals, top management leadership, environmental…

  11. Transforming Cultures of Care: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Karyn; Cross, David; Jones, Daren; Buff, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a small organizational case study highlighting the dimensions of trauma-informed care, the processes of organizational change, and the growth of caregiver expertise. The article is framed by the notion of caregiving cultures, which refers to the beliefs, languages, and practices of caregivers and caregiving organizations.…

  12. Just a Good Story? Shaping Organizational Learning through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, J. Kori

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning is a complex phenomenon, the collective nature of which makes it difficult to study and examine. Organizational stories are cultural forms that facilitate the sensemaking processes and capabilities of the individuals and teams that form the collective organization. This paper utilizes literature to suggest possible impacts…

  13. Organizational and Systems Theory: An Integrated Review. Technical Report 595.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, Robert W.; And Others

    A review of the theoretical and empirical literature was conducted to identify, in a systems framework, organizational processes and dimensions associated with effective functioning. Potential methodologies for use in controlled organizational experimentation were also explored. Literature was reviewed according to an empirically derived…

  14. Deriving Value from Inter-Organizational Learning Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Winkelen, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop the understanding of how organizations can derive more value from participating in inter-organizational learning collaborations. Design/methodology/approach: The collaboration is viewed as one "level" within an extended organizational learning system and both feedback processes between levels and the dynamics…

  15. From Crisis to Success: Three Case Studies in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitki, Yoram; Herstein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radical changes and increasing competition in the global economy and markets lead enterprises to change their business policy and activities. This process demands the creation of effective organizational learning mechanisms. This paper seeks to illustrate how three service organizations designed and utilized organizational learning…

  16. Effect of Organizational Factors on Information Security Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rafael G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative inferential study is to determine the level of correlation between the organizational factors of information security awareness, balanced security processes, and organizational structure with the size of the estimation gap of information security implementations mediated by the end user intentionality. The study…

  17. Organizational Innovativeness. A Conceptual Outline for Comparative Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    This paper presents a summary and analysis of the current state of research in the field of organizational innovativeness and develops a provisional conceptual outline of the overall process and characteristics of organizational innovation and the general factors which may be related to innovativeness. Based on the "summaries approach" to…

  18. Hand Dominance Influences the Processing of Observed Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Mark R.; Potts, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    In motor tasks, subgroups of lefthanders have been shown to differ in the distribution of attention about their own bodies. The present experiment examined whether similar attentional biases also apply when processing observed bodies. Sixteen right handers (RHs), 22 consistent left handers (CLHs) and 11 relatively ambidextrous inconsistent left…

  19. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  20. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  1. The influence of ambient medium density on laser ablation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, M.M. III

    1995-11-01

    Interest in high flux transport processes has grown in recent years along with the ability and need to manipulate systems with microscopic length and time scales. These systems present unique engineering challenges. Because the time and length scales associated with these problems are very small, assumptions of local equilibrium, physical and mathematical smoothness of boundaries and the unambiguous definition of thermodynamic fields can not be automatically made, even though they may ultimately be acceptable. Furthermore, the observations are made on macroscopic or integrated scales. The large difference in scales between the temporal evolution of the process and the observation requires careful consideration of the claims made regarding the system`s microscopic, temporal behavior. In particular, consistency of a proposed model with observed results does not guarantee uniqueness, or predictive accuracy for the model. For these reasons, microscale heat transfer systems demand a careful consideration of the framework within which the experimentation and analysis are conducted.

  2. Do aqueous ternary complexes influence the TALSPEAK process?

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, C. j.; Liu, G.; Jensen, M. P.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous speciation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations in solutions containing DTPA (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N'-pentaacetic acid) and lactic acid were studied under conditions representative of the TALSPEAK process. Spectrophotometric titrations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermometric titrations were used to search for indications of ternary metal-DTPA-lactate complexes. The addition of lactate anions to metal-DTPA complexes was undetectable by any of these techniques, even at free lactate concentrations of 0.75 M. Although lactic acid is necessary for the optimal performance of the TALSPEAK process, we find that the fractions of aqueous ternary Ln3+/An3+-DTPA-lactate complexes are far too low to account for the observed acid dependence of TALSPEAK metal extraction.

  3. Does Organizational Forgetting Matter? Organizational Survival for Life Coaching Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Erhan; Gormus, Alparslan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to determine the role of organizational forgetting in different type of coaching companies and to determine organizational survival based on both knowledge structure of coaching companies and organizational forgetting with core features of organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Within the context of…

  4. Organizational Citizenship and Organizational Justice in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Tasdan, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine primary school teachers' perceptions regarding organizational citizenship and organizational justice. The study also aims to determine whether such perceptions vary depending on the variables of gender, field of study and seniority, and whether organizational citizenship behaviors and…

  5. Organizational Justice As a Predictor of Organizational Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relation between teachers' perception for organizational justice and their organizational silence was examined. Sample of this study consists of 300 teachers who work at elementary schools in Siirt. Relational Scanning model was utilized in performance of this study. In this study, Organizational Justice Scale and…

  6. Influence of estuarine processes on spatiotemporal variation in bioavailable selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Robin; Luoma, Samuel N.; Elrick, Kent A.; Carter, James L.; van der Wegen, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes (physical, chemical and biological) challenge our ability to quantify and manage the ecological risk of chemical contaminants in estuarine environments. Selenium (Se) bioavailability (defined by bioaccumulation), stable isotopes and molar carbon-tonitrogen ratios in the benthic clam Potamocorbula amurensis, an important food source for predators, were determined monthly for 17 yr in northern San Francisco Bay. Se concentrations in the clams ranged from a low of 2 to a high of 22 μg g-1 over space and time. Little of that variability was stochastic, however. Statistical analyses and preliminary hydrodynamic modeling showed that a constant mid-estuarine input of Se, which was dispersed up- and down-estuary by tidal currents, explained the general spatial patterns in accumulated Se among stations. Regression of Se bioavailability against river inflows suggested that processes driven by inflows were the primary driver of seasonal variability. River inflow also appeared to explain interannual variability but within the range of Se enrichment established at each station by source inputs. Evaluation of risks from Se contamination in estuaries requires the consideration of spatial and temporal variability on multiple scales and of the processes that drive that variability.

  7. Post-secretion processing influences spider silk performance.

    PubMed

    Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chung-Lin; Blackledge, Todd A; Tso, I-Min

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic variation facilitates adaptations to novel environments. Silk is an example of a highly variable biomaterial. The two-spidroin (MaSp) model suggests that spider major ampullate (MA) silk is composed of two proteins-MaSp1 predominately contains alanine and glycine and forms strength enhancing β-sheet crystals, while MaSp2 contains proline and forms elastic spirals. Nonetheless, mechanical properties can vary in spider silks without congruent amino acid compositional changes. We predicted that post-secretion processing causes variation in the mechanical performance of wild MA silk independent of protein composition or spinning speed across 10 species of spider. We used supercontraction to remove post-secretion effects and compared the mechanics of silk in this 'ground state' with wild native silks. Native silk mechanics varied less among species compared with 'ground state' silks. Variability in the mechanics of 'ground state' silks was associated with proline composition. However, variability in native silks did not. We attribute interspecific similarities in the mechanical properties of native silks, regardless of amino acid compositions, to glandular processes altering molecular alignment of the proteins prior to extrusion. Such post-secretion processing may enable MA silk to maintain functionality across environments, facilitating its function as a component of an insect-catching web. PMID:22628213

  8. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    PubMed Central

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. Methods: Seven subjects were evaluated on four different tasks before and after a subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (0.2 mg): a one-minute balance test, a subjective visual vertical test, a pointing task and a galvanic vestibular stimulation with EMG recordings. Results: The results showed that the reaction time and the movement duration were not modified after the injection of scopolamine. However, there was an increase in the center of pressure displacement during the balance test, a decrease in EMG muscle response after galvanic vestibular stimulation and an alteration in the perception of verticality. Discussion: These results confirm that low doses of scopolamine such as those prescribed to avoid motion sickness have no effect on attentional processes, but that it is essential to consider the responsiveness of each subject. However, scopolamine did affect postural control and the perception of verticality. In conclusion, the use of scopolamine to prevent motion sickness must be considered carefully because it could increase imbalances in situations when individuals are already at risk of falling (e.g., sailing, parabolic flight). PMID:27169000

