Science.gov

Sample records for oriented wavefront sensor

  1. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: reply.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-11-10

    We appreciate the thoughtful comments by Kellerer [Appl. Opt.53, 7643 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.007643] to our recent study [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685] in which we evaluate the practicability of a layer-oriented wavefront sensing approach suggested for use in solar multiconjugate adaptive optics. After careful review of Kellerer's comment, we remain cautious about the feasibility of a solar-layer-oriented Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, we strongly encourage further analysis and proof-of-concept work that addresses the difficulties outlined in our original paper and that demonstrates the operating principles behind such an instrument. PMID:25402985

  2. Custom-oriented wavefront sensor for human eye properties measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskiy, Sergey; Letfullin, Renat; Dubinin, Alex; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis

    2005-12-01

    The problem of correct measurement of human eye aberrations is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). In this paper we show capabilities to measure aberrations by means of the aberrometer built in our lab together with Active Optics Ltd. We discuss the calibration of the aberrometer and show invalidity to use for the ophthalmic calibration purposes the analytical equation based on thin lens formula. We show that proper analytical equation suitable for calibration should have dependence on the square of the distance increment and we illustrate this both by experiment and by Zemax Ray tracing modeling. Also the error caused by inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the beam imaged onto the aberrometer's Shack-Hartmann sensor is discussed.

  3. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

  4. Wavefront reconstruction using smartphone based wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-11-01

    Smartphone camera system has the capability of being integrated into powerful field-sensing tools, capturing data and sharing these data with computing servers or cloud experts. The purpose of this work is to implement a wavefront sensor based on the smartphone platform, which has many potential applications in thin-films and bio-related sensing areas. To overcome problems caused by traditional wavefront curvature sensing setups, distorted micro-gratings are designed and introduced into the system in the dual role of both beam splitter and defocuser. The new design is capable of capturing two images of different levels of defocus in a single shot, which are then used as the input data to reconstruct the wavefront. Through testing with generated known spherical wavefronts, the smartphone based wavefront sensor has demonstrated decent system resolution and wavefront sensing accuracy.

  5. Wavefront image sensor chip.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J; Yang, Changhuei

    2010-08-01

    We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 microm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059

  6. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Alford, W. J.; Gruetzner, James K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed.

  7. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  8. Wavefront modifier with integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Mike; Laycock, Leslie; Rowe, Duncan; Cairns, Lee

    2009-09-01

    We present a novel method for integrating a wavefront sensor into a deformable mirror. This development should simplify the design of laser and electro-optic systems, and lead to smart mirrors which need no external control systems. In operation, a small fraction of the incident light is transmitted through the mirror coating and is sampled by a Hartmann Mask. Options include open loop, traditional closed loop or fully integrated operation whereby the wavefront sensor is used to provide direct feedback to the mirror actuators, enabling automatic alignment or phase conjugation.

  9. Broadband, Common-path, Interferometric Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James Kent (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid sensors comprising Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (S-HWFS) and Zernike Wavefront Sensor (Z-WFS) capabilities are presented. The hybrid sensor includes a Z-WFS optically arranged in-line with a S-HWFS such that the combined wavefront sensor operates across a wide dynamic range and noise conditions. The Z-WFS may include the ability to introduce a dynamic phase shift in both transmissive and reflective modes.

  10. Wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector matching in adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Dubra, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Matching wavefront correctors and wavefront sensors by minimizing the condition number and mean wavefront variance is proposed. The particular cases of two continuous-sheet deformable mirrors and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with square packing geometry are studied in the presence of photon noise, background noise and electronics noise. Optimal number of lenslets across each actuator are obtained for both deformable mirrors, and a simple experimental procedure for optimal alignment is described. The results show that high-performance adaptive optics can be achieved even with low cost off-the-shelf Shack-Hartmann arrays with lenslet spacing that do not necessarily match those of the wavefront correcting elements. PMID:19532513

  11. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-25

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  12. x-y curvature wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J

    2015-04-15

    In this Letter, we propose a new curvature wavefront sensor based on the principles of optical differentiation. The theoretically modeled setup consists of a diffractive optical mask placed at the intermediate plane of a classical two-lens coherent optical processor. The resulting image is composed of a number of local derivatives of the entrance pupil function whose proper combination provides the wavefront curvature. In contrast to the common radial curvature sensors, this one is able to provide the x and y wavefront curvature maps simultaneously. The sensor offers other additional advantages like having high spatial resolution, adjustable dynamic range, and not being sensitive to misalignment. PMID:25872040

  13. Scalable analog wavefront sensor with subpixel resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Standard Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors use a CCD element to sample position and distortion of a target or guide star. Digital sampling of the element and transfer to a memory space for subsequent computation adds significant temporal delay, thus, limiting the spatial frequency and scalability of the system as a wavefront sensor. A new approach to sampling uses information processing principles in an insect compound eye. Analog circuitry eliminates digital sampling and extends the useful range of the system to control a deformable mirror and make a faster, more capable wavefront sensor.

  14. Generalised optical differentiation wavefront sensor: a sensitive high dynamic range wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Haffert, S Y

    2016-08-22

    Current wavefront sensors for high resolution imaging have either a large dynamic range or a high sensitivity. A new kind of wavefront sensor is developed which can have both: the Generalised Optical Differentiation wavefront sensor. This new wavefront sensor is based on the principles of optical differentiation by amplitude filters. We have extended the theory behind linear optical differentiation and generalised it to nonlinear filters. We used numerical simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the properties of the generalised wavefront sensor. With this we created a new filter that can decouple the dynamic range from the sensitivity. These properties make it suitable for adaptive optic systems where a large range of phase aberrations have to be measured with high precision. PMID:27557179

  15. Curvature sensor for ocular wavefront measurement.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio O

    2006-08-01

    We describe a new wavefront sensor for ocular aberration determination, based on the curvature sensing principle, which adapts the classical system used in astronomy for the living eye's measurements. The actual experimental setup is presented and designed following a process guided by computer simulations to adjust the design parameters for optimal performance. We present results for artificial and real young eyes, compared with the Hartmann-Shack estimations. Both methods show a similar performance for these cases. This system will allow for the measurement of higher order aberrations than the currently used wavefront sensors in situations in which they are supposed to be significant, such as postsurgery eyes. PMID:16832447

  16. 2D Wavefront Sensor Analysis and Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-02-19

    This software is designed for data acquisition and analysis of two dimensional wavefront sensors. The software includes data acquisition and control functions for an EPIX frame grabber to acquire data from a computer and all the appropriate analysis functions necessary to produce and display intensity and phase information. This software is written in Visual Basic for windows.

  17. Specialized wavefront sensors for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Mansell, J.D.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive optical system is strongly dependent upon correctly measuring the wavefront of the arriving light. The most common wavefront measurement techniques used to date are the shearing interferometer and the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Shack-Hartmann sensors rely on the use of lenslet arrays to sample the aperture appropriately. These have traditionally been constructed using ULM or step and repeat technology, and more recently with binary optics technology. Diffractive optics fabrication methodology can be used to remove some of the limitations of the previous technologies and can allow for low-cost production of sophisticated elements. We have investigated several different specialized wavefront sensor configurations using both Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer principles. We have taken advantage of the arbitrary nature of these elements to match pupil shapes of detector and telescope aperture and to introduce magnification between the lenslet array and the detector. We have fabricated elements that facilitate matching the sampling to the current atmospheric conditions. The sensors were designed using a far-field diffraction model and a photolithography layout program. They were fabricated using photolithography and RIE etching. Several different designs will be presented with some experimental results from a small-scale adaptive optics brass-board.

  18. LINC-NIRVANA: mechanical challanges of the MCAO wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soci, Roberto; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Herbst, Thomas M.; Farinato, Jacopo; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Harald; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Xu, Wenli; Andersen, David R.; Egner, Sebastian E.; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lombini, Matteo; Ebert, Monica; Boehm, Armin; Muench, Norbert; Xompero, Marco

    2004-10-01

    Several multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems using the layer-oriented approach are under construction and will soon be tested at different facilities in several instruments. One of these instruments is LINC-NIRVANA, a Fizeau interferometer for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). This instrument uses a ground layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a combined mid-high layer wavefront sensor (MHWS) with different fields of view (concept of multiple field of view), a 2-6 arcmin annular ring for the GWS and a 2 arcmin diameter central field of view for the MHWS. Both sensors are Pyramid wavefront sensors which optically co-add light from multiple natural guide stars. The opto-mechanical problems concerning these sensors are related to the fast focal ratio of the beam on the pyramids coupled with the available pixelscale of detectors. This leads to very tight requirements on the moving systems (linear stages) for the star enlargers (SE) used to pick off the light of individual stars. As there are 40 star enlargers in the overall system, additional efforts were put into the alignment system of the optics of the star enlargers and the reduction in size of the star enlargers to minimize the distance between available guide stars.

  19. Extended scene wavefront sensor for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomer, Thierry; Ravel, Karen; Corlay, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The spatial resolution of optical monitoring satellites increases continuously and it is more and more difficult to satisfy the stability constraints of the instrument. The compactness requirements induce high sensitivity to drift during storage and launching. The implementation of an active loop for the control of the performances for the telescope becomes essential, in the same way of astronomy telescopes on ground. The active loop requires disposing of informations in real time of optical distortions of the wavefront, due to mirror deformations. It is the role of the Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor studied by Sodern. It is located in the focal plane of the telescope, in edge of field of view, in order not to disturb acquisition by the main instrument. Its particular characteristic, compared to a traditional wavefront sensor is not only to work on point source as star image, but also on extended scenes, as those observed by the instrument. The exit pupil of the telescope is imaged on a micro lenses array by a relay optics. Each element of the micro lenses array generates a small image, drifted by the local wavefront slope. The processing by correlation between small images allows to measure local slope and to recover the initial wavefront deformation according to Zernike decomposition. Sodern has realized the sensor dimensioning and has studied out the comparison of various algorithms of images correlation making it possible to measure the local slopes of the wave front. Simulations, taking into account several types of detectors, enabled to compare the performances of these solutions and a choice of detector was carried out. This article describes the state of progress of the work done so far. It shows the result of the comparisons on the choice of the detector, the main features of the sensor definition and the performances obtained.

  20. A Wavefront Sensor to Detect Dim Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, M.; Guyon, O.; Hart, M.; Codona, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present the progress made towards building the non-linear Curvature wavefront sensor (nlCWFS) to be used in an adaptive optics system for the direct imaging of exoplanets without the use of a laser guide star (LGS). Commonly used wavefront sensors such as the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) do a good job of reconstructing high order modes but due to design limitations are poor at reconstructing low order modes. The nlCWFS is able to use the full spatial coherence of the pupil allowing it to reconstruct all spatial frequencies equally well. The nlCWFS senses at the diffraction limit as opposed to the SHWFS which senses at the seeing limit. This awards the nlCWFS a gain in flux of (D/r0)2. In this paper we present results from putting the nlCWFS on the 6.5m MMT Observatory and detail the progress being made to build the nlCWFS for the 1.5 m Air Force Research Laboratory/RDS Optics Division telescope.

  1. Improvements to the modal holographic wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanpeng; Lambert, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The Zernike coefficients of a light wavefront can be calculated directly by intensity ratios of pairs of spots in the reconstructed image plane of a holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). However, the response curve of the HWFS heavily depends on the position and size of the detector for each spot and the distortions introduced by other aberrations. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the intensity of each spot by setting a threshold to select effective pixels and using the weighted average intensity within a selected window. Compared with using the integral intensity over a small window for each spot, we show through a numerical simulation that the proposed method reduces the dependency of the HWFS's response curve on the selection of the detector window. We also recorded a HWFS on a holographic plate using a blue laser and demonstrated its capability to detect the strength of encoded Zernike terms in an aberrated beam. PMID:27140379

  2. A multi-tiered wavefront sensor using binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Smith, T.G.; Rosenthal, R.R.; McKechnie, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Wavefront sensors have been used to make measurements in fluid- dynamics and for closed loop control of adaptive optics. In most common Shack-Hartmann wavefront wavefront sensors, the light is broken up into series of rectangular or hexagonal apertures that divide the light into a series of focal spots. The position of these focal spots is used to determine the wavefront slopes over each subaperture. Using binary optics technology, we have developed a hierarchical or fractal wavefront sensor that divides the subapertures up on a more optimal fashion. We have demonstrated this concept for up to four tiers and developed the wavefront reconstruction methods for both segmented adaptive optics and continous wavefront measurement.

  3. Detecting higher-order wavefront errors with an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Shane

    2009-06-01

    The reconstruction of wavefront errors from measurements over subapertures can be made more accurate if a fully characterized quadratic surface can be fitted to the local wavefront surface. An astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor with added neural network postprocessing is shown to have this capability, provided that the focal image of each subaperture is sufficiently sampled. Furthermore, complete local curvature information is obtained with a single image without splitting beam power. PMID:19488150

  4. Pyramidal Wavefront Sensor Demonstrator at INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Anctil, Geneviève; Bourqui, Pascal; Châteauneuf, François; Gauvin, Jonny; Goyette, Philippe; Lagacé, François; Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min

    2014-08-01

    Wavefront sensing is one of the key elements of an Adaptive Optics System. Although Shack-Hartmann WFS are the most commonly used whether for astronomical or biomedical applications, the high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range of the Pyramid-WFS (P-WFS) technology is promising and needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) applications. At INO, center for applied research in optics and technology transfer in Quebec City, Canada, we have recently set to develop a Pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS), an option for which no other research group in Canada had any experience. A first version had been built and tested in 2013 in collaboration with NRC-HIA Victoria. Here we present a second iteration of demonstrator with an extended spectral range, fast modulation capability and low-noise, fast-acquisition EMCCD sensor. The system has been designed with compactness and robustness in mind to allow on-sky testing at Mont Mégantic facility, in parallel with a Shack- Hartmann sensor so as to compare both options.

  5. Bottlenecks of the wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect.

    PubMed

    Podanchuk, Dmytro; Kovalenko, Andrey; Kurashov, Vitalij; Kotov, Myhaylo; Goloborodko, Andrey; Danko, Volodymyr

    2014-04-01

    Physical constraints and peculiarities of the wavefront sensing technique, based on the Talbot effect, are discussed. The limitation on the curvature of the measurable wavefront is derived. The requirements to the Fourier spectrum of the periodic mask are formulated. Two kinds of masks are studied for their performance in the wavefront sensor. It is shown that the boundary part of the mask aperture does not contribute to the initial data for wavefront restoration. It is verified by experiment and computer simulation that the performance of the Talbot sensor, which meets established conditions, is similar to that of the Shack-Hartmann sensor. PMID:24787208

  6. Pyramid wavefront sensor for image quality evaluation of optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhendong

    2015-08-01

    When the pyramid wavefront sensor is used to evaluate the imaging quality, placed at the focal plane of the aberrated optical system e.g., a telescope, it splits the light into four beams. Four images of the pupil are created on the detector and the detection signals of the pyramid wavefront sensor are calculated with these four intensity patterns, providing information on the derivatives of the aberrated wavefront. Based on the theory of the pyramid wavefront sensor, we are going to develop simulation software and a wavefront detector which can be used to test the imaging quality of the telescope. In our system, the subpupil image intensity through the pyramid sensor is calculated to obtain the aberration of wavefront where the piston, tilt, defocus, spherical, coma, astigmatism and other high level aberrations are separately represented by Zernike polynomials. The imaging quality of the optical system is then evaluated by the subsequent wavefront reconstruction. The performance of our system is to be checked by comparing with the measurements carried out using Puntino wavefront instrument (the method of SH wavefront sensor). Within this framework, the measurement precision of pyramid sensor will be discussed as well through detailed experiments. In general, this project would be very helpful both in our understanding of the principle of the wavefront reconstruction and its future technical applications. So far, we have produced the pyramid and established the laboratory setup of the image quality detecting system based on this wavefront sensor. Preliminary results are obtained, in that we have obtained the intensity images of the four pupils. Additional work is needed to analyze the characteristics of the pyramid wavefront sensor.

  7. The NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor for ERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Antichi, J.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.; Carbonaro, L.; Agapito, G.; Biliotti, V.; Briguglio, R.; Di Rico, G.; Dolci, M.; Ferruzzi, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Marchetti, E.; Fedrigo, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Amico, P.; Hubin, N.

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is the new Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for VLT in construction at ESO with the collaboration of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, ETH-Institute for Astronomy and INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. The ERIS AO system relies on a 40×40 sub-aperture Pyramid Wavefront Sensor (PWFS) for two operating modes: a pure Natural Guide Star high-order sensing for high Strehl and contrast correction and a low-order visible sensing in support of the Laser Guide Star AO mode. In this paper we present in detail the preliminary design of the ERIS PWFS that is developed under the responsibility of INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in collaboration with ESO.

  8. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  9. Hybrid curvature and modal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shihao; Haist, Tobias; Dietrich, Tom; Osten, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    The crosstalk effect considerably limits the capability of holography-based modal wavefront sensing (HMWS) when measuring wavefronts with large aberrations. In this contribution, we introduce a curvature-based measurement technique into HMWS to extend the dynamic range and the sensitivity of HMWS via a compact holographic design. If the input aberrations are large, the dominating aberration modes are first detected via curvature sensing and compensated using a wavefront correcting device, e.g. a membrane mirror. The system then switches to HMWS to obtain better sensitivity and accuracy with reduced aberrations. Different approaches for the reconstruction of the wavefront have been tested and extensive simulations for different aberrations have been analyzed.

  10. Adaptive wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V.; Kurashov, Vitaliy N.; Kovalenko, Andrey V.; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P.; Kotov, Myhailo M.; Goloborodko, Nataliya S.

    2015-11-01

    The possibilities of wavefront curvature measuring by Talbot sensor are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A new method of wavefront aberrations measurement is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on the observation of the Talbot effect when the diffraction grating is adapted to the wavefront curvature of the analyzed wave. Herewith, the observation plane stay fixed and corresponds to the Talbot length for a plane wave. It is shown that the measurement range can be made several times wider, with the help of the adaptive Talbot sensor, by retaining the required angular sensitivity. A possibility of self-reproduction of the rectangular grating (with different periods along the axes) by the astigmatic wavefront is experimentally demonstrated. The possibility of the experimental realization of the adaptive Talbot sensor using the dynamic spatial light modulator is demonstrated.

  11. High frame-rate, large field wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Avicola, K.; Salmon, J.T.; Brase, J.; Waltjen, K.; Presta, R. ); Balch, K.S. )

    1992-03-01

    A two-stage intensified 192 {times} 239 pixel imager developed by Eastman Kodak for motion analysis was used to construct a 1 kHz frame-rate Hartmann wavefront sensor. The sensor uses a monolithic array of lenslets with a focal length that is adjusted by an index fluid between the convex surface and an optical flat. The accuracy of the calculated centroid position, which is related to wavefront measurement accuracy, was obtained as a function of spot power and spot size. The sensor was then dynamically tested at a 1 kHz frame-rate with a 9 {times} 9 lenslet array and a fast steering mirror, which swept a plane wavefront across the wavefront sensor. An 8 cm diameter subaperture will provide a return signal (589 nm) level of about 1000 photons/ms using the AVLIS 1 kW laser (stretched pulse) as guide star source, which is sufficient to yield a wavefront measurement of better than {gamma}/10 rms. If an area of 6 {times} 6 pixels per Hartmann spot were allocated, this wavefront sensor could support a 32 {times} 32, or 1024, element deformable mirror.

  12. Optical differentiation wavefront sensor based on binary pixelated transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J.; Travinsky, A.; Ding, G.; Dorrer, C.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution wavefront sensors are used in a wide range of applications. The Shack-Hartmann sensor is the industry standard and mostly used for this kind of analysis. However, with this sensor the analysis can only be performed for narrowband radiation, the recoverable curvature of the wavefront slopes is also restricted by the size of a single lens in the microlens array. The high-resolution Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (>128×128) is also significantly expensive. The optical differentiation wavefront sensor, on the other hand, consists of only simple and therefore inexpensive components, offers greater signal to noise ratio, allows for high-resolution analysis of wavefront curvature, and is potentially capable of performing broadband measurements. When a transmission mask with linear attenuation along a spatial direction modulates the far field of an optical wave, the spatial wavefront slope along that direction can be recovered from the fluence in the near field after modulation. With two orthogonal measurements one can recover the complete wavefront of the optical wave. In this study the characteristics of such a wavefront sensor are investigated when the linear transmission modulation is implemented with a pixelated binary filter. Such a filter can be produced as a gray-scale quasi-continuous transmission pattern constructed using arrays of small (e.g., 10-micron) transparent or opaque pixels and therefore it can simply be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Simulations demonstrate the potential ability of such a pixelated filter to match the performance of a filter with continuously varying transmission, while offering the advantage of better transmission control and reduction of fabrication costs.

  13. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.

    1996-02-20

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.

  14. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Michie, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.

  15. Response analysis of holography-based modal wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shihao; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang; Ruppel, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2012-03-20

    The crosstalk problem of holography-based modal wavefront sensing (HMWS) becomes more severe with increasing aberration. In this paper, crosstalk effects on the sensor response are analyzed statistically for typical aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. For specific turbulence strength, we optimized the sensor by adjusting the detector radius and the encoded phase bias for each Zernike mode. Calibrated response curves of low-order Zernike modes were further utilized to improve the sensor accuracy. The simulation results validated our strategy. The number of iterations for obtaining a residual RMS wavefront error of 0.1λ is reduced from 18 to 3. PMID:22441478

  16. Ophthalmic Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Applications - Oral Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most common applications of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is to measure the human eye. There are a number of instruments that have been designed for this purpose and are used extensively in laser refractive surgery. While conceptually the sensor is similar to those used for astronomy applications, there are key differences adaptive optic and measurement sensors. These sensors have led to a range of applications and diagnostics that are providing key new information about how the eye functions.

  17. Comparison of wavefront sensor models for simulation of adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwen; Enmark, Anita; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Andersen, Torben

    2009-10-26

    The new generation of extremely large telescopes will have adaptive optics. Due to the complexity and cost of such systems, it is important to simulate their performance before construction. Most systems planned will have Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Different mathematical models are available for simulation of such wavefront sensors. The choice of wavefront sensor model strongly influences computation time and simulation accuracy. We have studied the influence of three wavefront sensor models on performance calculations for a generic, adaptive optics (AO) system designed for K-band operation of a 42 m telescope. The performance of this AO system has been investigated both for reduced wavelengths and for reduced r(0) in the K band. The telescope AO system was designed for K-band operation, that is both the subaperture size and the actuator pitch were matched to a fixed value of r(0) in the K-band. We find that under certain conditions, such as investigating limiting guide star magnitude for large Strehl-ratios, a full model based on Fraunhofer propagation to the subimages is significantly more accurate. It does however require long computation times. The shortcomings of simpler models based on either direct use of average wavefront tilt over the subapertures for actuator control, or use of the average tilt to move a precalculated point spread function in the subimages are most pronounced for studies of system limitations to operating parameter variations. In the long run, efficient parallelization techniques may be developed to overcome the problem. PMID:19997286

  18. Miniaturized Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for starbugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Michael; Richards, Samuel; Zheng, Jessica; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander; Alcalde, Belen

    2014-07-01

    The ability to position multiple miniaturized wavefront sensors precisely over large focal surfaces are advantageous to multi-object adaptive optics. The Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) has prototyped a compact and lightweight Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor that fits into a standard Starbug parallel fibre positioning robot. Each device makes use of a polymer coherent fibre imaging bundle to relay an image produced by a microlens array placed at the telescope focal plane to a re-imaging camera mounted elsewhere. The advantages of the polymer fibre bundle are its high-fill factor, high-throughput, low weight, and relatively low cost. Multiple devices can also be multiplexed to a single lownoise camera for cost efficiencies per wavefront sensor. The use of fibre bundles also opens the possibility of applications such as telescope field acquisition, guiding, and seeing monitors to be positioned by Starbugs. We present the design aspects, simulations and laboratory test results.

  19. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with adaptive holographic lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V.; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P.; Goloborodko, Andrey A.; Sutyagina, Natalia S.

    2009-10-01

    The method of the dynamic range expansion of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is discussed. It's based on the use of nonlinear dual focus holographic lenslet arrays with the aberration precompensation. The data concerning the optical setup and the technique of adaptive lenslet array producing based on nonlinear holographic recording phenomenon are represented. On the example of spherical wavefronts it is shown, that the use of three lenslet arrays with different amount of the aberration precompensation allows expanding approximately in five times the dynamic range of the sensor four times greater with preserving the specified sensitivity in comparison with the corresponding refractive lenslet array.

  20. Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tiedtke, Kai; Mey, Tobias; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Different types of Hartmann wavefront sensors are presented which are usable for a variety of applications in the soft X-ray spectral region at FLASH, the free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg. As a typical application, online measurements of photon beam parameters during mirror alignment are reported on. A compact Hartmann sensor, operating in the wavelength range from 4 to 38 nm, was used to determine the wavefront quality as well as aberrations of individual FEL pulses during the alignment procedure. Beam characterization and alignment of the focusing optics of the FLASH beamline BL3 were performed with λ(13.5 nm)/116 accuracy for wavefront r.m.s. (w(rms)) repeatability, resulting in a reduction of w(rms) by 33% during alignment. PMID:26698044

  1. Phase unwrapping with a virtual Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Akondi, Vyas; Falldorf, Claas; Marcos, Susana; Vohnsen, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The use of a spatial light modulator for implementing a digital phase-shifting (PS) point diffraction interferometer (PDI) allows tunability in fringe spacing and in achieving PS without the need for mechanically moving parts. However, a small amount of detector or scatter noise could affect the accuracy of wavefront sensing. Here, a novel method of wavefront reconstruction incorporating a virtual Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor is proposed that allows easy tuning of several wavefront sensor parameters. The proposed method was tested and compared with a Fourier unwrapping method implemented on a digital PS PDI. The rewrapping of the Fourier reconstructed wavefronts resulted in phase maps that matched well the original wrapped phase and the performance was found to be more stable and accurate than conventional methods. Through simulation studies, the superiority of the proposed virtual HS phase unwrapping method is shown in comparison with the Fourier unwrapping method in the presence of noise. Further, combining the two methods could improve accuracy when the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. PMID:26480061

  2. Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or

  3. AIS wavefront sensor: a robust optical test of exposure tools using localized wavefront curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Zhou, Xibin; Goldstein, Michael; Ashworth, Dominic; Cummings, Kevin; Fan, Yu-Jen; Shroff, Yashesh; Denbeaux, Greg; Kandel, Yudhi; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present an update of the AIS wavefront sensor, a diagnostic sensor set for insertion in the upgraded 0.5 NA SEMATECH Albany and Berkeley METs. AIS works by using offset monopole illumination to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil. Variations in curvature manifest as focus shifts, which are measured using a photodiode- based grating-on- grating contrast monitor, and the wavefront aberrations are reconstructed using a least-squares approach. We present results from an optical prototype of AIS demonstrating an accuracy of better than λ/30 rms for Zernike polynomials Z4 through Z10. We also discuss integration strategies and requirements as well as specifications on system alignment.

  4. Performance and Results of the NAOS Visible Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, P.; Dorn, R. J.; Rousset, G.; Cavadore, C.; Charton, J.; Cumani, C.; Fusco, T.; Hubin, N.; Kern, P.; Lizon, J. L.; Magnard, Y.; Puget, P.; Rabaud, D.; Rabou, P.; Stadler, E.

    The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) was installed in December 2001 on the Nasmyth focus of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It includes two wavefront sensors: one operates at IR wavelengths, the other at visible wavelengths. This paper describes the NAOS visible wavefront sensor based on a Shack-Hartmann principle. This wavefront sensor unit includes: 1) A continuous flow liquid nitrogen cryostat and a low noise fast readout CCD camera controlled by the ESO new generation CCD system FIERA using a fast frame rate EEV/Marconi CCD-50. This 128´128 pixels split frame transfer device has a readout noise of 3 e- at 50 Kpix/sec/port. FIERA provides remotely controlled readout modes with optional binning, windowing and flexible integration time. 2) Two remotely exchangeable micro-lens arrays (14´14 and 7´7 micro-lenses) cooled to the CCD temperature ( -100 °C). The CCD array is directly located in the micro lenses focal plane, only a few millimeters apart without any relay optics. Additional opto-mechanical functions are also provided (atmospheric dispersion compensator, flux level control, field of view limitation). On-sky performances of the wavefront sensor are presented. Adaptive optics corrections were obtained with a reference star as faint as visible magnitude 17. The maximum achievable band-path is 35 Hz at 0 dB for the open loop transfer function.

  5. Wavefront response matrix for closed-loop adaptive optics system based on non-modulation pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxin; Bai, Fuzhong; Ning, Yu; Li, Fei; Jiang, Wenhan

    2012-06-01

    Pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) is a kind of wavefront sensor with high spatial resolution and high energy utilization. In this paper an adaptive optics system with PWFS as wavefront sensor and liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as wavefront corrector is built in the laboratory. The wavefront response matrix is a key element in the close-loop operation. It can be obtained by measuring the real response to given aberrations, which is easily contaminated by noise and influenced by the inherent aberration in the optical system. A kind of analytic solution of response matrix is proposed, with which numerical simulation and experiment are also implemented to verify the performance of closed-loop correction of static aberration based on linear reconstruction theory. Results show that this AO system with the proposed matrix can work steadily in closed-loop operation.

  6. A miniature curvature wavefront sensor with coherent fiber image bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica; Richards, Samuel; Goodwin, Michael; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    A miniature curvature wavefront sensor with a coherent fiber image bundle is proposed in which a miniature lateral displacement beamsplitter is designed to obtain the intra- and extra- focus images from a telescope simultaneously at its exit. The two images are received and relayed by two coherent fiber image bundles. The relayed images are then re-imaged to one camera and processed to obtain the input wavefront at telescope pupil. The whole device is quite compact and can be driven by a "Starbug" fiber positioning device currently under development within the Australian Astronomical Observatory. In this paper, the performance of the proposed sensor is investigated in details by applying a simulated atmospheric turbulence at the telescope pupil plane. We study the offset distance of two image measurement planes, fiber core size, fiber fill factor and the magnitude of natural guide star effects to its performance. This study provides guidance to the sensor design.

  7. Performance and results of the NAOS visible wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Rousset, Gérard; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Cavadore, Cyril; Charton, Julien; Cumani, Claudio; Fusco, Thierry; Hubin, Norbert N.; Kern, Pierre Y.; Lizon, Jean-Luis; Magnard, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Rabaud, Didier; Rabou, Patrick; Stadler, Eric

    2003-02-01

    The NAOS adaptive optics system was installed in December 2001 on the Nasmyth focus of the ESO VLT. It includes two wavefront sensors: one is working at IR wavelength analysis and the other at visible wavelengths. This paper describes the NAOS Visible Wave Front Sensor based on a Shack-Hartman principle and its performances as measured on the sky. This wavefront sensor includes within a continuous flow liquid nitrogen cryostat: 1) a low noise fast readout CCD camera controlled by the ESO new generation CCD system FIERA using a fast frame rate EEV/Marconi CCD-50 focal plane array. This 128×128 pixels focal plane array has a readout noise of 3 e- at 50 kilopixel/sec/port. FIERA provides remotely controlled readout modes with optional binning, windowing and flexible integration time. 2) two remotely exchangeable micro-lens arrays (14×14 and 7×7 micro-lenses) cooled at the CCD temperature ( -100 °C) within the cryostat. The CCD array is directly located in the micro lenses focal plane at a few millimeters apart without relay optics. 3) Additional opto-mechanical functions are also provided (atmospheric dispersion compensator, flux level control, field of view limitation). On sky performances of the wavefront sensor are presented. Adaptive Optics corrections was obtained with a reference star as faint as a visible magnitude 17 with a band-path of 40 Hz in close loop.

  8. One dimensional wavefront sensor development for tomographic flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.; Pierson, R.; Chen, E.

    1995-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are extremely useful in fluid mechanics because they generally have high inherent bandwidth, and are non-intrusive. However, since optical probe measurements inherently integrate all information along the optical path, it is often difficult to isolate out-of-plane components in 3-dimensional flow events. It is also hard to make independent measurements of internal flow structure. Using an arrangement of one-dimensional wavefront sensors, we have developed a system that uses tomographic reconstruction to make two-dimensional measurements in an arbitrary flow. These measurements provide complete information in a plane normal to the flow. We have applied this system to the subsonic free jet because of the wide range of flow scales available. These measurements rely on the development of a series of one-dimensional wavefront sensors that are used to measure line-integral density variations in the flow of interest. These sensors have been constructed using linear CCD cameras and binary optics lenslet arrays. In designing these arrays, we have considered the coherent coupling between adjacent lenses and have made comparisons between theory and experimental noise measurements. The paper will present examples of the wavefront sensor development, line-integral measurements as a function of various experimental parameters, and sample tomographic reconstructions.

  9. Myopic aberrations: Simulation based comparison of curvature and Hartmann Shack wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaraju, Roopashree M.; Akondi, Vyas; Weddell, Stephen J.; Budihal, Raghavendra Prasad

    2014-02-01

    In comparison with a Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor, the curvature wavefront sensor is known for its higher sensitivity and greater dynamic range. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the merits of using a curvature wavefront sensor, in comparison with a Hartmann Shack (HS) wavefront sensor, to analyze aberrations of the myopic eye. Aberrations were statistically generated using Zernike coefficient data of 41 myopic subjects obtained from the literature. The curvature sensor is relatively simple to implement, and the processing of extra- and intra-focal images was linearly resolved using the Radon transform to provide Zernike modes corresponding to statistically generated aberrations. Simulations of the HS wavefront sensor involve the evaluation of the focal spot pattern from simulated aberrations. Optical wavefronts were reconstructed using the slope geometry of Southwell. Monte Carlo simulation was used to find critical parameters for accurate wavefront sensing and to investigate the performance of HS and curvature sensors. The performance of the HS sensor is highly dependent on the number of subapertures and the curvature sensor is largely dependent on the number of Zernike modes used to represent the aberration and the effective propagation distance. It is shown that in order to achieve high wavefront sensing accuracy while measuring aberrations of the myopic eye, a simpler and cost effective curvature wavefront sensor is a reliable alternative to a high resolution HS wavefront sensor with a large number of subapertures.

  10. Adaptive wavefront sensor based on the Talbot phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V; Goloborodko, Andrey A; Kotov, Myhailo M; Kovalenko, Andrey V; Kurashov, Vitalij N; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P

    2016-04-20

    A new adaptive method of wavefront sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect, which is observed in an illuminating light beam with strong second-order aberration. Compensation of defocus and astigmatism is achieved with an appropriate choice of size of the rectangular unit cell of the diffraction grating, which is performed iteratively. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is used for this purpose. Self-imaging of rectangular grating in the astigmatic light beam is demonstrated experimentally. High-order aberrations are detected with respect to the compensated second-order aberration. The comparative results of wavefront sensing with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and the proposed sensor are adduced. PMID:27140122

  11. On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedina, Adriano; Cecconi, Massimo; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Crimi, Giuseppe; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Esposito, Simone; Fini, Luca; Ghigo, Mauro; Marchetti, Enrico; Niero, Tiziano; Puglisi, Alfio

    2003-02-01

    The Adaptive Optics for the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo module (namely AdOpt@TNG) implements the pyramid wavefront sensor as a unique feature. This allows to get valuable information on its performance on the sky. An updated overview of the results obtained so far is shown, including a discussion on the sources of errors in the closed loop operation, distinguishing them between the ones specific of the pyramid wavefront sensor and the one more related to the system as a whole. This system allows also for a number of experiments and check of the sensitivity of such a wavefront sensor, especially in comparison with other types of sensing units. The ways to accomplish such an experiment in a convincing way are shown along with the first results obtained so far. Finally, we describe how and up to which extent a number of practical problems encountered in the near past can be solved implementing the recent new ideas on the pyramid theme, many of which popped up from our "lessons learned".