  9. Post-secretion processing influences spider silk performance

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chung-Lin; Blackledge, Todd A.; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic variation facilitates adaptations to novel environments. Silk is an example of a highly variable biomaterial. The two-spidroin (MaSp) model suggests that spider major ampullate (MA) silk is composed of two proteins—MaSp1 predominately contains alanine and glycine and forms strength enhancing β-sheet crystals, while MaSp2 contains proline and forms elastic spirals. Nonetheless, mechanical properties can vary in spider silks without congruent amino acid compositional changes. We predicted that post-secretion processing causes variation in the mechanical performance of wild MA silk independent of protein composition or spinning speed across 10 species of spider. We used supercontraction to remove post-secretion effects and compared the mechanics of silk in this ‘ground state’ with wild native silks. Native silk mechanics varied less among species compared with ‘ground state’ silks. Variability in the mechanics of ‘ground state’ silks was associated with proline composition. However, variability in native silks did not. We attribute interspecific similarities in the mechanical properties of native silks, regardless of amino acid compositions, to glandular processes altering molecular alignment of the proteins prior to extrusion. Such post-secretion processing may enable MA silk to maintain functionality across environments, facilitating its function as a component of an insect-catching web. PMID:22628213

  10. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  11. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-04

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  12. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  13. Processes influencing seasonal hypoxia in the northern California Current System

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, T. P.; Hickey, B. M.; Geier, S. L.; Cochlan, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper delineates the role of physical and biological processes contributing to hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) < 1.4 mL/L, over the continental shelf of Washington State in the northern portion of the California Current System (CCS). In the historical record (1950–1986) during the summer upwelling season, hypoxia is more prevalent and severe off Washington than further south off northern Oregon. Recent data (2003–2005) show that hypoxia over the Washington shelf occurred at levels previously observed in the historical data. 2006 was an exception, with hypoxia covering ~5000 km2 of the Washington continental shelf and DO concentrations below 0.5 mL/L at the inner shelf, lower than any known previous observations at that location. In the four years studied, upwelling of low DO water and changes in source water contribute to interannual variability, but cannot account for seasonal decreases below hypoxic concentrations. Deficits of DO along salinity surfaces, indicating biochemical consumption of DO, vary significantly between surveys, accounting for additional decreases of 0.5–2.5 mL/L by late summer. DO consumption is associated with denitrification, an indicator of biochemical sediment processes. Mass balances of DO and nitrate show that biochemical processes in the water column and sediments each contribute ~50% to the total consumption of DO in near-bottom water. At shorter than seasonal time scales on the inner shelf, along-shelf advection of hypoxic patches and cross-shelf advection of seasonal gradients are both shown to be important, changing DO concentrations by 1.5 mL/L or more over five days. PMID:20463844

  14. Processing and nanostructure influences on mechanical properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert David

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are materials that can generate an electric current from a thermal gradient, with possible service in recovery of waste heat such as engine exhaust. Significant progress has been made in improving TE conversion efficiency, typically reported according to the figure of merit, ZT, with several recent papers publishing ZT values above 2. Furthermore, cost reductions may be made by the use of lower cost elements such as Mg, Si, Sn, Pb, Se and S in TE materials, while achieving ZT values between 1.3 and 1.8. To be used in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces without failure. However, these materials are brittle, with low fracture toughness typically less than 1.5 MPa-m1/2, and often less than 0.5 MPa-m1/2. For comparison, window glass is approximately 0.75 MPa-m1/2. They have been optimized with nanoprecipitates, nanoparticles, doping, alterations in stoichiometry, powder processing and other techniques, all of which may alter the mechanical properties. In this study, the effect of SiC nanoparticle additions in Mg2Si, SnTe and Ag nanoparticle additions in the skutterudite Ba0.3Co 4Sb12 on the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness are measured. Large changes (˜20%) in the elastic moduli in SnTe 1+x as a function of x at 0 and 0.016 are shown. The effect on mechanical properties of doping and precipitates of CdS or ZnS in a PbS or PbSe matrix have been reported. Changes in sintering behavior of the skutterudite with the Ag nanoparticle additions were explored. Possible liquid phase sintering, with associated benefits in lower processing temperature, faster densification and lower cost, has been shown. A technique has been proposed for determining additional liquid phase sintering aids in other TE materials. The effects of porosity, grain size, powder processing method, and sintering method were explored with YbAl3 and Ba0.3Co4Sb 12, with the porosity dependence of

  15. Attributions of the "causes" of group performance as an alternative explanation of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D G; Bendoly, E; Podsakoff, P M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that feedback regarding team performance may influence team members' reports of organizational citizenship behaviors. Ninety-five teams of business students (N = 412) participated in a labor-scheduling simulation over a local area network. Teams were provided with false negative, false positive, or neutral feedback regarding their performance. Results support the hypothesis that the perception of 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping behavior and civic virtue) in work groups may, in part. be a function of the nature of the performance feedback that group members receive. However, negative feedback appears to play a more critical role than positive feedback in this attributional process. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications, are discussed. PMID:11768069

  16. Influence of empathetic pain processing on cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kesong; Lijffijt, Marijn; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Fan, Zhiwei; Shi, Hui; He, Shuchang

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in both empathy and cognition have been reported widely in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these deficits interact among such patients. In the present study, we used pain portraying pictures preceding a color-word Stroop task to investigate the effect of empathetic pain observation on cognition among patients with schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and twenty healthy controls were included. The control group showed increased Stroop facilitation and decreased interference during the empathetic pain condition compared with the non-empathetic condition. Although patients with schizophrenia exhibited deficits in cognition, they demonstrated a similar empathy effect to controls on Stroop facilitation, but a somewhat larger empathy effect on Stroop interference (a more decreased effect). In particular, the groups did not differ in either automatic or controlled processing during the non-empathetic condition, suggesting general rather than specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Together, we interpret our findings in terms of two opposing effects of empathy on cognition in schizophrenia, with possible neuromodulatory mechanism. Whereas prior studies showed empathy to be impaired, our outcomes indicate that at least some components of empathetic pain processing are preserved in such patients. PMID:25476407

  17. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  18. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  19. Exercise influences hippocampal plasticity by modulating BDNF processing

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qinxue; Ying, Zhe; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to impact brain plasticity and function by involving the action of BDNF; however, mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Two types of BDNF coexist in the brain, the precursor (proBDNF) and its mature product (mBDNF), which preferentially bind specific receptors and exert distinct functions. It is crucial to understand how exercise affects crucial steps in the BDNF processing and signaling to evaluate therapeutic applications. We found that 7 days of voluntary exercise increased both pro and mature BDNF in the rat hippocampus. Exercise also increased the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine proteinase shown to facilitate proBDNF cleavage into mBDNF. The blockade of tPA activity reduced the exercise effects on proBDNF and mBDNF. The tPA blocking also inhibited the activation of TrkB receptor, and the TrkB signaling downstream effectors phospho-ERK, phospho-Akt, and phospho-CaMKII. The blocking of tPA also counteracted the effects of exercise on the plasticity markers phospho-synapsin I and GAP-43. These results indicate that the effects of exercise on hippocampal plasticity are dependent on BDNF processing and subsequent TrkB signaling, with important implications for neuronal function. PMID:21756980

  20. Influence of Urbanization on Ecological Processes in Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Richter, Klaus O.; Hibler, Lyle F.; Mark Wigmosta and Stephen Burges

    2001-01-23

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecological functions and services critical to the overall functioning of many ecosystems. Since, by definition, wetlands are wet for a significant portion of a year, the ability of wetlands to provide these functions is highly dependent on hydrology. Over half of the wetlands globally have been destroyed over the past 150 years or so. Degradation of remaining wetlands is significant in places here studies have been carried out. Much of this degradation has been due to alteration of hydrology through reduction in inputs through construction of hard surfaces, channelization, damming of outflows, introduction of contaminants, introduction of exotic species, and a variety of other impacts. Studies in the Puget Sound trough and in the Portland, Oregon, region, have intensively investigated hydrological alterations and wetlands. In general, increases of impervious surfaces and rerouting of natural hydrology have affected plant and animal species composition and production and have altered the processes of primary production, nutrient cycling, groundwater recharge rates, and sediment dynamics. The close coupling of wetland functions, plant and animal populations, and hydrology is clearly illustrated in these case studies. The studies have resulted in significant contributions to the management of wetland systems in these areas through consideration of the hydrologic processes.

  1. The Influence of Mood on the Processing of Syntactic Anomalies: Evidence from P600

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Virgillito, Daniele; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Speckens, Anne E. M.; Tendolkar, Indira; van Oostrom, Iris; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    In several domains of psychology it has been shown that mood influences the way in which we process information. So far, little is known about the relation between mood and processes of language comprehension. In the present study we explore, whether, and if so how, mood affects the processing of syntactic anomalies in real time by recording…

  2. Does Mood Influence Text Processing and Comprehension? Evidence from an Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Mason, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that mood influences cognitive processes. However, there is scarce data regarding the link between everyday emotional states and readers' text processing and comprehension. Aim: We aim to extend current research on the effects of mood induction on science text processing and comprehension, using…

  3. Employee Perceptions of Organizational Learning as Determinants of Affective Commitment in Knowledge Intensive Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishna, Vijay; Casey, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable research on organizational commitment, a clear understanding of the process through which commitment develops has remained elusive. While there has been discussion in the literature about the possible relationship between organizational learning and organizational commitment, this paper develops a theoretical framework to…

  4. Exploring the Political Underbelly of Organizational Learning: Learning during Pay and Performance Management Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In an effort to better understand the political dimensions of organizational learning, this paper aims to examine learning processes in an organizational context--namely renegotiation of pay and performance management arrangements--where the interests of organizational members are threatened. Design/methodology/approach: Data were derived…

  5. Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…

  6. Simulation Gaming for Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohomaki, Virpi

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces development and design approaches to organizational change (DIL). Simulation games can be used for promoting organizational development. They offer an arena for organization members to analyze the present state of an organization and create new organizational solutions. The bridge between the present and future mode of…

  7. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  8. Organizational Effectiveness: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S., Comp.

    A bibliography on organizational effectiveness that contains approximately 515 references, dated primarily since 1970, is presented. The focus is the organizational level of analysis, rather than individual effectiveness or environmental (e.g., economy) performance. The literature included comes from the organizational sciences, higher education,…

  9. Organizational Performance and Customer Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Herbst, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    While behavior systems analysts have recognized the importance of the consumer of organizational products (i.e., receiving system) in developing models of organizational change, few have offered a systematic assessment of the relationship between consumer and organizational practices. In this article we will discuss how a behavior systems approach…

  10. Differential Influences of Family Processes for Scientifically Talented Individuals' Academic Achievement along Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee; Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    Differential influences of various family processes for students of science talent and students in general education from Grades 4 to 12 and Science Olympians in Korea were examined by administering Korean Inventory of Parental Influence. Korean Science Olympians were additionally interviewed about their family and school experiences. Family…

  11. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning…

  12. Education and Organizational Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Because a main educational function is to prepare children for workplace roles, education's organizational forms and functions tend to correspond to those of the workplace. For instance, as the U.S. economy moved from agricultural through industrial to service bases, U.S. education moved from nonpublic schools to public schools to mass higher…

  13. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  15. Organizational Management Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haendle, Connie

    A handbook on the organizational structure and management practices of the Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. (LVA), is presented. An outline of LVA's structure and policies is presented as basic training for leaders before they begin the planning and operational phases. The activity of starting an affiliate is described with respect to interim…

  16. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  17. Employee response to major organizational redesign.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G L; Fisher, M; Ross, B; Soja, M; Kidd, N

    2001-02-01

    A number of health care organizations are currently undergoing major organizational redesign. Despite these efforts, little is known about how these changes are affecting the employees participating in the redesign process. In response to this, a study was undertaken to determine the perceived impact of organizational redesign on nursing staff at 2 acute care hospitals that were undergoing major organizational change. Data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews conducted on all 3 shifts (days, evenings, and nights). Findings suggest the early redesign period is highly turbulent and difficult for staff. Nurses expressed concern over changes in roles and responsibilities, disruption in work group relationships, loss of resource availability, reduction in quality of care, and alterations in physical and psychological state. PMID:11172226

  18. Developing Leadership Capacity through Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The relationship of human development to leadership growth and organizational learning is becoming more significant as organizations recognize the value of skilled leadership. In order to foster collective intelligence and innovation in groups, leadership throughout an organization benefits from the understanding of processes involved in…

  19. Training and Restructuring in Organizational Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Studies indicate that employees experience increased equity, respect, and job satisfaction when able to assume more responsibility for work processes. The new work structures resulting from organizational change often necessitate new employee attitudes, knowledge, and skills as well as new management techniques. Integrated training programs are…

  20. Innovativeness and the Organizational Attributes of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidell, Terry L.; And Others

    Five papers focus on the interrelated themes of school organization and innovation. They report on some preliminary analyses of field studies conducted during 1968 on such structural, sociocultural, and sociopsychological variables as division of labor, performance of organizational functions, decision making studies and processes, hierarchies of…

  1. Organizational Newcomers' Acquisition of Information from Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies the processes by which organizational newcomers acquire information from their peers. Indicates types of information acquired, channels through which they acquire it, and the relationship between type and channel. Suggests that information acquisition is affected by type of organization, newcomer-peer work interactions, and newcomer…

  2. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    PubMed

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between wheat kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel. PMID:25328207

  3. Tensegrity II. How structural networks influence cellular information processing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge in biology today is biocomplexity: the need to explain how cell and tissue behaviors emerge from collective interactions within complex molecular networks. Part I of this two-part article, described a mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture that explains how the mechanical behavior of the cell emerges from physical interactions among the different molecular filament systems that form the cytoskeleton. Recent work shows that the cytoskeleton also orients much of the cell's metabolic and signal transduction machinery and that mechanical distortion of cells and the cytoskeleton through cell surface integrin receptors can profoundly affect cell behavior. In particular, gradual variations in this single physical control parameter (cell shape distortion) can switch cells between distinct gene programs (e.g. growth, differentiation and apoptosis), and this process can be viewed as a biological phase transition. Part II of this article covers how combined use of tensegrity and solid-state mechanochemistry by cells may mediate mechanotransduction and facilitate integration of chemical and physical signals that are responsible for control of cell behavior. In addition, it examines how cell structural networks affect gene and protein signaling networks to produce characteristic phenotypes and cell fate transitions during tissue development.

  4. IOOC Organizational Network (ION) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, H.

    2013-12-01

    In order to meet the growing need for ocean information, research communities at the national and international levels have responded most recently by developing organizational frameworks that can help to integrate information across systems of existing networks and standardize methods of data gathering, management, and processing that facilitate integration. To address recommendations and identified challenges related to the need for a better understanding of ocean observing networks, members of the U.S. Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) supported pursuing a project that came to be titled the IOOC Organizational Network (ION). The ION tool employs network mapping approaches which mirror approaches developed in academic literature aimed at understanding political networks. Researchers gathered data on the list of global ocean observing organizations included in the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), developed in 2012 by the international Task Team for an Integrated Framework for Sustained Ocean Observing. At the international scale, researchers reviewed organizational research plans and documents, websites, and formal international agreement documents. At the U.S. national scale, researchers analyzed legislation, formal inter-agency agreements, work plans, charters, and policy documents. Researchers based analysis of relationships among global organizations and national federal organizations on four broad relationship categories: Communications, Data, Infrastructure, and Human Resources. In addition to the four broad relationship categories, researchers also gathered data on relationship instrument types, strength of relationships, and (at the global level) ocean observing variables. Using network visualization software, researchers then developed a series of dynamic webpages. Researchers used the tool to address questions identified by the ocean observing community, including identifying gaps in global relationships and the types of tools used to

  5. Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Attachment: Self-Interest Utility and Signaling Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Wendy J.; Harris, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines two competing theoretical explanations for why work-life policies such as dependent care assistance and flexible schedules influence organizational attachment. The self-interest utility model posits that work-life policies influence organizational attachment because employee use of these policies facilitates attachment. The…

  6. Organizational and Environmental Predictors of Job Satisfaction in Community-based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…

  7. Emerging Perspectives on Managing Organizational Justice. Research in Social Issues in Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Stephen W., Ed.; Steiner, Dirk D., Ed.; Skarlicki, Daniel P., Ed.