  12. Development of a Pyramid Wave-front Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Kacem; Vignaux, Mael; Fusco, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Within the framework of the E-ELT studies, several laboratories are involved on some instruments: HARMONY with its ATLAS adaptive optics [AO] system, EAGLE or EPICS. Most of the AO systems will probably integrate one or several pyramidal wavefront sensors, PWFS (R. Ragazzoni [1]). The coupling in an AO loop and the control in laboratory (then on sky) of this type of sensor is fundamental for the continuation of the projects related to OA systems on the E-ELT. LAM (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) is involved in particular in the VLT-SPHERE, ATLAS, EPICS projects. For the last few years, our laboratory has been carrying out different R&D activities in AO instrumentation for ELTs. An experimental AO bench is designed and being developed to allow the validation of new wave-front sensing and control concepts [2]. One the objectives of this bench, is the experimental validation of a pyramid WFS. Theoretical investigations on its behavior have been already made. The world's fastest and most sensitive camera system (OCAM2) has been recently developed at LAM (J.L Gach [3], First Light Imaging). Conjugating this advantage with the pyramid concept, we plan to demonstrate a home made Pyramid sensor for Adaptive Optics whose the speed and the precision are the key points. As a joint collaboration with ONERA and Shaktiware, our work aims at the optimization (measurement process, calibration and operation) in laboratory then on the sky of a pyramid sensor dedicated to the first generation instruments for ELTs. The sensor will be implemented on the ONERA ODISSEE AO bench combining thus a pyramid and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. What would give the possibility to compare strictly these two WFS types and make this bench unique in France and even in Europe. Experimental work on laboratory demonstration is undergoing. The status of our development will presented at the conference.

  13. Aligning a more than 100 degrees of freedom wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafatto, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Viotto, Valentina; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, Peter; Brangier, Matthieu; Briegel, Florian; Conrad, Albert; De Bonis, Fulvio; Herbst, Tom; Hofferbert, Ralph; Kittmann, Frank; Kürster, Martin; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau beam combiner for the LBT, with the aim to retrieve the sensitivity of a 12m telescope and the spatial resolution of a 22.8m one. Despite being only one of the four wavefront sensors of a layer-oriented MCAO system, the GWS, which is retrieving the deformation introduced by the lower atmosphere, known to be the main aberration source, reveals a noticeable internal opto-mechanical complexity. The presence of 12 small devices used to select up to the same number of NGSs, with 3 optical components each, moving in a wide annular 2'-6' arcmin Field of View and sending the light to a common pupil re-imager, and the need to obtain and keep a very good super-imposition of the pupil images on the CCD camera, led to an overall alignment procedure in which more than a hundred of degrees of freedom have to be contemporary adjusted. The rotation of the entire WFS to compensate for the sky movement, moreover, introduces a further difficulty both in the alignment and in ensuring the required pupil superposition stability. A detailed description of the alignment procedure is presented here, together with the lessons learned managing the complexity of such a WFS, which led to considerations regarding future instruments, like a possible review of numerical versus optical co-add approach, above all if close to zero read-out noise detectors will be soon available. Nevertheless, the GWS AIV has been carried out and the system will be soon mounted at LBT to perform what is called the Pathfinder experiment, which consists in ground-layer correction, taking advantage of the Adaptive Secondary deformable Mirror.

  14. A Phase-Shifting Zernike Wavefront Sensor for the Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Crawford, Sam; Loya, Frank; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    A phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor has distinct advantages over other types of wavefront sensors. Chief among them are: 1) improved sensitivity to low-order aberrations and 2) efficient use of photons (hence reduced sensitivity to photon noise). We are in the process of deploying a phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor to be used with the realtime adaptive optics system for Palomar. Here we present the current state of the Zernike wavefront sensor to be integrated into the high-order adaptive optics system at Mount Palomar's Hale Telescope.

  15. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/diameter) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output plane. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective, and second the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and can be made arbitrarily large. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument.

  16. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument

  17. Wavefront detection method of a single-sensor based adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongchong; Hu, Lifa; Xu, Huanyu; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Mu, Quanquan; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Lu, Xinghai; Xuan, Li

    2015-08-10

    In adaptive optics system (AOS) for optical telescopes, the reported wavefront sensing strategy consists of two parts: a specific sensor for tip-tilt (TT) detection and another wavefront sensor for other distortions detection. Thus, a part of incident light has to be used for TT detection, which decreases the light energy used by wavefront sensor and eventually reduces the precision of wavefront correction. In this paper, a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based wavefront measurement method is presented for both large amplitude TT and other distortions' measurement. Experiments were performed for testing the presented wavefront method and validating the wavefront detection and correction ability of the single-sensor based AOS. With adaptive correction, the root-mean-square of residual TT was less than 0.2 λ, and a clear image was obtained in the lab. Equipped on a 1.23-meter optical telescope, the binary stars with angle distance of 0.6″ were clearly resolved using the AOS. This wavefront measurement method removes the separate TT sensor, which not only simplifies the AOS but also saves light energy for subsequent wavefront sensing and imaging, and eventually improves the detection and imaging capability of the AOS. PMID:26367988

  18. Holographic imaging with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hai; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2016-06-27

    A high-resolution Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been used for coherent holographic imaging, by computer reconstruction and propagation of the complex field in a lensless imaging setup. The resolution of the images obtained with the experimental data is in a good agreement with the diffraction theory. Although a proper calibration with a reference beam improves the image quality, the method has a potential for reference-less holographic imaging with spatially coherent monochromatic and narrowband polychromatic sources in microscopy and imaging through turbulence. PMID:27410536

  19. Motion blurred image restoration based on Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuhua; Dong, Wende; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi

    2012-10-01

    When relative motion between the target and the camera occurs, the captured images would be blurred. Due to the arbitrariness of the motion, it is of great difficulty to restore the degraded images. In this paper, a new method based on Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor is proposed to deblur the degraded image of the extended target caused by arbitrary motion. Relevant theoretical analysis is given and a corresponding experimental system is built. During the exposure time, image sequences are obtained by the Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor to calculate the displacement vectors, from which the Point Spread Function (PSF) is estimated to restore the blurred image. Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently restore the degraded image of the target. So the application of Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor can be extended to detect the motion of target, which means we can deal with wavefront distortion and motion blur using Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor simultaneously.

  20. A laser guide star wavefront sensor bench demonstrator for TMT.

    PubMed

    Lardiere, Olivier; Conan, Rodolphe; Bradley, Colin; Jackson, Kate; Herriot, Glen

    2008-04-14

    Sodium laser guide stars (LGSs) allow, in theory, Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to reach a full sky coverage, but they have their own limitations. The artificial star is elongated due to the sodium layer thickness, and the temporal and spatial variability of the sodium atom density induces changing errors on wavefront measurements, especially with Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) for which the LGS elongation is larger. In the framework of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope project (TMT), the AO-Lab of the University of Victoria (UVic) has built an LGS-simulator test bed in order to assess the performance of new centroiding algorithms for LGS Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (SH-WFS). The design of the LGS-bench is presented, as well as laboratory SH-WFS images featuring 29x29 radially elongated spots, simulated for a 30-m pupil. The errors induced by the LGS variations, such as focus and spherical aberrations, are characterized and discussed. This bench is not limited to SH-WFS and can serve as an LGS-simulator test bed to any other LGS-AO projects for which sodium layer fluctuations are an issue. PMID:18542656

  1. Dual-mode wavefront detection sensor based on liquid crystal microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Pan, Fan; Liu, Kan; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Yanduo; Xie, Xiaolin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a proposed electrically tunable liquid crystal (LC) micro-lens array (MLA) instead of a commonly used microlens array with fixed focal length in a conventional type, a new prototyped Shack-Hartmann sensor is reported. The LCMLA with 128 × 128 elements is fabricated by the methods of photolithography and hydrochloric acid etching. Composed of the proposed LC-MLA and a CCD, a new type Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is got. This kind sensor can solve problems of the tradition wavefront sensor that the larger measurement range and high measurement accurate can't be realized by the same device. Except for adaptive switching the two working modes, this wavefront sensor also has a dual-mode imaging feature with obtaining wavefront information of the target and it's two-dimensional optical intensity image at the same time. In order to verify it's characteristics, an extreme experiment is designed, which introduces a distortion wavefront. At this circumstanc, the traditional wavefront sensor can't get anything. However, with proposed wavefront sensor, this situation can be solved by adjusting the applied voltage of LC-MLA to change it's focal length. With a reconstruction method, the three-dimensional information of the wavefront can be got. At the same time, the two-dimensional optical intensity image is also got. From the experiments, we can prove that it can effectively improve detection sensitivity and dynamic measurement range of wavefront. Results of the prototype demonstrated qualitatively verify this feasibility. This kind new type wavefront sensor will have a wide variety of applications in adaptive optics.

  2. Design and fabrication of a pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aina; Yao, Jun; Cai, Dongmei; Ren, Hao

    2010-07-01

    A new pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS), which utilizes a reflective pyramid mirror instead of a refractive pyramid prism at the focus of a telescope, is presented. As a key optical component in this PWFS, the pyramid mirror requires accurate microfabrication for excellent quality of the tip, the turned edges, and the surfaces. The moving mask lithography process is proposed for its economic, simple, and precise control to make the cross-sectional shape of the structure. The completed pyramid mirror has a square base of 1-mm length and four side facets inclined to the base at 3.7 deg. The sizes of the pyramid tip and turned edges are both about 6 μm, which show excellent aspects of sharpening-tip and knife-edges. The root mean square of four facets is approximately 70 nm, and the maximum profile deviation is 0.2 μm.

  3. A very wide field wavefront sensor for a very narrow field interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bergomi, M.; Brunelli, A.; Dima, M.; Farinato, J.; Gentile, G.; Magrin, D.; Cosentino, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Foppiani, I.; Lombini, M.; Schreiber, L.; Bertram, T.; Bizenberger, P.; De Bonis, F.; Gässler, W.; Herbst, T.; Kuerster, M.; Meschke, D.; Mohr, L.; Rohloff, R.-R.

    2010-07-01

    The LINC-NIRVANA wavefront sensors are in their AIT phase. The first Ground-layerWavefront Sensor (GWS) is shaping in the Adaptive Optics laboratory of the Astronomical Observatory of Padova, while both the Mid- High Wavefront Sensors (MHWSs) have been aligned and tested as stand-alone units in the Observatory of Bologna (MHWS#1 aligned to LINC-NIRVANA post focal relay optics). LINC-NIRVANA is a Fizeau infrared interferometer equipped with advanced, MultiConjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) for the Large Binocular Telescope. The aim of the instrument is to allow true interferometric imagery over a 10" square Field of View (FoV), getting the sensitivity of a 12m telescope and the spatial resolution of a 22.8m one. Thanks to the MCAO concept, LINC-NIRVANA will use up to 20 Natural Guide Stars (NGS) which are divided, according to Layer-Oriented Multiple Field of View technique, between the GWSs and the MHWSs. To find such a large number of references, the AO systems will use a wide FoV of 6' in diameter and the light coming from the references used by each WFS will optically sum on its CCD camera. The MHWSs will detect the deformations due to the high layers and will select up to 8 NGSs in the inner 2' FoV. The GWSs, instead, will reconstruct the deformations introduced by the lower atmosphere, which was found out to be the main source of seeing. Their peculiarity is the highest number of references (up to 12) ever used in a single instrument, selected in an annular 2'-6' FoV.

  4. Wavefront sensors and algorithms for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    The results of recent works related to techniques and algorithms for wave-front (WF) measurement using Shack-Hartmann sensors show their high efficiency in solution of very different problems of applied optics. The goal of this paper was to develop a sensitive Shack-Hartmann sensor with high precision WF measurement capability on the base of modern technology of optical elements making and new efficient methods and computational algorithms of WF reconstruction. The Shack-Hartmann sensors sensitive to small WF aberrations are used for adaptive optical systems, compensating the wave distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. A high precision Shack-Hartmann WF sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640×640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ . Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourierdemodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  5. Improving the Sensitivity of Astronomical Curvature Wavefront Sensor Using Dual-Stroke Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Blain, Celia; Takami, Hideki; Hayano, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Watanabe, Makoto

    2008-06-01

    Curvature wavefront sensors measure wavefront phase aberration by acquiring two intensity images on either side of the pupil plane. Low-order adaptive optics (AO) systems using curvature wavefront sensing (CWFS) have proved to be highly efficient for astronomical applications: they are more sensitive, use fewer detector elements, and achieve, for the same number of actuators, higher Strehl ratios than AO systems using more traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. In higher-order systems, however, curvature wavefront sensors lose sensitivity to low spatial frequencies wavefront aberrations. This effect, often described as "noise propagation," limits the usefulness of curvature wavefront sensing for high-order AO systems and/or large telescopes. In this paper, we first explain how this noise propagation effect occurs and then show that this limitation can be overcome by acquiring four defocused images of the pupil instead of two. This solution can be implemented without significant technology development and can run with a simple linear wavefront reconstruction algorithm at >kHz speed. We have successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that the four conjugation planes can be sequentially obtained at >kHz speed using a speaker-vibrating membrane assembly commonly used in current curvature AO systems. Closed loop simulations show that implementing this scheme is equivalent to making the guide star 1 to 1.5 magnitude brighter for the configuration tested (188 actuator elements on 8-m telescope). Higher sensitivity gains are expected on curvature systems with higher number of actuators.

  6. A kind of wavefront curvature sensor with diffraction grating and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongbin; Li, Gang; Huang, Fuyu; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuanbo

    2009-11-01

    The basic principle of wavefront curvature sensor (WFS) is described, and the strongpoints and shortcomings of traditional schemes are analyzed. As a novel WFS, the wavefront curvature sensor comprising a diffraction grating (DGWFS), which consist a defocus grating and lens, and can measure the light intensity distribution at the two defocused spots simultaneity, has the advantage of realization easily, adjustment expediently, low cost, and so on. The DGWFS has a wide application in astronomy, measurement, laser, optical component testing etc. Its principle is analyzed. Two kinds of phase retrieval arithmetics of wavefront curvature sensor are analyzed by comparison. Besides, the latest applications of wavefront curvature sensor are generally presented. Finally a novel method for measurement on solid-state laser thermal lens utilizing DGWFS is presented.

  7. The guider and wavefront curvature sensor subsystem for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riot, Vincent J.; Arndt, Kirk; Claver, Chuck; Doherty, Peter E.; Gilmore, D. K.; Hascall, Patrick A.; Herrmann, Sven; Kotov, Ivan; O'Connor, Paul; Sebag, Jacques; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Warner, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope instrument include four guiding and wavefront sensing subsystems called corner raft subsystems, in addition to the main science array of 189 4K x 4K CCDs. These four subsystems are placed at the four corners of the instrumented field of view. Each wavefront/guiding subsystem comprises a pair of 4K x 4K guide sensors, capable of producing 9 frames/second, and a pair of offset 2K x 4K wavefront curvature sensors from which the images are read out at the cadence of the main camera system, providing 15 sec integrations. These four guider/wavefront corner rafts are mechanically and electrically isolated from the science sensor rafts and can be installed or removed independently from any other focal plane subsystem. We present the implementation of this LSST subsystem detailing both hardware and software development and status.

  8. Aliasing in a Hartmann wavefront sensor at x-ray wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Bauman, Brian; Macintosh, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    The Hartmann Sensor is a simple and well-established method to interrogate wavefront quality. Recently the Hartmann sensor has been used at very short wavelengths, including the extreme UV. Here we consider the Hartmann sensor and its ability to measure the wavefront of an x-ray beam. We use both analytic methods and a wave-optics, Fresnel-diffraction simulation. The Hartmann sensor samples the wavefront, which means that it is susceptible to aliasing (the non-linear phenomenon where high-spatial frequency components are incorrectly measured as low-spatial frequency components). Our analysis shows that aliasing is more severe in the Hartmann sensor than in the corresponding (optical) Shack-Hartmann. Aliasing worsens as Hartmann hole size shrinks. The wave-optics simulations show that for reasonable optics-polishing errors and Hartmann mask design, aliasing errors can be of the same magnitude as the phase that is to be measured.

  9. A Broad-Band Phase-Contrast Wave-Front Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric; Wallace, J. Kent

    2005-01-01

    A broadband phase-contrast wave-front sensor has been proposed as a real-time wave-front sensor in an adaptive-optics system. The proposed sensor would offer an alternative to the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors now used in high-order adaptive-optics systems of some astronomical telescopes. Broadband sensing gives higher sensitivity than does narrow-band sensing, and it appears that for a given bandwidth, the sensitivity of the proposed phase-contrast sensor could exceed that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Relative to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, the proposed sensor may be optically and mechanically simpler. As described below, an important element of the principle of operation of a phase-contrast wave-front sensor is the imposition of a 90deg phase shift between diffracted and undiffracted parts of the same light beam. In the proposed sensor, this phase shift would be obtained by utilizing the intrinsic 90 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in an ideal (thin, symmetric) beam splitter. This phase shift can be characterized as achromatic or broadband because it is 90deg at every wavelength over a broad wavelength range.

  10. Wavefront Sensing with the Fine Guidance Sensor for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David; Dean, Bruce H.; Howard,Joe; Shiri, Ron

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented that utilizes the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) for focal-plane wavefront sensing (WFS) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WFS with FGS increases the number of wavefront measurements taken in field of the telescope, but has many challenges over the other JWST instruments that make it unique, such as; less sampling of the Point Spread Function (PSF), a smaller diversity-defocus range, a smaller image detector size, and a polychromatic object or source. Additionally, presented is an analysis of sampling for wavefront sensing. Results are shown based on simulations of flight and the cryogenic optical testing at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  12. Wavefront reconstruction of an optical vortex by a Hartmann-Shack sensor.

    PubMed

    Starikov, F A; Kochemasov, G G; Kulikov, S M; Manachinsky, A N; Maslov, N V; Ogorodnikov, A V; Sukharev, S A; Aksenov, V P; Izmailov, I V; Kanev, F Yu; Atuchin, V V; Soldatenkov, I S

    2007-08-15

    Reconstruction the phase front of a vortex laser beam is conducted by use of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The vortex beam in the form of the Laguerre-Gaussian LG(0)(1) mode is generated with the help of a spiral phase plate. The new reconstruction technique based on measured wavefront gradients allows one to restore the singular phase surface with good accuracy, whereas the conventional least-squares approach fails. PMID:17700762

  13. Pyramid wavefront sensor aboard AdOpt@TNG and beyond: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Esposito, Simone; Ghedina, Adriano; Baruffolo, Andrea; Cecconi, Massimo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo; Fini, Luca; Marchetti, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Tordi, Massimiliano; Vernet-Viard, Elise

    2002-02-01

    The concept of Pyramid Wavefront sensor has been introduced as a more compact and flexible alternative to Shack--Hartmann wavefront sensing. In the past five years, however, such a novel concept promised a much larger sensitivity and an inherent easiness to be implemented in a multiple reference wavefront sensor. AdOptTNG, a natural guide star based adaptive optics module implemented at the 3.5m TNG telescope is equipped with such a sensor. We report here on the updated status, including on-sky experimental verification of various of the several features of such a sensor. We discuss the results obtained, their scalability and the lessons learned in building, aligning and operating it. Some comparison with theoretical and laboratory-based result, is also tentatively reported.

  14. The CAFADIS camera: a new tomographic wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, J. M.; Femenía, B.; Montilla, I.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Lüke, J. P.; López, R.; Díaz, J. J.; Martín, Y.

    The CAFADIS camera is a new wavefront sensor (WFS) patented by the Universidad de La Laguna. CAFADIS is a system based on the concept of plenoptic camera originally proposed by Adelson and Wang [Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 14 (1992)] and its most salient feature is its ability to simultaneously measuring wavefront maps and distances to objects [Wavefront and distance measurements using the CAFADIS camera, in Astronomical telescopes, Marseille (2008)]. This makes of CAFADIS an interesting alternative for LGS-based AO systems as it is capable of measuring from an LGS-beacon the atmospheric turbulence wavefront and simultaneously the distance to the LGS beacon thus removing the need of a NGS defocus sensor to probe changes in distance to the LGS beacon due to drifts of the mesospheric Na layer. In principle, the concept can also be employed to recover 3D profiles of the Na Layer allowing for optimizations of the measurement of the distance to the LGS-beacon. Currently we are investigating the possibility of extending the plenoptic WFS into a tomographic wavefront sensor. Simulations will be shown of a plenoptic WFS when operated within an LGS-based AO system for the recovery of wavefront maps at different heights. The preliminary results presented here show the tomographic ability of CAFADIS.

  15. Simple broadband implementation of a phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    The most critical element of an adaptive optics system is its wavefront sensor, which must measure the closed-loop difference between the corrected wavefront and an ideal template at high speed, in real time, over a dense sampling of the pupil. Most high-order systems have used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, but a novel approach based on Zernike's phase contrast principle appears promising. In this paper we discuss a simple way to achromatize such a phase contrast wavefront sensor, using the pi/2 phase difference between reflected and transmitted rays in a thin, symmetric beam splitter. We further model the response at a range of wavelengths to show that the required transverse dimension of the focal-plane phase-shifting spot, nominally lambda/D, may not be very sensitive to wavelength, and so in practice additional optics to introduce wavelength-dependent transverse magnification achromatizing this spot diameter may not be required. A very simple broadband implementation of the phase contrast wavefront sensor results.

  16. End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars

    2011-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.

  17. Wavefront sensor testing in hypersonic flows using a laser-spark guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Hedlund, Eric; Lederer, Melissa; Collier, Arnold S.; Spring, Charles; Gruetzner, James K.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Mansell, Justin D.

    1997-11-01

    The flight environment of next-generation theater missile defense interceptors involves hypersonic speeds that place severe aero-thermodynamic loads on missile components including the windows used for optical seekers. These heating effects can lead to significant boresight error and aberration. Ground-based tests are required to characterize these effects. We have developed methods to measure aberrations in seeker windows using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Light from a laser or other source with a well known wavefront is passed through the window and falls on the sensor. The sensor uses an array of micro-lenses to generate a grid of focal spots on a CCD detector. The positions of the focal spots provide a measure of the wavefront slope over each micro-lens. The wavefront is reconstructed by integrating the slopes, and analyzed to characterize aberrations. During flight, optical seekers look upstream through a window at 'look angles' angles near 0 degrees relative to the free stream flow. A 0 degree angle corresponds to large angles approaching 90 degrees when measured relative to the normal of the window, and is difficult to simulate using conventional techniques to illuminate the wavefront sensor during wind tunnel tests. For this reason, we developed a technique using laser- induced optical breakdown that allows arbitrary look angles down to 0 degrees.

  18. End-to-end Coronagraphic Modeling Including a Low-order Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate space-based coronagraphic techniques, end-to-end modeling is necessary to simulate realistic fields containing speckles caused by wavefront errors. Real systems will suffer from pointing errors and thermal and motioninduced mechanical stresses that introduce time-variable wavefront aberrations that can reduce the field contrast. A loworder wavefront sensor (LOWFS) is needed to measure these changes at a sufficiently high rate to maintain the contrast level during observations. We implement here a LOWFS and corresponding low-order wavefront control subsystem (LOWFCS) in end-to-end models of a space-based coronagraph. Our goal is to be able to accurately duplicate the effect of the LOWFS+LOWFCS without explicitly evaluating the end-to-end model at numerous time steps.

  19. Time series analysis of Adaptive Optics wave-front sensor telemetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Palmer, D

    2004-03-22

    Time series analysis techniques are applied to wave-front sensor telemetry data from the Lick Adaptive Optics System. For 28 fully-illuminated subapertures, telemetry data of 4096 consecutive slope estimates for each subaperture are available. The primary problem is performance comparison of alternative wave-front sensing algorithms. Using direct comparison of data in open loop and closed-loop trials, we analyze algorithm performance in terms of gain, noise and residual power. We also explore the benefits of multi-input Wiener filtering and analyze the open-loop and closed-loop spatial correlations of the sensor measurements.

  20. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Vinna; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA) to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin), the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. PMID:22346643

  1. An ocular wavefront sensor based on binary phase element: design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Anurag

    2012-07-01

    A modal wavefront sensor for ocular aberrations exhibits two main advantages compared to a conventional Shack-Hartmann sensor. As the wavefront is detected in the Fourier plane, the method is robust against local loss of information (e.g. local opacity of ocular lens as in the case of cataract), and is not dependent on the spatial distribution of wavefront sampling. We have proposed a novel method of wavefront sensing for ocular aberrations that directly detects the strengths of Zernike aberrations. A multiplexed Fourier computer-generated hologram has been designed as the binary phase element (BPE) for the detection of second-order and higher-order ocular aberrations (HOAs). The BPE design has been validated by comparing the simulated far-field pattern with the experimental results obtained by displaying it on a spatial light modulator. Simulation results have demonstrated the simultaneous wavefront detection with an accuracy better that ∼λ/30 for a measurement range of ±2.1λ with reduced cross-talk. Sensor performance is validated by performing a numerical experiment using the City data set for test waves containing second-order and HOAs and measurement errors of 0.065 µm peak-to-valley (PV) and 0.08 µm (PV) have been obtained, respectively.

  2. Improving Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor by using sub-wavelength annular apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hao-Jung; Chung, Ming-Han; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Out of the many wavefront sensing techniques, Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor remains the most popular and the most versatile. Its optical configuration utilized a micro-lens array to measure the directivity of the light beam associated with each micro-lens. In this design, smaller size of micro-lens leads to angular resolution improvement. However, smaller size micro-lens typically is associated to shorter depth of focus, which makes it difficult to focus on sensor array properly. In addition, the size of micro-lens array is limited by the diffraction limit. In today's technology, micro-lens with dimensions in size of a few hundred of microns is possible. This dimension posts the limitation of the angular resolution possible for Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor. To alleviate the compromise between the angular resolution and the depth of focus, a sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) structure was developed to generate Bessel light beams. That is, the SAA performs similar functions as that of the micro lens array in traditional wave front sensors. It is shown that this design maintains a sub-wavelength focusing capability while achieves tens of micron depth of focus in the far-field region, which leads to an improved wavefront sensor. Both simulation and experimental results are detailed.

  3. The extraction of spot signal in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Suting; Ge, Junxiang; Wan, Fayu

    2016-07-01

    Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. While the centroid error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is relatively large since the skylight background and the detector noise. In this paper, we introduce a new method based on sparse representation to extract the target signal from the background and the noise. First, an over complete dictionary of the spot signal is constructed based on two-dimensional Gaussian model. Then the Shack-Hartmann image is divided into sub blocks. The corresponding coefficients of each block is computed in the over complete dictionary. Since the coefficients of the noise and the target are large different, then extract the target by setting a threshold to the coefficients. Experimental results show that the target can be well extracted and the deviation, RMS and PV of the centroid are all smaller than the method of subtracting threshold.

  4. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  5. Influence of aperture size on wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V.; Kotov, Myhailo M.; Goloborodko, Andrey A.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P.; Kurashov, Andrey V.

    2013-12-01

    The self-imaging phenomenon, or the Talbot effect, is diffraction and interference effect for coherent light that is transmitted through infinite grating or other periodic structure. But in practice, intensity distribution is reproduced with some distortions due to finite size of a grating. The influence of aperture effects on quality of wavefront reconstruction by the sensor based on the Talbot effect is considered in this work. 2D binary and gray-scale amplitude gratings with different periods and form of holes were used as the input element of the sensor. Computer simulation for different aberrations and varying aperture size was performed. The experimental results of comparative analysis of wavefront measurements by the diffraction Talbot sensor with a finite aperture and the Shack-Hartman sensor are presented.

  6. Concepts, laboratory, and telescope test results of the plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J. L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The plenoptic camera has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects within the context of the design of the European Solar Telescope (EST), but it can also be used with point sources. Originated in the field of the Electronic Photography, the plenoptic camera directly samples the Light Field function, which is the four - dimensional representation of all the light entering a camera. Image formation can then be seen as the result of the photography operator applied to this function, and many other features of the light field can be exploited to extract information of the scene, like depths computation to extract 3D imaging or, as it will be specifically addressed in this paper, wavefront sensing. The underlying concept of the plenoptic camera can be adapted to the case of a telescope by using a lenslet array of the same f-number placed at the focal plane, thus obtaining at the detector a set of pupil images corresponding to every sampled point of view. This approach will generate a generalization of Shack-Hartmann, Curvature and Pyramid wavefront sensors in the sense that all those could be considered particular cases of the plenoptic wavefront sensor, because the information needed as the starting point for those sensors can be derived from the plenoptic image. Laboratory results obtained with extended objects, phase plates and commercial interferometers, and even telescope observations using stars and the Moon as an extended object are presented in the paper, clearly showing the capability of the plenoptic camera to behave as a wavefront sensor.

  7. Development and verification of the non-linear curvature wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, Mala

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems have become an essential part of ground-based telescopes and enable diffraction-limited imaging at near-IR and mid-IR wavelengths. For several key science applications the required wavefront quality is higher than what current systems can deliver. For instance obtaining high quality diffraction-limited images at visible wavelengths requires residual wavefront errors to be well below 100 nm RMS. High contrast imaging of exoplanets and disks around nearby stars requires high accuracy control of low-order modes that dominate atmospheric turbulence and scatter light at small angles where exoplanets are likely to be found. Imaging planets using a high contrast coronagraphic camera, as is the case for the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), requires even greater wavefront control accuracy. My dissertation develops a highly sensitive non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) that can deliver diffraction-limited (lambda/D) images, in the visible, by approaching the theoretical sensitivity limit imposed by fundamental physics. The nlCWFS is derived from the successful curvature wavefront sensing concept but uses a non-linear reconstructor in order to maintain sensitivity to low spatial frequencies. The nlCWFS sensitivity makes it optimal for extreme AO and visible AO systems because it utilizes the full spatial coherence of the pupil plane as opposed to conventional sensors such as the Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (SHWFS) which operate at the atmospheric seeing limit (lambda/r0). The difference is equivalent to a gain of (D/r0)2 in sensitivity, for the lowest order mode, which translates to the nlCWFS requiring that many fewer photons. When background limited the nlCWFS sensitivity scales as D4, a combination of D 2 gain due to the diffraction limit and D 2 gain due to telescope's collecting power. Whereas conventional wavefront sensors only

  8. Applications of variable focus liquid lenses for curvature wave-front sensors in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Fernández, J.; Cuevas, S.; Alvarez-Nuñez, L. C.; Watson, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Curvature wavefront sensors obtain the wave-front aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane. Typically, when high modulation speeds are required, as it is the case with Adaptive Optics, that defocusing is done with a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We propose an alternative defocusing mechanism based on an electrowetting variable focus liquid lens. The use of such lenses may perform the required focus modulation without the need of extra moving parts, reducing the overall size of the system.

  9. The low-order wavefront sensor for the PICTURE-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Christopher B.; Brown, Joshua; Martel, Jason; Howe, Glenn A.; Hewasawam, Kuravi; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Douglas, Ewan S.; Mawet, Dimitri; Guyon, Olivier; Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Marinan, Anne D.

    2015-09-01

    The PICTURE-C mission will fly a 60 cm off-axis unobscured telescope and two high-contrast coronagraphs in successive high-altitude balloon flights with the goal of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing visible scattered light from exozodiacal dust in the interior 1-10 AU of nearby exoplanetary systems. The first flight in 2017 will use a 10-4 visible nulling coronagraph (previously flown on the PICTURE sounding rocket) and the second flight in 2019 will use a 10-7 vector vortex coronagraph. A low-order wavefront corrector (LOWC) will be used in both flights to remove time-varying aberrations from the coronagraph wavefront. The LOWC actuator is a 76-channel high-stroke deformable mirror packaged on top of a tip-tilt stage. This paper will detail the selection of a complementary high-speed, low-order wavefront sensor (LOWFS) for the mission. The relative performance and feasibility of several LOWFS designs will be compared including the Shack-Hartmann, Lyot LOWFS, and the curvature sensor. To test the different sensors, a model of the time-varying wavefront is constructed using measured pointing data and inertial dynamics models to simulate optical alignment perturbations and surface deformation in the balloon environment.

  10. Zernike wavefront sensor modeling development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Wallace, J. Kent; Shi, Fang

    2015-09-01

    WFIRST-AFTA design makes use of an existing 2.4m telescope for direct imaging of exoplanets. To maintain the high contrast needed for the coronagraph, wavefront error (WFE) of the optical system needs to be continuously sensed and controlled. Low Order Wavefront Sensing (LOWFS) uses the rejected starlight from an immediate focal plane to sense wavefront changes (mostly thermally induced low order WFE) by combining the LOWFS mask (a phase plate located at the small center region with reflective layer) with the starlight rejection masks, i.e. Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC)'s occulter or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC)'s field stop. Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS) measures phase via the phase-contrast method and is known to be photon noise optimal for measuring low order aberrations. Recently, ZWFS was selected as the baseline LOWFS technology on WFIST/AFTA for its good sensitivity, accuracy, and its easy integration with the starlight rejection mask. In this paper, we review the theory of ZWFS operation, describe the ZWFS algorithm development, and summarize various numerical sensitivity studies on the sensor performance. In the end, the predicted sensor performance on SPC and HLC configurations are presented.

  11. History of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and its impact in ophthalmic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiegerling, Jim

    2014-09-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is a technology that was developed at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona in the late 1960s. It is a robust technique for measuring wavefront error that was originally developed for large telescopes to measure errors induced by atmospheric turbulence. The Shack Hartmann sensor has evolved to become a relatively common non-interferometric metrology tool in a variety of fields. Its broadest impact has been in the area of ophthalmic optics where it is used to measure ocular aberrations. The data the Shack Hartmann sensor provides enables custom LASIK treatments, often enhancing visual acuity beyond normal levels. In addition, the Shack Hartmann data coupled with adaptive optics systems enables unprecedented views of the retina. This paper traces the evolution of the technology from the early use of screen-type tests, to the incorporation of lenslet arrays and finally to one of its modern applications, measuring the human eye.

  12. FPGA-based slope computation for ELTs adaptive optics wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Díaz Garcia, J. J.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Rodríguez Ramos, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    ELTs laser guide stars wavefront sensors are planned to have specifically developed sensor chips, which will probably include readout logic and D/A conversion, followed by a powerful FPGA slope computer located very close to it, but not inside for flexibility and simplicity reasons. This paper presents the architecture of an FPGA-based wavefront slope computer, capable of handling the sensor output stream in a massively parallel approach. It will feature the ability of performing dark and flat field correction, the flexibility needed for allocating complex processing schemes, the capability of undertaking all computations expected to be performed at maximum speed, even though they were not strictly related to the calculation of the slopes, and the necessary housekeeping controls to properly command it and evaluate its behaviour. Feasibility using today's technology is evaluated, clearly showing its viability, together with an analysis of the amount of external memory, power consumption and printed circuit board space needed.