    The theme of this volume is new perspectives on organizational justice (OJ). It considers justice beyond the organizational context by recognizing that what happens in organizations influences and is influenced by aspects of workers' lives that occur outside the workplace. "Economic and Noneconomic Mechanisms in Interpersonal Work Relationships"…

  8. Founders' Sensemaking and Sensegiving Behaviors Effect on the Organizational Identities of New Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehsenfeld, Corie

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, multiple case study looked at the emerging organizational identity of four charter schools during the early years of development and the influence of the founder on that developing identity. The study looked at the ways in which each founder's sensemaking and sensegiving behaviors may have influenced the organizational identity…

  9. Processes influencing rainfall deposition of mercury in Florida.

    PubMed

    Guentzel, J L; Landing, W M; Gill, G A; Pollman, C D

    2001-03-01

    The primary goal of the Florida Atmospheric Mercury Study (FAMS) was to quantify the atmospheric deposition of Hg throughout Florida. Monthly integrated precipitation and weekly integrated particulate samples were collected at 10 sites in Florida for periods ranging from 2 to 5 yr. The monthly rainfall across the state and the concentrations of Hg in wet-only and bulk deposition increased by a factor of 2-3 during the summertime "wet season" (May-October). These parallel increases in rainfall amount and Hg concentration resulted in 5-8-fold increases in rainfall Hg deposition during the wet season. The annual volume-weighted Hg concentrations ranged from 14 +/- 2 to 16 +/- 2 ng/L across southern Florida, and the annual rainfall Hg fluxes ranged from 20 +/- 3 to 23 +/- 3 micrograms m-2 yr-1. The weekly integrated particulate Hg concentrations in southern Florida were low (4.9-9.3 pg/m3) and did not exhibit strong seasonal variability. Considering the pronounced seasonal pattern in rainfall Hg deposition, the relatively uniform summertime rainfall Hg concentrations, and the low concentrations of particulate Hg, we conclude that processes other than particulate Hg transport and scavenging govern rainfall Hg deposition in southern Florida. We hypothesize that long-range transport of reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) species coupled with strong convective thunderstorm activity during the summertime represents > 50% of the Hg deposition in southern Florida. Model calculations indicate that local anthropogenic particulate Hg and RGM emissions account for 30-46% of the summertime rainfall Hg deposition across the southern Florida peninsula. PMID:11351528

  10. Gravity Influences Top-Down Signals in Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness, this fronto-occipital, top-down control was transformed into a diverging flux from the central areas toward the frontal and occipital areas. These results demonstrate that gravity-related sensory inputs modulate primary visual areas depending on the affordances of the visual scene. PMID:24400069

  11. Gravity influences top-down signals in visual processing.

    PubMed

    Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness, this fronto-occipital, top-down control was transformed into a diverging flux from the central areas toward the frontal and occipital areas. These results demonstrate that gravity-related sensory inputs modulate primary visual areas depending on the affordances of the visual scene. PMID:24400069

  12. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  13. Which factors, processes and storages influence low flow (Q347)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Michael; Scherrer, Simon; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Naef, Felix

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, estimation of residual water is based on Q347 (flow exceeded during 347 days per year). In ungauged catchments Q347 has to be determined with some simplified approaches. However, these statistical models often provide inaccurate results. The runoff reaction of a river depends on the spatial distribution of the Dominant Runoff Processes (DRP) like Hortonian Overland Flow (HOF), Saturated Overland Flow (SOF), Sub-Surface Flow (SSF) or Deep Percolation (DP) within its catchment area. Low flow is fed by slowly reacting groundwater or deep hillslope storages. These storages are supposed to be located mainly beneath permeable soils in highly permeable bedrock like talus, deposits of debris flows or rock fall, gravel of river deposits, lateral moraines or karst systems, represented in DRP-maps by slowly reacting SOF3-, SSF3- or DP- areas. To better understand these mechanisms, the relation between areas of slowly reacting SOF3, SSF3, DP and the form of the recession curves was analysed in 27 catchments of Swiss Plateau and Jura. Results show, that drainage characteristics and percentage of SOF3-, SSF3- and DP- areas in catchments relate well. The more extended the recharge areas, the smoother and longer the recession curves. For example the recession to Q347 in the Eulach River (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 54%) takes 95 days, in the Töss River only 10 days (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 9%). However, the differences in Q347 cannot be explained with these percentages. The runoff volume from Q347 to Q365 in 14 investigated catchments is only between 0.2 and 14 mm, about 1.5% of the annual precipitation volume. It seems that the storages mentioned above do not contribute significantly any more, when the discharge falls below Q347. It was found that catchments with high Q347 consist mainly of sandstone, conglomerate or large scaled wetlands. It seems that mainly porous and fissured solid rocks contribute to Q347. Very small Q347 are usually caused by seepage loss of

  14. Organizational culture and staff outcomes in services for people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hatton, C; Rivers, M; Mason, H; Mason, L; Emerson, E; Kiernan, C; Reeves, D; Alborz, A

    1999-06-01

    Organizational culture has been shown by organizational psychology to influence important aspects of staff behaviour. In particular, mismatches between staff perceptions of real and ideal organizational cultures have been shown to be associated with a range of negative outcomes for staff, such as stress, sickness and staff turnover. The present study investigates organizational culture in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to discover the prevalent organizational cultures in these services, and associations between organizational culture and staff outcomes. As part of a large-scale survey of staff in services for people with intellectual disabilities, information concerning organizational culture and staff outcomes was collected from 450 staff. A self-report measure of real and ideal organizational culture produced nine dimensions of organizational culture: (I) tolerant/staff-oriented; (2) achievement-oriented; (3) innovative; (4) analytical; (5) social relationships; (6) rewarding staff; (7) stable work environment; (8) demanding; and (9) conflict management. These nine dimensions of organizational culture showed generally adequate psychometric properties. While there was some variation in organizational culture across services, there is little variation across staff with different job titles. Overall, the staff rated real organizational cultures to be relatively high in achievement orientation and fostering social relationships, and relatively low in managing conflict and providing rewards for staff. Staff rated ideal organizational cultures to be high in rewarding staff, being tolerant/staff-oriented and fostering social relationships, and low in demands on staff. Except for the dimension of making demands on staff, where staff rated organizations as considerably higher than ideal, staff generally rated organizations as being less than ideal on all dimensions of organizational culture. Organizational psychology theory predicts that

  15. Scenario Planning: A Phenomenological Examination of Influence on Organizational Learning and Decision-Making in a K-12 Public Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deklotz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations commonly engage in long range planning to direct decisions. Scenario planning, one method of private sector planning, is recognized as useful when organizations are facing uncertainty. Scenario planning engages the organization in a process that produces plausible stories, called scenarios, describing the organization in several…

  16. Peer Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Smoking Behavior: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent smoking studies find evidence of active peer influence and selection processes. However, studies have shown that these processes operate differently depending on context. This study uses SIENA to model coevolutionary processes between smoking and changes in friendship ties, comparing two high schools in which data were collected in identical fashion to explore influence and selection mechanisms with respect to current smoking, and smoking levels. Methods: This is a longitudinal survey with 2 waves of data. In-home surveys were conducted with students from 2 large high schools in the United States: a West Coast school, and a Midwestern school. Participants were consented students in 10th and 11th grades at the first wave of data collection. The primary measures were self-reported smoking behavior and friendship nominations. Results: There is evidence of influence and selection in both schools for adolescents’ smoking status (1 = any smoking) and for level of smoking. Conclusions: These models reflect great similarities in influence and selection processes across schools for different smoking behaviors. However, smoking prevalence may impact the exact mechanisms by which influence and selection operate. Researchers should consider smoking interventions with independent modules addressing different selection and influence processes, implemented based on contextual factors such as the prevalence of smoking. PMID:22944605

  17. Organizational closure and conceptual coherence

    PubMed

    Scott

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581

  18. The effects of governing board configuration on profound organizational change in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Weiner, Bryan J

    2006-09-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely to experience positive changes such as diversification and merger and less likely to undergo negative changes such as closure. Organizational performance influenced change, but largely independent of governance configurations. Only in the case of closure did we find that governance configuration operated jointly with organizational performance. PMID:17066778

  19. Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Batras, Dimitri; Duff, Cameron; Smith, Ben J

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated understandings of organizational dynamics and processes of organizational change are crucial for the development and success of health promotion initiatives. Theory has a valuable contribution to make in understanding organizational change, for identifying influential factors that should be the focus of change efforts and for selecting the strategies that can be applied to promote change. This article reviews select organizational change models to identify the most pertinent insights for health promotion practitioners. Theoretically derived considerations for practitioners who seek to foster organizational change include the extent to which the initiative is modifiable to fit with the internal context; the amount of time that is allocated to truly institutionalize change; the ability of the agents of change to build short-term success deliberately into their implementation plan; whether or not the shared group experience of action for change is positive or negative and the degree to which agencies that are the intended recipients of change are resourced to focus on internal factors. In reviewing theories of organizational change, the article also addresses strategies for facilitating the adoption of key theoretical insights into the design and implementation of health promotion initiatives in diverse organizational settings. If nothing else, aligning health promotion with organizational change theory promises insights into what it is that health promoters do and the time that it can take to do it effectively. PMID:25398838

  20. Influence of hard water ions on the growth of salmonella in poultry processing water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of magnesium and calcium ions in process water on the growth of Salmonella was evaluated and related to the contamination in process wastewater. Salmonella typhimurium was grown in the laboratory and exposed to 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of magnesium and calcium ions to simulate hard pr...