  13. Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Brase, J; Kartz, M; Olivier, S S; Sawvel, B; Tucker, J

    2003-02-01

    The use of a Hartmann wave-front sensor to accurately measure the line-integrated electron density gradients formed in laser-produced and z-pinch plasma experiments is examined. This wave-front sensor may be used with a soft-x-ray laser as well as with incoherent line emission at multikilovolt x-ray energies. This diagnostic is significantly easier to use than interferometery and moiré deflectometry, both of which have been demonstrated with soft-x-ray lasers. This scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the visible region by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to simulate a phase profile that could occur when an x-ray probe passes through a plasma. The merits of using a Hartmann sensor include a wide dynamic range, broadband or low-coherence-length light capability, high x-ray efficiency, two-dimensional gradient determination, multiplexing capability, and experimental simplicity. Hartmann sensors could also be utilized for wavelength testing of extreme-ultraviolet lithography components and x-ray phase imaging of biological specimens. PMID:12656314

  14. Analysis of stellar interferometers as wave-front sensors.

    PubMed

    Hénault, François

    2005-08-01

    The basic principle and theoretical relationships of an original method are presented that allow the wave-front errors of a ground or spaceborne telescope to be retrieved when its main pupil is combined with a second, decentered reference optical arm. The measurement accuracy of such a telescope-interferometer is then estimated by means of various numerical simulations, and good performance is demonstrated, except in limited areas near the telescope pupil's rim. In particular, it permits direct phase evaluation (thus avoiding the use of first- or second-order derivatives), which will be of special interest for the cophasing of segmented mirrors in future giant-telescope projects. Finally, the useful practical domain of the method is defined, which seems to be better suited for periodic diagnostics of space- or ground-based telescopes or to real-time scientific observations in some specific cases (e.g., the central star in instruments that search for extrasolar planets). PMID:16075886

  15. Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor that uses binary optic lenslet arrays to directly measure the wavefront slope (phase gradient) and amplitude of the laser beam. This sensor uses an array of lenslets that dissects the beam into a number of samples. The focal spot location of each of these lenslets (measured by a CCD camera) is related to the incoming wavefront slope over the lenslet. By integrating these measurements over the laser aperture, the wavefront or phase distribution can be determined. Since the power focused by each lenslet is also easily determined, this allows a complete measurement of the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam. Furthermore, all the information is obtained in a single measurement. Knowing the complete scalar field of the beam allows the detailed prediction of the actual beam`s characteristics along its propagation path. In particular, the space- beamwidth product M{sup 2}, can be obtained in a single measurement. The intensity and phase information can be used in concert with information about other elements in the optical train to predict the beam size, shape, phase and other characteristics anywhere in the optical train. We present preliminary measurements of an Ar{sup +} laser beam and associated M{sup 2} calculations.

  16. Depth aberrations characterization in linear and nonlinear microscopy schemes using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviles-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andilla, Jordi; Porcar-Guezenec, Rafael; Levecq, Xavier; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    The performance of imaging devices such as linear and nonlinear microscopes (NLM) can be limited by the optical properties of the imaged sample. Such an important aspect has already been described using theoretical models due to the difficulties of implementing a direct wavefront sensing scheme. However, these only stand for simple interfaces and cannot be generalized to biological samples given its structural complexity. This has leaded to the development of sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) implementations. In this approach, aberrations are iteratively corrected trough an image related parameter (aberrations are not measured), being prone of causing sample damage. In this work, we perform a practical implementation of a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor to compensate for sample induced aberrations, demonstrating its applicability in linear and NLM. We perform an extensive analysis of wavefront distortion effects through different depths employing phantom samples. Aberration effects originated by the refractive index mismatch and depth are quantified using the linear and nonlinear guide-star concept. More over we analyze offaxis aberrations in NLM, an important aspect that is commonly overlooked. In this case spherical aberration behaves similarly to the wavefront error compared with the on-axis case. Finally we give examples of aberration compensation using epi-fluorescence and nonlinear microscopy.

  17. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  18. Efficient implementation of a projection-based wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, John; Cain, Stephen C.; Mantica, Peter

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, a new wave front sensor design that utilizes the benefits of image projections is described and analyzed. The projection-based wave front sensor is similar to a Shack-Hartman type wave front sensor, but uses a correlation algorithm as opposed to a centroiding algorithm to estimate optical tilt. This allows the projection-based wave front sensor to estimate optical tilt parameters while guiding off of point sources and extended objects at very low signal to noise ratios. The implementation of the projection-based wave front sensor is described in detail showing important signal processing steps on and off of the focal plane array of the sensor. In this paper the design is tested in simulation for speed and accuracy by processing simulated astronomical data. These simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the projection-based wave front sensor and its superior performance to that of the traditional Shack-Hartman wave front sensor. Timing analysis is presented which shows how the collection and processing of image projections is computationally efficient and lends itself to a wave front sensor design that can produce adaptive optical control signals at speeds of up to 500 hz.

  19. On-instrument wavefront sensor design for the TMT infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Reshetov, Vladimir; Atwood, Jenny; Pazder, John; Wooff, Bob; Loop, David; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.

    2014-08-01

    The first light instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project will be the InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS will be mounted on a bottom port of the facility AO instrument NFIRAOS. IRIS will report guiding information to the NFIRAOS through the On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor (OIWFS) that is part of IRIS. This will be in a self-contained compartment of IRIS and will provide three deployable wavefront sensor probe arms. This entire unit will be rotated to provide field de-rotation. Currently in our preliminary design stage our efforts have included: prototyping of the probe arm to determine the accuracy of this critical component, handling cart design and reviewing different types of glass for the atmospheric dispersion.

  20. Phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Li, Xiaoyang; Yang, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator is introduced. A close-loop phase retrieval method based on Eigen functions of Laplacian is proposed, and its accuracy and efficiency are analyzed through numerical experiments of atmospheric phase retrieval. The results show that the close-loop phase retrieval method has a high accuracy. Moreover, it is stable regardless of modal cross coupling.

  1. Phase retrieval using a modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with defocus.

    PubMed

    Li, Changwei; Li, Bangming; Zhang, Sijiong

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for phase retrieval. The sensor is revamped by placing a detector at a defocused plane before the focal plane of the lenslet array of the Shack-Hartmann sensor. The algorithm for phase retrieval is an optimization with initial Zernike coefficients calculated by the conventional phase reconstruction of the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Numerical simulations show that the proposed sensor permits sensitive, accurate phase retrieval. Furthermore, experiments tested the feasibility of phase retrieval using the proposed sensor. The surface irregularity for a flat mirror was measured by the proposed method and a Veeco interferometer, respectively. The irregularity for the mirror measured by the proposed method is in very good agreement with that measured using the Veeco interferometer. PMID:24514178

  2. Integration and bench testing for the GRAVITY Coudé IR adaptive optics (CIAO) wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, C.; Yang, P.; Huber, A.; Suarez-Valles, M.; Hippler, S.; Brandner, W.; Gendron, E.; Clénet, Y.; Kendrew, S.; Glauser, A.; Klein, R.; Laun, W.; Lenzen, R.; Neumann, U.; Panduro, J.; Ramos, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Salzinger, A.; Zimmerman, N.; Henning, T.; Perraut, K.; Perrin, G.; Straubmeier, C.; Amorim, A.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2014-08-01

    GRAVITY, a second generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), will provide an astrometric precision of order 10 micro-arcseconds, an imaging resolution of 4 milli-arcseconds, and low/medium resolution spectro-interferometry. These improvements to the VLTI represent a major upgrade to its current infrared interferometric capabilities, allowing detailed study of obscured environments (e.g. the Galactic Center, young dusty planet-forming disks, dense stellar cores, AGN, etc...). Crucial to the final performance of GRAVITY, the Coudé IR Adaptive Optics (CIAO) system will correct for the effects of the atmosphere at each of the VLT Unit Telescopes. CIAO consists of four new infrared Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFS) and associated real-time computers/software which will provide infrared wavefront sensing from 1.45-2.45 microns, allowing AO corrections even in regions where optically bright reference sources are scarce. We present here the latest progress on the GRAVITY wavefront sensors. We describe the adaptation and testing of a light-weight version of the ESO Standard Platform for Adaptive optics Real Time Applications (SPARTA-Light) software architecture to the needs of GRAVITY. We also describe the latest integration and test milestones for construction of the initial wave front sensor.

  3. Performance comparison between Shack-Hartmann and astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensors.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Shane

    2009-12-20

    Simulations on Kolmogorov phase screens are employed to compare the relative performance of an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor (AHS) to that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). The AHS is shown to improve phase reconstruction accuracy when the subaperture phase contains significant energy in curvature modes and a moderate to high number of photons are collected. Dual use of the AHS and SHS may extend enhanced reconstruction to low signal levels. The AHS is also shown to have a small benefit for tilt-only reconstruction when the beam has sufficient power. PMID:20029599

  4. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range by adaptive spot search method.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-07-10

    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) that consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations of human eyes. However, a conventional SHWFS has finite dynamic range depending on the diameter of the each microlens. The dynamic range cannot be easily expanded without a decrease of the spatial resolution. In this study, an adaptive spot search method to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS is proposed. In the proposed method, spots are searched with the help of their approximate displacements measured with low spatial resolution and large dynamic range. By the proposed method, a wavefront can be correctly measured even if the spot is beyond the detection area. The adaptive spot search method is realized by using the special microlens array that generates both spots and discriminable patterns. The proposed method enables expanding the dynamic range of an SHWFS with a single shot and short processing time. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a conventional SHWFS by optical experiments. Furthermore, the dynamic range of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulations. PMID:27409319

  5. The AOLI low-order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor: laboratory and on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crass, Jonathan; King, David; MacKay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require the use of bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions. Typically these systems use Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors (SHWFS) to distribute incoming light from a reference object between a large number of sub-apertures. Guyon et al. evaluated the sensitivity of several different wavefront sensing techniques and proposed the non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) offering improved sensitivity across a range of orders of distortion. On large ground-based telescopes this can provide nearly 100% sky coverage using natural guide stars. We present work being undertaken on the nlCWFS development for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The wavefront sensor is being developed as part of a low-order adaptive optics system for use in a dedicated instrument providing an AO corrected beam to a Lucky Imaging based science detector. The nlCWFS provides a total of four reference images on two photon-counting EMCCDs for use in the wavefront reconstruction process. We present results from both laboratory work using a calibration system and the first on-sky data obtained with the nlCWFS at the 4.2 metre William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. In addition, we describe the updated optical design of the wavefront sensor, strategies for minimising intrinsic effects and methods to maximise sensitivity using photon-counting detectors. We discuss on-going work to develop the high speed reconstruction algorithm required for the nlCWFS technique. This includes strategies to implement the technique on graphics processing units (GPUs) and to minimise computing overheads to obtain a prior for a rapid convergence of the wavefront reconstruction. Finally we evaluate the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor based upon both data and low-photon count strategies.

  6. Hough transform used on the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Chou-Min; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Chang, Elmer

    2016-01-01

    An approach to the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) is presented. The SHWS has a common problem, in that while measuring high-order wavefront distortion, the spots may exceed each of the subapertures, which are used to restrict the displacement of spots. This artificial restriction may limit the dynamic range of the SHWS. When using the SHWS to measure adaptive optics or aspheric lenses, the accuracy of the traditional spot-centroiding algorithm may be uncertain because the spots leave or cross the confined area of the subapertures. The proposed algorithm combines the Hough transform with an artificial neural network, which requires no confined subapertures, to increase the dynamic range of the SHWS. This algorithm is then explored in comprehensive simulations and the results are compared with those of the existing algorithm.

  7. Optimized microlens-array geometry for Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, O. G.; de Lima Monteiro, D. W.; Costa, R. F. O.

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the fabrication and test of microlens arrays for Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, which were optimized, in terms of geometry, to be applied to the ophthalmic context. The optimization procedure was previously proposed by the authors and comprised the minimization of the wavefront reconstruction error through the use of genetic algorithm. The results indicated that arrays with 10 and 16 suitably located lenses could perform as good as those with a larger number of microlenses (25 or 36) in a rectangular geometry. In the present work, the sequence consisted in fabricating molds in silicon of the optimized array geometries; replicating the molds on polymer; and testing the final arrays on an optical bench, to comparatively assess the performance of the fabricated arrays. In general, final results corroborate with the ones predicted by simulations.

  8. Performance simulation of the ERIS pyramid wavefront sensor module in the VLT adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Agapito, Guido; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Le Louarn, Miska; Marchetti, Enrico

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis based on numerical simulations of the Pyramid Wavefront sensor Module (PWM) to be included in ERIS, the new Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). We have analyzed the performance of the PWM working either in a low-order or in a high-order wavefront sensing mode of operation. We show that the PWM in the high-order sensing mode can provide SR > 90% in K band using bright guide stars under median seeing conditions (0.85 arcsec seeing and 15 m/s of wind speed). In the low-order sensing mode, the PWM can sense and correct Tip-Tilt (and if requested also Focus mode) with the precision required to assist the LGS observations to get an SR > 60% and > 20% in K band, using up to a ~16.5 and ~19.5 R-magnitude guide star, respectively.

  9. Wavefront sensor for the ESA-GAIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosteen, L. L. A.; Draaisma, F.; van Werkhoven, W. P.; van Riel, L. J. M.; Mol, M. H.; den Ouden, G.

    2009-08-01

    TNO developed a Wave Front Sensor (WFS) instrument for the GAIA mission. This Wave Front Sensor will be used to monitor the wave front errors of the two main telescopes mounted on the GAIA satellite, which may be corrected by a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) mechanism during operation. The GAIA-WFS will operate over a broad wavelength (450 to 900 nm) and under cryogenic conditions (130 to 200 K operation temperature). The WFS uses an all reflective, a-thermal design and is of the type of Shack-Hartmann. The boundary condition for the design is that the focal plane of the WFS is the same plane as the focal plane of the GAIA telescopes. The spot pattern generated after a micro lens array (MLA) by a star is compared to the pattern of one of the three calibration sources that is included in the WFS, allowing in flight calibration. We show the robust and lightweight opto mechanical design that is optimised for launch and cryogenic operation. Furthermore we give details on its alignment and commissioning. The WFS can measure wave front distortions in the order of lambda/1000, and determines the focal plane with an accuracy of 50 μm.

  10. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.

  11. Dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on the integration of liquid crystal microlenses and CMOS sensors for obtaining the intensity images and wavefronts of objects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of dual-mode photosensitive arrays (DMPAs) constructed by hybrid integration a liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) driven electrically and a CMOS sensor array, which can be used to measure both the conventional intensity images and corresponding wavefronts of objects. We utilize liquid crystal materials to shape the microlens array with the electrically tunable focal length. Through switching the voltage signal on and off, the wavefronts and the intensity images can be acquired through the DMPAs, sequentially. We use white light to obtain the object's wavefronts for avoiding losing important wavefront information. We separate the white light wavefronts with a large number of spectral components and then experimentally compare them with single spectral wavefronts of typical red, green and blue lasers, respectively. Then we mix the red, green and blue wavefronts to a composite wavefront containing more optical information of the object. PMID:26906768

  12. Development of a pyramidal wavefront sensor test-bench at INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min; Gauvin, Jonny; Martin, Olivier; Savard, Maxime; Bourqui, Pascal; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Deschenes, William; Anctil, Genevieve; Chateauneuf, François

    2013-12-01

    The key technical element of the adaptive optics in astronomy is the wavefront sensing (WFS). One of the advantages of the pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) over the widely used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor seems to be the increased sensitivity in closed-loop applications. A high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range WFS, such as P-WFS technology, still needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes application. At INO, we have recently carried out the optical design, testing and performance evaluation of a P-WFS bench setup. The optical design of the bench setup mainly consists of the super-LED fiber source, source collimator, spatial light modulator (SLM), relay lenses, tip-tilt mirror, Fourier-transforming lens, and a four-faceted glass pyramid with a large vertex angle as well as pupil re-imaged optics. The phase-only SLM has been introduced in the bench setup to generate atmospheric turbulence with a maximum phase shift of more than 2π at each pixel (256 grey levels). Like a modified Foucault knife-edge test, the refractive pyramid element is used to produce four images of the entrance pupil on a CCD camera. The Fourier-transforming lens, which is used before the pyramid prism, is designed for telecentric output to allow dynamic modulation (rotation of the beam around the pyramid-prism center) from a tip-tilt mirror. Furthermore, a P-WFS diffraction-based model has been developed. This model includes most of the system limitations such as the SLM discrete voltage steps and the CCD pixel pitch. The pyramid effects (edges and tip) are considered as well. The modal wavefront reconstruction algorithm relies on the construction of an interaction matrix (one for each modulation's amplitude). Each column of the interaction matrix represents the combination of the four pupil images for a given wavefront aberration. The nice agreement between the data and the model suggest that the limitation of the system is not the P

  13. Characterization of synthetic reconstructors for the pyramid wavefront sensor unit of LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Codona, J.; Hinz, P.; Durney, O.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.

    2010-07-01

    We present progress and results for the pyramid wavefront sensor unit on the Large Binocular Telescope's Interferometer (LBTI). The system is a clone of the pyramid sensor unit developed at Arcetri Observatory for the LUCIFER instrument. We discuss the performance of simulated reconstructors during preliminary on-sky testing at the MMT. These reconstructors were generated with the code AOSim2, a customizable end-to-end simulator of a telescope and its AO system. We used the 3-5μm imager Clio to take fast exposures at 3.8μm, from which we calculated Strehl Ratios (SR) for each pyramid configuration and for the Shack-Hartmann (SH) system currently installed. We obtained instantaneous SR as high as 60% for the pyramid as compared to 65% mean for the SH.We identify improvements which will increase the SR in future implementations. These tests demonstrate the feasibility of commissioning a pyramid wavefront sensor on LBTI using a synthetic reconstructor.

  14. Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joana B.; Feldt, Markus; Wagner, Karl; Bizenberger, Peter; Hippler, Stefan; Baumeister, Harald; Stumpf, Micaela; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Esposito, Simone; Henning, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A new wavefront sensor based on the pyramid principle is being built at MPIA, with the objective of integration in the Calar Alto adaptive optics system ALFA. This sensor will work in the near-infrared wavelength range (J, H and K bands). We present here an update of this project, named PYRAMIR, which will have its first light in some months. Along with the description of the optical design, we discuss issues like the image quality and chromatic effects due to band sensing. We will show the characterization of the tested pyramidal components as well as refer to the difficulties found in the manufacturing process to meet our requirements. Most of the PYRAMIR instrument parts are kept inside a liquid nitrogen cooled vacuum dewar to reduce thermic radiation. The mechanical design of the cold parts is described here. To gain experience, a laboratory pyramid wavefront sensor was set up, with its optical design adapted to PYRAMIR. Different tests were already performed. The electronic and control systems were designed to integrate in the existing ALFA system. We give a description of the new components. An update on the future work is presented.

  15. Time-resolved quantitative-phase microscopy of laser-material interactions using a wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Gallais, Laurent; Monneret, Serge

    2016-07-15

    We report on a simple and efficient technique based on a wavefront sensor to obtain time-resolved amplitude and phase images of laser-material interactions. The main interest of the technique is to obtain quantitative self-calibrated phase measurements in one shot at the femtosecond time-scale, with high spatial resolution. The technique is used for direct observation and quantitative measurement of the Kerr effect in a fused silica substrate and free electron generation by photo-ionization processes in an optical coating. PMID:27420506

  16. Dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on integration of liquid crystal microlenses and CMOS sensors for obtaining intensity images and wavefronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    As we all know, because the index of refraction of the conventional microlens array (MLA) is not variable, the wavefront sensor based on the conventional MLA can only obtain the intensity image with low-resolution when it is used to measure the wavefront information simultaneously. In this paper, we use the dual-mode photosensitive arrays based on the liquid crystal (LC) MLA and CMOS sensors to obtain both intensity images with high-resolution and wavefronts. The dual-mode photosensitive arrays can work between an imaging mode and a wavefront sensor mode by switching the voltage off and on. In the experiment, we compare the composite wavefront of the object exposured in a white light with the wavefronts of the same object in tricolor laser. Because using the monochromatic light to measure the wavefront of an object may loss some information, it is a better method to use the white light for obtaining the wavefront information of the single object in the black background. We also discussed how to mix the wavefronts of the red green and blue laser to make the mixed wavefront which is closer to the composite wavefront.

  17. Guaranteeing Failsafe Operation of Extended-Scene Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erikin

    2009-01-01

    A Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS) is an optical instrument consisting of a lenslet array and a camera. It is widely used for wavefront sensing in optical testing and astronomical adaptive optics. The camera is placed at the focal point of the lenslet array and points at a star or any other point source. The image captured is an array of spot images. When the wavefront error at the lenslet array changes, the position of each spot measurably shifts from its original position. Determining the shifts of the spot images from their reference points shows the extent of the wavefront error. An adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm has been developed to use scenes as well as point sources for wavefront error detection. Qualifying an extended scene image is often not an easy task due to changing conditions in scene content, illumination level, background, Poisson noise, read-out noise, dark current, sampling format, and field of view. The proposed new technique based on ACC algorithm analyzes the effects of these conditions on the performance of the ACC algorithm and determines the viability of an extended scene image. If it is viable, then it can be used for error correction; if it is not, the image fails and will not be further processed. By potentially testing for a wide variety of conditions, the algorithm s accuracy can be virtually guaranteed. In a typical application, the ACC algorithm finds image shifts of more than 500 Shack-Hartmann camera sub-images relative to a reference sub -image or cell when performing one wavefront sensing iteration. In the proposed new technique, a pair of test and reference cells is selected from the same frame, preferably from two well-separated locations. The test cell is shifted by an integer number of pixels, say, for example, from m= -5 to 5 along the x-direction by choosing a different area on the same sub-image, and the shifts are estimated using the ACC algorithm. The same is done in the y-direction. If the resulting shift

  18. Tests and evaluation of a variable focus liquid lens for curvature wavefront sensors in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Cuevas, Salvador; Álvarez-Nuñez, Luis C; Watson, Alan

    2013-10-20

    Curvature wavefront sensors (WFSs), which obtain the wavefront aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane, have shown to be highly efficient for astronomical applications. We propose here an alternative defocusing mechanism for curvature sensors, based on an electrowetting-based variable focus liquid lens. Typically, the sampling rates of a WFS for active optics are of the order of 0.01 Hz, and the focus modulation can be done by simply moving the detector back and forth. On the other hand, adaptive optics may require speeds of up to several hundred hertz, and the modulation is then done by using a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We believe variable focus liquid lenses may be able to perform this focus modulation, reducing the overall size of the system and without the need of extra moving parts. We have done a full characterization of the Varioptic Arctic 416 liquid lens, and we have evaluated its potential performance in different curvature configurations. PMID:24216579

  19. Expansion of dynamic range in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using dual microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori

    2015-12-01

    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) which consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations in various fields owing to its advantages such as simple configuration. However, a conventional SHWFS has the finite dynamic range. The dynamic range cannot be expanded without sacrificing the spatial resolution and the sensitivity in a conventional SHWFS. In this study, the SHWFS using a dual microlens array to solve the problem is proposed. In the proposed method, an astigmatic microlens is arranged at the center of a group of 2 x 2 spherical microlenses. A pattern image including spots and linear patterns is obtained at the focal plane by the dual microlens array. The pattern image can be separated into two images as if two microlens array with different diameter were used by discriminating spots from linear patterns with the pattern matching technique. The proposed method enables to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS by using the separated two images. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed by the numerical simulation for measuring a spherical wave.

  20. Effects of differential wavefront sensor bias drifts on high contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadakuni, Naru; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Palmer, David W.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Max, Claire E.; Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Serio, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility, extreme adaptive optics (AO), coronagraphic instrument, currently being integrated onto the 8-meter Gemini South telescope, with the ultimate goal of directly imaging extrasolar planets. To achieve the contrast required for the desired science, it is necessary to quantify and mitigate wavefront error (WFE). A large source of potential static WFE arises from the primary AO wavefront sensor (WFS) detector's use of multiple readout segments with independent signal chains including on-chip preamplifiers and external amplifiers. Temperature changes within GPI's electronics cause drifts in readout segments' bias levels, inducing an RMS WFE of 1.1 nm and 41.9 nm over 4.44 degrees Celsius, for magnitude 4 and 11 stars, respectively. With a goal of <2 nm of static WFE, these are significant enough to require remedial action. Simulations imply a requirement to take fresh WFS darks every 2 degrees Celsius of temperature change, for a magnitude 6 star; similarly, for a magnitude 7 star, every 1 degree Celsius of temperature change. For sufficiently dim stars, bias drifts exceed the signal, causing a large initial WFE, and the former periodic requirement practically becomes an instantaneous/continuous one, making the goal of <2 nm of static WFE very difficult for stars of magnitude 9 or fainter. In extreme cases, this can cause the AO loops to destabilize due to perceived nonphysical wavefronts, as some of the WFS's Shack-Hartmann quadcells are split between multiple readout segments. Presented here is GPI's AO WFS geometry, along with detailed steps in the simulation used to quantify bias drift related WFE, followed by laboratory and on sky results, and concluded with possible methods of remediation.

  1. Iteratively Weighted Centroiding for Shack-Hartmann Wave-Front Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K L; Moallem, M M

    2007-02-28

    Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. In this article we introduce an iterative weighted technique which is specifically targeted for open-loop applications such as aberrometers and metrology. In this article the iterative centroiding technique is compared to existing techniques such as center-of-mass with thresholding, weighted center-of-gravity, matched filter and cross-correlation. Under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio, the iterative weighted centroiding algorithm is demonstrated to produce a lower variance in the reconstructed phase than existing techniques. The iteratively weighted algorithm was also compared in closed-loop and demonstrated to have the lowest error variance along with the weighted center-of-gravity, however, the iteratively weighted algorithm removes the bulk of the aberration in roughly half the iterations than the weighted center-of-gravity algorithm. This iterative weighted algorithm is also well suited to applications such as guiding on telescopes.

  2. Auto gain control of EMCCD in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Mu, QuanQuan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Wang, Shaoxin; Xuan, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (S-H WFS) makes the wavefront sensing more efficient for adaptive optics (AO). However when the brightness of the observed target changes in large ranges in a few minutes, a fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain may not be optimum. Thus an auto-gain-control (AGC) method based on the spots image of the S-H WFS is proposed. The designed control value is the average value of the maximum signals of all the light spots in a frame. It has been demonstrated in the experiments that the control value is sensitive to the change of the target brightness, and is stable in the presence of detecting noises and turbulence influence. The goal value for control is predetermined based on the linear relation of the signal with the EM gain and the number of photons collected in sub-apertures. The conditions of the self-protection of the EMCCD are also considered for the goal value. Simulations and experiments indicate that the proposed control method is efficient, and keeps the sensing in a high SNR which reaches the upper SNR limit when sensing with EMCCD. The self-protection of the EMCCD is avoided during the whole sensing process.

  3. Focal plane wavefront sensor achromatization: The multireference self-coherent camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, J. R.; Galicher, R.; Baudoz, P.; Rousset, G.; Mazoyer, J.; Dupuis, O.

    2016-04-01

    Context. High contrast imaging and spectroscopy provide unique constraints for exoplanet formation models as well as for planetary atmosphere models. But this can be challenging because of the planet-to-star small angular separation (<1 arcsec) and high flux ratio (>105). Recently, optimized instruments like VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI were installed on 8m-class telescopes. These will probe young gazeous exoplanets at large separations (≳1 au) but, because of uncalibrated phase and amplitude aberrations that induce speckles in the coronagraphic images, they are not able to detect older and fainter planets. Aims: There are always aberrations that are slowly evolving in time. They create quasi-static speckles that cannot be calibrated a posteriori with sufficient accuracy. An active correction of these speckles is thus needed to reach very high contrast levels (>106-107). This requires a focal plane wavefront sensor. Our team proposed a self coherent camera, the performance of which was demonstrated in the laboratory. As for all focal plane wavefront sensors, these are sensitive to chromatism and we propose an upgrade that mitigates the chromatism effects. Methods: First, we recall the principle of the self-coherent camera and we explain its limitations in polychromatic light. Then, we present and numerically study two upgrades to mitigate chromatism effects: the optical path difference method and the multireference self-coherent camera. Finally, we present laboratory tests of the latter solution. Results: We demonstrate in the laboratory that the multireference self-coherent camera can be used as a focal plane wavefront sensor in polychromatic light using an 80 nm bandwidth at 640 nm (bandwidth of 12.5%). We reach a performance that is close to the chromatic limitations of our bench: 1σ contrast of 4.5 × 10-8 between 5 and 17 λ0/D. Conclusions: The performance of the MRSCC is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to actively minimize the

  4. Determining the phase and amplitude distortion of a wavefront using a plenoptic sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C

    2015-05-01

    We have designed a plenoptic sensor to retrieve phase and amplitude changes resulting from a laser beam's propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Compared with the commonly restricted domain of (-π,π) in phase reconstruction by interferometers, the reconstructed phase obtained by the plenoptic sensors can be continuous up to a multiple of 2π. When compared with conventional Shack-Hartmann sensors, ambiguities caused by interference or low intensity, such as branch points and branch cuts, are less likely to happen and can be adaptively avoided by our reconstruction algorithm. In the design of our plenoptic sensor, we modified the fundamental structure of a light field camera into a mini Keplerian telescope array by accurately cascading the back focal plane of its object lens with a microlens array's front focal plane and matching the numerical aperture of both components. Unlike light field cameras designed for incoherent imaging purposes, our plenoptic sensor operates on the complex amplitude of the incident beam and distributes it into a matrix of images that are simpler and less subject to interference than a global image of the beam. Then, with the proposed reconstruction algorithms, the plenoptic sensor is able to reconstruct the wavefront and a phase screen at an appropriate depth in the field that causes the equivalent distortion on the beam. The reconstructed results can be used to guide adaptive optics systems in directing beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we will show the theoretical analysis and experimental results obtained with the plenoptic sensor and its reconstruction algorithms. PMID:26366923

  5. Time-resolved deformation measurement of Yb:YAG thin disk using wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyla, Michal; Nagisetty, Shiva S.; Severova, Patricie; Miura, Taisuke; Mann, Klaus; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    Even though thin-disk medium mounted on a diamond substrate is generally used for high average power operation, we found that the pulsed pumping of the Yb:YAG thin-disk mounded on a copper-tungsten heatsink could improve both optical-to-optical O-O efficiency and beam quality. We are expecting that the increase of O-O efficiency is caused by the suppression of ASE. However, the mechanism of beam quality improvement is not clear. We developed a precise measurement system of thin-disk deformations based on a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. Investigating thin-disk dynamics under pulsed pumping can help to greatly improve the mode matching and allow obtaining higher output energy.

  6. Improving the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor with modal sensitivity compensation.

    PubMed

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Vérinaud, Christophe; Le Louarn, Miska

    2008-01-01

    We describe a solution to increase the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) under bad seeing conditions. We show that most of the issues involve a reduced sensitivity that depends on the magnitude of the high frequency atmospheric distortions. We demonstrate in end-to-end closed loop adaptive optics simulations that with a modal sensitivity compensation method a high-order system with a nonmodulated P-WFS is robust in conditions with the Fried parameter r 0 at 0.5 microm in the range of 0.05-0.10 m. We also show that the method makes it possible to use a modal predictive control system to reach a total performance improvement of 0.06-0.45 in Strehl ratio at 1.6 microm. Especially at r 0=0.05 m the gain is dramatic. PMID:18157280

  7. An SLM-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for aberration correction in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Richard W.; Wright, Amanda J.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2010-12-01

    Holographic optical tweezers allow the creation of multiple optical traps in 3D configurations through the use of dynamic diffractive optical elements called spatial light modulators (SLMs). We show that, in addition to controlling traps, the SLM in a holographic tweezers system can be both the principal element of a wavefront sensor and the corrective element in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. This means that aberrations in such systems can be estimated and corrected without altering the experimental setup. Aberrations are estimated using the Shack-Hartmann method, where an array of spots is projected into the sample plane and the distortion of this array is used to recover the aberration. The system can recover aberrations of up to ten wavelengths peak-peak, and is sensitive to aberrations much smaller than a wavelength. The spot pattern could also be analysed by eye, as a tool for aligning the system.

  8. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  9. Time-resolved measurement of thermally induced aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab with a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikocinski, P.; Novak, O.; Smrz, M.; Pilar, J.; Jambunathan, V.; Jelínková, H.; Endo, A.; Lucianetti, A.; Mocek, T.

    2016-04-01

    The time-resolved measurements of thermally induced wavefront aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG crystal are presented in dependence on temperature in the range between 250 and 130 K under non-lasing condition. A wavefront sensor was utilized to determine the wavefront aberrations. The wavefront distortions were experimentally studied for a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG crystal in detail for the first time. The wavefront aberrations were significantly reduced at cryogenic temperatures including defocus which was the dominant aberration and which was responsible for the so-called thermal lensing effect. We found that defocus aberration is caused not only by thermally induced effects (responsible for thermal lens), but also by electronically induced change in the refractive index due to excitation of ion activators which is responsible for the electronic lensing. Nevertheless, at pumping intensity of 6.3 kW/cm2 and repetition rate of 100 Hz thermal effects were the dominant one. In addition, an improvement in the Strehl ratio along with an increase in absorbed pump energy was observed while the temperature of the gain medium was decreased. The measurements clearly show the advantages of cryogenic cooling of laser-active media for beam quality improvement.

  10. Using partial sensor information to orient parts

    SciTech Connect

    Akella, S.; Mason, M.T.

    1999-10-01

    Parts orienting, the process of bringing parts in initially unknown orientations to a goal orientation, is an important aspect of automated assembly. The most common industrial orienting systems are vibratory bowl feeders, which use the shape and mass properties of parts to orient them. Bowl feeders rely on a sequence of mechanical operations and typically do not use sensors. In this paper, the authors describe the use of partial information sensors along with a sequence of pushing operations to eliminate uncertainty in the orientation of parts. The authors characterize the shorter execution lengths of sensor-based plans and show that sensor-based plans are more powerful than sensorless plans in that they can bring a larger class of parts to distinct orientations. The authors characterize the relation among part shape, orientability; and recognizability to identify conditions under which a single plan can orient and recognize multiple part shapes. Although part shape determines the results of the actions and the sensed information, the authors establish that differences in part shape do not always lead to differences in part behavior. The authors show that for any convex polygon, there exists an infinite set of nonsimilar convex polygons that behave identically under linear normal pushes. Furthermore, there exists a infinite set of nonsimilar convex polygons whose behavior cannot be distinguished even with diameter sensing after each push. They authors have implemented several planners and demonstrated generated plans in experiments.

  11. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  12. Revisiting the comparison between the Shack-Hartmann and the pyramid wavefront sensors via the Fisher information matrix.

    PubMed

    Plantet, C; Meimon, S; Conan, J-M; Fusco, T

    2015-11-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging with large ground based telescopes requires eXtreme Adaptive Optics that couples high-order adaptive optics and coronagraphy. A key element of such systems is the high-order wavefront sensor. We study here several high-order wavefront sensing approaches, and more precisely compare their sensitivity to noise. Three techniques are considered: the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the recently proposed LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor. They are compared in a unified framework based on precise diffractive models and on the Fisher information matrix, which conveys the information present in the data whatever the estimation method. The diagonal elements of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, which we use as a figure of merit, are similar to noise propagation coefficients. With these diagonal elements, so called "Fisher coefficients", we show that the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors outperform the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. In photon noise regime, the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and modulated pyramid sensors obtain a similar overall noise propagation. The LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor however provides attractive noise properties on high orders. PMID:26561131

  13. Numerical research of measurements of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor according to the parameters of its optical parts and the intensity of turbulent distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goleneva, N. V.; Lavrinov, V.; Lavrinova, L. N.

    2015-11-01

    The wavefront sensor of Hartmann type consists of two parts: the optical and algorithmic. The parameters of the optical part of the sensor may vary. Since the time of "frozen" turbulence due to the Fried's length and to the cross wind transport turbulent distortion speed, the measurement Shack-Hartmann sensor depend on the intensity of turbulent distortions. In this paper are presented the results of the analysis of the measurements of the sensor according to the size of lens array and to the intensity of turbulent distortions. The analysis is performed on basis of a numerical model of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and on Kolmogorov's turbulence model.