  1. Influence of the cutting process on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoppa, A.; Schneider, J.; Roth, J.-O.

    2000-06-01

    The laminations for the cores used in electrical applications like motors, generators, ballasts are manufactured by punching, mechanical cutting or cutting by laser of coils of non-oriented fully processed electrical steels. The magnetic material close to the cutting edge is essentially influenced by these processes. Depending on the parameter, the magnetic properties can vary substantially.

  2. The Influence of Levels of Processing on Recall from Working Memory and Delayed Recall Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loaiza, Vanessa M.; McCabe, David P.; Youngblood, Jessie L.; Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in working memory has highlighted the similarities involved in retrieval from complex span tasks and episodic memory tasks, suggesting that these tasks are influenced by similar memory processes. In the present article, the authors manipulated the level of processing engaged when studying to-be-remembered words during a reading…

  3. The Influence of Working Memory on Reading and Creative Writing Processes in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the working memory (WM) processing and storage functions; whether WM in writing follows the same process as in reading; and the influence of WM on creative writing. Focuses on high school students (n=47). Finds relationships between WM measures and reading and writing in English as a Second Language. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  5. Energy Organizational Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gina C. Paradis; James Yockey; Tracey LeBeau

    2009-04-17

    As the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) continues to refine and finalize its Strategic Energy Plan, it became necessary to insure that a sustainable organization structure was developed through which the energy program and its initiatives could be nurtured and managed. To that end, SNI undertook a study to thoroughly evaluate the existing organizational structures and assess the requisite changes and/or additions to that framework that would complement the mission of the Strategic Plan. The goal of this study was to analyze, work with staff and leadership and recommend the most effective plan for the development of an organizational framework within which the Seneca could more effectively exercise energy sovereignty – control and manage their natural resource assets – i.e. develop its own energy resources, meet the current and projected energy needs of their community, and “sit at the table” with other regional energy providers to deal with issues on a peer-to-peer basis.

  6. The influence of social processes on the timing of cancer diagnosis: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Corner, Jessica; Brindle, Lucy

    2011-06-01

    This paper sets out to review the influence of social processes on the timing of the diagnosis of cancer and to explore the potential for promoting earlier diagnosis by addressing social factors that influence symptom recognition and the diagnostic process. Social processes refer to the means by which culture and social organisation may impact on timely cancer diagnosis. The paper calls for concerted action around an important and developing research agenda that may prove highly valuable in the quest to secure prompt diagnosis for cancer and through it improved outcomes for individuals. PMID:21138896

  7. The mediating role of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2009-08-01

    Past researchers have found that motivating job characteristics can increase employee display of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, the authors extended previous research by investigating the mediating process of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and OCB. The authors collected data from 323 employees and their supervisors from 7 companies in Taiwan. Results show that, through the mediating process of job involvement, the 3 job characteristics (i.e., task identity, task significance, and autonomy) positively influenced the display of an employee's OCB, whereas skill variety had a negative effect on OCB. The authors discuss implications of their findings, contributions, limitations, and future research directions. PMID:19702106

  8. Unattentive speech processing is influenced by orthographic knowledge: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, José; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-10-01

    How far can acquired knowledge such as orthographic knowledge affect pre-existing abilities such as speech perception? This controversial issue was addressed by investigating the automaticity of the influence of orthographic knowledge on speech processing. Many studies demonstrated this influence in active, lexico-semantic speech processing tasks. However, it has never been observed when speech is unattended. Here, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), an automatic index of experience-dependent auditory traces, was recorded in an unattended oddball paradigm manipulating the orthographic congruency between frequent and deviant spoken riming words. Both orthographically congruent and incongruent deviant words elicited a typical MMN over the fronto-central regions, with a stronger response in the incongruent condition. The finding showed that the orthographic dimension of spoken words influences a physiological marker of speech processing although participants were required not to attend to the auditory input. This provides evidence for an impact of acquiring a written code on speech processing. PMID:25190330

  9. Male-Female Differences in Perceived Organizational Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedeian, Arthur G.; Armenakis, Achilles A.

    1975-01-01

    Members of both sexes seemed to recognize that certain legitimate areas of organizational influence do exist; however, they disagreed somewhat on both the proper extent and composition of this influence. (Available from Office of Publications, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, $2.50, single…

  10. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  11. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

    PubMed

    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. PMID:25913457

  12. Eye contact influences neural processing of emotional expressions in 4-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Striano, Tricia; Kopp, Franziska; Grossmann, Tobias; Reid, Vincent M.

    2006-01-01

    Eye gaze is a fundamental component of human communication. During the first post-natal year, infants rapidly learn that the gaze of others provides socially significant information. In addition, infants are sensitive to several emotional expressions. However, little is known regarding how eye contact influences the way the infant brain processes emotional expressions. We measured 4-month-old infants’ brain electric activity to assess neural processing of faces displaying neutral, happy and angry emotional expressions when accompanied by direct and averted eye gaze. The results show that processing of angry facial expressions was influenced by eye gaze. In particular, infants showed enhanced neural processing of angry expressions when these expressions were accompanied by direct eye gaze. These results show that by 4 months of age, the infant detects angry emotional expressions, and the infant brain processes their relevance to the self. PMID:18985122

  13. Methods of Organizational Information Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, José; Dos Santos, Henrique

    The principle objective of this article is to present a literature review for the methods used in the security of information at the level of organizations. Some of the principle problems are identified and a first group of relevant dimensions is presented for an efficient management of information security. The study is based on the literature review made, using some of the more relevant certified articles of this theme, in international reports and in the principle norms of management of information security. From the readings that were done, we identified some of the methods oriented for risk management, norms of certification and good practice of security of information. Some of the norms are oriented for the certification of the product or system and others oriented to the processes of the business. There are also studies with the proposal of Frameworks that suggest the integration of different approaches with the foundation of norms focused on technologies, in processes and taking into consideration the organizational and human environment of the organizations. In our perspective, the biggest contribute to the security of information is the development of a method of security of information for an organization in a conflicting environment. This should make available the security of information, against the possible dimensions of attack that the threats could exploit, through the vulnerability of the organizational actives. This method should support the new concepts of "Network centric warfare", "Information superiority" and "Information warfare" especially developed in this last decade, where information is seen simultaneously as a weapon and as a target.

  14. Team Building As a Consulting Intervention for Influencing Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigtil, James V.; Kelsey, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    This article focuses on team building as a consulting intervention designed to influence the learning environment. The purposes of teaming are facilitating problem solving; maximizing the utilization of skills, competencies, interests, and resources toward organizational goals; improving the planning and decision-making process; and providing a…

  15. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

  16. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history. PMID:21416428

  17. A model-free definition of coupling strength for assessing the influence between climatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, J.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Assessing the strength of influence between climatic processes from observational data is an important problem on the way to construct conceptual models or make predictions. An example being the influence of ENSO on the Indian Monsoon compared to the influence of other climatic processes. It is an especially difficult task if the interactions are nonlinear where linear measures like the Pearson correlation coefficient fail. Apart from nonlinearity, auto-dependencies in the processes can lead to misleading high values of coupling strength. There exist statistical methods that address these issues, but most of them assume some model, e.g., a linear model in the case of the partial correlation. We propose a measure based on conditional mutual information that makes no assumptions on the underlying model and is able to exclude auto-dependencies and even influences of external processes. We investigate how the strength measured relates to model systems where a coupling strength is known and discuss its limitations. The measure is applied to time series of different climate indices and gridded data sets to gain insights into the coupling strength between climatic teleconnections. Applied to more than two time series it is also able to shed light on mechanisms of interactions between multiple processes.