  14. Measuring the shape of membrane mirror based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Yang, Bin; Tang, Minxue; Chen, Xinhua

    2013-12-01

    Compared with traditional mirrors, a membrane mirror made of flexible film material has the advantages of folding and deployable, lightweight, low cost and etc, and it is prospected to be used as large aperture space optical elements. In order to solve the problem of measuring the shape of the membrane mirror, a method based on the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing has been studied in this paper. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing system and the principle of wavefront detection are introduced firstly. In this system, the measured wavefront is collected by the microlens of the lenslets and focus on the CCD, the light spot coordinate offsets relative to the ideal spots are got and then the wavefront can be reconstructed. Secondly, according to the optical properties of a membrane mirror, the membrane mirror wavefront detection system has been designed and established. The preprocessing of the light spot image of the testing wavefront focused by the microlens array, the determination of the centroid coordination and the algorithm of wavefront reconstruction modal based on Zernike polynomials are researched and a program for reconstructing the wavefront is written with in Matlab. When measuring, in order to eliminate the influence of other optical components in the detection system on the testing wavefront, a standard plane mirror is used to calibrate the system. A glass planar mirror made of glass with a diameter of 50mm and a known distribution of surface shape is used to verify the feasibility of the test system and the correction of the algorithm. Finally, the wavefront of a membrane mirror with a diameter of 85mm is measured and the errors are analyzed. It provides a means of measuring the shape of membrane mirror.

  15. An adjustable, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range two channel wave-front sensor based on moiré deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Saifollah; Dashti, M; Ramaprakash, Anamparambu N

    2010-11-01

    An adjustable, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range two channel wave-front sensor based on moiré deflectometry has been constructed for measuring distortions of light wave-front transmitted through the atmosphere. In this approach, a slightly divergent laser beam is passed through the turbulent ground level atmosphere and then a beam-splitter divides it into two beams. The beams pass through a pair of moiré deflectometers which are installed parallel and close together. From deviations in the moiré fringes we calculate the two orthogonal components of angle of arrival at each location across the wave-front. The deviations have been deduced in successive frames which allows evolution of the wave-front shape to be determined. The dynamic range and sensitivity of detection are adjustable by merely changing the separation of the gratings and the angle between the rulings of the gratings in both of channels. The spatial resolution of the method is also adjustable by means of bright, dark, and virtual traces for given moiré fringes without paying a toll in the measurement precision. PMID:21164736

  16. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  17. The ARGOS wavefront sensor pnCCD camera for an ELT: characteristics, limitations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Xivry, G. Orban; Ihle, S.; Ziegleder, J.; Barl, L.; Hartmann, R.; Rabien, S.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.

    2011-09-01

    From low-order to high-order AO, future wave front sensors on ELTs require large, fast, and low-noise detectors with high quantum efficiency and low dark current. While a detector for a high-order Shack-Hartmann WFS does not exist yet, the current CCD technology pushed to its limits already provides several solutions for the ELT AO detector requirements. One of these devices is the new WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS, the Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system (GLAO) for LUCIFER at LBT. Indeed, with its 264x264 pixels, 48 mu m pixel size and 1kHz frame rate, this camera provides a technological solution to different needs of the AO systems for ELTs, such as low-order but as well possibly higher order correction using pyramid wavefront sensing. In this contribution, we present the newly developped WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS and how it fulfills future detector needs of AO on ELTs.

  18. Wavefront sensor for the Large Binocular Telescope laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, L.; Esposito, S.; Rabien, S.; Haug, M.; Ziegleder, J.; Hölzl, G.

    2008-07-01

    A laser guide star facility is currently being planned for the LBT. The first step of the program aims at the implementation of a ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system tailored on the wide-field imager / multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER having a 4x4' FoV. The current design is based on multiple Rayleigh guide stars arranged in a 2-5 arcmin angular radius constellation. A future update path toward small-field diffraction limited performances is foreseen using a hybrid system of sodium and Rayleigh beacons promising lower power requirements for the sodium laser. In this paper we present the estimated performances for both the GLAO and the hybrid implementations and we introduce the wavefront sensors opto-mechanical design . Simulations of the GLAO system show an expected gain in FWHM and encircled energy of 1.5-3 (depending on atmospheric turbulence profiles) with a FWHM variation over LUCIFER FoV below 10% and point out the role of such a GLAO system as PSF stabilizer both over the FoV and with respect to seeing temporal variations. Results of simulations for the hybrid configurations will be presented.

  19. Improved shift estimates on extended Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townson, M. J.; Kellerer, A.; Saunter, C. D.

    2015-10-01

    An important factor which affects performance of solar adaptive optics (AO) systems is the accuracy of tracking an extended object in the wavefront sensor. The accuracy of a centre-of-mass approach to image shift measurement depends on the parameters applied in thresholding the recorded image; however, there exists no analytical prediction for these parameters for extended objects. Motivated by this we present a new method for exploring the parameter space of image shift measurement algorithms, and apply this to optimize the parameters of the algorithm. Using a thresholded, windowed centre of mass, we are able to improve centroid accuracy compared to the typical parabolic fitting approach by a factor of 3 in a signal-to-noise regime typical for solar AO. Exploration of the parameters occurs after initial image cross-correlation with a reference image, so does not require regeneration of correlation images. The results presented employ methods which can be used in real-time to estimate the error on centroids, allowing the system to use real data to optimize parameters, without needing to enter a separate calibration mode. This method can also be applied outside of solar AO to any field which requires the tracking of an extended object.

  20. Performance evaluation of a SCAO system for a 42-m telescope using the pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Le Louarn, Miska

    2010-07-01

    We perform simulations of a single-conjugated adaptive optics (SCAO) system for an E-ELT-like telescope using a pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) and an on-axis NGS. The advantage of this WFS has already been demonstrated, being currently preferred in many AO systems where high signal sensitivity is critical. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of such SCAO system under different control parameters (loop gain, modulation, truncated SVD mode), sensing wavelengths, atmospheric coherence scales and NGS magnitudes. Always adopting K as the science band, we have verified that the overall performance tends to be poorer as the sensing wavelength becomes shorter. The loop gain optimal range is dependent on the SVD truncation threshold used to build the command matrix, and a non-modulated PWFS produces in general poorer results when compared to modulated cases, being this especially true for the R- sensing band. The default atmospheric model adopted was a von Karman with r0=0.13m (at 500nm) and outer scale of 25m, but poorer and better seeing conditions have also been tested. The long-exposure Strehls are better in larger modulations. The telescope pupil has a central obstruction of 28% but no spiders were included. We also show results for the incidence of different photon fluxes at the PWFS detector.

  1. Compared performance of different centroiding algorithms for high-pass filtered laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardière, Olivier; Conan, Rodolphe; Clare, Richard; Bradley, Colin; Hubin, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Variations of the sodium layer altitude and atom density profile induce errors on laser-guide-star (LGS) adaptive optics systems. These errors must be mitigated by (i), optimizing the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) and the centroiding algorithm, and (ii), by adding a high-pass filter on the LGS path and a low-bandwidth natural-guide-star WFS. In the context of the ESO E-ELT project, five centroiding algorithms, namely the centre-of-gravity (CoG), the weighted CoG, the matched filter, the quad-cell and the correlation, have been evaluated in closedloop on the University of Victoria LGS wavefront sensing test bed. Each centroiding algorithm performance is compared for a central versus side-launch laser, different fields of view, pixel sampling, and LGS flux.

  2. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-06-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  3. Implementation of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for the measurement of embryo-induced aberrations using fluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azucena, Oscar; Kubby, Joel; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot

    2009-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) improves the quality of astronomical imaging systems by using real time measurement of the turbulent medium in the optical path using a guide star (natural or artificial) as a point source reference beacon. AO has also been applied to vision science to improve the current view of the human eye. This paper will address our current research focused on the improvement of fluorescent microscopy for biological imaging utilizing current AO technology. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) was used to measure the aberration introduced by a Drosophila Melanogaster embryo with an implanted 1 micron fluorescent bead that serves as a point source reference beacon. The measurements show an average peak-to-valley and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error of 0.77 micrometers and 0.15 micrometers, respectively. The Zernike coefficients have been measured for these aberrations which indicate that the correction of the first 14 Zernike coefficients should be sufficient to correct the aberrations we have obtained. These results support the utilization of SHWS for biological imaging applications and that a MEMS deformable mirror with 1 micron of stroke and 100 actuators will be sufficient to correct these aberrations. The design, assembly and initial results for the use of a MEMS deformable mirror, SHWS and implanted fluorescent reference beacon for wavefront correction will also be discussed.

  4. Sensor Localization from Distance and Orientation Constraints.

    PubMed

    Porta, Josep M; Rull, Aleix; Thomas, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The sensor localization problem can be formalized using distance and orientation constraints, typically in 3D. Local methods can be used to refine an initial location estimation, but in many cases such estimation is not available and a method able to determine all the feasible solutions from scratch is necessary. Unfortunately, existing methods able to find all the solutions in distance space can not take into account orientations, or they can only deal with one- or two-dimensional problems and their extension to 3D is troublesome. This paper presents a method that addresses these issues. The proposed approach iteratively projects the problem to decrease its dimension, then reduces the ranges of the variable distances, and back-projects the result to the original dimension, to obtain a tighter approximation of the feasible sensor locations. This paper extends previous works introducing accurate range reduction procedures which effectively integrate the orientation constraints. The mutual localization of a fleet of robots carrying sensors and the position analysis of a sensor moved by a parallel manipulator are used to validate the approach. PMID:27428977

  5. Sensor Localization from Distance and Orientation Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Josep M.; Rull, Aleix; Thomas, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The sensor localization problem can be formalized using distance and orientation constraints, typically in 3D. Local methods can be used to refine an initial location estimation, but in many cases such estimation is not available and a method able to determine all the feasible solutions from scratch is necessary. Unfortunately, existing methods able to find all the solutions in distance space can not take into account orientations, or they can only deal with one- or two-dimensional problems and their extension to 3D is troublesome. This paper presents a method that addresses these issues. The proposed approach iteratively projects the problem to decrease its dimension, then reduces the ranges of the variable distances, and back-projects the result to the original dimension, to obtain a tighter approximation of the feasible sensor locations. This paper extends previous works introducing accurate range reduction procedures which effectively integrate the orientation constraints. The mutual localization of a fleet of robots carrying sensors and the position analysis of a sensor moved by a parallel manipulator are used to validate the approach. PMID:27428977

  6. Improving centroiding by super-resolution reconstruction of sodium layer density in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors.

    PubMed

    Mello, Alexandre J T S; Pipa, Daniel R

    2016-05-10

    Adaptive optics in the new generation of large telescopes, over 24 m in diameter, present new challenges. One of them is spot elongation in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors when using laser guide stars. The laser brightness depends on the sodium layer density profile, and this is reproduced in the format of an elongated spot. The pattern of the spot is a problem for centroiding techniques, and knowledge of the sodium layer profile is essential for adequate centroiding. In this work, we propose a super-resolution reconstruction technique that combines the information available in various low-resolution elongated spots over the sub-apertures of the sensor to obtain a high-resolution sodium layer density profile that can be used as a reference in centroiding. This is achieved with the information available in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor only, dispensing with external measurements. Finally, we present simulation results of an iterative method that yields a super-resolved sodium layer density profile jointly with improved centroiding. PMID:27168279

  7. Development of an ELT XAO testbed using a Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor: calibration of the deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Christian; Langlois, Maud P.; Loupias, Magali; Thiébaut, Eric; Adjali, Louisa; Leger, Jonathan; Tallon, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Extreme adaptive optics (XAO) encounters severe difficulties to cope with the high speed (<1kHz), high accuracy and high order requirements for future extremely large telescopes. An innovative high order adaptive optics system using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor (MZWFS) allows counteracting these limitations. This sensor estimates very accurately the wavefront phase at small spatial scale by measuring intensity differences between two outputs, with a λ/4 path length difference between its two legs, but is limited in dynamic range due to phase ambiguity. During the past few years, such an XAO system has been studied by our team in the framework of 8-meter class telescopes. In this work, we report on our latest results with the XAO testbed recently installed in our lab, and dedicated to high contrast imaging with 30m-class telescopes (such as the E-ELT or the TMT). After reminding the principle of a MZWFS and describing the optical layout of our experiment, we will show the results of the assessment of the woofer-tweeter phase correctors, i.e., a Boston Micromachine continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) and a Boulder Nonlinear Systems liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). In particular, we will detail the calibration of the DM using Zygo interferometer metrology. Our method consists in the precise measurement of the membrane deformation while applying a constant deformation to 9 out of 140 actuators at the same time. By varying the poke voltage across the DM operating range, we propose a simple but efficient way of modeling the DM influence function using a Gaussian model. Finally, we show the DM flattening on the MZWFS allowing to compensate for low order aberrations. This work is carried out in synergy with the validation of fast iterative wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and the optimal treatment of phase ambiguities in order to mitigate the dynamical range limitation of such an MZWFS.

  8. Use of the LIGA process for the production of pyramid wavefront sensors for adaptive optics in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, Mauro; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Perennes, Frederic; Ragazzoni, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Nowadays many groups in the world are developing adaptive optics (AO) systems for the real time correction of the aberrations introduced by the turbolence of the atmosphere in the field of view of the astronomical telescopes. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been often used for the detection of the optical aberrations but over the past few years an alternative wavefront sensor with pyramidic shape has being developed. The properties of this sensor have been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally (for example in the AO module of the Italian "Telescopio Nazionale Galileo"). Important features of this pyramidal sensor are that it offers the advantage of either variable gain against the wavefront deformation and tunable sampling of the telescope pupil. These features translate into a considerable gain in the limiting magnitude of the reference star when compared to the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. The manufacturing of single pyramid prototypes has been initially accomplished using the classical figuring and polishing technique, a time consuming procedure. Since the multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO) that are under study, foresee the use of a large number of identical pyramids, it has been investigated and developed an alternative method for the mass production of this optical component. Using a lithography-dedicated beamline already operating at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Trieste, a manufacturing technique has been implemented that uses a process named LIGA [Lithography, electroplating (German: Galvanik) and molding (German: Abformung)]. With this method is it possible to create a master pyramid made of a polymeric material and having the characteristics requested. The master is then used to create a metallic mold by means of electroforming. In the end the mold is used for the molding of a number of identical pyramids made in a suitable amorphous optical polymer, using the technique of the hot embossing. This technique produce

  9. Approach for Improving the Integrated Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Ercolin Filho, L.; Graça, N.; Centeno, J.

    2016-06-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system). In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO), is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD). The experimental results are shown and discussed.

  10. Curvature-Based Wavefront Sensor for Use on Extended, Arbitrary, Low-Contract Scenes Final Technical Report August 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBonte, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    A small amount of work has been done on this project; the strategy to be adopted has been better defined, though no experimental work has been started. 1) Wavefront error signals: The best choice appears use a lenslet array at a pupil image to produce defocused image pairs for each subaperture. Then use the method proposed by Molodij et al. to produce subaperture curvature signals. Basically, this method samples a moderate number of locations in the image where the value of the image Laplacian is high, then taking the curvature signal from the difference of the Laplacians of the extrafocal images at those locations. The tip-tilt error is obtained from the temporal dependence of the first spatial derivatives of an in-focus image, at selected locations where these derivatives are significant. The wavefront tilt can be obtained from the full-aperture image. 2) Extrafocal image generation: The important aspect here is to generate symmetrically defocused images, with dynamically adjustable defocus. The adjustment is needed because larger defocus is required before the feedback loop is closed, and at times when the seeing is worse. It may be that the usual membrane mirror is the best choice, though other options should be explored. 3) Detector: Since the proposed sensor is to work on solar granulation, rather than a point source, an array detector for each subaperture is required. A fast CMOS camera such as that developed by the National Solar Observatory would be a satisfactory choice. 4) Processing: Processing requirements have not been defined in detail, though significantly fewer operations per cycle are required than for a correlation tracker.

  11. Lyot-based low order wavefront sensor: implementation on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System and its laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovich, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas G.

    2014-08-01

    High throughput, low inner working angle (IWA) phase masks coronagraphs are essential to directly image and characterize (via spectroscopy) earth-like planets. However, the performance of low-IWA coronagraphs is limited by residual pointing errors and other low-order modes. The extent to which wavefront aberrations upstream of the coronagraph are corrected and calibrated drives coronagraphic performance. Addressing this issue is essential for preventing coronagraphic leaks, thus we have developed a Lyot-based low order wave front sensor (LLOWFS) to control the wavefront aberrations in a coronagraph. The LLOWFS monitors the starlight rejected by the coronagraphic mask using a reflective Lyot stop in the downstream pupil plane. The early implementation of LLOWFS at LESIA, Observatoire de Paris demonstrated an open loop measurement accuracy of 0.01 λ/D for tip-tilt at 638 nm when used in conjunction with a four quadrant phase mask (FQPM) in the laboratory. To further demonstrate our concept, we have installed the reflective Lyot stops on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope and modified the system to support small IWA phase mask coronagraphs (< 1λ/D) on-sky such as FQPM, eight octant phase mask, vector vortex coronagraph and the phase induced amplitude apodization complex phase mask coronagraph with a goal of obtaining milli arc-second pointing accuracy. Laboratory results have shown the measurement of tip, tilt, focus, oblique and right astigmatism at 1.55 μm for the vector vortex coronagraph. Our initial on-sky result demonstrate the closed loop accuracy of < 7 x 10-3 λ/D at 1.6 μm for tip, tilt and focus aberrations with the vector vortex coronagraph.

  12. Utilization of the Wavefront Sensor and Short-exposure Images for Simultaneous Estimation of Quasi-static Aberration and Exoplanet Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2013-04-01

    Heretofore, the literature on exoplanet detection with coronagraphic telescope systems has paid little attention to the information content of short exposures and methods of utilizing the measurements of adaptive optics wavefront sensors. This paper provides a framework for the incorporation of the wavefront sensor measurements in the context of observing modes in which the science camera takes millisecond exposures. In this formulation, the wavefront sensor measurements provide a means to jointly estimate the static speckle and the planetary signal. The ability to estimate planetary intensities in as little as a few seconds has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of exoplanet search surveys. For simplicity, the mathematical development assumes a simple optical system with an idealized Lyot coronagraph. Unlike currently used methods, in which increasing the observation time beyond a certain threshold is useless, this method produces estimates whose error covariances decrease more quickly than inversely proportional to the observation time. This is due to the fact that the estimates of the quasi-static aberrations are informed by a new random (but approximately known) wavefront every millisecond. The method can be extended to include angular (due to diurnal field rotation) and spectral diversity. Numerical experiments are performed with wavefront data from the AEOS Adaptive Optics System sensing at 850 nm. These experiments assume a science camera wavelength λ of 1.1 μ, that the measured wavefronts are exact, and a Gaussian approximation of shot-noise. The effects of detector read-out noise and other issues are left to future investigations. A number of static aberrations are introduced, including one with a spatial frequency exactly corresponding the planet location, which was at a distance of ≈3λ/D from the star. Using only 4 s of simulated observation time, a planetary intensity, of ≈1 photon ms-1, and a stellar intensity of ≈105 photons ms-1

  13. UTILIZATION OF THE WAVEFRONT SENSOR AND SHORT-EXPOSURE IMAGES FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF QUASI-STATIC ABERRATION AND EXOPLANET INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2013-04-10

    Heretofore, the literature on exoplanet detection with coronagraphic telescope systems has paid little attention to the information content of short exposures and methods of utilizing the measurements of adaptive optics wavefront sensors. This paper provides a framework for the incorporation of the wavefront sensor measurements in the context of observing modes in which the science camera takes millisecond exposures. In this formulation, the wavefront sensor measurements provide a means to jointly estimate the static speckle and the planetary signal. The ability to estimate planetary intensities in as little as a few seconds has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of exoplanet search surveys. For simplicity, the mathematical development assumes a simple optical system with an idealized Lyot coronagraph. Unlike currently used methods, in which increasing the observation time beyond a certain threshold is useless, this method produces estimates whose error covariances decrease more quickly than inversely proportional to the observation time. This is due to the fact that the estimates of the quasi-static aberrations are informed by a new random (but approximately known) wavefront every millisecond. The method can be extended to include angular (due to diurnal field rotation) and spectral diversity. Numerical experiments are performed with wavefront data from the AEOS Adaptive Optics System sensing at 850 nm. These experiments assume a science camera wavelength {lambda} of 1.1 {mu}, that the measured wavefronts are exact, and a Gaussian approximation of shot-noise. The effects of detector read-out noise and other issues are left to future investigations. A number of static aberrations are introduced, including one with a spatial frequency exactly corresponding the planet location, which was at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 3{lambda}/D from the star. Using only 4 s of simulated observation time, a planetary intensity, of Almost-Equal-To 1 photon ms{sup -1

  14. Workflow-Oriented Cyberinfrastructure for Sensor Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R. W.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Sensor streams comprise an increasingly large part of Earth Science data. Analytics based on sensor data require an easy way to perform operations such as acquisition, conversion to physical units, metadata linking, sensor fusion, analysis and visualization on distributed sensor streams. Furthermore, embedding real-time sensor data into scientific workflows is of growing interest. We have implemented a scalable networked architecture that can be used to dynamically access packets of data in a stream from multiple sensors, and perform synthesis and analysis across a distributed network. Our system is based on the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (irods.org), which accesses sensor data from the Antelope Real Time Data System (brtt.com), and provides virtualized access to collections of data streams. We integrate real-time data streaming from different sources, collected for different purposes, on different time and spatial scales, and sensed by different methods. iRODS, noted for its policy-oriented data management, brings to sensor processing features and facilities such as single sign-on, third party access control lists ( ACLs), location transparency, logical resource naming, and server-side modeling capabilities while reducing the burden on sensor network operators. Rich integrated metadata support also makes it straightforward to discover data streams of interest and maintain data provenance. The workflow support in iRODS readily integrates sensor processing into any analytical pipeline. The system is developed as part of the NSF-funded Datanet Federation Consortium (datafed.org). APIs for selecting, opening, reaping and closing sensor streams are provided, along with other helper functions to associate metadata and convert sensor packets into NetCDF and JSON formats. Near real-time sensor data including seismic sensors, environmental sensors, LIDAR and video streams are available through this interface. A system for archiving sensor data and metadata in Net

  15. Wavefront Compensation Segmented Mirror Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David C.; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andrew; Bradford, Charles M.; Woody, David; Padin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The primary mirror of very large submillimeter-wave telescopes will necessarily be segmented into many separate mirror panels. These panels must be continuously co-phased to keep the telescope wavefront error less than a small fraction of a wavelength, to ten microns RMS (root mean square) or less. This performance must be maintained continuously across the full aperture of the telescope, in all pointing conditions, and in a variable thermal environment. A wavefront compensation segmented mirror sensing and control system, consisting of optical edge sensors, Wavefront Compensation Estimator/Controller Soft ware, and segment position actuators is proposed. Optical edge sensors are placed two per each segment-to-segment edge to continuously measure changes in segment state. Segment position actuators (three per segment) are used to move the panels. A computer control system uses the edge sensor measurements to estimate the state of all of the segments and to predict the wavefront error; segment actuator commands are computed that minimize the wavefront error. Translational or rotational motions of one segment relative to the other cause lateral displacement of the light beam, which is measured by the imaging sensor. For high accuracy, the collimator uses a shaped mask, such as one or more slits, so that the light beam forms a pattern on the sensor that permits sensing accuracy of better than 0.1 micron in two axes: in the z or local surface normal direction, and in the y direction parallel to the mirror surface and perpendicular to the beam direction. Using a co-aligned pair of sensors, with the location of the detector and collimated light source interchanged, four degrees of freedom can be sensed: transverse x and y displacements, as well as two bending angles (pitch and yaw). In this approach, each optical edge sensor head has a collimator and an imager, placing one sensor head on each side of a segment gap, with two parallel light beams crossing the gap. Two sets

  16. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  17. Breadboard Testing of a Phase Conjugate Engine with an Interferometric Wave-Front Sensor and a MEMS-Based Spatial Light Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J; Olsen, J; Minden, M L; Gavel, D; Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Wilks, S C; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S; Young, P E; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Azucena, O

    2003-12-08

    Laboratory breadboard results of a high-speed adaptive optics system are presented. The wave-front sensor for the adaptive optics system is based on a quadrature interferometer, which directly measures the turbulence induced phase aberrations. The laboratory experiments were conducted using Kolmogorov phase screens to simulate atmospheric phase distortions with the characterization of these plates presented below. The spatial light modulator used in the phase conjugate engine was a MEMS-based piston-only correction device with 1024 actuators. The overall system achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 hz and Strehl ratios greater than 0.5 with the Kolmogorov phase screens.

  18. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units-IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors' signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients' mobility. PMID:27399701

  19. Wavefront reconstruction from tangential and sagittal curvature.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Barbero, Sergio; Portilla, Javier; López-Alonso, José Manuel

    2014-12-10

    In a previous contribution [Appl. Opt.51, 8599 (2012)], a coauthor of this work presented a method for reconstructing the wavefront aberration from tangential refractive power data measured using dynamic skiascopy. Here we propose a new regularized least squares method where the wavefront is reconstructed not only using tangential but also sagittal curvature data. We prove that our new method provides improved quality reconstruction for typical and also for highly aberrated wavefronts, under a wide range of experimental error levels. Our method may be applied to any type of wavefront sensor (not only dynamic skiascopy) able to measure either just tangential or tangential plus sagittal curvature data. PMID:25608069

  20. ARGOS wavefront sensing: from detection to correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J.; Busoni, L.; Connot, C.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Kulas, M.; Mazzoni, T.; Puglisi, A.; Rabien, S.; Storm, J.; Ziegleder, J.

    2014-08-01

    Argos is the ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. In order to perform its wide-field correction, Argos uses three laser guide stars which sample the atmospheric turbulence. To perform the correction, Argos has at disposal three different wavefront sensing measurements : its three laser guide stars, a NGS tip-tilt, and a third wavefront sensor. We present the wavefront sensing architecture and its individual components, in particular: the finalized Argos pnCCD camera detecting the 3 laser guide stars at 1kHz, high quantum efficiency and 4e- noise; the Argos tip-tilt sensor based on a quad-cell avalanche photo-diodes; and the Argos wavefront computer. Being in the middle of the commissioning, we present the first wavefront sensing configurations and operations performed at LBT, and discuss further improvements in the measurements of the 3 laser guide star slopes as detected by the pnCCD.

  1. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility. PMID:27399701

  2. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-07-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor `beacon' can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains.

  3. Large viewing field wavefront sensing by using a lightfield system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ma, Haotong; Ning, Yu; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-09-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, we developed a lightfield wavefront detection system, which is able to complete the large field of view, multi-perspective wavefront detection in a single photographic exposure. The lightfield wavefront detection system includes an imaging primary mirror, a lenslet array and a photosensitive device. The lenslet array is located on the imaging plane of the imaging primary mirror and the photosensitive device is located on the focal plane of the lenslet array. In this system, each lenslet reimages the aperture and forms a low-resolution image of the aperture. Compared with the Shack-Hartmann sensor, this lightfield measuring method can obtain imaging arrays in different perspectives. By comparing the array information with the standard information, we can obtain the slope matrix of the wavefront in different perspectives and restore the wavefront in a large field of view. Based on Fourier optics, we built the corresponding theoretical model and simulation system. By busing Meade telescope, turbulent phase screen, lenslet array and CCD camera, we founded the experimental lightfield wavefront measuring system. Numerical simulation results and experimental results show that this wavefront measuring method can effectively achieve the wavefront aberration information. This wavefront measurement method can realize the multi-perspective wavefront measurement, which is expected to solve the problem of large viewing field wavefront detection, and can be used for adaptive optics in giant telescopes.

  4. Validating Knowledge-Based Framework through Mission-Oriented Sensors Array and Smart Sensor Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Douglas; Pires, Rayner M.; Branco, Kalinka R. L. J. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in critical embedded systems, mainly in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We present the use of a SOA approach to provide the integration of the payload in the UAV. The integration is provided by a plug and play protocol named Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) that validates the SOA approach.

  5. Real-time wavefront control for the PALM-3000 high order adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Shelton, Jean C.; Troy, Mitchell; Angione, John R.; Burruss, Rick S.; Cromer, John L.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.

    2008-07-01

    We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. We demonstrate the architecture is capable of supporting the most computation and memory intensive wavefront reconstruction method (vector-matrix-multiply) at frame rates up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 μs for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64x64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 349 actuator "woofer" DM. This architecture can easily scale up to support larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.

  6. Real-Time Wavefront Control for the PALM-3000 High Order Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Troy, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. The architecture enables full-matrix reconstruction of the wavefront at up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 us for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64 x 64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 241 active actuator tweeter DM. The architecture can easily scale up to support much larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.

  7. Wavefront Measurement for Laser-Guiding Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    University of Chicago; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Shiraishi, S.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    The wavefront of a short laser pulse after interaction in a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) was measured to diagnose laser-guiding quality. Experiments were performed on a 100 TW class laser at the LOASIS facility of LBNL using a hydrogenfilled capillary discharge waveguide. Laser-guiding with a pre-formed plasma channel allows the laser pulse to propagate over many Rayleigh lengths at high intensity and is crucial to accelerate electrons to the highest possible energy. Efficient coupling of laser energy into the plasma is realized when the laser and the channel satisfy a matched guiding condition, in which the wavefront remains flat within the channel. Using a wavefront sensor, the laser-guiding quality was diagnosed based on the wavefront of the laser pulse exiting the plasma channel. This wavefront diagnostic will contribute to achieving controlled, matched guiding in future experiments.

  8. Wavefront Measurement for Laser-Guiding Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, S.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-11-04

    The wavefront of a short laser pulse after interaction in a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) was measured to diagnose laser-guiding quality. Experiments were performed on a 100 TW class laser at the LOASIS facility of LBNL using a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Laser-guiding with a pre-formed plasma channel allows the laser pulse to propagate over many Rayleigh lengths at high intensity and is crucial to accelerate electrons to the highest possible energy. Efficient coupling of laser energy into the plasma is realized when the laser and the channel satisfy a matched guiding condition, in which the wavefront remains flat within the channel. Using a wavefront sensor, the laser-guiding quality was diagnosed based on the wavefront of the laser pulse exiting the plasma channel. This wavefront diagnostic will contribute to achieving controlled, matched guiding in future experiments.

  9. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  10. Image restoration using aberration taken by a Hartmann wavefront sensor on extended object, towards real-time deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darudi, Ahmad; Bakhshi, Hadi; Asgari, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of image restoration using the data taken by a Hartmann sensor. The aberration is measure by a Hartmann sensor in which the object itself is used as reference. Then the Point Spread Function (PSF) is simulated and used for image reconstruction using the Lucy-Richardson technique. A technique is presented for quantitative evaluation the Lucy-Richardson technique for deconvolution.

  11. Erratum: "Utilization of the Wavefront Sensor and Short-exposure Images for Simultaneous Estimation of Quasi-static Aberration and Exoplanet Intensity" (ApJ, 767, 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates analytically that, at millisecond timescales, the adaptive optics system in a ground-based telescope will maintain the faint planetary emission nearly constant in time, while the speckle intensity at the planet’s location will undergo wild fluctuations. Then, it presents a method for the simultaneous determination of the image of an exo-planetary system and pupil-plane aberrations that are not corrected by the adaptive optics system (so-called “non-common path aberrations”), which cause a confounding speckle background. The central idea of the method is to take simultaneous millisecond exposures in both the wavefront sensor and science camera, and then perform statistical inference procedures to determine both the aberrations and planetary image. The statistical inference is based on a Taylor expansion of an exponential containing the aberration function. While the first order terms given in the paper are correct, it is missing some second-order terms, which are important when the aberrations are large enough so that a first order expansion is not adequate. Since the numerical experiments used small aberrations, this correction has little effect on the results.

  12. Two-channel algorithm for single-shot, high-resolution measurement of optical wavefronts using two image sensors.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Jin; Okamoto, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Tomita, Akihisa

    2015-10-10

    We propose a two-channel holographic diversity interferometer (2ch-HDI) system for single-shot and highly accurate measurements of complex amplitude fields with a simple optical setup. In this method, two phase-shifted interference patterns are generated, without requiring a phase-shifting device, by entering a circularly polarized reference beam into a polarizing beam splitter, and the resulting patterns are captured simultaneously using two image sensors. However, differences in the intensity distributions of the two image sensors may lead to serious measurement errors. Thus, we also develop a two-channel algorithm optimized for the 2ch-HDI to compensate for these differences. Simulation results show that this algorithm can compensate for such differences in the intensity distributions in the two image sensors. Experimental results confirm that the combination of the 2ch-HDI and the calculation algorithm significantly enhances measurement accuracy. PMID:26479799

  13. Wavefront sensing and correction with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Poyneer, L.; Savransky, D.; Macintosh, B.; Hartung, M.; Dillon, D.; Gavel, D.; Dunn, Jennifer; Wallace, K.; Palmer, D.; De Rosa, Robert

    2012-07-01

    High-contrast imaging is a growing observational technique aimed at discovering and characterizing extrasolar planets. The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is designed to achieve contrast ratios of 10-6 - 10-7 and requires unprecedented wavefront correction and coronagraphic control of diffraction. G PI is a facility instrument now undergoing integration and testing and is scheduled for first light on the 8-m Gemini South telescope towards the end of 2012. In this paper, we focus on the wavefront sensing and correction aspects of the instrument. To measure the wavefront, GPI combines a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a high-accuracy infrared interferometric wavefront calibration system. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor uses 1700 subapertures to precisely sample the wavefront at 1.5 kHz and features a spatial filter to prevent aliasing. The wavefront calibration system measures the slower temporal frequency errors as well as non-common path aberrations. The wavefront correction is performed using a two-stage adaptive optics system employing a 9x9 piezoelectric deformable mirror and a 43x43 actuators MEMS deformable mirror operating in a woofer-tweeter configuration. Finally, an image sharpening technique is used to further increase the contrast of the final image. In this paper, we describe the three wavefront sensing methods and how we combine their respective information to achieve the best possible contrast.

  14. A First Order Wavefront Estimation Algorithm for P1640 Calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhaia, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

    2012-01-01

    P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

  15. Deconvolution of partially compensated solar images from additional wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Miura, Noriaki; Oh-Ishi, Akira; Kuwamura, Susumu; Baba, Naoshi; Ueno, Satoru; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    A technique for restoring solar images partially compensated with adaptive optics is developed. An additional wavefront sensor is installed in an adaptive optics system to acquire residual wavefront information simultaneously to a solar image. A point spread function is derived from the wavefront information and used to deconvolve the solar image. Successful image restorations are demonstrated when the estimated point spread functions have relatively high Strehl ratios. PMID:27139647

  16. Real-time turbulence profiling with a pair of laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for wide-field adaptive optics systems on large to extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gilles, L; Ellerbroek, B L

    2010-11-01

    Real-time turbulence profiling is necessary to tune tomographic wavefront reconstruction algorithms for wide-field adaptive optics (AO) systems on large to extremely large telescopes, and to perform a variety of image post-processing tasks involving point-spread function reconstruction. This paper describes a computationally efficient and accurate numerical technique inspired by the slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) method to perform this task in real time from properly selected Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements accumulated over a few hundred frames from a pair of laser guide stars, thus eliminating the need for an additional instrument. The algorithm is introduced, followed by a theoretical influence function analysis illustrating its impulse response to high-resolution turbulence profiles. Finally, its performance is assessed in the context of the Thirty Meter Telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics system via end-to-end wave optics Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21045893

  17. Wavefront Control for Extreme Adaptive Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2003-07-16

    Current plans for Extreme Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, provided specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.

  18. Relaying an optical wavefront

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Vawter, G. Allen

    2007-03-06

    A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

  19. Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sheng-Yi; Liu, Wen-Jin; Chen, Shan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Zhi; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n2) ˜ O(n3) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ˜ (O(n)3/2), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. Project supported by the National Key Scientific and Research Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. ZDYZ2013-2), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11173008), and the Sichuan Provincial Outstanding Youth Academic Technology Leaders Program, China (Grant No. 2012JQ0012).

  20. Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Focal plane sensors for determining the error in a telescope wavefront were investigated. The construction of three candidate test instruments and their evaluation in terms of small wavefront error aberration measurements are described. A laboratory wavefront simulator was designed and fabricated to evaluate the test instruments. The laboratory wavefront error simulator was used to evaluate three tests; a Hartmann test, a polarization shearing interferometer test, and an interferometric Zernike test.

  1. Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Partial results are presented of theoretical and experimental investigations of different focal plane sensor configurations for determining the error in a telescope wavefront. The coarse range sensor and fine range sensors are used in the experimentation. The design of a wavefront error simulator is presented along with the Hartmann test, the shearing polarization interferometer, the Zernike test, and the Zernike polarization test.

  2. Phase discrepancy induced from least squares wavefront reconstruction of wrapped phase measurements with high noise or large localized wavefront gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, Michael J.; Hyde, Milo W.

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive optics is used in applications such as laser communication, remote sensing, and laser weapon systems to estimate and correct for atmospheric distortions of propagated light in real-time. Within an adaptive optics system, a reconstruction process interprets the raw wavefront sensor measurements and calculates an estimate for the unwrapped phase function to be sent through a control law and applied to a wavefront correction device. This research is focused on adaptive optics using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor, which directly measures the wrapped wavefront phase. Therefore, its measurements must be reconstructed for use on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. In testing and evaluating a novel class of branch-point- tolerant wavefront reconstructors based on the post-processing congruence operation technique, an increase in Strehl ratio compared to a traditional least squares reconstructor was noted even in non-scintillated fields. To investigate this further, this paper uses wave-optics simulations to eliminate many of the variables from a hardware adaptive optics system, so as to focus on the reconstruction techniques alone. The simulation results along with a discussion of the physical reasoning for this phenomenon are provided. For any applications using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor with low signal levels or high localized wavefront gradients, understanding this phenomena is critical when applying a traditional least squares wavefront reconstructor.

  3. Phase Contrast Wavefront Sensing for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.; Bloemhof, E. E.

    2004-01-01

    Most ground-based adaptive optics systems use one of a small number of wavefront sensor technologies, notably (for relatively high-order systems) the Shack-Hartmann sensor, which provides local measurements of the phase slope (first-derivative) at a number of regularly-spaced points across the telescope pupil. The curvature sensor, with response proportional to the second derivative of the phase, is also sometimes used, but has undesirable noise propagation properties during wavefront reconstruction as the number of actuators becomes large. It is interesting to consider the use for astronomical adaptive optics of the "phase contrast" technique, originally developed for microscopy by Zemike to allow convenient viewing of phase objects. In this technique, the wavefront sensor provides a direct measurement of the local value of phase in each sub-aperture of the pupil. This approach has some obvious disadvantages compared to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, but has some less obvious but substantial advantages as well. Here we evaluate the relative merits in a practical ground-based adaptive optics system.

  4. Enhancements in Uav Flight Control and Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäumker, M.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Zurhorst, A.

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of photogrammetric image data by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has developed in recent years to an interesting new measurement method especially for small to medium sizes of objects. In addition the latest developments in the field of navigation systems (GNSS), of inertial sensors and other sensors in combination with powerful and easy to program microcontrollers have made a major contribution to this. In particular, the development of MEMS sensors has triggered the boom of the UAV and has given decisively influence and it is still going on. The integration of sensors on a single board not only enables a cost-effective manufacturing and mass production, but also the use in accordance with small, lightweight UAV. The latest developments on a 50 mm × 50 mm-sized circuit board combine the sensors and the microcontroller for the flight control and flight navigation. Both the board and the microcontroller are easy to program and maintain several interfaces for connecting additional sensors, such as GNSS, ultrasonic sensors and telemetry. This article presents the UAV system of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences, the used sensors and the obtained results for accurate georeferencing.

  5. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  6. A novel method for assessing the 3-D orientation accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Rizun, Peter; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-10-18

    A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error), while remaining insensitive to singularity problems when the second Euler rotation is close to ±90°. As a demonstration, the accuracy of an inertial/magnetic sensor mounted to a participant's forearm was evaluated during a reaching task in a laboratory. Sensor orientation was measured internally (by the inertial/magnetic sensor) and externally using an optoelectronic measurement system with a marker cluster rigidly attached to the sensor's enclosure. Roll, pitch and heading residuals were calculated using the proposed novel method, as well as using a common orientation assessment method where the residuals are defined as the difference between the Euler angles measured by the inertial sensor and those measured by the optoelectronic system. Using the proposed residual matrix method, the roll and pitch residuals remained less than 1° and, as expected, no statistically significant difference between these two measures of attitude accuracy was found; the heading residuals were significantly larger than the attitude residuals but remained below 2°. Using the direct Euler angle comparison method, the residuals were in general larger due to singularity issues, and the expected significant difference between inertial/magnetic sensor attitude and heading accuracy was not present. PMID:24016678

  7. Tomographic wavefront correction for the LSST

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D W; Olivier, S S; Baker, K; Seppala, L; Hvisc, S

    2006-05-03

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a three mirror modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary followed by a 3-element refractive corrector producing a 3.5 degree field of view. This design produces image diameters of <0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled energy over its full field of view. The image quality of this design is sufficient to ensure that the final images produced by the telescope will be limited by the atmospheric seeing at an excellent astronomical site. In order to maintain this image quality, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations. By measuring the optical wavefront produced by the telescope at multiple points in the field, mirror deformations and rigid body motions that produce a good optical wavefront across the entire field may be determined. We will describe the details of the techniques for obtaining these solutions. We will show that, for the expected mirror deformations and rigid body misalignments, the solutions that are found using these techniques produce an image quality over the field that is close to optimal. We will discuss how many wavefront sensors are needed and the tradeoffs between the number of wavefront sensors, their layout and noise sensitivity.

  8. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Atta, L; Bliss, E; Bruns, D; Feldman, M; Grey, A; Henesian, M; J; Koch, J; LaFiandra, C; Lawson; Sacks, R; Salmon, T; Toeppen, J; Winters, S; Woods, B; Zacharias, R

    1998-08-17

    A wavefront control system will be employed on NIF to correct beam aberrations that otherwise would limit the minimum target focal spot size. For most applications, NIF requires a focal spot that is a few times the diffraction limit. Sources of aberrations that must be corrected include prompt pump-induced distortions in the laser slabs, thermal distortions in the laser slabs from previous shots, manufacturing figure errors in the optics, beam off-axis effects, gas density variations, and gravity, mounting, and coating- induced optic distortions. The NIF Wavefront Control System consists of five subsystems: 1) a deformable mirror, 2) a wavefront sensor, 3) a computer controller, 4) a wavefront reference system, and 5) a system of fast actuators to allow the wavefront control system to operate to within one second of the laser shot. The system includes the capability for in situ calibrations and operates in closed loop prior to the shot. Shot wavefront data is recorded. This paper describes the function, realization, and performance of each wavefront control subsystem. Subsystem performance will be characterized by computer models and by test results. The focal spot improvement in the NIF laser system effected by the wavefront control system will be characterized through computer models.

  9. Sensor-oriented feature usability evaluation in fingerprint segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Gongping

    2013-06-01

    Existing fingerprint segmentation methods usually process fingerprint images captured by different sensors with the same feature or feature set. We propose to improve the fingerprint segmentation result in view of an important fact that images from different sensors have different characteristics for segmentation. Feature usability evaluation, which means to evaluate the usability of features to find the personalized feature or feature set for different sensors to improve the performance of segmentation. The need for feature usability evaluation for fingerprint segmentation is raised and analyzed as a new issue. To address this issue, we present a decision-tree-based feature-usability evaluation method, which utilizes a C4.5 decision tree algorithm to evaluate and pick the best suitable feature or feature set for fingerprint segmentation from a typical candidate feature set. We apply the novel method on the FVC2002 database of fingerprint images, which are acquired by four different respective sensors and technologies. Experimental results show that the accuracy of segmentation is improved, and time consumption for feature extraction is dramatically reduced with selected feature(s).

  10. Body sensor network-based strapdown orientation estimation: application to human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Misgeld, Berno J E; Rüschen, Daniel; Kim, Saim; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, inertial and magnetic sensors are considered for real-time strapdown orientation tracking of human limb or robotic segment orientation. By using body sensor network integrated triaxial gyrometer, accelerometer, and magnetometer measurements, two orientation estimation filters are presented and subsequently designed for bias insensitive tracking of human gait. Both filters use quaternions for rotation representation, where preprocessing accelerometer and magnetometer data is conducted with the quaternion based estimation algorithm (QUEST) as a reference filter input. This results in a significant reduction of the complexity and calculation cost on the body sensor network. QUEST-based preprocessed attitude data is used for the designed extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a new complementary sliding mode observer. EKF-QUEST and complementary sliding mode observer are designed and tested in simulations and subsequently validated with a reference motion tracking system in treadmill tests. PMID:24187297

  11. Application of L3 technology to wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Simon M.

    2004-10-01

    The new L3 Technology CCDs from E2V combine sub-electron read noise with high pixel rates. This makes them ideal candidates for wavefront sensing. ING's NAOMI adaptive optics instrument is currently limited by the readout noise of its wavefront sensor CCDs. Upgrading to L3 detectors has the potential to give a large increase in performance; simulations suggest a 2 magnitude improvement to the guide star limit. At ING we have explored the behaviour of various L3 devices in applications ranging from fast photometry, fast spectroscopy through to wavefront sensing. The investigations have been done using our own cryogenic cameras containing L3 devices coupled to an SDSU controller. An integral Peltier packaged CCD60 has also been purchased specifically for the WFS upgrade. This paper describes the progress we have made to date on the L3 wavefront sensor upgrade and our future plans for its use with a Rayleigh laser beacon.

  12. Wavefront sensing, control, and pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Thomas; Sevaston, George; Agronin, Michael; Bely, Pierre; Colavita, Mark; Clampin, Mark; Harvey, James; Idell, Paul; Sandler, Dave; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-01-01

    A majority of future NASA astrophysics missions from orbiting interferometers to 16-m telescopes on the Moon have, as a common requirement, the need to bring light from a large entrance aperture to the focal plane in a way that preserves the spatial coherence properties of the starlight. Only by preserving the phase of the incoming wavefront, can many scientific observations be made, observations that range from measuring the red shift of quasi-stellar objects (QSO's) to detecting the IR emission of a planet in orbit around another star. New technologies for wavefront sensing, control, and pointing hold the key to advancing our observatories of the future from those already launched or currently under development. As the size of the optical system increases, either to increase the sensitivity or angular resolution of the instrument, traditional technologies for maintaining optical wavefront accuracy become prohibitively expensive or completely impractical. For space-based instruments, the low mass requirement and the large temperature excursions further challenge existing technologies. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is probably the last large space telescope to rely on passive means to keep its primary optics stable and the optical system aligned. One needs only look to the significant developments in wavefront sensing, control, and pointing that have occurred over the past several years to appreciate the potential of this technology for transforming the capability of future space observatories. Future developments in space-borne telescopes will be based in part on developments in ground-based systems. Telescopes with rigid primary mirrors much larger than 5 m in diameter are impractical because of gravity loading. New technologies are now being introduced, such as active optics, that address the scale problem and that allow very large telescopes to be built. One approach is a segmented design such as that being pioneered by the W.M. Keck telescope now under

  13. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22315541

  14. MOSAIC: a new wavefront metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-02-02

    MOSAIC is a new wavefront metrology that enables complete wavefront characterization from print or aerial image based measurements. Here we describe MOSAIC and verify its utility with a model-based proof of principle.

  15. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  16. Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  17. Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  18. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Program for the Acoustic Sensor Operations Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    U'Ren, Paula Kabance; Baker, Meryl S.

    An effort was undertaken to develop a job-oriented basic skills curriculum appropriate for the acoustic sensor operations area, which includes members of four ratings: ocean systems technician, aviation antisubmarine warfare operator, sonar technician (surface), and sonar technician (submarine). Analysis of the job duties of the four ratings…

  19. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  20. Novel approach to ambulatory assessment of human segmental orientation on a wearable sensor system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Tao; Shibata, Kyoko; Inoue, Yoshio; Zheng, Rencheng

    2009-12-11

    A new method using a double-sensor difference based algorithm for analyzing human segment rotational angles in two directions for segmental orientation analysis in the three-dimensional (3D) space was presented. A wearable sensor system based only on triaxial accelerometers was developed to obtain the pitch and yaw angles of thigh segment with an accelerometer approximating translational acceleration of the hip joint and two accelerometers measuring the actual accelerations on the thigh. To evaluate the method, the system was first tested on a 2 degrees of freedom mechanical arm assembled out of rigid segments and encoders. Then, to estimate the human segmental orientation, the wearable sensor system was tested on the thighs of eight volunteer subjects, who walked in a straight forward line in the work space of an optical motion analysis system at three self-selected speeds: slow, normal and fast. In the experiment, the subject was assumed to walk in a straight forward way with very little trunk sway, skin artifacts and no significant internal/external rotation of the leg. The root mean square (RMS) errors of the thigh segment orientation measurement were between 2.4 degrees and 4.9 degrees during normal gait that had a 45 degrees flexion/extension range of motion. Measurement error was observed to increase with increasing walking speed probably because of the result of increased trunk sway, axial rotation and skin artifacts. The results show that, without integration and switching between different sensors, using only one kind of sensor, the wearable sensor system is suitable for ambulatory analysis of normal gait orientation of thigh and shank in two directions of the segment-fixed local coordinate system in 3D space. It can then be applied to assess spatio-temporal gait parameters and monitoring the gait function of patients in clinical settings. PMID:19748624

  1. Intelligent sensor positioning and orientation through constructive neural network-embedded INS/GPS integration algorithms.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Mobile mapping systems have been widely applied for acquiring spatial information in applications such as spatial information systems and 3D city models. Nowadays the most common technologies used for positioning and orientation of a mobile mapping system include a Global Positioning System (GPS) as the major positioning sensor and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) as the major orientation sensor. In the classical approach, the limitations of the Kalman Filter (KF) method and the overall price of multi-sensor systems have limited the popularization of most land-based mobile mapping applications. Although intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes consisting of Multi-layer Feed-forward Neural Networks (MFNNs), one of the most famous Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and KF/smoothers, have been proposed in order to enhance the performance of low cost Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated systems, the automation of the MFNN applied has not proven as easy as initially expected. Therefore, this study not only addresses the problems of insufficient automation in the conventional methodology that has been applied in MFNN-KF/smoother algorithms for INS/GPS integrated systems proposed in previous studies, but also exploits and analyzes the idea of developing alternative intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes that integrate various sensors in more automatic ways. The proposed schemes are implemented using one of the most famous constructive neural networks--the Cascade Correlation Neural Network (CCNNs)--to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques based on KF/smoother algorithms as well as previously developed MFNN-smoother schemes. The CCNNs applied also have the advantage of a more flexible topology compared to MFNNs. Based on the experimental data utilized the preliminary results presented in this article illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes compared to smoother algorithms as well as the MFNN

  2. Analysis of active alignment control of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field corrector using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hart, Michael; Hill, Gary J.; Rafal, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    One of the key aspects of the Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) for the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is the use of wavefront sensing (WFS) to close the loop of active alignment control of the new four-mirror Wide-Field Corrector (WFC), as it tracks sidereal motion, with respect to the fixed spherical segmented primary mirror. This makes the telescope pupil dynamically change in shape. This is a unique challenge to the WFS on the HET, in addition to various influences of seeing, primary mirror segment errors, and dynamic deflection of the internal optical components of the WFC. We conducted extensive simulations to understand the robustness of the WFS in the face of these errors and the results of these analyses are discussed in this paper.

  3. The Wavefront Control System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Van Atta, L; Perez, M; Zacharias, R; Rivera, W

    2001-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires that pulses from each of the 192 laser beams be positioned on target with an accuracy of 50 {micro}m rms. Beam quality must be sufficient to focus a total of 1.8 MJ of 0.351-{micro}m light into a 600-{micro}m-diameter volume. An optimally flat beam wavefront can achieve this pointing and focusing accuracy. The control system corrects wavefront aberrations by performing closed-loop compensation during laser alignment to correct for gas density variations. Static compensation of flashlamp-induced thermal distortion is established just prior to the laser shot. The control system compensates each laser beam at 10 Hz by measuring the wavefront with a 77-lenslet Hartmann sensor and applying corrections with a 39-actuator deformable mirror. The distributed architecture utilizes SPARC AXi computers running Solaris to perform real-time image processing of sensor data and PowerPC-based computers running VxWorks to compute mirror commands. A single pair of SPARC and PowerPC processors accomplishes wavefront control for a group of eight beams. The software design uses proven adaptive optic control algorithms that are implemented in a multi-tasking environment to economically control the beam wavefronts in parallel. Prototype tests have achieved a closed-loop residual error of 0.03 waves rms. aberrations, the spot size requirement and goal could not be met without a wavefront control system.

  4. Advanced Techniques for Fourier Transform Wavefront Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2002-08-05

    The performance of Fourier transform (FT) reconstructors in large adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann sensors and a deformable mirror is analyzed. FT methods, which are derived for point-based geometries, are adapted for use on the continuous systems. Analysis and simulation show how to compensate for effects such as misalignment of the deformable mirror and wavefront sensor gain. Further filtering methods to reduce noise and improve performance are presented. All these modifications can be implemented at the filtering stage, preserving the speed of FT reconstruction. Simulation of a large system shows how compensated FT methods can have equivalent or better performance to slower vector-matrix-multiply reconstructions.

  5. Sensor Webs with a Service-Oriented Architecture for On-demand Science Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Ungar, Stephen; Ames, Troy; Justice, Chris; Frye, Stuart; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cappelaere, Patrice; Derezinsfi, Linda; Paules, Granville; Di, Liping; Kolitz, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the work being managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Information System Division (ISD) under a NASA Earth Science Technology Ofice (ESTO) Advanced Information System Technology (AIST) grant to develop a modular sensor web architecture which enables discovery of sensors and workflows that can create customized science via a high-level service-oriented architecture based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) web service standards. These capabilities serve as a prototype to a user-centric architecture for Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This work builds and extends previous sensor web efforts conducted at NASA/GSFC using the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite and other low-earth orbiting satellites.

  6. Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Boruah, Bosanta R. E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in

    2014-10-15

    Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.

  7. Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2014-10-01

    Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.

  8. Study of a Solar Sensor for use in Space Vehicle Orientation Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Paul R.

    1961-01-01

    The solar sensor described herein may be used for a variety of space operations requiring solar orientation. The use of silicon solar cells as the sensing elements provides the sensor with sufficient capability to withstand the hazards of a space environment. A method of arranging the cells in a sensor consists simply of mounting them at a large angle to the base. The use of an opaque shield placed between the cells and perpendicular to the base enhances the small-angle sensitivity while adding slightly to the bulk of the sensor. The difference in illumination of these cells as the result of an oblique incidence of the light rays from the reference source causes an electrical error signal which, when used in a battery-bridge circuit, requires a minimum of electrical processing for use in a space-vehicle orientation control system. An error which could occur after prolonged operation of the sensor is that resulting from asymmetrical aging of opposite cells. This could be periodically corrected with a balance potentiometer. A more routine error in the sensor is that produced by reflected earth radiation. This error may be eliminated over a large portion of the operation time by restricting the field of view and, consequently, the capture capability. A more sophisticated method of eliminating this error is to use separate sensors, for capture and fine pointing, along with a switching device. An experimental model has been constructed and tested to yield an output sensitivity of 1.2 millivolts per second of arc with a load resistance of 1,000 ohms and a reference light source of approximately 1,200 foot-candles delivered at the sensor.

  9. Orientation and depth estimation for femoral components using image sensor, magnetometer and inertial sensors in THR surgeries.

    PubMed

    Jiyang Gao; Shaojie Su; Hong Chen; Zhihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Malposition of the acetabular and femoral component has long been recognized as an important cause of dislocation after total hip replacement (THR) surgeries. In order to help surgeons improve the positioning accuracy of the components, a visual-aided system for THR surgeries that could estimate orientation and depth of femoral component is proposed. The sensors are fixed inside the femoral prosthesis trial and checkerboard patterns are printed on the internal surface of the acetabular prosthesis trial. An extended Kalman filter is designed to fuse the data from inertial sensors and the magnetometer orientation estimation. A novel image processing algorithm for depth estimation is developed. The algorithms have been evaluated under the simulation with rotation quaternion and translation vector and the experimental results shows that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the orientation estimation is less then 0.05 degree and the RMSE for depth estimation is 1mm. Finally, the femoral head is displayed in 3D graphics in real time to help surgeons with the component positioning. PMID:26736858

  10. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  11. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  12. Highly sensitive and doubly orientated selective molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for Cu(2.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Zhang, Lianming; Wei, Ge; Zhang, Yun; Zeng, Ying

    2015-07-15

    Studies on molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors for metal ions determination have been widely reported. However, the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors needs to be improved urgently. In the current work, a novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was originally developed for selective determination of ultratrace Cu(2+) by combining the metal-ligand chelate orientated recognition with enzyme amplification effect. The detection relied on a competition reaction between Cu(2+)-glycine (Cu-Gly) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled Cu-Gly on the imprinted polymer membrane modified electrode. The sensitivity of this sensor was promoted by enzyme amplification. Selectivity was improved by the double-specificity derived from ligand-to-metal ion and metal-ligand chelate orientated recognition of 3D imprinted cavities. This technique was quantitatively sensitive to Cu(2+) concentrations ranging from 0.5nmol/L to 30nmol/L, with a detection limit of 42.4pmol/L. which was lower than those in most of the reported methods. The allowable amounts of interference ions were higher when it compared to other common molecularly imprinted sensors. Moreover, the results of assaying several real samples have proven its feasibility for practical applications. PMID:25771304

  13. Binary hologram based high speed zonal wavefront sensing with reduced estimation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    Reduced wavefront estimation time in a Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensor plays an important role in any high speed application of the sensor. Exploiting computer generated holography technique, one can generate an array of binary diffraction grating pattern to produce an array of focal spots, similar to that in a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). The transmittance functions of each of such a grating pattern can be configured to produce a one dimensional (1D) array of focal spots of a desired order. In this paper, we show that the formation of 1D array, further facilitates in the process of single indexed wavefront estimation in its true sense that considerably reduces the wavefront estimation time.

  14. SAPHIRA detector for infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Alvarez, Domingo; Ives, Derek; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Jörg; Weller, Harald J.

    2014-08-01

    The only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier of near infrared sensors used for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. In 2007 ESO started a program at Selex to develop near infrared electron avalanche photodiode arrays (eAPD) for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking. In a first step the cutoff wavelength was reduced from 4.5 micron to 2.5 micron in order to verify that the dark current scales with the bandgap and can be reduced to less than one electron/ms, the value required for wavefront sensing. The growth technology was liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) with annular diodes based on the loophole interconnect technology. The arrays required deep cooling to 40K to achieve acceptable cosmetic performance at high APD gain. The second step was to develop a multiplexer tailored to the specific application of the GRAVITY instrument wavefront sensors and the fringe tracker. The pixel format is 320x256 pixels. The array has 32 parallel video outputs which are arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is available also for small subwindows. Nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling are possible. This reduces the readout noise at high APD gain well below the subelectron level at frame rates of 1 KHz. The third step was the change of the growth technology from liquid phase epitaxy to metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). This growth technology allows the band structure and doping to be controlled on a 0.1μm scale and provides more flexibility for the design of diode structures. The bandgap can be varied for different layers of Hg(1-x)CdxTe. It is possible to make heterojunctions and apply solid state engineering techniques. The change to MOVPE resulted in a dramatic improvement in the cosmetic quality with 99.97 % operable pixels at an operating temperature of 85K. Currently this sensor is deployed in the 4 wavefront sensors and in the

  15. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  16. Orientation-Dependent Displacement Sensor Using an Inner Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    An orientation-dependent displacement sensor based on grating inscription over a fiber core and inner cladding has been demonstrated. The device comprises a short piece of multi-cladding fiber sandwiched between two standard single-mode fibers (SMFs). The grating structure is fabricated by a femtosecond laser side-illumination technique. Two well-defined resonances are achieved by the downstream both core and cladding fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The cladding resonance presents fiber bending dependence, together with a strong orientation dependence because of asymmetrical distribution of the "cladding" FBG along the fiber cross-section. PMID:27626427

  17. inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation using an at rest sensor for tracking parts of a human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive sate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  18. Flexible piezoelectric pressure sensors using oriented aluminum nitride thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Morito; Morofuji, Yukari; Kamohara, Toshihiro; Nishikubo, Keiko; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Fukuda, Osamu; Ueno, Naohiro

    2006-12-01

    We have investigated the high sensitive piezoelectric response of c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. The AlN films were deposited using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at temperatures close to room temperature. The c axes of the AlN films were perpendicularly oriented to the PET film surfaces. The sensor consisting of the AlN and PET films is flexible like PET films and the electrical charge is linearly proportional to the stress within a wide range from 0to8.5MPa. The sensor can respond to the frequencies from 0.3 to over 100Hz and measures a clear human pulse wave form by holding the sensor between thumb and middle finger. The resolution of the pulse wave form is comparable to a sphygmomanometer at stress levels of 10kPa. We think that the origin of the high performance of the sensor is the deflection effect, the thin thickness and high elastic modulus of the AlN layer, and the thin thickness and low elastic modulus of the PET film.

  19. Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. J.; Adkins, S.; Gavel, D.; Fusco, T.; Michau, V.

    2008-06-01

    Over the past decade, adaptive optics (AO) has become an established method for overcoming the effects of atmospheric turbulence on both astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations. These systems are now beginning to make extensive use of laser guide star (LGS) techniques to improve performance and provide increased sky coverage. Sodium LGS AO employs one or more lasers at 589-nm wavelength to produce an artificial guide star through excitation of sodium atoms in the mesosphere (90 km altitude). Because of its dependence on the abundance and distribution of sodium atoms in the mesosphere, this approach has its own unique set of difficulties not seen with natural stars. The sodium layer exhibits time-dependent variations in density and altitude, and since it is at a finite range, the LGS images become elongated due to the thickness of the layer and the offset between the laser projection point and the subapertures of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). Elongation causes the LGS image to be spread out resulting in a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio which, in turn, leads to an increase in SHWFS measurement error and therefore an increased error in wavefront phase reconstruction. To address the problem of elongation, and also to provide a higher level of readout performance and reduced readout noise, a new type of charge-coupled device (CCD) is now under development for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing called the polar coordinate CCD. In this device, discrete imaging arrays are provided in each SHWFS subaperture and the size, shape and orientation of each discrete imaging array are adjusted to optimally sample the LGS image. The device is referred to as the polar coordinate CCD because the location of each imager is defined by a polar coordinate system centred on the laser guide star projection point. This concept is especially suited to Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) where the effect of perspective elongation is a significant factor. In this

  20. Direct-Solve Image-Based Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    A method of wavefront sensing (more precisely characterized as a method of determining the deviation of a wavefront from a nominal figure) has been invented as an improved means of assessing the performance of an optical system as affected by such imperfections as misalignments, design errors, and fabrication errors. The method is implemented by software running on a single-processor computer that is connected, via a suitable interface, to the image sensor (typically, a charge-coupled device) in the system under test. The software collects a digitized single image from the image sensor. The image is displayed on a computer monitor. The software directly solves for the wavefront in a time interval of a fraction of a second. A picture of the wavefront is displayed. The solution process involves, among other things, fast Fourier transforms. It has been reported to the effect that some measure of the wavefront is decomposed into modes of the optical system under test, but it has not been reported whether this decomposition is postprocessing of the solution or part of the solution process.

  1. Accurate estimation of human body orientation from RGB-D sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Zhang, Yongdong; Tang, Sheng; Tang, Jinhui; Hong, Richang; Li, Jintao

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of human body orientation can significantly enhance the analysis of human behavior, which is a fundamental task in the field of computer vision. However, existing orientation estimation methods cannot handle the various body poses and appearances. In this paper, we propose an innovative RGB-D-based orientation estimation method to address these challenges. By utilizing the RGB-D information, which can be real time acquired by RGB-D sensors, our method is robust to cluttered environment, illumination change and partial occlusions. Specifically, efficient static and motion cue extraction methods are proposed based on the RGB-D superpixels to reduce the noise of depth data. Since it is hard to discriminate all the 360 (°) orientation using static cues or motion cues independently, we propose to utilize a dynamic Bayesian network system (DBNS) to effectively employ the complementary nature of both static and motion cues. In order to verify our proposed method, we build a RGB-D-based human body orientation dataset that covers a wide diversity of poses and appearances. Our intensive experimental evaluations on this dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:23893759

  2. Measurement of wavefront distortions by the method of aperture sounding with spatially separated channels

    SciTech Connect

    Prilepskiy, Boris V; Alikhanov, Alexey N; Berchenko, Evgeniy A; Kiselev, Vladimir Yu; Narusbek, Ernest A; Filatov, Aleksander S

    2005-08-31

    Features of the formation of signals in wavefront sensors with the single-frequency light wave phase modulation and spatial separation of control channels are considered. Analysis is performed for sensors in which phase modulation is governed by a controlled element located in the pupil of the optical system of a sensor or in the focal plane of the objective of this system. Peculiarities of the signal formation for a tilted wavefront are considered separately for internal points of the exit pupil in the case of light wave phase modulation in the pupil. It is shown that a signal at the modulation frequency in these wavefront sensors for points located far from the pupil boundaries is determined by the wavefront curvature. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Dainty, Christopher; Lara, David

    2008-01-01

    Maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation in wavefront sensing requires careful attention to all noise sources and all factors that influence the sensor data. We present detailed probability density functions for the output of the image detector in a wavefront sensor, conditional not only on wavefront parameters but also on various nuisance parameters. Practical ways of dealing with nuisance parameters are described, and final expressions for likelihoods and Fisher information matrices are derived. The theory is illustrated by discussing Shack–Hartmann sensors, and computational requirements are discussed. Simulation results show that ML estimation can significantly increase the dynamic range of a Shack–Hartmann sensor with four detectors and that it can reduce the residual wavefront error when compared with traditional methods. PMID:17206255

  4. Megapixel wavefront correctors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, Thomas G.; Bierden, Paul A.; Zhu, Hao; Cornelissen, Steven; Kim, Jin Hong

    2004-10-01

    Optical-quality microelectromechanical deformable mirrors (DMs) and spatial light modulators (SLMs) are described. With such mirrors, the shape of the reflective surface can be modified dynamically to control an optical wavefront. A principal application is to compensate for aberrations and thereby improve image resolution in telescopes or microscopes: a process known as adaptive optics. μDMs are an enabling component for adaptive optics. Over several years, researchers at Boston University and Boston Micromachines Corporation have developed manufacturing processes that allow production of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors. We have produced mirror arrays with up to 22,500 actuators, 3.5μm of useful stroke, tens of picometer position repeatability, >98% reflectivity, and flatness better than 15nm RMS. Challenges to manufacturing optical quality micromachined mirrors in particular have been addressed: reducing surface roughness, increasing reflectivity, and eliminating post-release curvature in the mirror. These silicon based deformable mirrors can modulate spatial and temporal features of an optical wavefront, and have applications in imaging, beam-forming, and optical communication systems. New developments in DM design are discussed, and manufacturing approaches to microamachined DM and SLM production are presented, and designs that will permit scaling to millions of actuators are introduced.

  5. Wavefront error simulator for evaluating optical testing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A wavefront error simulator has been designed and fabricated to evaluate experimentally test instrumentation for the Large Space Telescope (LST) program. The principal operating part of the simulator is an aberration generator that introduces low-order aberrations of several waves magnitude with an incremented adjustment capability of lambda/100. Each aberration type can be introduced independently with any desired spatial orientation.

  6. Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.

  7. Correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wei, Yin; Chen, Xinhua; Tang, Minxue

    2014-11-01

    Membrane mirror with flexible polymer film substrate is a new-concept ultra lightweight mirror for space applications. Compared with traditional mirrors, membrane mirror has the advantages of lightweight, folding and deployable, low cost and etc. Due to the surface shape of flexible membrane mirror is easy to deviate from the design surface shape, it will bring wavefront aberration to the optical system. In order to solve this problem, a method of membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) will be studied in this paper. The wavefront aberration correction principle of LCSLM is described and the phase modulation property of a LCSLM is measured and analyzed firstly. Then the membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction system is designed and established according to the optical properties of a membrane mirror. The LCSLM and a Hartmann-Shack sensor are used as a wavefront corrector and a wavefront detector, respectively. The detected wavefront aberration is calculated and converted into voltage value on LCSLM for the mirror wavefront aberration correction by programming in Matlab. When in experiment, the wavefront aberration of a glass plane mirror with a diameter of 70 mm is measured and corrected for verifying the feasibility of the experiment system and the correctness of the program. The PV value and RMS value of distorted wavefront are reduced and near diffraction limited optical performance is achieved. On this basis, the wavefront aberration of the aperture center Φ25 mm in a membrane mirror with a diameter of 200 mm is corrected and the errors are analyzed. It provides a means of correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror.

  8. JWST Wavefront Control Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Shahram Ron; Aronstein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    A Matlab-based toolbox has been developed for the wavefront control and optimization of segmented optical surfaces to correct for possible misalignments of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) using influence functions. The toolbox employs both iterative and non-iterative methods to converge to an optimal solution by minimizing the cost function. The toolbox could be used in either of constrained and unconstrained optimizations. The control process involves 1 to 7 degrees-of-freedom perturbations per segment of primary mirror in addition to the 5 degrees of freedom of secondary mirror. The toolbox consists of a series of Matlab/Simulink functions and modules, developed based on a "wrapper" approach, that handles the interface and data flow between existing commercial optical modeling software packages such as Zemax and Code V. The limitations of the algorithm are dictated by the constraints of the moving parts in the mirrors.

  9. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Goy, M.; Beckert, E.; Tünnermann, A.

    2014-03-01

    The speed of real-time adaptive optical systems is primarily restricted by the data processing hardware and computational aspects. Furthermore, the application of mirror layouts with increasing numbers of actuators reduces the bandwidth (speed) of the system and, thus, the number of applicable control algorithms. This burden turns out a key-impediment for deformable mirrors with continuous mirror surface and highly coupled actuator influence functions. In this regard, specialized hardware is necessary for high performance real-time control applications. Our approach to overcome this challenge is an adaptive optics system based on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) with a CameraLink interface. The data processing is based on a high performance Intel Core i7 Quadcore hard real-time Linux system. Employing a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA, an own developed PCie card is outlined in order to accelerate the analysis of a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor. A recently developed real-time capable spot detection algorithm evaluates the wavefront. The main features of the presented system are the reduction of latency and the acceleration of computation For example, matrix multiplications which in general are of complexity O(n3 are accelerated by using the DSP48 slices of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as well as a novel hardware implementation of the SHWFS algorithm. Further benefits are the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) which intensively use the parallelization capability of the processor for further reducing the latency and increasing the bandwidth of the closed-loop. Due to this approach, up to 64 actuators of a deformable mirror can be handled and controlled without noticeable restriction from computational burdens.

  10. Coating-induced wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-12-01

    The coatings which are used on telescope mirrors and other optical interfaces can have a profound effect on the image quality formed by an optical system. This paper evaluates the defocus and astigmatism which are caused by the s- and p-phase shifts of coatings. These coating-induced wavefront aberrations are usually insignificant, but can, under certain circumstances, overshadow the geometric wavefront aberrations of the system. The wavefront aberrations induced by reflection-enhanced coatings on an f/1.5 Cassegrain telescope are numerically evaluated as an example.