  18. Influence of degradation behavior of polyamide 12 powders in laser sintering process on produced parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wudy, K.; Drummer, D.; Kühnlein, F.; Drexler, M.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies, such as selective laser melting of polymers enable manufacturing of complex parts without tools and forms. Due to high temperature during processing, a degradation of the used plastic powder occurs. The unmolded material in the building chamber, the so-called partcake, can be removed from the finished component after building and reused for another process. To realize reproducible part properties refreshing of partcake powder is necessary. This paper presents results on the investigations of degradation behavior of polyamide 12 powder during selective laser melting process. The influence of different ambient conditions, e.g. ambient air, nitrogen and vacuum, is investigated in a model experiment. Oven aged polymer powders were analyzed with regard to their process relevant material properties. Considered material properties are phase transition temperatures, melting viscosity or molecular weight. The results of the investigations show, that the influence of high process temperatures on used material can be reduced using other ambient conditions. Process relevant material properties are minor affected by storage under vacuum. In addition to that the influence of different ambient conditions as well as a material pretreatment on the degradation behavior of sls materials, e.g. exclusion of intermolecular located oxygen, is analyzed. To correlate these results of the model experiment with real manufacturing process laser sintering experiments are done. PA12 powder is used for several building processes with refreshing. Produced specimens and resulting partcake powder are analyzed and correlated to the results of model experiment. Correlating effects, regarding process relevant material properties as well as aging influenced mechanical properties of specimens can be detected.

  19. The Effects of Organizational Training on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Cagri; Culha, Osman

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the impact of organizational training on employee commitment focusing on employees' emotional and affective responses towards their organization. Organizational training is conceptualized within a multidimensional framework consisting of motivation for training, access to training, benefits from training and…

  20. The Importance of Organizational Learning for Organizational Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Special Issue is intended to heighten awareness of the importance of organizational learning in addressing the demands of organizational sustainability, and in particular triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, together with an exploration of the practical issues relevant to adopting…

  1. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Climate in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela J.; Scott, D. R.; Pace, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate. Subjects were chosen from three large Australian automotive component manufacturing companies. A questionnaire was administered to 1,413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. A 97.8 percent response rate yielded 1,382…

  2. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  3. Perceptions of Organizational Effectiveness over Organizational Life Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.; Whetten, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Student participants at two universities played multisession simulation games involving the development of 18 organizations. Post-session surveys of 583 participants indicated that organizational effectiveness became more important to participants as the organizations developed. This suggests that future organizational effectiveness studies should…

  4. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed. PMID:24820296

  5. Influence of mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bal, M A; Wu, Z; Moreira, V R; Shaver, R D; Satter, L D; Shinners, K J; Walgenbach, R P

    2000-11-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback design with 21-d periods. Intake of dry matter (DM) was increased 1.2 kg/d by processing, but milk yield was unaffected. Processing did not affect apparent total-tract DM digestibility, but processing tended to lower starch and corn excretion in feces and reduced concentration of sieved corn kernel particles in feces. In trial 2, 42 Holstein cows were used in an 18-wk randomized complete-block design. Intake of DM and milk yield were unaffected by processing, but milk fat percent was increased 0.35 percentage units by processing. Processing tended to increase total-tract digestibility of starch, but reduced organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. In trial 3, 30 Holstein cows were used in a 15-wk randomized complete block design. There was no influence of mechanical processing on intake or lactation performance in this trial. Despite indications of increased starch digestion in two trials and increased DM intake in one trial, effects of processing corn silage on lactation performance were minimal with corn silage at the maturity and moisture contents used in these trials. PMID:11104271

  6. Organizational impact of evidence-informed decision making training initiatives: a case study comparison of two approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of efforts by healthcare organizations to enhance the use of evidence to improve organizational processes through training programs has seldom been assessed. We therefore endeavored to assess whether and how the training of mid- and senior-level healthcare managers could lead to organizational change. Methods We conducted a theory-driven evaluation of the organizational impact of healthcare leaders’ participation in two training programs using a logic model based on Nonaka’s theory of knowledge conversion. We analyzed six case studies nested within the two programs using three embedded units of analysis (individual, group and organization). Interviews were conducted during intensive one-week data collection site visits. A total of 84 people were interviewed. Results We found that the impact of training could primarily be felt in trainees’ immediate work environments. The conversion of attitudes was found to be easier to achieve than the conversion of skills. Our results show that, although socialization and externalization were common in all cases, a lack of combination impeded the conversion of skills. We also identified several individual, organizational and program design factors that facilitated and/or impeded the dissemination of the attitudes and skills gained by trainees to other organizational members. Conclusions Our theory-driven evaluation showed that factors before, during and after training can influence the extent of skills and knowledge transfer. Our evaluation went further than previous research by revealing the influence—both positive and negative—of specific organizational factors on extending the impact of training programs. PMID:24885800

  7. Influence of Processing Parameters on the Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid phase welding process that unites thermal and mechanical aspects to produce a high quality joint. The process variables are rpm, translational weld speed, and downward plunge force. The strain-temperature history of a metal element at each point on the cross-section of the weld is determined by the individual flow path taken by the particular filament of metal flowing around the tool as influenced by the process variables. The resulting properties of the weld are determined by the strain-temperature history. Thus to control FSW properties, improved understanding of the processing parameters on the metal flow path is necessary.

  8. Peers and the Emergence of Alcohol Use: Influence and Selection Processes in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Ragan, Daniel T.; Wallace, Lacey; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Moody, James

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses not only influence and selection of friends as sources of similarity in alcohol use, but also peer processes leading drinkers to be chosen as friends more often than non-drinkers, which increases the number of adolescents subject to their influence. Analyses apply a stochastic actor-based model to friendship networks assessed five times from 6th through 9th grades for 50 grade cohort networks in Iowa and Pennsylvania, which include 13,214 individuals. Results show definite influence and selection for similarity in alcohol use, as well as reciprocal influences between drinking and frequently being chosen as a friend. These findings suggest that adolescents view alcohol use as an attractive, high status activity and that friendships expose adolescents to opportunities for drinking. PMID:24307830

  9. Influence Of Film And Processing On Film-Screen Image Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, R. S.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes experiments which explore the ways in which variations in film and processing influence noise through their effects on the sensitometric curve shape and silver granularity. These include comparisons of several film types and processing conditions for which total radiographic noise from screen exposures and granularity from light exposures are analyzed relative to the instantaneous gradient at the measured density. It is seen that film granularity may indeed contribute substantially to total noise under conditions of low quantum mottle visualization.

  10. Influence of an electric field on near-surface processes in laser processing of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, S V; Ivanov, A Yu

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that by varying the external electric field with different polarity from 0 to 10{sup 6} V m{sup -1} in the course of laser processing with the mean radiation flux density {approx}10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2} the change in the evolution features of the plasma torch at the surface of some metals (Cu, Al, Sn, Pb) at early stages is quantitative rather than qualitative. At the same time the characteristic size of the target material droplets, carried out from the irradiated zone, becomes essentially (by several times) smaller as the amplitude of the external electric field strength grows, independently of its polarity. (laser technologies)

  11. Influence of process variables on the properties of laccase biobleached pulps.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Miranda, Jesús; García-Fuentevilla, Luisa L; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, Maria E; Diaz, Manuel J; Eugenio, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    A laccase stage can be used as a pre-treatment of a standard chemical bleaching sequence to reduce environmental concerns associated to this process. The importance of each independent variable and its influence on the properties of the bleached pulp have been studied in depth in this work, using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with four independent variables (laccase, buffer, mediator and oxygen) as input. Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp was biobleached using a laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and a natural mediator (acetosyringone). Later, an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide treatment were applied. Most biobleaching processes showed a decrease in kappa number and an increase in brightness with no significant impact on the viscosity values, compared with the control. Oxygen was the variable with the smallest influence on the final pulp properties while the laccase and buffer solution showed a significant influence. PMID:25085529

  12. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Zhengxiang; Ding Tao; Ye Xiaowen; Wang Xiaodong; Ma Bin; Cheng Xinbin; Liu Huasong; Ji Yiqin; Wang Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  13. Leveraging organizational dynamics in buildings to change behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Elizabeth L.

    Buildings may be stationary, but they are not static; they are dynamic and active collectives of agents and actors, and play an important cultural and social role in shaping norms and influencing outcomes in the built environment. This research develops and applies a unique framework that conceptualizes the urban multifamily residential building as an organization, and seeks to use this lens to better understand the role of organizational characteristics in influencing energy efficiency in buildings. This work finds that an organizational analogy is a fruitful approach for understanding buildings, and that buildings in many ways can and do function successfully as organizations. In particular, eight organizational characteristics are explored here that extend well to buildings. These eight organizational characteristics are also explored more deeply to support an argument that some buildings have an organizational advantage that well positions them to undertake energy efficiency initiatives. One organizational characteristic -- the ownership type of the building -- is determined to be particularly important in driving energy outcomes in multifamily buildings in New York City. In particular, it was found that cooperative buildings in the New York City housing market consume less energy citywide than other types of multifamily properties, holding all else equal. Conversely, it was also found that rental buildings tend to consume more energy citywide. Subsequent qualitative case study work in a small Brooklyn cooperative building offers a deeper understanding of organizational decentralization and its role in driving decision-making and outcomes in the building. Additional comparative work in two rental properties -- one high-income and one low-income -- adds additional context and understanding to economic considerations such as the influence of income in overriding centralized efforts to operate the building efficiently. Ultimately, this research develops an analogy

  14. Organizational Readiness for Change and Opinions toward Treatment Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Bret E.; Rieckmann, Traci; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Arfken, Cynthia; Edmundson, Eldon; McCarty, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Program administrators and staff in treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) completed surveys to characterize participating programs and practitioners. A two-level random effects regression model assessed the influence of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) and organizational attributes on opinions toward the use of four evidence-based practices (manualized treatments, medication, integrated mental health services, and motivational incentives) and practices with less empirical support (confrontation and noncompliance discharge). The ORC Scales suggested greater support for evidence-based practices in programs where staff perceived more program need for improvement, better Internet access, higher levels of peer influence, more opportunities for professional growth, a stronger sense of organizational mission and more organizational stress. Support for confrontation and noncompliance discharge, in contrast, was strong when staff saw less opportunity for professional growth, weaker peer influence, less Internet access, and perceived less organizational stress. The analysis provides evidence of the ORC’s utility in assessing agency strengths and needs during the implementation of evidence-based practices. PMID:17434708

  15. Relationship between Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire; 300 questionnaires were distributed and 200 valid questionnaires were returned. To test the reliability of the data, they were analyzed by Cronbach's α and confirmatory factors. Correlation analysis was used on the relationships between organizational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. Results Organizational cultures were significantly (positively) correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly (positively) correlated with job satisfaction. Conclusions The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work. In communicating and promoting the organizational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, thereby enhancing job satisfaction. PMID:21569537

  16. The Influences of Group Processes on Learners' Autonomous Beliefs and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lilian Ya-Hui

    2007-01-01

    This study explores how group processes, such as group cohesiveness and group norms, influence an individual EFL learner's autonomy--their autonomous beliefs and actual autonomous behaviors. Questionnaires were administered to 152 Taiwanese university students from the English Department of a National Science and Technology University in southern…

  17. Factors Influencing Responsiveness to Feedback: On the Interplay between Fear, Confidence, and Reasoning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Kevin W.; Armson, Heather; Holmboe, Eric; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Loney, Elaine; Mann, Karen; Sargeant, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Self-appraisal has repeatedly been shown to be inadequate as a mechanism for performance improvement. This has placed greater emphasis on understanding the processes through which self-perception and external feedback interact to influence professional development. As feedback is inevitably interpreted through the lens of one's self-perceptions it…

  18. Influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Yu, Chaoqun; Meng, Kangkang; Tang, Xing

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray-dried samples of AH, AH/leucine, and AH/leucine/mannitol were prepared from their corresponding water solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and the AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Following spray-drying, the resulting powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, tapped density, and angle of repose measurements, and the aerosolization performance was determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger. AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) obtained by cospray-drying improved the AH aerosolization properties. The AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) preparation exhibited the following properties: 62.34% yield, 0.34 g/cm(3) tap density, 2.71 microm d(ae), 33.45 degrees angle of repose, and 30.93% respirable fraction. The influence of the preparation process on DPI characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:18800258

  19. Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic Leaders' Influence on Subordinate Creative Performance across the Creative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Jeffrey B.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership as a framework, 2 primary research questions were examined. First, when engaging in different tasks along the creative process, does leadership style influence the creative performance of subordinates? Second, how does the level of stress, to which subordinates are…

  20. Past Experience Influences the Processing of Stimulus Compounds in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchers, Klaus G.; Lachnit, Harold; Shanks, David R.

    2004-01-01

    In two human skin conductance conditioning experiments we investigated whether processing of stimulus compounds can be influenced by past experience. Participants were either pre-trained with a discrimination problem that could be solved elementally (A+, B-, AB+, C- in Experiment 1 and A+, AB+, C-, CB- in Experiment 2) or one that required a…

  1. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  2. Augmented Word-Processing: The Influence of Task Characteristics and Mode of Production on Writers' Cognitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, M.; And Others

    To characterize the influence of various constraints on students' composing processes, a study investigated the (1) type of instructions students received prior to their composing and revising sessions, (2) mode of production--whether a computer or paper and pencil was used for composition and revision, and (3) effect of skill level on students'…

  3. Response to Hewes's "The Influence of Communication Processes on Group Outcomes: Antithesis and Thesis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Professor Hewes's "The Influence of Communication Processes on Group Outcomes: Antithesis and Thesis." The author believes that Hewes could have been more helpful to the reader and to those who are apt to find inspiration in the steps he has taken in his essay to promote a "return to basic theorizing…

  4. The Influence of Emotional Words on Sentence Processing: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Fernandez, Anabel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Casado, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives…

  5. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  6. Part-of-Speech Persistence: The Influence of Part-of-Speech Information on Lexical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinger, Alissa; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents three naming experiments designed to investigate whether the activation levels of syntactic features associated with lexical items, specifically part-of-speech information, can influence lexical processes. Naming preferences for orthographically ambiguous but phonologically distinct English nouns and verbs, such as "convict"…

  7. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  8. Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

  9. Replication and Extension of Social Influence Processes in Counseling: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamostny, Kathy P.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Subjected Strong's theory of counseling as a social influence process to further validation using a correlational field study and college students. Factor analysis of both preintake preferences for counselor attributes and postintake perceptions of actual counselors resulted in extraction of three factors corresponding to expertness,…

  10. A Computer Program to Assist Counseling Trainees in Understanding Interpersonal Influence Processes in Their Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W.

    This paper describes a computer program based on the premise that successful counseling can be viewed as an interpersonal influence process composed of three basic features: sequentiality, flexibility, and constraint. An introduction to the INTERACT program explains how the program analyzes counselor/client and client/counselor transitions or…

  11. The influence of thermal deformation processes on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapov, Yu D.; Dyakov, V. A.; Grechin, S. G.; Kasyanov, I. V.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the thermal deformation process on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal is considered. The different temperature bandwidths at the harmonic generation of YAG:Nd laser radiation were obtained experimentally three times at different types of crystal fixation.

  12. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  13. Influence of material quality and process-induced defects on semiconductor device performance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Mckee, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of major causes of device yield degradation is presented. The relationships of device types to critical processes and typical defects are discussed, and the influence of the defect on device yield and performance is demonstrated. Various defect characterization techniques are described and applied. A correlation of device failure, defect type, and cause of defect is presented in tabular form with accompanying illustrations.

  14. Teaching Methods Influencing the Sustainability of the Teaching Process in Technology Education in General Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soobik, Mart

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of technology education is related to a traditional understanding of craft and the methods used to teach it; however, the methods used in the teaching process have been influenced by the innovative changes accompanying the development of technology. In respect to social and economic development, it is important to prepare young…

  15. The Influence of Semantic Processing on Phonological Decisions in Children and Adults: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the behavioral effects and neural activation patterns associated with implicit semantic processing influences on phonological judgments during reading in children and adults. Method: Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 2 groups, children (9-13 years) and adults, performing a homophone judgment…

  16. Stakeholders' Perception of Who Influences the Decision-Making Processes in Ontario's Public Postsecondary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Billroy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on stakeholders' perception of who influences the decision-making processes in Ontario's public postsecondary education institutions. The study identified and interviewed representatives of those stakeholder groups that are frequently written about as the main forces behind decision making in…

  17. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  18. Influence of barley variety and malting process on lipid content of malt.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. The concentration and the quality of lipids in beer depend on their composition in the raw materials and on the brewing process and they may exert considerable influence on beer quality. This paper presents an investigation of the influence of barley variety and malting process on the lipid content of finished malt. Five barley samples, grown in Italy, representing 4 spring barley and 1 winter barley were used. The samples were micro-malted and analysed. The aim of this research was to verify the influence of different barley varieties on the lipid content of malt and also on the changes in fatty acid (FA) profile during the malting process. Lipid content and FA profile were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish relationships between the different samples. An evaluation of the correlation between lipid content of barleys and the quality of the resulting malts was also conducted. The data showed that the total lipid content during the malting process decreased significantly as barley was converted into malt. Different barley varieties present different FA contents and different FA patterns. The correlation between the lipid content of barley and the quality of the resulting malt confirmed the negative influence of lipids. PMID:22953832

  19. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visual color is a primary factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in-situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. We used 24 genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) to investigate the effect of pigment and copigme...