  11. Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Bueno, Juan M.; Artal, Pablo

    2010-03-01

    A multiphoton microscope incorporating a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor to control the ultrafast laser beam's wavefront aberrations has been developed. This instrument allowed us to investigate the impact of the laser beam aberrations on two-photon autofluorescence imaging of human retinal tissues. We demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy images are improved when laser beam aberrations are minimized by realigning the laser system cavity while wavefront controlling. Nonlinear signals from several human retinal anatomical features have been detected for the first time, without the need of fixation or staining procedures. Beyond the improved image quality, this approach reduces the required excitation power levels, minimizing the side effects of phototoxicity within the imaged sample. In particular, this may be important to study the physiology and function of the healthy and diseased retina.

  12. Application of geometric phase to wavefront sensing for astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    Modern adaptive optics systems give high performance, both in terms of Strehl ratio (degree of correction) and corrected field of view. Arguably the most important subsystem is the wavefront sensor, which measures the deviation from flatness of the incident wavefront that has been perturbed by the turbulent atmosphere, and commands an actuated mirror to compensate. An aspect of the wavefront sensor essential to achieving high sensitivity is that it perform over a broad spectral bandwidth; operation without correction for guide star color is also desirable. With this in mind, wavefront sensors are considered that make use of the geometric (or topological) phase, which has the property that the value of the phase is independent of wavelength. Conceptual system designs and advantages are discussed.

  13. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.65[PbTiO3]0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  14. Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christian; Naidoo, Darryl; Flamm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver A; Forbes, Andrew; Duparré, Michael

    2012-08-27

    We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam based on modal decomposition by computer-generated holograms. The hologram is encoded with a transmission function suitable for measuring the amplitudes and phases of the modes in real-time. This yields the complete information about the optical field, from which the Poynting vector and the wavefront are deduced. Two different wavefront reconstruction options are outlined: reconstruction from the phase for scalar beams, and reconstruction from the Poynting vector for inhomogeneously polarized beams. Results are compared to Shack-Hartmann measurements that serve as a reference and are shown to reproduce the wavefront and phase with very high fidelity. PMID:23037024

  15. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN’s orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  16. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN's orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  17. Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons

    PubMed Central

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to directly measure and correct the aberrations introduced when imaging through thick biological tissue. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to directly measure the wavefront error induced by a Drosophila embryo. The wavefront measurements are taken by seeding the embryo with fluorescent microspheres used as “artificial guide-stars.” The wavefront error is corrected in ten millisecond steps by applying the inverse to the wavefront error on a micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirror in the image path of the microscope. The results show that this new approach is capable of improving the Strehl ratio by 2 times on average and as high as 10 times when imaging through 100 μm of tissue. The results also show that the isoplanatic half-width is approximately 19 μm resulting in a corrected field of view 38 μm in diameter around the guide-star. PMID:20721137

  18. Modal wavefront reconstruction over general shaped aperture by numerical orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingfei; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qun

    2015-03-01

    In practical optical measurements, the wavefront data are recorded by pixelated imaging sensors. The closed-form analytical base polynomial will lose its orthogonality in the discrete wavefront database. For a wavefront with an irregularly shaped aperture, the corresponding analytical base polynomials are laboriously derived. The use of numerical orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront with a general shaped aperture over the discrete data points is presented. Numerical polynomials are orthogonal over the discrete data points regardless of the boundary shape of the aperture. The performance of numerical orthogonal polynomials is confirmed by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results demonstrate the adaptability, validity, and accuracy of numerical orthogonal polynomials for estimating the wavefront over a general shaped aperture from regular boundary to an irregular boundary.

  19. Retrieval of Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated MEMS gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, A.; D'Anna, G.

    2014-12-01

    The absolute orientation of the horizontal components of ocean bottom or downhole seismic sensors are generally unknown. Almost all the methods proposed to overcome this issue are based on the post-processing of the acquired signals and so the results are strongly dependent on the nature, quantity and quality of the acquired data. We have carried out several test to evaluate the ability of retrieve sensor orientation using integrated low cost MEMS gyroscope. Our tests have shown that the tested MEMS gyroscope (the model 1044_0-3/3/3 Phidget Spatial Precision High Resolution) can be used to measure angular displacement and therefore to retrieve the absolute orientation of the horizontal components of a sensor that has been subjected to rotation in the horizontal plane. A correct processing of the acquired signals permit to retrieve, for rotation at angular rate between 0 and 180° s-1, angular displacement with error less 2°.

  20. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  1. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  2. Spatially continuous six-degrees-of-freedom position and orientation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danisch, Lee A.; Englehart, Kevin; Trivett, Andrew

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes SHAPE TAPE, a thin array of fiber optic curvature sensor laminated on a ribbon substrate, arranged to sense bend and twist. The resulting signals are used to build a 3D computer model containing six degrees of freedom position and orientation information for any location along the ribbon. The tape can be used to derive dynamic or static shape information from objects to which it is attached or scanned over. This is particularly useful where attachment is only partial, since shape tape 'knows where it is' relative to a starting location. Measurements can be performed where cameras cannot see, without the use of magnetic fields. Applications include simulation, film animation, computer aided design, robotics, biomechanics, and crash testing.

  3. Real-time physiological monitoring with distributed networks of sensors and object-oriented programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex; Bogucki, Mary S.

    1998-05-01

    Remote monitoring of physiologic data from individual high- risk workers distributed over time and space is a considerable challenge. This is often due to an inadequate capability to accurately integrate large amounts of data into usable information in real time. In this report, we have used the vertical and horizontal organization of the 'fireground' as a framework to design a distributed network of sensors. In this system, sensor output is linked through a hierarchical object oriented programing process to accurately interpret physiological data, incorporate these data into a synchronous model and relay processed data, trends and predictions to members of the fire incident command structure. There are several unique aspects to this approach. The first includes a process to account for variability in vital parameter values for each individual's normal physiologic response by including an adaptive network in each data process. This information is used by the model in an iterative process to baseline a 'normal' physiologic response to a given stress for each individual and to detect deviations that indicate dysfunction or a significant insult. The second unique capability of the system orders the information for each user including the subject, local company officers, medical personnel and the incident commanders. Information can be retrieved and used for training exercises and after action analysis. Finally this system can easily be adapted to existing communication and processing links along with incorporating the best parts of current models through the use of object oriented programming techniques. These modern software techniques are well suited to handling multiple data processes independently over time in a distributed network.

  4. Hybrid Architecture Active Wavefront Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for performing relatively high-speed wavefront sensing and control to overcome thermal instabilities in a segmented primary mirror telescope [e.g., James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at L2], by using the onboard fine guidance sensor (FGS) to minimize expense and complexity. This FGS performs centroiding on a bright star to feed the information to the pointing and control system. The proposed concept is to beam split the image of the guide star (or use a single defocused guide star image) to perform wavefront sensing using phase retrieval techniques. Using the fine guidance sensor star image for guiding and fine phasing eliminates the need for other, more complex ways of achieving very accurate sensing and control that is needed for UV-optical applications. The phase retrieval occurs nearly constantly, so passive thermal stability over fourteen days is not required. Using the FGS as the sensor, one can feed segment update information to actuators on the primary mirror that can update the primary mirror segment fine phasing with this frequency. Because the thermal time constants of the primary mirror are very slow compared to this duration, the mirror will appear extremely stable during observations (to the level of accuracy of the sensing and control). The sensing can use the same phase retrieval techniques as the JWST by employing an additional beam splitter, and having each channel go through a weak lens (one positive and one negative). The channels can use common or separate detectors. Phase retrieval can be performed onboard. The actuation scheme would include a coarse stage able to achieve initial alignment of several millimeters of range (similar to JWST and can use a JWST heritage sensing approach in the science camera) and a fine stage capable of continual updates.

  5. Curvature wavefront sensing for the large synoptic survey telescope.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bo; Claver, Chuck; Liang, Ming; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Angeli, George; Shipsey, Ian

    2015-10-20

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will use an active optics system (AOS) to maintain alignment and surface figure on its three large mirrors. Corrective actions fed to the LSST AOS are determined from information derived from four curvature wavefront sensors located at the corners of the focal plane. Each wavefront sensor is a split detector such that the halves are 1 mm on either side of focus. In this paper, we describe the extensions to published curvature wavefront sensing algorithms needed to address challenges presented by the LSST, namely the large central obscuration, the fast f/1.23 beam, off-axis pupil distortions, and vignetting at the sensor locations. We also describe corrections needed for the split sensors and the effects from the angular separation of different stars providing the intrafocal and extrafocal images. Lastly, we present simulations that demonstrate convergence, linearity, and negligible noise when compared to atmospheric effects when the algorithm extensions are applied to the LSST optical system. The algorithm extensions reported here are generic and can easily be adapted to other wide-field optical systems including similar telescopes with large central obscuration and off-axis curvature sensing. PMID:26560396

  6. Curvature wavefront sensing for the large synoptic survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Bo; Claver, Chuck; Liang, Ming; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Angeli, George; Shipsey, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will use an active optics system (AOS) to maintain alignment and surface figure on its three large mirrors. Corrective actions fed to the LSST AOS are determined from information derived from 4 curvature wavefront sensors located at the corners of the focal plane. Each wavefront sensor is a split detector such that the halves are 1mm on either side of focus. In this paper we describe the extensions to published curvature wavefront sensing algorithms needed to address challenges presented by the LSST, namely the large central obscuration, the fast f/1.23 beam, off-axis pupil distortions, and vignetting at the sensor locations. We also describe corrections needed for the split sensors and the effects from the angular separation of different stars providing the intra- and extra-focal images. Lastly, we present simulations that demonstrate convergence, linearity, and negligible noise when compared to atmospheric effects when the algorithm extensions are applied to the LSST optical system. The algorithm extensions reported here are generic and can easily be adapted to other wide-field optical systems including similar telescopes with large central obscuration and off-axis curvature sensing.

  7. Experimental assessment of the matched filter for laser guide star wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Conan, Rodolphe; Lardière, Olivier; Herriot, Glen; Bradley, Colin; Jackson, Kate

    2009-02-20

    Laser guide star wavefront sensing comes with several limitations. When imaged with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the laser guide star is seen as extended sources elongated in the directions given by the lenslet locations and the laser axis. A test bed has been built in the Adaptive Optics Laboratory of the University of Victoria that reproduces this effect as seen on extremely large telescopes. A new wavefront sensing algorithm, the matched filter, has been implemented and its performance assessed with the test bed. Its ability to mitigate laser guide star aberrations by tracking the sodium layer fluctuations in a closed loop adaptive optics system is shown. PMID:23567582

  8. Wavefront measurement made by an off-the-shelf laser-scanning pico projector.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Wei; Liang, Chao-Wen; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Focal plane testing methods such as the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and phase-shifting deflectometry are valuable tools for optical testing. In this study, we propose a novel wavefront slope testing method that uses a scanning galvo laser, in which a single-mode Gaussian beam scans the pupils of the tested optics in the system. In addition, the ray aberration is reconstructed by the four-step phase-shifting measurement by modulating the angular domain. The measured wavefront is verified by a Fizeau interferometer in terms of Zernike polynomials. PMID:26479659

  9. SOMM: A new service oriented middleware for generic wireless multimedia sensor networks based on code mobility.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Mohammad Mehdi; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Although much research in the area of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has been done in recent years, the programming of sensor nodes is still time-consuming and tedious. It requires expertise in low-level programming, mainly because of the use of resource constrained hardware and also the low level API provided by current operating systems. The code of the resulting systems has typically no clear separation between application and system logic. This minimizes the possibility of reusing code and often leads to the necessity of major changes when the underlying platform is changed. In this paper, we present a service oriented middleware named SOMM to support application development for WMSNs. The main goal of SOMM is to enable the development of modifiable and scalable WMSN applications. A network which uses the SOMM is capable of providing multiple services to multiple clients at the same time with the specified Quality of Service (QoS). SOMM uses a virtual machine with the ability to support mobile agents. Services in SOMM are provided by mobile agents and SOMM also provides a t space on each node which agents can use to communicate with each other. PMID:22346646

  10. SOMM: A New Service Oriented Middleware for Generic Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on Code Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Mohammad Mehdi; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Although much research in the area of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has been done in recent years, the programming of sensor nodes is still time-consuming and tedious. It requires expertise in low-level programming, mainly because of the use of resource constrained hardware and also the low level API provided by current operating systems. The code of the resulting systems has typically no clear separation between application and system logic. This minimizes the possibility of reusing code and often leads to the necessity of major changes when the underlying platform is changed. In this paper, we present a service oriented middleware named SOMM to support application development for WMSNs. The main goal of SOMM is to enable the development of modifiable and scalable WMSN applications. A network which uses the SOMM is capable of providing multiple services to multiple clients at the same time with the specified Quality of Service (QoS). SOMM uses a virtual machine with the ability to support mobile agents. Services in SOMM are provided by mobile agents and SOMM also provides a t space on each node which agents can use to communicate with each other. PMID:22346646

  11. Mission-Oriented Sensor Arrays and UAVs - a Case Study on Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, N. M.; Freire, I. L.; Trindade, O.; Simões, E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA), proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013), aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software) from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical). As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  12. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination. PMID:26907294

  13. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination. PMID:26907294

  14. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  15. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols. PMID:24193100

  16. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  17. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  18. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement. PMID:26724061

  19. Estimate Low and High Order Wavefront Using P1640 Calibrator Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hinkley, S.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Tang, H.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

    2013-01-01

    P1640 high contrast imaging system on the Palomar 200 inch Telescope consists of an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, the PALM-3000 adaptive optics (P3K-AO), and P1640 Calibrator (CAL). Science images are recorded by an integral field spectrograph covering J-H bands for detecting and characterizing stellar companions. With aberrations from atmosphere corrected by the P3K-AO, instrument performance is limited mainly by the quasi-static speckles due to noncommon path wavefront aberrations for the light to propagate to the P3K-AO wavefront sensor and to the coronagraph mask. The non-common path wavefront aberrations are sensed by CAL, which measures the post-coronagraph E-field using interferometry, and can be effectively corrected by offsetting the P3K-AO deformable mirror target position accordingly. Previously, we have demonstrated using CAL measurements to correct high order wavefront aberrations, which is directly connected to the static speckles in the image plane. Low order wavefront, on the other hand, usually of larger amplitudes, causes light to leak through the coronagraph making the whole image plane brighter. Knowledge error in low order wavefront aberrations can also affect the estimation of the high order wavefront. Even though, CAL is designed to sense efficiently high order wavefront aberrations, the low order wavefront front can be inferred with less sensitivity. Here, we describe our method for estimating both low and high order wavefront aberrations using CAL measurements by propagating the post-coronagraph E-field to a pupil before the coronagraph. We present the results from applying this method to both simulated and experiment data.

  20. Sparse aperture mask for low order wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A. J. E.

    2015-09-01

    A high contrast is required for direct imaging of exoplanets. Ideally, the level of contrast required for direct imaging of exoplanets can be achieved by coronagraphic imaging, but in practice, the contrast is degraded by wavefront aberrations. To achieve the required contrast, low-order wavefront aberrations such as tip-tilt, defocus and coma must be determined and corrected. In this paper, we present a technique that integrates a sparse- aperture mask (SAM) with a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) to make precise estimates of these low-order aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a detector. Using numerical simulations, we show that the SAM can estimate rapidly varying tip-tilt errors in space telescopes arising from line-of-sight pointing oscillations as well as other higher-order modes. We also show that a Kalman filter can be used with the SAM to improve the estimation. At Princetons High Contrast Imaging Laboratory, we have recently created a testbed devoted to low-order wavefront sensing experiments. The testbed incorporates custom-fabricated masks (shaped pupil, focal plane, and sparse aperture) with a deformable mirror and a CCD camera to demonstrate the estimation and correction of low-order aberrations. Our first experiments aim to replicate the results of the SAM wavefront sensor (SAM WFS) Fourier propagation models.

  1. Retrieve Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated low cost gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    To reduce the background noise level, seismic sensors are often installed in downhole. During the installation, it is not possible to determine exactly what the sensors has rotated in the horizontal plane before reaching the bottom. To monitoring the seismic activity occurred in offshore areas, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are often deployed in the area to be studied. During the OBS descent phase along the seawater column the sensor can undergo to significant rotations in the horizontal plane. Therefore, both for seismic sensors installed in downhole or on ocean bottom, the absolute orientation of the horizontal components are unknown. Clearly, this serious problem can be limits data analysis and interpretation. The absolute orientation of horizontal components are critical for many modern seismic analysis techniques such as receiver functions, body- and surface-wave polarization analysis, studies of anisotropy, and surface wave dispersion curves estimations. The techniques proposed to retrieve the correct sensor horizontal components orientations use different approaches (polarization analysis, cross-correlation measurements, synthetic seismograms fitting), different data set (shots, earthquakes, seismic noise) and different portion of the seismic wave-field (P or S wave arrival times, Rayleigh waves, full waveforms), but are all based on the post-processing of the acquired data. All these methods are not error-free and not always applicable. Method based on active source are not applicable in passive OBS monitoring campaigns. The method based on synthetic waveforms are strong dependent on accuracy of the source parameters estimation and are generally computationally intensive. The method based on polarization analysis are clearly strong dependent on the quality of the data in term of number of seismic events recorded, azimuthal coverage and signal to noise ratio. The methods base on events or noise cross-correlation can be applicable only if an array of sensor

  2. Wavefront Sensing via High Speed DSP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Future light-weighted and segmented primary mirror systems require active optical control to maintain mirror positioning and figure to within nanometer tolerances. Current image-based wavefront sensing approaches rely on post-processing techniques to return an estimate of the aberrated optical wavefront with accuracies to the nanometer level. But the lag times between wavefront sensing, and then control, contributes to a significant latency in the wavefront sensing implementation. In this analysis we demonstrate accelerated image-based wavefront sensing performance using multiple digital signal processors (DSP's). The computational architecture is discussed as well as the heritage leading to the approach.

  3. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  4. Human Arm Motion Tracking by Orientation-Based Fusion of Inertial Sensors and Kinect Using Unscented Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Atrsaei, Arash; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2016-09-01

    Due to various applications of human motion capture techniques, developing low-cost methods that would be applicable in nonlaboratory environments is under consideration. MEMS inertial sensors and Kinect are two low-cost devices that can be utilized in home-based motion capture systems, e.g., home-based rehabilitation. In this work, an unscented Kalman filter approach was developed based on the complementary properties of Kinect and the inertial sensors to fuse the orientation data of these two devices for human arm motion tracking during both stationary shoulder joint position and human body movement. A new measurement model of the fusion algorithm was obtained that can compensate for the inertial sensors drift problem in high dynamic motions and also joints occlusion in Kinect. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by an optical motion tracker system. The errors were reduced by almost 50% compared to cases when either inertial sensor or Kinect measurements were utilized. PMID:27428461

  5. Analysis of field-oriented controlled induction motor drives under sensor faults and an overview of sensorless schemes.

    PubMed

    Arun Dominic, D; Chelliah, Thanga Raj

    2014-09-01

    To obtain high dynamic performance on induction motor drives (IMD), variable voltage and variable frequency operation has to be performed by measuring speed of rotation and stator currents through sensors and fed back them to the controllers. When the sensors are undergone a fault, the stability of control system, may be designed for an industrial process, is disturbed. This paper studies the negative effects on a 12.5 hp induction motor drives when the field oriented control system is subjected to sensor faults. To illustrate the importance of this study mine hoist load diagram is considered as shaft load of the tested machine. The methods to recover the system from sensor faults are discussed. In addition, the various speed sensorless schemes are reviewed comprehensively. PMID:24981890

  6. On-line measurement of wavefront aberration on optics caused by intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zuodong; Liu, Fuhua; Jiang, Chang; Wang, Fei; Shao, Bibo; Ji, Yunfeng

    2015-05-01

    It is presented that the thermally induced transmitted wavefront aberration of a high-reflectivity sampling mirror was detected on line using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) in the beam quality measurement of an intense laser. As a result of heat absorption in the sampling mirror with active aperture of 120 mm, thermally induced wavefront aberration emerged when the mirror was exposed to high laser intensity of several kilowatts per centimeter square. Time-dependent wavefront aberration curves were acquired, and the transmitted wavefronts were reconstructed based on Zernike mode reconstruction theory. The experimental results indicate that the magnitude of the dynamic transmitted wavefront aberration increases gradually with the growing heat deposit during laser irradiation. The maximum of wavefront aberration observed after irradiation for 5 seconds reaches 0.11 μm of root-mean-square value. After further analysis, the experimental results of dynamic aberration can be applied in modifications for the measurement results of intense laser beam quality or tests for the thermal stability of optics used in the intense laser systems.

  7. A reagentless DNA-based electrochemical silver(I) sensor for real time detection of Ag(I) - the effect of probe sequence and orientation on sensor response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2016-06-01

    Ag(I) is known to interact with cytosine (C) via the formation C-Ag(I)-C complexes. The authors have utilized this concept to design six electrochemical Ag(I) sensors using C-rich DNA probes. Alternating current voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were used to analyze the sensors. The results show that the dual-probe sensors that require the use of both 5'- and 3'-thiolated DNA probes are not suitable for this application, the differences in probe orientation impedes formation of C-Ag(I)-C complexes. Sensors fabricated with DNA probes containing both thymine (T) and C, independent of the location of the alkanethiol linker, do not response to Ag(I) either; T-T mismatches destabilize the duplex even in the presence of Ag(I). However, sensors fabricated with DNA probes containing both adenine (A) and C are ideal for this application, owing to the formation of C-Ag(I)-C complexes, as well as other lesser known interactions between A and Ag(I). Both sensors are sensitive, specific and selective enough to be used in 50% human saliva. They can also be used to detect silver sulfadiazine, a commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug. With further optimization, this sensing strategy may offer a promising approach for detection of Ag(I) in environmental and clinical samples. PMID:26901685

  8. Accurate Object Recognition Using Orientation Sensor with Refinement on the Lie Group of Spatial Rigid Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckel, Loic; Nishida, Toyoaki

    In this paper, we introduce a method for recognizing a subject complex object in real world environment. We use a three dimensional model described by line segments of the object and the data provided by a three-axis orientation sensor attached to the video camera. We assume that existing methods for finding line features in the image allow at least one model line segment to be detected as a single continuous segment. The method consists of two main steps: generation of pose hypotheses and then evaluation of each pose in order to select the most appropriate one. The first stage is three-fold: model visibility, line matching and pose estimation; the second stage aims to rank the poses by evaluating the similarity between the projected model lines and the image lines. Furthermore, we propose an additional step that consists of refining the best candidate pose by using the Lie group formalism of spatial rigid motions. Such a formalism provides an efficient local parameterization of the set of rigid rotation via the exponential map. A set of experiments demonstrating the robustness of this approach is presented.

  9. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-based Filter for orientation determination using inertial and magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

  10. Kalman-Filter-Based Orientation Determination Using Inertial/Magnetic Sensors: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

  11. Wavefront Imaging in Fractured Transversely-Isotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Fractures in the Earth's crust are a source of stress-dependent mechanical anisotropy that affect seismic wave attenuation and velocity. While many theoretical and experimental studies have investigated seismic wave propagation in single or multi- fractured isotropic rocks, few studies have examined the seismic response of a fractured anisotropic medium. Fractures and layering each contribute to the mechanical anisotropy of the crust. The coexistence of these two sources of anisotropy complicates the interpretation of the seismic properties of crustal rock. In this study, laboratory wavefront imaging was performed to capture the seismic response of layered media containing multiple parallel fractures. We determined that whether the observed anisotropy is dominated by the matrix anisotropy or by the fracture orientation depends on the applied stress and that late-arriving guided-modes provide information on the orientation of the fractures. Four cubic garolite samples (~102 mm on edge) each containing 5 parallel fractures were used in this study. The fractures were oriented normal, parallel or at acute angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees) to the layering. The fracture and layer spacing were approximately 10mm and 0.5mm, respectively. An intact sample containing no fractures was used as a standard orthorhombic medium for reference. Stress was applied to the samples with a servo-controlled loading machine. Two spherically-focused water-coupled transducers (central frequency 1MHz) were used; one as a fixed-source and the other as a translating receiver. Each sample was scanned over a 60mm×60mm region in 1 mm increments to map out the arriving wavefront (i.e. 3600 signals were recorded) as a function of time. The measured wavefront in the intact reference sample (which contained no fractures) was elliptical with the major axis parallel to the layers as expected and was stress-independent. When the fracture samples were subjected to low stress (<4 MPa), the observed seismic

  12. Measurement of wavefront aberrations and lens deformation in the accommodated eye with optical coherence tomography-equipped wavefront system.

    PubMed

    He, Ji C; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-04-21

    To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation. PMID:24787861

  13. Wavefront-Guided Scleral Lens Prosthetic Device for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Johns, Lynette; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Jacobs, Deborah S.; Rosenthal, Perry; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of correcting ocular higher order aberrations (HOA) in keratoconus (KC) using wavefront-guided optics in a scleral lens prosthetic device (SLPD). Methods Six advanced keratoconus patients (11 eyes) were fitted with a SLPD with conventional spherical optics. A custom-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure aberrations through a dilated pupil wearing the SLPD. The position of SLPD, i.e. horizontal and vertical decentration relative to the pupil and rotation were measured and incorporated into the design of the wavefront-guided optics for the customized SLPD. A submicron-precision lathe created the designed irregular profile on the front surface of the device. The residual aberrations of the same eyes wearing the SLPD with wavefront-guided optics were subsequently measured. Visual performance with natural mesopic pupil was compared between SLPDs having conventional spherical and wavefront-guided optics by measuring best-corrected high-contrast visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Results Root-mean-square of HOA(RMS) in the 11 eyes wearing conventional SLPD with spherical optics was 1.17±0.57μm for a 6 mm pupil. HOA were effectively corrected by the customized SLPD with wavefront-guided optics and RMS was reduced 3.1 times on average to 0.37±0.19μm for the same pupil. This correction resulted in significant improvement of 1.9 lines in mean visual acuity (p<0.05). Contrast sensitivity was also significantly improved by a factor of 2.4, 1.8 and 1.4 on average for 4, 8 and 12 cycles/degree, respectively (p<0.05 for all frequencies). Although the residual aberration was comparable to that of normal eyes, the average visual acuity in logMAR with the customized SLPD was 0.21, substantially worse than normal acuity. Conclusions The customized SLPD with wavefront-guided optics corrected the HOA of advanced KC patients to normal levels and improved their vision significantly. PMID:23478630

  14. Using horizontal and vertical building structure to constrain indirect sensor orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Markus

    This paper presents a method to integrate linear horizontal, vertical and right-angled scene structures into the bundle adjustment of image sequences. An increasing number of airborne image acquisition systems is available and equipped with non-metric small- or medium-frame cameras and no or insufficiently accurate INS devices. In cases where the data is to be used for the production of geo-spatial data, where a certain accuracy and precision is required, an indirect sensor orientation, possibly including self-calibration, needs to be performed. The idea which led to the presented approach is to reduce the number of GCPs necessary for this task by applying the mentioned scene structures. The method directly uses the linear structures, visible at man-made objects as fictive observations within the adjustment, while self-calibration of intrinsic camera parameters and lens distortion is included as well. Experiments with two datasets demonstrate that, through this method, only limited GCP information is required to obtain satisfactory results. In fact, in one experiment using oblique images, several scene constraints were provided and only the datum was defined by ground control. The residuals at check points from this setup were similar to the traditional case where several well-distributed GCPs were available in the scene. In the second experiment the ability of this approach to support the bundle adjustment was shown for a UAV dataset. Although no GCP and camera calibration information was available, the visual inspection of adjusted object points and the residuals at horizontal structures confirmed the ability of the method to align an image block with the structure, as embodied in the defined scene constraints. Despite the convincing outcome of the experiments, it needs to be mentioned that some manual work is still involved in defining the constraints. In future work the issue of automation will be addressed.

  15. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators. PMID:25342000

  16. An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2014-10-01

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  17. Wavefront technology for vision and ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junzhong

    2003-07-01

    Wavefront technology promises to change the way vision care will be conducted. Wavefront-sensing optometers provide instant, accurate measurement of the total wave aberration of the eye, and that one measurement contains all the information needed for refractive vision diagnosis and refractive vision correction. Wavefront optometers are now being used to create individualized laser vision correction based, not on the coventional sphero-cylindrical correction, but rather on the total wavefront errors in patients' eyes. Comprehensive vision diagnosis based on the wave aberration and the image quality derived from it is far different from the conventional test of visual acuity. Wavefront technology has made it possible to image microscopic features as small as the photoreceptors and to improve resolution of retinal imaging techniques for early diagnosis of retinal diseases. This article is a review covering the hsitory and progress being made in the development of the wavefront technologies.

  18. A Harsh Environment-Oriented Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor Realized by LTCC Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated. PMID:24594610

  19. Wavefront metrology for coherent hard X-rays by scanning a microsphere.

    PubMed

    Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico; Patil, Nilesh; Gibaud, Alain; Breiby, Dag W

    2016-05-16

    Characterization of the wavefront of an X-ray beam is of primary importance for all applications where coherence plays a major role. Imaging techniques based on numerically retrieving the phase from interference patterns are often relying on an a-priori assumption of the wavefront shape. In Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) a planar incoming wave field is often assumed for the inversion of the measured diffraction pattern, which allows retrieving the real space image via simple Fourier transformation. It is therefore important to know how reliable the plane wave approximation is to describe the real wavefront. Here, we demonstrate that the quantitative wavefront shape and flux distribution of an X-ray beam used for CXDI can be measured by using a micrometer size metal-coated polymer sphere serving in a similar way as the hole array in a Hartmann wavefront sensor. The method relies on monitoring the shape and center of the scattered intensity distribution in the far field using a 2D area detector while raster-scanning the microsphere with respect to the incoming beam. The reconstructed X-ray wavefront was found to have a well-defined central region of approximately 16 µm diameter and a weaker, asymmetric, intensity distribution extending 30 µm from the beam center. The phase front distortion was primarily spherical with an effective radius of 0.55 m which matches the distance to the last upstream beam-defining slit, and could be accurately represented by Zernike polynomials. PMID:27409892

  20. GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

    2010-05-01

    The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be

  1. GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

    2010-05-01

    The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be

  2. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can't be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated. PMID:22574034

  3. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can’t be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated. PMID:22574034

  4. Common-Path Wavefront Sensing for Advanced Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of faint companions around nearby stars is not limited by either intrinsic resolution of a coronagraph/telescope system, nor is it strictly photon limited. Typically, it is both the magnitude and temporal variation of small phase and amplitude errors imparted to the electric field by elements in the optical system which will limit ultimate performance. Adaptive optics systems, particularly those with multiple deformable mirrors, can remove these errors, but they need to be sensed in the final image plane. If the sensing system is before the final image plane, which is typical for most systems, then the non-common path optics between the wavefront sensor and science image plane will lead to un-sensed errors. However, a new generation of high-performance coronagraphs naturally lend themselves to wavefront sensing in the final image plane. These coronagraphs and the wavefront sensing will be discussed, as well as plans for demonstrating this with a high-contrast system on the ground. Such a system will be a key system-level proof for a future space-based coronagraph mission, which will also be discussed.

  5. FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES

    SciTech Connect

    Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew

    2013-04-20

    Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

  6. CuRe - A new wavefront reconstruction method for SH-WFS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obereder, Andreas; Ramlau, Ronny; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Zhariy, Mariya

    2011-09-01

    In order to fulfill the real-time requirements for AO on ELTs, one has to either invest in (very) high performance hardware or spend some effort on the development of highly efficient reconstruction algorithms for wavefront sensors. The AAO (Austrian Adaptive Optics) team is involved in deriving wavefront reconstructors for SH- and Pyramid-WFS measurements utilizing the mathematical properties of the forward operators for these wavefront sensors. At the moment, we focus mainly on direct reconstructors with complexity O(n) (where n denotes the number of subapertures of the WFS) to make the reconstruction scalable for large telescopes. In this talk we will introduce a new algorithm, the Cumulative Reconstructor (CuRe), present its properties, namely error propagation of the method and the numerical effort for the reconstruction of the incoming wavefront, as well as first results concerning the quality of the method (dependent on different noise sources). Further improvements of the algorithm, especially a domain decomposition method for enhancing reconstruction quality and improving the overall speed of the algorithm will be presented and analyzed. A speed comparison with different wavefront reconstruction algorithms will be presented to point out the enormous gain of the new CuReD (Cumulative Reconstructor with Domain Decomposition) algorithm concerning numerical performance and applicability for real life telescope adaptive optics applications. In the outlook of the talk we will present first XAO results utilizing a variant of the CuReD for the reconstruction of modulated Pyramid WFS measurements.

  7. A smooth introduction to the wavefront set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouder, Christian; Viet Dang, Nguyen; Hélein, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    The wavefront set of a distribution describes not only the points where the distribution is singular, but also the ‘directions’ of the singularities. Because of its ability to control the product of distributions, the wavefront set was a key element of recent progress in renormalized quantum field theory in curved spacetime, quantum gravity, the discussion of time machines or quantum energy inequalitites. However, the wavefront set is a somewhat subtle concept whose standard definition is not easy to grasp. This paper is a step-by-step introduction to the wavefront set, with examples and motivation. Many different definitions and new interpretations of the wavefront set are presented. Some of them involve a Radon transform.

  8. Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2012-08-10

    First multiconjugate adaptive-optical (MCAO) systems are currently being installed on solar telescopes. The aim of these systems is to increase the corrected field of view with respect to conventional adaptive optics. However, this first generation is based on a star-oriented approach, and it is then difficult to increase the size of the field of view beyond 60-80 arc sec in diameter. We propose to implement the layer-oriented approach in solar MCAO systems by use of wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors conjugated to the strongest turbulent layers. The wavefront distortions are averaged over a wide field: the signal from distant turbulence is attenuated and the tomographic reconstruction is thus done optically. The system consists of independent correction loops, which only need to account for local turbulence: the subapertures can be enlarged and the correction frequency reduced. Most importantly, a star-oriented MCAO system becomes more complex with increasing field size, while the layer-oriented approach benefits from larger fields and will therefore be an attractive solution for the future generation of solar MCAO systems. PMID:22885589

  9. A chipless sensor tag-based RFID technology for cyber-oriented environmental sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sudhir; Agarwal, Mangilal; Phoha, Vir V.; Varahramyan, Kody

    2009-05-01

    A chipless sensor tag-based radio frequency identification (RFID) technology that allows wireless collection of information from the environment, and the monitoring and accessing of the given information through cyberspace is presented. The developed system consists of a cyber enabled RFID reader and passive chipless RFID sensor tags. The reader is comprised of an analog part that wirelessly communicates with the sensor tags, and a single board computer (SBC) part. Each passive chipless sensor tag consists of a microstrip antenna and a sensor. The sensor information is amplitude modulated in the backscattered signal of the tag. The analog reader part receives the backscattered signal and feeds it to the SBC, which computes the sensor information into a 96 bit serialized global trade item number (SGTIN-96) electronic product code (EPC). Moreover, the SBC makes the information available on a cyberspace-accessible secure user interface. The reported system has been applied for temperature sensing, where the change in temperature at the tag ranging from 27°C to 140°C resulted in a 28% amplitude change at the analog part of the reader. The temperature at the tag has been monitored by accessing the reader through cyberspace using a web-based user interfaces developed for the SBC.

  10. Tomographic Errors From Wavefront Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, A. E.; Trampert, J.

    2008-12-01

    Despite recent advances in full-waveform modeling ray theory is still, for good reasons, the preferred method in global tomography. It is well known that ray theory is most accurate for anomalies that are large compared to the wavelength. Exactly what errors result from the failure of this assumption is less well understood, in spite of the fact that anomalies found in the Earth from ray-based tomography methods are often outside the regime in which ray theory is known to be valid. Using the spectral element method, we have computed exact delay times and compared them to ray-theoretical traveltimes for two classic anomalies, one large and disk-shaped near the core mantle boundary, and the other a plume-like structure extending throughout the mantle. Wavefront healing is apparent in the traveltime anomalies generated by these structures; its effects are strongly asymmetric between P and S arrivals due to wavelength differences and source directionality. Simple computations in two dimensions allow us to develop the intuition necessary to understand how diffractions around the anomalies explain these results. When inverting the exact travel time anomalies with ray theory we expect wavefront healing to have a strong influence on the resulting structures. We anticipate that the asymmetry will be of particular importance in anomalies in the bulk velocity structure.

  11. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  12. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark; Mockler, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

  13. Probing molecular pathways for DNA orientational trapping, unzipping and translocation in nanopores by using a tunable overhang sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Kai; Hunter, Lehr L.; Ritzo, Brandon; Gu, Li-Qun

    2014-09-01

    Nanopores provide a unique single-molecule platform for genetic and epigenetic detection. The target nucleic acids can be accurately analyzed by characterizing their specific electric fingerprints or signatures in the nanopore. Here we report a series of novel nanopore signatures generated by target nucleic acids that are hybridized with a probe. A length-tunable overhang appended to the probe functions as a sensor to specifically modulate the nanopore current profile. The resulting signatures can reveal multiple mechanisms for the orientational trapping, unzipping, escaping and translocation of nucleic acids in the nanopore. This universal approach can be used to program various molecular movement pathways, elucidate their kinetics, and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the nanopore sensor for nucleic acid detection.Nanopores provide a unique single-molecule platform for genetic and epigenetic detection. The target nucleic acids can be accurately analyzed by characterizing their specific electric fingerprints or signatures in the nanopore. Here we report a series of novel nanopore signatures generated by target nucleic acids that are hybridized with a probe. A length-tunable overhang appended to the probe functions as a sensor to specifically modulate the nanopore current profile. The resulting signatures can reveal multiple mechanisms for the orientational trapping, unzipping, escaping and translocation of nucleic acids in the nanopore. This universal approach can be used to program various molecular movement pathways, elucidate their kinetics, and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the nanopore sensor for nucleic acid detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03195d

  14. Wavefront sensing within the VISTA infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul; Berry, Paul; Bingham, Richard G.; Bissonauth, Nirmal; Caldwell, Martin; Dipper, Nigel A.; Dunlop, Colin N.; Henry, David M.; Luke, Peter; Myers, Richard M.; Robertson, David J.

    2004-09-01

    VISTA is a 4-metre survey telescope currently being constructed on the NTT peak of ESO"s Cerro Paranal Observatory. The telescope will be equipped with a dedicated infrared camera providing images of a 1.65 degree field of view. The telescope and camera are of an innovative f/3.26 design with no intermediate focus and no cold stop. The mosaic of 16 IR detectors is located directly at Cassegrain focus and a novel baffle arrangement is used to suppress stray light within the cryostat. The pointing and alignment of the telescope and camera is monitored by wavefront sensing elements within the camera cryostat itself. This paper describes the optical, mechanical, electronic and thermal design of the combined curvature sensor and auto-guider units positioned at the periphery of the camera field of view. Centroid and image aberration data is provided to the telescope control system allowing real time correction of pointing and alignment of the actively positioned M2 unit. Also described are the custom optics, mounted in the camera filter wheel, which are used to perform near on-axis high order curvature sensing. Analysis of the corresponding defocused images allows calibration tables of M1 actuator positions to be constructed for varying telescope declination and temperature.

  15. Global wavefront sensing for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzoni, R.; Bergomi, M.; Brunelli, A.; Dima, M.; Farinato, J.; Magrin, D.; Marafatto, L.; Viotto, V.

    2012-07-01

    In ELTs the larger size of the aperture will translates into different categories of problems and different kind of solutions. The concept of Global Multi Conjugated Adaptive Optics is here introduced. In this, the wavefront sensing is extended to a much larger Field of View, practically limited by the telescope optics or optomechanics and by the limit given by the coverage of the metapupil at the highest altitude of interest. The correction of these layers is employed in a numerical fashion and the information is retrieved in order to compensate for a much limited Field of View. All this, being done in a layer oriented fashion, does allow for a simplified treatment of the Signal to Noise Ratio and to an estimate of the performances in the plot h vs. spatial scales where layers and the related Kolmogorov distributed turbulence are plotted. Once this information is retrieved it is fed back into the existing Deformable Mirror with a back-projection that allow for the most efficient way in terms of coverage of the spatial frequencies. The nature of the closed- vs open-loop of such an approach is also briefly discussed. The aim of a sky coverage and of performances getting closer or exceeding the ones provided by Laser Guide Stars can be at hands.

  16. Wavefront Analysis of Nonlinear Self-Amplified Spontaneous-Emission Free-Electron Laser Harmonics in the Single-Shot Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Bachelard, R.; Chubar, O.; Mercere, P.; Idir, M.; Couprie, M.E.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Nagasono, M.; Hara, T. and Ishikawa, T.

    2011-06-08

    The single-shot spatial characteristics of the vacuum ultraviolet self-amplified spontaneous emission of a free electron laser (FEL) is measured at different stages of amplification up to saturation with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fundamental radiation at 61.5 nm tends towards a single-mode behavior as getting closer to saturation. The measurements are found in good agreement with simulations and theory. A near diffraction limited wavefront was measured. The analysis of Fresnel diffraction through the Hartmann wavefront sensor hole array also provides some further insight for the evaluation of the FEL transverse coherence, of high importance for various applications.

  17. Terahertz wavefront assessment based on 2D electro-optic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyadi, Harsono; Ichikawa, Ryuji; Degert, Jérôme; Freysz, Eric; Yasui, Takeshi; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Complete characterization of terahertz (THz) radiation becomes an interesting yet challenging study for many years. In visible optical region, the wavefront assessment has been proved as a powerful tool for the beam profiling and characterization, which consequently requires 2-dimension (2D) single-shot acquisition of the beam cross-section to provide the spatial profile in time- and frequency-domain. In THz region, the main problem is the lack of effective THz cameras to satisfy this need. In this communication, we propose a simple setup based on free-space collinear 2D electrooptic sampling in a ZnTe crystal for the characterization of THz wavefronts. In principle, we map the optically converted, time-resolved data of the THz pulse by changing the time delay between the probe pulse and the generated THz pulse. The temporal waveforms from different lens-ZnTe distances can clearly indicate the evolution of THz beam as it is converged, focused, or diverged. From the Fourier transform of the temporal waveforms, we can obtain the spectral profile of a broadband THz wave, which in this case within the 0.1-2 THz range. The spectral profile also provides the frequency dependency of the THz pulse amplitude. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results at certain frequencies (here we choose 0.285 and 1.035 THz) is in a good agreement suggesting that our system is capable of THz wavefront characterization. Furthermore, the implementation of Hartmann/Shack-Hartmann sensor principle enables the reconstruction of THz wavefront. We demonstrate the reconstruction of THz wavefronts which are changed from planar wave to spherical one due to the insertion of convex THz lens in the THz beam path. We apply and compare two different reconstruction methods: linear integration and Zernike polynomial. Roughly we conclude that the Zernike method provide smoother wavefront shape that can be elaborated later into quantitative-qualitative analysis about the wavefront

  18. Estimation of the object orientation and location with the use of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Aleksander; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Idzkowski, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the implementation of the estimation algorithms of orientation in 3D space and the displacement of an object in a 2D space. Moreover, a general orientation storage methods using Euler angles, quaternion and rotation matrix are presented. The experimental part presents the results of the complementary filter implementation. In the study experimental microprocessor module based on STM32f4 Discovery system and myRIO hardware platform equipped with FPGA were used. The attempt to track an object in two-dimensional space, which are showed in the final part of this article, were made with the use of the equipment mentioned above.

  19. Modeling of high-precision wavefront sensing with new generation of CMT avalanche photodiode infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays. PMID:26836674

  20. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain. PMID:27140879

  1. Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the state of the art wavefront sensor detectors developments held in Europe for the last decade. The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend on the ability of Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to provide excellent image quality and stability. This will be achieved by increasing the sampling, wavelength range and correction quality of the wave front error in both spatial and time domains. The modern generation of AO wavefront sensor detectors development started in the late nineties with the CCD50 detector fabricated by e2v technologies under ESO contract for the ESO NACO AO system. With a 128x128 pixels format, this 8 outputs CCD offered a 500 Hz frame rate with a readout noise of 7e-. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the recent development by e2v technologies of the CCD220. This 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication) has been jointly funded by ESO and Europe under the FP6 programme. The CCD220 and the OCAM2 camera that operates the detector are now the most sensitive system in the world for advanced adaptive optics systems, offering less than 0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. Extremely easy to operate, OCAM2 only needs a 24 V power supply and a modest water cooling circuit. This system, commercialized by First Light Imaging, is extensively described in this paper. An upgrade of OCAM2 is foreseen to boost its frame rate to 2 kHz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT using 4 synchronized cameras and pyramid wavefront sensing. Since this major success, new developments started in Europe. One is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with ESO involvement. The spot elongation from a LGS Shack Hartman wavefront sensor necessitates an increase of the pixel format. Two detectors are currently developed by e2v. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS

  2. Incoherent wavefront reconstruction by a retroemission device.

    PubMed

    Khaydukov, Eugenyi V; Semchishen, Vladimir A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2015-04-01

    This Letter addresses wavefront reconstruction by a retroemission device (REM). REM represents a lenslet array mounted on a substrate made of photoluminescent optical material, such as a polymer film impregnated with upconversion nanoparticles. An excitation light wavefront incident on the REM was sampled by the lenslet array piece-wise. Each wavelet at the lenslet aperture was converged into a voxel in the substrate, with its coordinates encoding the angle of incidence and curvature of the wavelet. Photoluminescence excited in the voxel was radiated isotropically, its back-propagating fraction was captured by the lenslet and transformed into a back-propagating wavelet, which contributed to reproduction of the entire incident wavefront with some fidelity. We experimentally proved the wavefront reconstruction based on REM, and present its theoretical model based on a Fresnel-Kirchhoff approximation. PMID:25831284

  3. Clustering of solitons in weakly correlated wavefronts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhigang; Sears, Suzanne M.; Martin, Hector; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Segev, Mordechai

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the spontaneous clustering of solitons in partially coherent wavefronts during the final stages of pattern formation initiated by modulation instability and noise. PMID:16578870

  4. Optimal wavefront control for adaptive segmented mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A ground-based astronomical telescope with a segmented primary mirror will suffer image-degrading wavefront aberrations from at least two sources: (1) atmospheric turbulence and (2) segment misalignment or figure errors of the mirror itself. This paper describes the derivation of a mirror control feedback matrix that assumes the presence of both types of aberration and is optimum in the sense that it minimizes the mean-squared residual wavefront error. Assumptions of the statistical nature of the wavefront measurement errors, atmospheric phase aberrations, and segment misalignment errors are made in the process of derivation. Examples of the degree of correlation are presented for three different types of wavefront measurement data and compared to results of simple corrections.

  5. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  6. X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal; Berujon, Sébastien; Ziegler, Eric; Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian

    2011-08-15

    A fast and accurate method to characterize the X-ray wavefront by rotating one of the two gratings of an X-ray shearing interferometer is described and investigated step by step. Such a shearing interferometer consists of a phase grating mounted on a rotation stage, and an absorption grating used as a transmission mask. The mathematical relations for X-ray Moiré fringe analysis when using this device are derived and discussed in the context of the previous literature assumptions. X-ray beam wavefronts without and after X-ray reflective optical elements have been characterized at beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source (DLS) using the presented X-ray rotating shearing interferometer (RSI) technique. It has been demonstrated that this improved method allows accurate calculation of the wavefront radius of curvature and the wavefront distortion, even when one has no previous information on the grating projection pattern period, magnification ratio and the initial grating orientation. As the RSI technique does not require any a priori knowledge of the beam features, it is suitable for routine characterization of wavefronts of a wide range of radii of curvature. PMID:21935019

  7. Wavefront control system for the Keck telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J. M., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The laser guide star adaptive optics system currently being developed for the Keck 2 telescope consists of several major subsystems: the optical bench, wavefront control, user interface and supervisory control, and the laser system. The paper describes the design and implementation of the wavefront control subsystem that controls a 349 actuator deformable mirror for high order correction and tip-tilt mirrors for stabilizing the image and laser positions.

  8. Calibrating the orientation between a microlens array and a sensor based on projective geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lijuan; Yan, Qiangqiang; Cao, Jun; Yuan, Yan

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a method for calibrating a microlens array (MLA) with a sensor component by building a plenoptic camera with a conventional prime lens. This calibration method includes a geometric model, a setup to adjust the distance (L) between the prime lens and the MLA, a calibration procedure for determining the subimage centers, and an optimization algorithm. The geometric model introduces nine unknown parameters regarding the centers of the microlenses and their images, whereas the distance adjustment setup provides an initial guess for the distance L. The simulation results verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate the calibration process can be performed with a commercial prime lens and the proposed method can be used to quantitatively evaluate whether a MLA and a sensor is assembled properly for plenoptic systems.

  9. Fast patterning of oriented organic microstripes for field-effect ammonia gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binghao; Ding, Jinqiang; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Cui, Zequn; Chen, Jianmei; Huang, Lizhen; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-02-21

    A series of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with patterned ultra-thin films for NH3 detection are achieved via fast dip-coating. The morphology and packing structure of the ultra-thin films are greatly dependent on the surface energy of the substrates, geometry features of the patterned electrodes and evaporation atmosphere during the dip-coating process, which in turn results in a significant difference in the NH3 sensing properties. Based on the newly proposed mechanism, low-trap dielectric-semiconductor interfaces, a stripe-like morphology and an ultrathin film (as low as 2 nm) enable the OFET-based sensors to exhibit unprecedented sensitivity (∼160) with a short response/recovery time. The efficient (2 mm s(-1)), reliable, and scalable patterning strategy opens a new route for solution-processed OFET-based gas sensors. PMID:26840884

  10. Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.

  11. Fast patterning of oriented organic microstripes for field-effect ammonia gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binghao; Ding, Jinqiang; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Cui, Zequn; Chen, Jianmei; Huang, Lizhen; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-02-01

    A series of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with patterned ultra-thin films for NH3 detection are achieved via fast dip-coating. The morphology and packing structure of the ultra-thin films are greatly dependent on the surface energy of the substrates, geometry features of the patterned electrodes and evaporation atmosphere during the dip-coating process, which in turn results in a significant difference in the NH3 sensing properties. Based on the newly proposed mechanism, low-trap dielectric-semiconductor interfaces, a stripe-like morphology and an ultrathin film (as low as 2 nm) enable the OFET-based sensors to exhibit unprecedented sensitivity (~160) with a short response/recovery time. The efficient (2 mm s-1), reliable, and scalable patterning strategy opens a new route for solution-processed OFET-based gas sensors.A series of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with patterned ultra-thin films for NH3 detection are achieved via fast dip-coating. The morphology and packing structure of the ultra-thin films are greatly dependent on the surface energy of the substrates, geometry features of the patterned electrodes and evaporation atmosphere during the dip-coating process, which in turn results in a significant difference in the NH3 sensing properties. Based on the newly proposed mechanism, low-trap dielectric-semiconductor interfaces, a stripe-like morphology and an ultrathin film (as low as 2 nm) enable the OFET-based sensors to exhibit unprecedented sensitivity (~160) with a short response/recovery time. The efficient (2 mm s-1), reliable, and scalable patterning strategy opens a new route for solution-processed OFET-based gas sensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical, SEM images of DTBDT-C6 microstripes; output characteristics of OTFTs based on DTBDT-C6 microstripes. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09001f

  12. Mining-machine orientation control based on inertial, gravitational, and magnetic sensors. Report of Investigations/1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarco, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines seeks to increase safety and efficiency in U.S. coal mines. One approach is to develop technology for automation of a continuous mining machine. Realization of an autonomous mining machine requires development of subsystems for machine intelligence, navigation-positioning, and computer control. The report focuses on investigation of one subsystem, an onboard heading system, which would be responsible for determining and controlling machine heading. The onboard heading system investigated is a multisensor system to determine machine heading, pitch, and roll. A directional gyroscope provides heading (yaw), fluxgate sensors provide a compass heading, and gravity-referenced clinometers give machine pitch and roll. The system utilizes a dedicated microcontroller networked to an external system of computers. Tram commands, supplied to the network from external computers, are executed by the onboard system. Sensor feedback is employed for closed-loop control of machine heading by controlling pivots and turns. The report discusses operating limitations and error sources of system sensors and presents test results of closed-loop control of machine heading.

  13. Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Floris; Markova, Olga; Guirao, Boris; Martin, Charlotte; Wang, Zhimin; Pierre, Anaëlle; Balakireva, Maria; Gaugue, Isabelle; Ainslie, Anna; Christophorou, Nicolas; Lubensky, David K; Minc, Nicolas; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2016-02-25

    The orientation of cell division along the long axis of the interphase cell--the century-old Hertwig's rule--has profound roles in tissue proliferation, morphogenesis, architecture and mechanics. In epithelial tissues, the shape of the interphase cell is influenced by cell adhesion, mechanical stress, neighbour topology, and planar polarity pathways. At mitosis, epithelial cells usually adopt a rounded shape to ensure faithful chromosome segregation and to promote morphogenesis. The mechanisms underlying interphase cell shape sensing in tissues are therefore unknown. Here we show that in Drosophila epithelia, tricellular junctions (TCJs) localize force generators, pulling on astral microtubules and orienting cell division via the Dynein-associated protein Mud independently of the classical Pins/Gαi pathway. Moreover, as cells round up during mitosis, TCJs serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape anisotropy to orient division in the rounded mitotic cell. Finally, experimental and simulation data show that shape and mechanical strain sensing by the TCJs emerge from a general geometric property of TCJ distributions in epithelial tissues. Thus, in addition to their function as epithelial barrier structures, TCJs serve as polarity cues promoting geometry and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues. PMID:26886796

  14. Real time wavefront control system for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, George Z.; Xin, Bo; Claver, Charles; MacMartin, Douglas; Neill, Douglas; Britton, Matthew; Sebag, Jacques; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan

    2014-08-01

    The LSST is an integrated, ground based survey system designed to conduct a decade-long time domain survey of the optical sky. It consists of an 8-meter class wide-field telescope, a 3.2 Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. In order to realize the scientific potential of the LSST, its optical system has to provide excellent and consistent image quality across the entire 3.5 degree Field of View. The purpose of the Active Optics System (AOS) is to optimize the image quality by controlling the surface figures of the telescope mirrors and maintaining the relative positions of the optical elements. The basic challenge of the wavefront sensor feedback loop for an LSST type 3-mirror telescope is the near degeneracy of the influence function linking optical degrees of freedom to the measured wavefront errors. Our approach to mitigate this problem is modal control, where a limited number of modes (combinations of optical degrees of freedom) are operated at the sampling rate of the wavefront sensing, while the control bandwidth for the barely observable modes is significantly lower. The paper presents a control strategy based on linear approximations to the system, and the verification of this strategy against system requirements by simulations using more complete, non-linear models for LSST optics and the curvature wavefront sensors.

  15. Sensored Field Oriented Control of a Robust Induction Motor Drive Using a Novel Boundary Layer Fuzzy Controller

    PubMed Central

    Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.

  16. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Barth, A.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Beckert, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present progressive work that is based on our recently developed rapid control prototyping system (RCP), designed for the implementation of high-performance adaptive optical control algorithms using a continuous de-formable mirror (DM). The RCP system, presented in 2014, is resorting to a Xilinx Kintex-7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), placed on a self-developed PCIe card, and installed on a high-performance computer that runs a hard real-time Linux operating system. For this purpose, algorithms for the efficient evaluation of data from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) on an FPGA have been developed. The corresponding analog input and output cards are designed for exploiting the maximum possible performance while not being constrained to a specific DM and control algorithm due to the RCP approach. In this second part of our contribution, we focus on recent results that we achieved with this novel experimental setup. By presenting results which are far superior to the former ones, we further justify the deployment of the RCP system and its required time and resources. We conducted various experiments for revealing the effective performance, i.e. the maximum manageable complexity in the controller design that may be achieved in real-time without performance losses. A detailed analysis of the hidden latencies is carried out, showing that these latencies have been drastically reduced. In addition, a series of concepts relating the evaluation of the wavefront as well as designing and synthesizing a wavefront are thoroughly investigated with the goal to overcome some of the prevalent limitations. Furthermore, principal results regarding the closed-loop performance of the low-speed dynamics of the integrated heater in a DM concept are illustrated in detail; to be combined with the piezo-electric high-speed actuators in the next step

  17. Service-oriented reasoning architecture for resource-task assignment in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mel, Geeth; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Pham, Tien; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

    2011-06-01

    The net-centric ISR/ISTAR networks are expected to play a crucial role in the success of critical tasks such as base perimeter protection, border patrol and so on. To accomplish these tasks in an effective and expedient manner, it is important that these networks have the embedded capabilities to discover, delegate, and gather relevant information in a timely and robust manner. In this paper, we present a system architecture and an implementation that combines a service based reasoning mechanism with a sensor middleware infrastructure so that tasks can be executed efficiently and effectively. A knowledge base, utilising the Semantic Web technologies, provides the foundation for reasoning mechanism that assists users to discover, identify and allocate resources that are made available through the middleware, in order to satisfy the needs of tasks. Once resources are allocated to any given task, they can be accessed, controlled, shared, and their data feeds consumed through the Fabric middleware. We use the semantic descriptions from the knowledge base to annotate the resources (types, capabilities, etc.) in the sensor middleware so that they can be retrieved for reasoning during the discovery and identification phases. The reasoner is implemented as a HTTP web service, with the following characteristics: 1. Computational intensive operations are off-loaded to dedicated nodes, preserving the resources in the ISR/ISTAR networks. 2. HTTP services are accessible through a standard set of APIs irrespective of the reasoner technology used. 3. Support for seamless integration of different reasoners into the system.

  18. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  19. Surface-Parallel Sensor Orientation for Assessing Energy Balance Components on Mountain Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Olmo, F. J.; Metzger, S.; Pérez-Priego, O.; Carrara, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Kowalski, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The consistency of eddy-covariance measurements is often evaluated in terms of the degree of energy balance closure. Even over sloping terrain, instrumentation for measuring energy balance components is commonly installed horizontally, i.e. perpendicular to the geo-potential gradient. Subsequently, turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are rotated perpendicular to the mean streamlines using tilt-correction algorithms. However, net radiation (Rn) and soil heat fluxes ( G) are treated differently, and typically only Rn is corrected to account for slope. With an applied case study, we show and argue several advantages of installing sensors surface-parallel to measure surface-normal Rn and G. For a 17 % south-west-facing slope, our results show that horizontal installation results in hysteresis in the energy balance closure and errors of up to 25 %. Finally, we propose an approximation to estimate the surface-normal Rn, when only vertical Rn measurements are available.

  20. Update on laser vision correction using wavefront analysis with the CustomCornea system and LADARVision 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Pettit, George H.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2002-06-01

    A study was undertaken to assess whether results of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION 193-nm excimer laser (Alcon-Autonomous technologies) can be improved with the use of wavefront analysis generated by a proprietary system including a Hartman-Schack sensor and expressed using Zernicke polynomials. A total of 82 eyes underwent LASIK in several centers with an improved algorithm, using the CustomCornea system. A subgroup of 48 eyes of 24 patients was randomized so that one eye undergoes conventional treatment and one eye undergoes treatment based on wavefront analysis. Treatment parameters were equal for each type of refractive error. 83% of all eyes had uncorrected vision of 20/20 or better and 95% were 20/25 or better. In all groups, uncorrected visual acuities did not improve significantly in eyes treated with wavefront analysis compared to conventional treatments. Higher order aberrations were consistently better corrected in eyes undergoing treatment based on wavefront analysis for LASIK at 6 months postop. In addition, the number of eyes with reduced RMS was significantly higher in the subset of eyes treated with a wavefront algorithm (38% vs. 5%). Wavefront technology may improve the outcomes of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION excimer laser. Further refinements of the technology and clinical trials will contribute to this goal.

  1. Developmental Cryogenic Active Telescope Testbed, a Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Claudia M.; Davila, Pamela S.; Redding, David C.; Morell, Armando; Lowman, Andrew E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Young, Eric W.; Pacini, Linda K.; Coulter, Dan R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the technology validation strategy of the next generation space telescope (NGST), a system testbed is being developed at GSFC, in partnership with JPL and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which will include all of the component functions envisioned in an NGST active optical system. The system will include an actively controlled, segmented primary mirror, actively controlled secondary, deformable, and fast steering mirrors, wavefront sensing optics, wavefront control algorithms, a telescope simulator module, and an interferometric wavefront sensor for use in comparing final obtained wavefronts from different tests. The developmental. cryogenic active telescope testbed (DCATT) will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on operating the testbed at ambient temperature. During Phase 2, a cryocapable segmented telescope will be developed and cooled to cryogenic temperature to investigate the impact on the ability to correct the wavefront and stabilize the image. In Phase 3, it is planned to incorporate industry developed flight-like components, such as figure controlled mirror segments, cryogenic, low hold power actuators, or different wavefront sensing and control hardware or software. A very important element of the program is the development and subsequent validation of the integrated multidisciplinary models. The Phase 1 testbed objectives, plans, configuration, and design will be discussed.

  2. Optimal wavefront estimation of incoherent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler

    2014-08-01

    Direct imaging is in general necessary to characterize exoplanets and disks. A coronagraph is an instrument used to create a dim (high-contrast) region in a star's PSF where faint companions can be detected. All coronagraphic high-contrast imaging systems use one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to correct quasi-static aberrations and recover contrast in the focal plane. Simulations show that existing wavefront control algorithms can correct for diffracted starlight in just a few iterations, but in practice tens or hundreds of control iterations are needed to achieve high contrast. The discrepancy largely arises from the fact that simulations have perfect knowledge of the wavefront and DM actuation. Thus, wavefront correction algorithms are currently limited by the quality and speed of wavefront estimates. Exposures in space will take orders of magnitude more time than any calculations, so a nonlinear estimation method that needs fewer images but more computational time would be advantageous. In addition, current wavefront correction routines seek only to reduce diffracted starlight. Here we present nonlinear estimation algorithms that include optimal estimation of sources incoherent with a star such as exoplanets and debris disks.

  3. Coronagraph-integrated wavefront sensing with a sparse aperture mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado

    2015-07-01

    Stellar coronagraph performance is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. In order to effectively suppress starlight for exoplanet imaging applications, low-order wavefront aberrations entering a coronagraph, such as tip-tilt, defocus, and coma, must be determined and compensated. Previous authors have established the utility of pupil-plane masks (both nonredundant/sparse-aperture and generally asymmetric aperture masks) for wavefront sensing (WFS). Here, we show how a sparse aperture mask (SAM) can be integrated with a coronagraph to measure low-order differential phase aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a subsequent detector. Our numerical Fourier propagation models show that the information encoded in the fringe intensity distortions is sufficient to accurately discriminate and estimate Zernike phase modes extending from tip-tilt up to radial degree n=5, with amplitude up to λ/20 RMS. The SAM sensor can be integrated with both Lyot and shaped pupil coronagraphs at no detriment to the science beam quality. We characterize the reconstruction accuracy and the performance under low flux/short exposure time conditions, and place it in context of other coronagraph WFS schemes.

  4. Feedback controlled optics with wavefront compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, William G. (Inventor); Redding, David C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The sensitivity model of a complex optical system obtained by linear ray tracing is used to compute a control gain matrix by imposing the mathematical condition for minimizing the total wavefront error at the optical system's exit pupil. The most recent deformations or error states of the controlled segments or optical surfaces of the system are then assembled as an error vector, and the error vector is transformed by the control gain matrix to produce the exact control variables which will minimize the total wavefront error at the exit pupil of the optical system. These exact control variables are then applied to the actuators controlling the various optical surfaces in the system causing the immediate reduction in total wavefront error observed at the exit pupil of the optical system.

  5. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-01

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  6. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments. PMID:17130909

  7. Recent developments of interferometric wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Chen, Xiaoyu; Ling, Tong; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2015-08-01

    Recent trends of interferometric wavefront sensing tend to focus on high precision, anti-vibration, compact, along with much more involved of electric and computer technology. And the optical principles employed not only limit to interference but also include diffraction, scattering, polarization, etc. In this paper, some selected examples basing on the research works in our group will be given to illustrate the trends mentioned above. To achieve extra high accuracy, phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS-PDI) is believed to be a good candidate as it employs a nearly perfect point diffraction spherical wavefront as the reference and also takes advantage of the high precision of phase-shifting algorithms. Cyclic radial shearing interferometry (C-RSI) successively demonstrate the anti-vibration characteristic and can diagnose transient wavefront with only one single shot by employing a three-mirror common-path configuration and a synchronizing system. In contrast sharply with those early interferometers, interferometers with very compact configuration are more suitable to develop portable wavefront sensing instruments. Cross-grating lateral shearing interferometer (CG-LSI) is a very compact interferometer that adopts a cross-grating of millimeters to produce lateral shearing of the diffraction wave of the test wavefront. Be aware that, computer technique has been used a lot in all of the above interferometers but the non-null annual sub-aperture stitching interferometer (NASSI) for general aspheric surface testing mostly relies on the computer model of the physical interferometer setup and iterative ray-tracing optimization. The principles of the above mentioned interferometric wavefront sensing methods would be given in detail.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging camera using wavefront division interference.

    PubMed

    Bahalul, Eran; Bronfeld, Asaf; Epshtein, Shlomi; Saban, Yoram; Karsenty, Avi; Arieli, Yoel

    2016-03-01

    An approach for performing hyperspectral imaging is introduced. The hyperspectral imaging is based on Fourier transform spectroscopy, where the interference is performed by wavefront division interference rather than amplitude division interference. A variable phase delay between two parts of the wavefront emanating from each point of an object is created by a spatial light modulator (SLM) to obtain variable interference patterns. The SLM is placed in the exit pupil of an imaging system, thus enabling conversion of a general imaging optical system into an imaging hyperspectral optical system. The physical basis of the new approach is introduced, and an optical apparatus is built. PMID:26974085

  9. Clinical Applications of Wavefront Refraction

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Adrian S.; Catania, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine normative reference ranges for higher-order wavefront error (HO-WFE), compare these values with those in common ocular pathologies, and evaluate treatments. Methods A review of 17 major studies on HO-WFE was made, involving data for a total of 31,605 subjects. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for HO-WFE was calculated from the most comprehensive of these studies using normal healthy patients aged 20 to 80 years. There were no studies identified using the natural pupil size for subjects, and for this reason, the HO-WFE was tabulated for pupil diameters of 3 to 7 mm. Effects of keratoconus, pterygium, cataract, and dry eye on HO-WFE were reviewed and treatment efficacy was considered. Results The calculated upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE in a healthy normal 35-year-old patient with a mesopic pupil diameter of 6 mm would be 0.471 μm (471 nm) root-mean-square or less. Although the normal HO-WFE increases with age for a given pupil size, it is not yet completely clear how the concurrent influence of age-related pupillary miosis affects these findings. Abnormal ocular conditions such as keratoconus can induce a large HO-WFE, often in excess of 3.0 μm, particularly attributed to coma. For pterygium or cortical cataract, a combination of coma and trefoil was more commonly induced. Nuclear cataract can induce a negative spherical HO-WFE, usually in excess of 1.0 μm. Conclusions The upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE root-mean-square is about 0.5 μm with normal physiological pupil sizes. With ocular pathologies, HO-WFE can be in excess of 1.0 μm, although many devices and therapeutic and surgical treatments are reported to be highly effective at minimizing HO-WFE. More accurate normative reference ranges for HO-WFE will require future studies using the subjects’ natural pupil size. PMID:25216319

  10. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  11. Piston and tilt interferometry for segmented wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Deprez, M; Bellanger, C; Lombard, L; Wattellier, B; Primot, J

    2016-03-15

    We present a novel interferometric technique dedicated to the measurement of relative phase differences (pistons) and tilts of a periodically segmented wavefront. Potential applications include co-phasing of segmented mirrors of Keck-like telescopes as well as coherent laser beam combining. The setup only requires a holes mask selecting the center part of each element, a diffracting component, and a camera. Recorded interferogram is made of many subareas with sinusoidal fringe pattern. From each pattern, piston is extracted from fringe shift and tilts from fringe frequency and orientation. The pattern analysis is simple enough to enable kilohertz rate operation. The λ ambiguities are solved by a two-wavelength measurement. This technique is compatible with a very high number of elements and can be operated in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. PMID:26977638

  12. Inverse calculation of position and tilt errors of optical components from wavefront data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbergs, H.; Wengert, N.; Frenner, K.; Eberhard, P.; Osten, W.

    2011-05-01

    High performance optical systems pose very strict limits to positioning errors of the optical components inside the system. Identification and suppression of static and dynamic errors, like alignment errors due to drift or structural vibrations, can lead to superior imaging quality. A concept is presented that allows for intra process monitoring of deviations of a lens from its ideal position. It can track the movement of a lens by illumination through the rim such that the light reflects of the optical surfaces of the lens by total internal reflection before exiting the lens on the opposite side. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is applied to detect the wavefront. The wavefront-error caused by decenter or tilt of the lens is used for the reconstruction of the geometrical perturbations. Two approaches for the reconstruction of the geometrical properties from forward calculation data (model-based and regularization methods) are compared. Different light sources and geometrical setups can have an effect on the wavefront properties. A comparison is made to investigate their influence on the reconstruction quality. As the measurement principle does not interfere with the imaging process of the system, the method should be able to monitor the system during operation. This could enable real time tracking of errors up to the sampling rate of the detector making the method suitable for measurements of system dynamics. The method can potentially be enhanced to detect some lens deformations in combination with mechanical finite element simulation.

  13. Comparison between two different methods to obtain the wavefront aberration function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Félix, Angel S.; Ibarra, Jorge; López, Estela; Rosales, Marco A.; Tepichín, Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    The analysis and measurement of the wavefront aberration function are very important tools that allow us to evaluate the performance of any specified optical system. This technology has been adopted in visual optics for the analysis of optical aberrations in the human eye, before and after being subjected to laser refractive surgery. We have been working in the characterization and evaluation of the objective performance of human eyes that have been subjected to two different surface ablation techniques known as ASA and PASA1. However, optical aberrations in the human eye are time-dependent2 and, hence, difficult to analyze. In order to obtain a static profile from the post-operatory wavefront aberration function we applied these ablation techniques directly over hard contact lenses. In this work we show the comparison between two different methods to obtain the wavefront aberration function from a reference refractive surface, in order to generalize this method and being able to fully characterize hard contact lenses which have been subjected to different ablation techniques typically used in refractive surgery for vision correction. For the first method we used a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and in the second method we used a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. We show the preliminary results of this characterization.

  14. Wavefront sensing and control performance modeling of the Thirty Meter telescope for systematic trade analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissly, Carl; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell; Chanan, Gary; Roberts, Scott; Rogers, John

    2014-08-01

    We have developed an integrated optical model of the semi-static performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope. The model includes surface and rigid body errors of all telescope optics as well as a model of the Alignment and Phasing System Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors and control algorithms. This integrated model allows for simulation of the correction of the telescope wavefront, including optical errors on the secondary and tertiary mirrors, using the primary mirror segment active degrees of freedom. This model provides the estimate of the predicted telescope performance for system engineering and error budget development. In this paper we present updated performance values for the TMT static optical errors in terms of Normalized Point Source Sensitivity and RMS wavefront error after Adaptive Optics correction. As an example of a system level trade, we present the results from an analysis optimizing the number of Shack-Hartmann lenslets per segment. We trade the number of lenslet rings over each primary mirror segment against the telescope performance metrics of PSSN and RMS wavefront error.