  20. The Influence of Reward Associations on Conflict Processing in the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2010-01-01

    Performance in a behavioral task can be facilitated by associating stimulus properties with reward. In contrast, conflicting information is known to impede task performance. Here we investigated how reward associations influence the within-trial processing of conflicting information using a color-naming Stroop task in which a subset of ink colors…

  1. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  2. Operations Technology and Organizational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piernot, Craig A.; Mileti, Dennis S.

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature relating operations technology to organizational structure and offers a refined definition of operations technology that is intended to facilitate the comparison of different organizational types. The authors present a theoretical model that imposes consistency on the existing literature and…

  3. Organizational Change as Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Hasan; Louis, Karen Seashore

    1994-01-01

    A model of organizational change is applied to long-term planning at the University of Minnesota. Results suggest that, although planning began in the 1970s, the 1980s saw a model change that increased centralization in strategic orientation and a reduction in size and programs. Implications for organizational research are examined. (Author/MSE)

  4. Organizational Learning in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Ali

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make suggestions for primary schools to become organizational learning environments, by searching the relationship between the characteristics and behaviors of school administrators and the formation of an organizational learning environment in primary schools. The author used a survey model in this research and…

  5. The Effect of Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    Problem of Study: Research on social exchange relationships does not take into account another vital component of organizational life--namely an individual's sense of belonging and identity. Organizational identification is one of the most crucial factors holding employees together and keeping them committed to the organization. Many studies…

  6. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  7. The Nature of Organizational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Belinda K.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Examines the role organizational politics play in student affairs. Sees background knowledge of politics as a concept critical to understanding idiosyncratic nature of any organization. Notes that both organizational conditions and individual behavior contribute to organization's political climate. Concludes that professionals who fail to…

  8. Implied Spatial Meaning and Visuospatial Bias: Conceptual Processing Influences Processing of Visual Targets and Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Gozli, Davood G.; Pratt, Jay; Martin, K. Zoë; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Concepts with implicit spatial meaning (e.g., "hat", "boots") can bias visual attention in space. This result is typically found in experiments with a single visual target per trial, which can appear at one of two locations (e.g., above vs. below). Furthermore, the interaction is typically found in the form of speeded responses to targets appearing at the compatible location (e.g., faster responses to a target above fixation, after reading "hat"). It has been argued that these concept-space interactions could also result from experimentally-induced associations between the binary set of locations and the conceptual categories with upward and downward meaning. Thus, rather than reflecting a conceptually driven spatial bias, the effect could reflect a benefit for compatible cue-target sequences that occurs only after target onset. We addressed these concerns by going beyond a binary set of locations and employing a search display consisting of four items (above, below, left, and right). Within each search trial, before performing a visual search task, participants performed a conceptual task involving concepts with implicit upward or downward meaning. The search display, in addition to including a target, could also include a salient distractor. Assuming a conceptually driven visual bias, we expected to observe, first, a benefit for target processing at the compatible location and, second, an increase in the cost of the salient distractor. The findings confirmed both predictions, suggesting that concepts do indeed generate a spatial bias. Finally, results from a control experiment, without the conceptual task, suggest the presence of an axis-specific effect, in addition to the location-specific effect, suggesting that concepts might cause both location-specific and axis-specific spatial bias. Taken together, our findings provide additional support for the involvement of spatial processing in conceptual understanding. PMID:26953570

  9. Implied Spatial Meaning and Visuospatial Bias: Conceptual Processing Influences Processing of Visual Targets and Distractors.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Pratt, Jay; Martin, K Zoë; Chasteen, Alison L

    2016-01-01

    Concepts with implicit spatial meaning (e.g., "hat", "boots") can bias visual attention in space. This result is typically found in experiments with a single visual target per trial, which can appear at one of two locations (e.g., above vs. below). Furthermore, the interaction is typically found in the form of speeded responses to targets appearing at the compatible location (e.g., faster responses to a target above fixation, after reading "hat"). It has been argued that these concept-space interactions could also result from experimentally-induced associations between the binary set of locations and the conceptual categories with upward and downward meaning. Thus, rather than reflecting a conceptually driven spatial bias, the effect could reflect a benefit for compatible cue-target sequences that occurs only after target onset. We addressed these concerns by going beyond a binary set of locations and employing a search display consisting of four items (above, below, left, and right). Within each search trial, before performing a visual search task, participants performed a conceptual task involving concepts with implicit upward or downward meaning. The search display, in addition to including a target, could also include a salient distractor. Assuming a conceptually driven visual bias, we expected to observe, first, a benefit for target processing at the compatible location and, second, an increase in the cost of the salient distractor. The findings confirmed both predictions, suggesting that concepts do indeed generate a spatial bias. Finally, results from a control experiment, without the conceptual task, suggest the presence of an axis-specific effect, in addition to the location-specific effect, suggesting that concepts might cause both location-specific and axis-specific spatial bias. Taken together, our findings provide additional support for the involvement of spatial processing in conceptual understanding. PMID:26953570

  10. Longitudinal Examination of Mentoring Relationships on Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Stewart I.; Ensher, Ellen A.; Grant-Vallone, Elisa J.

    2000-01-01

    A 6-month study of 157 workers being mentored found that proteges with high-quality mentoring relationships had higher levels of organizational commitment over time. Relationship quality also influenced levels of self-reported organizational citizenship behavior (helping co-workers, volunteering beyond job duties). However, such behavior was not…

  11. An Inquiry into the Foundations of Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jorgen A.; Rasmussen, Ole E.

    2004-01-01

    People's mental models are viewed as being significant in achieving organizational outcomes, on the assumption that mental models influence people's acts. A fundamental issue in the area of organizational learning, then, is the relation between mental models, learning and performance. We contend that a fruitful line of work is to study persons as…

  12. Managing the Organizational Vision, Mission, and Planning: Five Steps toward a Successful Leadership Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Frederick A.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of academic and business leaders often sets a pattern for all activities to follow. Organizational objectives, tasks, performance, and uses of resources are needed to obtain and reach current and future society trends influencing organizational goals. This paper identifies 5 steps leaders need to create a systems approach toward…

  13. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  14. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  15. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  16. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception. PMID:20693338

  17. The Development of Verbal and Visual Working Memory Processes: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…

  18. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  19. Toward meaningful evaluation of medical trainees: the influence of participants' perceptions of the process.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-05-01

    An essential goal of evaluation is to foster learning. Across the medical education spectrum, evaluation of clinical performance is dominated by subjective feedback to learners based on observation by expert supervisors. Research in non-medical settings has suggested that participants' perceptions of evaluation processes exert considerable influence over whether the feedback they receive actually facilitates learning, but similar research on perceptions of feedback in the medical setting has been limited. In this review, we examine the literature on recipient perceptions of feedback and how those perceptions influence the contribution that feedback makes to their learning. A focused exploration of relevant work on this subject in higher education and industrial psychology settings is followed by a detailed examination of available research on perceptions of evaluation processes in medical settings, encompassing both trainee and evaluator perspectives. We conclude that recipients' and evaluators' perceptions of an evaluation process profoundly affect the usefulness of the evaluation and the extent to which it achieves its goals. Attempts to improve evaluation processes cannot, therefore, be limited to assessment tool modification driven by reliability and validity concerns, but must also take account of the critical issue of feedback reception and the factors that influence it. Given the unique context of clinical performance evaluation in medicine, a research agenda is required that seeks to more fully understand the complexity of the processes of giving, receiving, interpreting, and using feedback as a basis for real progress toward meaningful evaluation. PMID:20143260

  20. CFD-based simulation of operational point influences on product changing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöke, L.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the means of production, saving resources is becoming more and more a priority optimizing plastics extrusion processes. The analysis of color and material changes has become very interesting to prevent unnecessary material loss. This interest is justified especially due to increasing numbers of changing processes as a reaction of more individual product specifications and thus decreasing lot sizes in the last decades. It can be shown that commercial numerical tools are capable of plausible calculations of changing processes, enabling process observations and giving the possibility of predicting different influences. Due to the highly dynamical character of the flow behavior in the control volume, a transient approach is necessary to show the effects of different operational points on product changes. To determine the progress of the product change the volume of fluid model (VOF) as multiphase approach is used. The analysis of influences from operational points on the changing process is achieved by separate observations of two important input parameters. On one hand the effects of varied mass flow rates as inlet boundary conditions and on the other hand different mass temperatures are observed. To check the plausibility of the calculation method the results are discussed referring to exemplary experimental data in qualitative comparison. The experimental data is obtained using special laboratory equipment neglecting influences from the extruder and taking only the die as control volume into consideration.