  15. Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2010-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) improves the quality of astronomical imaging systems by using real time measurement of the turbulent medium in the optical path using a guide star (natural or artificial) as a point source reference beacon [1]. AO has also been applied to vision science to improve the view of the human eye. This paper will address our current research focused on the improvement of fluorescent microscopy for biological imaging utilizing current AO technology. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) is used to measure the aberration introduced by a Drosophila Melanogaster embryo with an implanted 1 micron fluorescent bead that serves as a point source reference beacon. Previous measurements of the wavefront aberrations have found an average peak-to-valley and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error of 0.77 micrometers and 0.15 micrometers, respectively. Measurements of the Zernike coefficients indicated that the correction of the first 14 Zernike coefficients is sufficient to correct the aberrations we measured. Here we show that a MEMS deformable mirror with 3.5 microns of stroke and 140 actuators is sufficient to correct these aberrations. The design, assembly and initial results for the use of a MEMS deformable mirror, SHWS and implanted fluorescent reference beacon for wavefront correction are discussed.

  16. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  17. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  18. Implementation of a Wavefront-Sensing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce; Aronstein, David

    2013-01-01

    A computer program has been written as a unique implementation of an image-based wavefront-sensing algorithm reported in "Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity" (GSC-14879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 4 (April 2007), page 32. This software was originally intended for application to the James Webb Space Telescope, but is also applicable to other segmented-mirror telescopes. The software is capable of determining optical-wavefront information using, as input, a variable number of irradiance measurements collected in defocus planes about the best focal position. The software also uses input of the geometrical definition of the telescope exit pupil (otherwise denoted the pupil mask) to identify the locations of the segments of the primary telescope mirror. From the irradiance data and mask information, the software calculates an estimate of the optical wavefront (a measure of performance) of the telescope generally and across each primary mirror segment specifically. The software is capable of generating irradiance data, wavefront estimates, and basis functions for the full telescope and for each primary-mirror segment. Optionally, each of these pieces of information can be measured or computed outside of the software and incorporated during execution of the software.

  19. Versatile approach for frequency resolved wavefront characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumker, Eugene; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Villeneuve, David M.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2011-03-01

    Spatial characterization of high harmonics (HH) and XUV coherent radiation is of paramount importance, along with its temporal characterization. For many applications it will be necessary to accurately measure the beam properties, just as it is important to know the beam characteristics for many laser experiments. For example, high harmonics and attosecond pulses are being proposed as a front-end for the next generation X-ray free electron lasers. This oscillator-amplifier-like arrangement will require well characterized high harmonic sources. On the other hand, the electromagnetic radiation carries the combined signature of underlying quantum physical processes at the molecular level and of the cooperative phase matching. For example, accurate reconstruction of the high harmonic spatial wavefront, along with its temporal profile, gives us a complete range of tools to apply to the fundamental quantum properties and dynamics associated with high harmonic generation. We present a new concept of frequency resolved wavefront characterization that is particularly suitable for characterizing XUV radiation. In keeping with tradition in the area we give it an acronym - SWORD (Spectral Wavefront Optical Reconstruction by Diffraction). Our approach is based on an analysis of the diffraction pattern of a slit situated in front of a flat-field spectrometer. As the slit is scanned, the spectrally resolved diffraction pattern is recorded. Analyzing the measured diffractogram, we can reconstruct the wavefront. The technique can be easily extended beyond the XUV spectral region. When combined with temporal characterization techniques all information about the beam can be measured.

  20. Wavefront Correction for Large, Flexible Antenna Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, William A.; Jammejad, Vahraz; Rajagopalan, Harish; Xu, Shenheng

    2010-01-01

    A wavefront-correction system has been proposed as part of an outer-space radio communication system that would include a large, somewhat flexible main reflector antenna, a smaller subreflector antenna, and a small array feed at the focal plane of these two reflector antennas. Part of the wavefront-correction system would reside in the subreflector, which would be a planar patch-element reflectarray antenna in which the phase shifts of the patch antenna elements would be controlled via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio -frequency (RF) switches. The system would include the following sensing-and-computing subsystems: a) An optical photogrammetric subsystem built around two cameras would estimate geometric distortions of the main reflector; b) A second subsystem would estimate wavefront distortions from amplitudes and phases of signals received by the array feed elements; and c) A third subsystem, built around small probes on the subreflector plane, would estimate wavefront distortions from differences among phases of signals received by the probes. The distortion estimates from the three subsystems would be processed to generate control signals to be fed to the MEMS RF switches to correct for the distortions, thereby enabling collimation and aiming of the received or transmitted radio beam to the required precision.

  1. Towards real-time wavefront sensorless adaptive optics using a graphical processing unit (GPU) in a line scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Patel, Ankit H.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2011-03-01

    Adaptive optics ophthalmic imaging systems that rely on a standalone wave-front sensor can be costly to build and difficult for non-technical personnel to operate. As an alternative we present a simplified wavefront sensorless adaptive optics laser scanning ophthalmoscope. This sensorless system is based on deterministic search algorithms that utilize the image's spatial frequency as an optimization metric. We implement this algorithm on a NVIDIA video card to take advantage of the graphics processing unit (GPU)'s parallel architecture to reduce algorithm computation times and approach real-time correction.

  2. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.

    2014-08-01

    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  3. An object-oriented modeling and simulation framework for bearings-only multi-target tracking using an unattended acoustic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Murat Šamil

    2013-10-01

    Tracking ground targets using low cost ground-based sensors is a challenging field because of the limited capabilities of such sensors. Among the several candidates, including seismic and magnetic sensors, the acoustic sensors based on microphone arrays have a potential of being useful: They can provide a direction to the sound source, they can have a relatively better range, and the sound characteristics can provide a basis for target classification. However, there are still many problems. One of them is the difficulty to resolve multiple sound sources, another is that they do not provide distance, a third is the presence of background noise from wind, sea, rain, distant air and land traffic, people, etc., and a fourth is that the same target can sound very differently depending on factors like terrain type, topography, speed, gear, distance, etc. Use of sophisticated signal processing and data fusion algorithms is the key for compensating (to an extend) the limited capabilities and mentioned problems of these sensors. It is hard, if not impossible, to evaluate the performance of such complex algorithms analytically. For an effective evaluation, before performing expensive field trials, well-designed laboratory experiments and computer simulations are necessary. Along this line, in this paper, we present an object-oriented modeling and simulation framework which can be used to generate simulated data for the data fusion algorithms for tracking multiple on-road targets in an unattended acoustic sensor network. Each sensor node in the network is a circular microphone array which produces the direction of arrival (DOA) (or bearing) measurements of the targets and sends this information to a fusion center. We present the models for road networks, targets (motion and acoustic power) and acoustic sensors in an object-oriented fashion where different and possibly time-varying sampling periods for each sensor node is possible. Moreover, the sensor's signal processing and

  4. Wavefront and distance measurement using the CAFADIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Femenía Castellá, B.; Pérez Nava, F.; Fumero, S.

    2008-07-01

    The CAFADIS camera is a new sensor patented by Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source at the same time in a real time process. This could be really useful when using Adaptive Optics with Laser Guide Stars, in order to know the LGS height variations during the observation, or even the 3D LGS profile at Na layer. The CAFADIS camera has been designed using specialized hardware: Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGAs). These two kinds of electronic hardware present an architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream in a massively parallel approach. Previous papers have shown their ability for AO in ELTs. CAFADIS is composed, essentially, by a microlenses array at the telescope image space, sampling the image instead of the telescope pupil. Conceptually, when only 2x2 microlenses are presented it is very similar to the pyramid sensor. But in fact, this optical design can be used to measure distances in the object space using a variety of techniques. Our paper shows a simulation of an observation using Na-LGS and Raylegh-LGS at the same time, where both of the LGS heights are accurately measured. The employed techniques are presented and future applications are introduced.

  5. Mechanical scanner-less multi-beam confocal microscope with wavefront modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Yu; Seo, Min-Woong; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Kawahito, Shoji; Terakawa, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel full-electronically controlled laser confocal microscope in which a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator and a custom CMOS imaging sensor are synchronized for performing multi-beam confocal imaging. Adaptive wavefront modulation for functional multi-beam excitation can be achieved by displaying appropriate computer generated holograms on the spatial light modulator, in consideration of the numerical aperture of the focusing objective. We also adopted a custom CMOS imaging sensor to realize multi-beam confocal microscopy without any physical pinhole. The confocality of this microscope was verified by improvements in transverse and axial resolutions of fluorescent micro-beads.

  6. Aero-optics: Simultaneous MHz Rate Planar Flow Visualization and Optical Wavefront Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Samimy, Mo; Lempert, Walter; Harris, Scott; Widiker, Jeff; Duncan, Bradley

    2002-11-01

    In response to a need for more detailed understanding of aero-optic effects in realistic flows (high-speed and compressible), we apply very recently developed MHz rate planar diagnostic techniques to simultaneously perform flow visualization and wavefront measurement on a Mach 1.3 rectangular jet. A custom-built pulse burst laser is used to produce 17 pulses (10 nsec duration) with inter-pulse timing of 4 microseconds (250 kHz). The pulses were formed into a laser sheet and illuminated the mixing layer in a streamwise plane of a Mach 1.3 rectangular, aspect ratio 3 jet. Images were captured using a Dalsa 64K1M camera that can record 17 images at framing rates as high as 1 MHz. Optical wavefronts were measured at rates up to 1 MHz using a newly designed Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor. A 10 mW HeNe laser beam was spatially filtered and expanded to a 2.5 cm diameter and passed through the center of the rectangular jet 8 nozzle exit heights downstream of the nozzle exit. A lenslet array (1.024 mm pitch, 260 mm f. l.) and a -1000 mm f. l. lens are used to form a grid pattern of dots onto a PSI-IV camera capable of capturing 28 frames at 1 MHz framing rates. The camera was operated at 500 kHz and imaged a 6 x 6 pattern of dots. The displacement of each dot corresponds to the local wavefront tilt induced by the jet as the initially planar wavefront passes through the flow. Results are being analyzed to obtain a correlation between turbulence structures contained in the mixing layer of the jet and the optical distortion produced by these structures.

  7. Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control for WFIRST-AFTA Coronagrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, FANG

    2016-01-01

    NASA's WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph will be capable of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter, and possibly even super-Earths, around nearby stars. To maintain the required coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C will use the rejected stellar light to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront errors due to the changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. The measured wavefront information will also be used for the coronagraph data post-processing (PSF subtraction) needed to further remove the speckle field and enhance the contrast. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike phase contrast wavefront sensor with the phase shifting disk combined with the stellar light rejecting occulting mask, a key concept to minimize the non-common path error. Developed as a part of the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed (DHCIT), the LOWFS/C subsystem also consists of an Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) simulator to generate the realistic wavefront error and line-of-sight (LoS) drift and jitter from WFIRST-AFTA telescope's vibration and thermal drift. The entire LOWFS/C subsystem have been integrated, calibrated, and tested in a dedicated LOWFS/C testbed. The test results have shown that the Zernike WFS have line-of-sight (LoS) tilt sensitivity better than 0.2 milli-arcsec and LoS post correct residual better than 0.5 milli-arcsec with the presence of the WFIRST-AFTA like LoS drift and jitter (14 milli-arcsec). In this poster we will describe the LOWFS/C subsystem and present the LOWFS/C performance test results as well as the progress of integration of LOWFS/C into the DHCIT.

  8. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  9. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-08-24

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  10. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation. PMID:25780747

  11. Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing, wavefront control, and phasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. L.; Stappaerts, E. A.; Homoelle, D. C.; Henesian, M. A.; Bliss, E. S.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2009-02-01

    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50%(4.0 kJ) of their total energy(7.96 kJ) within a 40 μm diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and RMS tip/tilt errors of approximately one μrad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  12. Correction and simulation of the intensity compensation algorithm used in curvature wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xu; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiang-Qun

    2015-05-01

    The wavefront measuring range and recovery precision of a curvature sensor can be improved by an intensity compensation algorithm. However, in a focal system with a fast f-number, especially a telescope with a large field of view, the accuracy of this algorithm cannot meet the requirements. A theoretical analysis of the corrected intensity compensation algorithm in a focal system with a fast f-number is first introduced and afterwards the mathematical equations used in this algorithm are expressed. The corrected result is then verified through simulation. The method used by such a simulation can be described as follows. First, the curvature signal from a focal system with a fast f-number is simulated by Monte Carlo ray tracing; then the wavefront result is calculated by the inner loop of the FFT wavefront recovery algorithm and the outer loop of the intensity compensation algorithm. Upon comparing the intensity compensation algorithm of an ideal system with the corrected intensity compensation algorithm, we reveal that the recovered precision of the curvature sensor can be greatly improved by the corrected intensity compensation algorithm. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  13. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  14. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  15. Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Homoelle, D C; Henesian, M A; Bliss, E S; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-01-21

    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50% (4.0 kJ) of their total energy (7.96 kJ) within a 40 {micro}m diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and rms tip/tilt errors of approximately one {micro}rad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  16. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kevin S. K.; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation. PMID:25780747

  17. Adaptable Diffraction Gratings With Wavefront Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength. Traditional diffraction gratings have static planar, concave, or convex surfaces. However, if they could be made so that they can change the surface curvature at will, then they would be able to focus on particular segments, self-calibrate, or perform fine adjustments. This innovation creates a diffraction grating on a deformable surface. This surface could be bent at will, resulting in a dynamic wavefront transformation. This allows for self-calibration, compensation for aberrations, enhancing image resolution in a particular area, or performing multiple scans using different wavelengths. A dynamic grating gives scientists a new ability to explore wavefronts from a variety of viewpoints.

  18. Optical test-benches for multiple source wavefront propagation and spatiotemporal point-spread function emulation.

    PubMed

    Weddell, Stephen J; Lambert, Andrew J

    2014-12-10

    Precise measurement of aberrations within an optical system is essential to mitigate combined effects of user-generated aberrations for the study of anisoplanatic imaging using optical test benches. The optical system point spread function (PSF) is first defined, and methods to minimize the effects of the optical system are discussed. User-derived aberrations, in the form of low-order Zernike ensembles, are introduced using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), and dynamic phase maps are used to study the spatiotemporal PSF. A versatile optical test bench is described, where the Shack Hartmann and curvature wavefront sensors are used to emulate the effects of wavefront propagation over time from two independent sources. PMID:25608061

  19. Review of the latest developments in fast low noise detectors for wavefront sensing in the visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Sean M.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we describe the development of fast low noise detectors intended primarily for use in Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors for natural and laser guide star wavefront sensing in the future adaptive optics systems of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project and the Next Generation Adaptive Optics system at the W. M. Keck Observatory. This work results from collaboration among the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Thirty Meter Telescope Project, the Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Starfire Optical Range of the Air Force Research Laboratory. Testing of backside thinned, packaged detectors has been completed and performance results including read noise, readout speed, charge diffusion, dark current, and quantum efficiency will be reported. Proposed developments of readout systems to compliment this detector will be described, and performance compared to alternative detector solutions.

  20. Curvature wavefront sensing performance simulations for active correction of the Javalambre wide-field telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cenarro, Andrés. Javier; Varela, Jesús; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Gruel, Nicolás.; Moles, Mariano; Yanes, Axel; Rueda, Fernando; Rueda, Sergio; Luis-Simoes, Roberto; Hernández-Fuertes, Javier; López-Sainz, Angel; Maícas-Sacristán, Natalio; Lamadrid, José Luis; Díaz-Martín, Miguel Chioare; Taylor, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain image quality during Javalambre wide field telescope operations, deformations and rigid body motions must be actively controlled to minimize optical disturbances. For JST/T250 the aberrations of the telescope will be measured with four curvature sensors at the focal plane. To correct the measured distortions, the secondary mirror position (with a hexapod support) and the camera position can be modified in a control closed loop. Multiple software tools have been developed to accomplish this goal, constituting the "Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre" (OAJ) Active Optics Pipeline. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wave-front sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, pupil registration, wavefront estimators and the iteration matrix evaluation techniques. Some preliminary simulations have been made using a telescope model with a Optical Ray Tracing Software.

  1. Curvature wavefront sensing performance evaluation for active correction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Anastacia M; Phillion, Donald W; Olivier, Scot S; Baker, Kevin L; Cannon, Brice

    2010-01-18

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary, along with three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. In order to maintain image quality during operation, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations, which arise primarily from forces due to gravity and thermal expansion. We describe the methodology for measuring the telescope aberrations using a set of curvature wavefront sensors located in the four corners of the LSST camera focal plane. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wavefront sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, demonstrating that this system will perform to the specifications required to meet the LSST performance goals. PMID:20173981

  2. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina. PMID:26819812

  3. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Daniel J; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina. PMID:26819812

  4. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2006-09-01

    We describe modeling and simulation results for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the degradation of sodium laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement accuracy that will occur due to the spatial structure and temporal variations of the mesospheric sodium layer. By using a contiguous set of lidar measurements of the sodium profile, the performance of a standard centroid and of a more refined noise-optimal matched filter spot position estimation algorithm is analyzed and compared for a nominal mean signal level equal to 1000 photodetected electrons per subaperture per integration time, as a function of subaperture to laser launch telescope distance and CCD pixel readout noise. Both algorithms are compared in terms of their rms spot position estimation error due to noise, their associated wavefront error when implemented on the Thirty Meter Telescope facility adaptive optics system, their linear dynamic range, and their bias when detuned from the current sodium profile. PMID:16912797

  5. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  6. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  7. Refractive error sensing from wavefront slopes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The problem of measuring the objective refractive error with an aberrometer has shown to be more elusive than expected. Here, the formalism of differential geometry is applied to develop a theoretical framework of refractive error sensing. At each point of the pupil, the local refractive error is given by the wavefront curvature, which is a 2 × 2 symmetric matrix, whose elements are directly related to sphere, cylinder, and axis. Aberrometers usually measure the local gradient of the wavefront. Then refractive error sensing consists of differentiating the gradient, instead of integrating as in wavefront sensing. A statistical approach is proposed to pass from the local to the global (clinically meaningful) refractive error, in which the best correction is assumed to be the maximum likelihood estimation. In the practical implementation, this corresponds to the mode of the joint histogram of the 3 different elements of the curvature matrix. Results obtained both in computer simulations and with real data provide a close agreement and consistency with the main optical image quality metrics such as the Strehl ratio. PMID:21149305

  8. Robust Image-Based Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2011-12-01

    Several planned future optical systems, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), rely on image-based wavefront sensing for alignment, testing, and control of optical surfaces during operation. The focus of this work is on characterizing the effects of various non-idealities on the performance of image-based wavefront sensing algorithms, developing techniques to mitigate those effects, and demonstrating these techniques in computer simulations and in the lab. Two new techniques for algorithmically determining the proper sampling factor for optical propagation are presented and tested against experimental data collected in the lab and during JWST ground-based testing. A new method for mitigating against the effects of vibration on phase retrieval is discussed, implemented, and tested in simulation. The use of an alternative type of diversity, called transverse translation, is explored for use in the JWST and shown to be a promising technique through simulation. A method for extending the capture range of phase retrieval algorithms is presented and tested both in simulation and with experimental data collected in the lab. A benchmark of a phase retrieval algorithm running on a graphics card is presented and the practical implications for JWST testing are discussed. Finally, phase retrieval results from a MEMS deformable mirror testbed are presented and compared against interferometry. The improved robustness resulting from this research will not only help to mitigate the risks associated with wavefront sensing for the JWST, but also serve as an enabling technology for future NASA missions.

  9. Wavefront Distortion Requirements for the LISA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave mission will make use of laser measurements of changes in distance between test masses in spacecraft 5 million km apart. Distortions in the far field wavefronts can interact with jitter in the transmitted beam directions to give apparent variations in the distances between the test masses. About 400 mm diameter telescopes will be used to send the laser beams between the spacecraft. Stabilization of the beam pointing directions will be done using the light from the distant spacecraft as very bright beacons to lock on to. Earlier studies of the beam pointing requirements for the LISA mission assumed only simple waveform distortions, such as cylindrical distortion or astigmatism. The analysis has now been repeated, including defocus, spherical aberration, and two components each of astigmatism and coma. These lower order aberrations are expected to be among the most damaging ones near the beam axis for a given rms wavefront distortion amplitude. This is because the higher order ones will cause the laser energy to be diffracted away from the axis more. Most of the aberration amplitude is expected to come from the optics before the telescope, rather than from the telescope itself. A total wavefront distortion amplitude of 0.05 wavelength (50 nm) rms or less appears to be adequate.

  10. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  11. Wavefront reconstruction using computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Christian; Flamm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver A.; Duparré, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam, based on modal decomposition using computer-generated holograms (CGHs). Thereby the beam under test illuminates the CGH with a specific, inscribed transmission function that enables the measurement of modal amplitudes and phases by evaluating the first diffraction order of the hologram. Since we use an angular multiplexing technique, our method is innately capable of real-time measurements of amplitude and phase, yielding the complete information about the optical field. A measurement of the Stokes parameters, respectively of the polarization state, provides the possibility to calculate the Poynting vector. Two wavefront reconstruction possibilities are outlined: reconstruction from the phase for scalar beams and reconstruction from the Poynting vector for inhomogeneously polarized beams. To quantify single aberrations, the reconstructed wavefront is decomposed into Zernike polynomials. Our technique is applied to beams emerging from different kinds of multimode optical fibers, such as step-index, photonic crystal and multicore fibers, whereas in this work results are exemplarily shown for a step-index fiber and compared to a Shack-Hartmann measurement that serves as a reference.

  12. Wavefronts and mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idema, Timon; Dubuis, Julien; Manning, Lisa; Nelson, Philip; Liu, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Mitosis in the early syncytial Drosophila embryo has a high degree of spatial and temporal correlations, visible as mitotic wavefronts that travel across the embryo. This mitosis wavefront is preceded by another wavefront which corresponds to chromosome condensation. The two wavefronts are separated by a time interval that is independent of cell cycle and propagate at the same speed for a given embryo in a given cycle. We study the wavefronts in the context of excitable medium theory, using two different models, one with biochemical signaling and one with mechanical signaling. We find that the dependence of wavefront speed on cell cycle number is most naturally explained via a mechanical signaling, and that the entire process suggests a scenario in which biochemical and mechanical signaling are coupled.

  13. PYRAMIR: construction and implementation of the world's first infrared pyramid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Baumeister, H.; Bizenberger, P.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Hippler, S.; Ligori, S.; Mall, U.; Neumann, U.; Salm, N.; Storz, C.; Wagner, K.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the construction and implementation of the unmodulated infrared pyramid wavefront sensor PYRAMIR at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. PYRAMIR is an extension of the existing visible Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system ALFA, which allows wavefront sensing in the near-infrared wavefront regime. We describe the optical setup and the calibration procedure of the pyramid wavefront sensor. We discuss possible drawbacks of the calibration and show the results gained on Calar Alto.

  14. Possible Application of Wavefront Coding to the LSST

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Wavefront Coding has been applied as a means to increase the effective depth of focus of optical systems. In this note I discuss the potential for this technique to increase the depth of focus of the LSST and the resulting advantages for the construction and operation of the facility, as well as possible drawbacks. It may be possible to apply Wavefront Coding without changing the current LSST design, in which case Wavefront Coding might merit further study as a risk mitigation strategy.

  15. Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.

  16. Bringing it all together: a unique approach to requirements for wavefront sensing and control on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contos, Adam R.; Acton, D. Scott; Atcheson, Paul D.; Barto, Allison A.; Lightsey, Paul A.; Shields, Duncan M.

    2006-06-01

    The opto-mechanical design of the 6.6 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with its actively-controlled secondary and 18-segment primary mirror, presents unique challenges from a system engineering perspective. To maintain the optical alignment of the telescope on-orbit, a process called wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) is employed to determine the current state of the mirrors and calculate the optimal mirror move updates. The needed imagery is downloaded to the ground, where the WFS&C algorithms to process the images reside, and the appropriate commands are uploaded to the observatory. Rather than use a dedicated wavefront sensor for the imagery as is done in most other applications, a science camera is used instead. For the success of the mission, WFS&C needs to perform flawlessly using the assets available among the combination of separate elements (ground operations, spacecraft, science instruments, optical telescope, etc.) that cross institutional as well as geographic borders. Rather than be yet another distinct element with its own set of requirements to flow to the other elements as was originally planned, a novel approach was selected. This approach entails reviewing and auditing other documents for the requirements needed to satisfy the needs of WFS&C. Three actions are taken: (1) when appropriate requirements exist, they are tracked by WFS&C ; (2) when an existing requirement is insufficient to meet the need, a requirement change is initiated; and finally (3) when a needed requirement is missing, a new requirement is established in the corresponding document. This approach, deemed a "best practice" at the customer's independent audit, allows for program confidence that the necessary requirements are complete, while still maintaining the responsibility for the requirement with the most appropriate entity. This paper describes the details and execution of the approach; the associated WFS&C requirements and verification documentation; and the

  17. Wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan H.

    Next generation extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems are moving to higher resolution optics to accommodate smaller length scales targeted by the semiconductor industry. As the numerical apertures (NA) of the optics become larger, it becomes increasingly difficult to characterize aberrations due to experimental challenges associated with high-resolution spatial filters and geometrical effects caused by large incident angles of the test wavefront. This dissertation focuses on two methods of wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems. The first method, lateral shearing interferometry (LSI), is a self-referencing interferometry where the test wavefront is incident on a low spatial frequency grating, and the resulting interference between the diffracted orders is used to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations. LSI has many advantages over other interferometric tests such as phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) due to its experimental simplicity, stability, relaxed coherence requirements, and its ability to scale to high numerical apertures. While LSI has historically been a qualitative test, this dissertation presents a novel quantitative investigation of the LSI interferogram. The analysis reveals the existence of systematic aberrations due to the nonlinear angular response from the diffraction grating that compromises the accuracy of LSI at medium to high NAs. In the medium NA regime (0.15 < NA < 0.35), a holographic model is presented that derives the systematic aberrations in closed form, which demonstrates an astigmatism term that scales as the square of the grating defocus. In the high NA regime (0.35 < NA), a geometrical model is introduced that describes the aberrations as a system of transcendental equations that can be solved numerically. The characterization and removal of these systematic errors is a necessary step that unlocks LSI as a viable candidate for high NA EUV optical testing. The second method is a novel image

  18. Liquid Crystal on Silicon Wavefront Corrector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; Wang, Xinghua; Bos, Philip, J.

    2004-01-01

    A low cost, high resolution, liquid crystal on silicon, spatial light modulator has been developed for the correction of huge aberrations in an optical system where the polarization dependence and the chromatic nature are tolerated. However, the overall system performance suggests that this device is also suitable for real time correction of aberration in human eyes. This device has a resolution of 1024 x 768, and is driven by an XGA display driver. The effective stroke length of the device is 700 nm and 2000 nm for the visible and IR regions of the device, respectively. The response speeds are 50 Hz and 5 Hz, respectively, which are fast enough for real time adaptive optics for aberrations in human eyes. By modulating a wavefront of 2 pi, this device can correct for arbitrary high order wavefront aberrations since the 2-D pixel array is independently controlled by the driver. The high resolution and high accuracy of the device allow for diffraction limited correction of the tip and tilt or defocus without an additional correction loop. We have shown that for every wave of aberration, an 8 step blazed grating is required to achieve high diffraction efficiency around 80%. In light of this, up to 125 waves peak to valley of tip and tilt can be corrected if we choose the simplest aberration. Corrections of 34 waves of aberration, including high order Zernicke terms in a high magnification telescope, to diffraction limited performance (residual wavefront aberration less than 1/30 lambda at 632.8 nm) have been observed at high efficiency.

  19. Wavefront correction with Kalman filtering for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to characterize most exoplanets spectrally is via direct imaging. For example, the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) on the proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission plans to image and characterize several cool gas giants around nearby stars. The integration time on these faint exoplanets will be many hours to days. A crucial assumption for mission planning is that the time required to dig a dark hole (a region of high star-to-planet contrast) with deformable mirrors is small compared to science integration time. The science camera must be used as the wavefront sensor to avoid non-common path aberrations, but this approach can be quite time intensive. Several estimation images are required to build an estimate of the starlight electric field before it can be partially corrected, and this process is repeated iteratively until high contrast is reached. Here we present simulated results of batch process and recursive wavefront estimation schemes. In particular, we test a Kalman filter and an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to reduce the total exposure time and improve the robustness of wavefront correction for the WFIRST-AFTA CGI. An IEKF or other nonlinear filter also allows recursive, real-time estimation of sources incoherent with the star, such as exoplanets and disks, and may therefore reduce detection uncertainty.

  20. A new method to measure low-order aberrations based on wavefront slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we discuss a new method to detect low-order aberration with large peak-valley value. This method also depends on wavefront slope measurements but only need measurements of 6 spots, which means that only 6 pieces of lens are used in detective process, and the mathematical algorithm involved in the calculation process is different from zonal or modal estimation used in Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor. To evaluate the accuracy of this method we simulate this optical measurement process by using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software. Simulation results show that the reconstructed errors of Zernike aberration coefficients are higher for a larger peakvalley (PV) value of wavefront distortions. The maximal errors of aberration coefficients can be keep lower than 1% for aberrations with different combinations of defocus, astigmatism at 0° ,astigmatism at 45° and some high-order terms.. The new measurement method can be used to direct measure low-order aberrations for laser beam with large transverse area and do not need beam contracting system.

  1. Distributed wavefront coding for wide angle imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larivière-Bastien, Martin; Zhang, Hu; Thibault, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The emerging paradigm of imaging systems, known as wavefront coding, which employs joint optimization of both the optical system and the digital post-processing system, has not only increased the degrees of design freedom but also brought several significant system-level benefits. The effectiveness of wavefront coding has been demonstrated by several proof-of-concept systems in the reduction of focus-related aberrations and extension of depth of focus. While previous research on wavefront coding was mainly targeted at imaging systems having a small or modest field of view (FOV), we present a preliminary study on wavefront coding applied to panoramic optical systems. Unlike traditional wavefront coding systems, which only require the constancy of the modulation transfer function (MTF) over an extended focus range, wavefront-coded panoramic systems particularly emphasize the mitigation of significant off-axis aberrations such as field curvature, coma, and astigmatism. The restrictions of using a traditional generalized cubic polynomial pupil phase mask for wide angle systems are studied in this paper. It is shown that a traditional approach can be used when the variation of the off-axis aberrations remains modest. Consequently, we propose to study how a distributed wavefront coding approach, where two surfaces are used for encoding the wavefront, can be applied to wide angle lenses. A few cases designed using Zemax are presented and discussed

  2. Determination of Spin Axis Orientation of Geosynchronous Objects Using Space-Based Sensors: An Initial Feasibility Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Somers, P.; Scott, R.

    2010-09-01

    The spin axis of a rotating satellite can be determined by studying the rate of change of the observed spin rate as a function of the satellite’s position in its orbit. The observed spin rate change is largest when the rate of change of the sun-satellite-observer angle is largest. Application of this method is problematic for deep-space objects due to the slow rate of change of this angle, however some assumptions can be made to make the problem tractable. Alternatively, since space-based sensors in Low Earth Orbit are moving much faster than ground-based sensors, use of such a sensor has the potential to expand the number of objects for which the spin axis can be determined. This paper explores both approaches. First, a ground-based - and assumption-based - method is used to determine the spin state of rocket bodies in deep-space. This is followed by a comparison of the rate of change of the spin rate that would be observed by both a ground-based and a space-based sensor. This comparison both illuminates the issues with using a ground-based sensor, and the potential of a space-based sensor. The use of the upcoming NEOSSat spacecraft - to be launched in Q2 2011 - to exploit this potential is explored.

  3. Filter Function for Wavefront Sensing Over a Field of View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2007-01-01

    A filter function has been derived as a means of optimally weighting the wavefront estimates obtained in image-based phase retrieval performed at multiple points distributed over the field of view of a telescope or other optical system. When the data obtained in wavefront sensing and, more specifically, image-based phase retrieval, are used for controlling the shape of a deformable mirror or other optic used to correct the wavefront, the control law obtained by use of the filter function gives a more balanced optical performance over the field of view than does a wavefront-control law obtained by use of a wavefront estimate obtained from a single point in the field of view.

  4. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  5. Visible and Infrared Wavefront Sensing detectors review in Europe - part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-luc

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the state of the art wavefront sensor detectors developments held in Europe for the last decade. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the development by e2v technologies of the CCD220 between 2004 and 2012. Another major breakthrough is currently achieved with the very successful development of fast low noise infrared arrays called RAPID. The astonishing results of this device will be showed for the first time in an international conference at AO4ELT3.The CCD220, a 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication), offers less than 0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. The OCAM2 camera is the commercial product that drives this advanced device. This system, commercialized by First Light Imaging, is quickly described in this paper. An upgrade of OCAM2 is currently developed to boost its frame rate to 2 kHz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT using 4 synchronized cameras and pyramid wavefront sensing. This upgrade and the results obtained are described extensively elsewhere in this conference (Gach et al).Since this major success, new detector developments started in Europe. The NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with ESO involvement. The spot elongation from a LGS Shack Hartman wavefront sensor necessitates an increase of the pixel format. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: advanced CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS back thinned and back illuminated device for very high QE, full digital outputs with signal digital conversion on chip. This innovative device will be used on the European ELT but also interests potentially all giant telescopes.Additional developments also started in 2009 for wavefront sensing in the infrared based on a new technological breakthrough

  6. Wavefront distortion and beam pointing for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2005-05-01

    The dc pointing directions for the LISA laser beams will be chosen to minimize the sensitivity of the measured arm lengths to jitter in the beam pointing. The earliest studies of the effects of wavefront distortion included only astigmatism and defocus, so that the desired dc beam pointing directions were on the axis for the transmitting telescopes. But, if other aberrations cause the dc pointing directions to be considerably off axis, some of the laser beam intensity will be lost. A brief study of this effect has been carried out. As examples, several cases with defocus, spherical aberration, and two components each of astigmatism and coma have been investigated. Within this class of models, pure astigmatism turned out to give the maximum sensitivity to beam pointing jitter, for a given rms wavefront distortion. Although further study is needed, it appears that the usually quoted requirements of 3 × 10-8 rad for the dc beam pointing offsets and 8 × 10-9 rad Hz-1/2 for the pointing jitter are probably reasonable choices.

  7. Wafer focusing measurement of optical lithography system based on Hartmann-Shack wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xianchang; Hu, Song; Zhao, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    To improve the focusing measurement precision of wafer in optical lithography instrument (OLI), a method based on Hartmann-Shack (HS) testing principle is introduced. Defocus of wafer is immediately detected by measuring the image change between plane and spherical wavefront. As defocus is measured by every sub-lens of microlens array (MLA), serials of defocus position are calculated at single shot of CCD sensor. Choose the average in this measurement the outstanding advantage of this technology is the high accuracy and efficiency. With an experiment to validate the feasibility, the accuracy of focusing measurement is indicated as 20 nm.

  8. Propagation and wavefront ambiguity of linear nondiffracting beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, R.; Bock, M.

    2014-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulsed Bessel and Airy beams in free space are often interpreted as "linear light bullets". Usually, interconnected intensity profiles are considered a "propagation" along arbitrary pathways which can even follow curved trajectories. A more detailed analysis, however, shows that this picture gives an adequate description only in situations which do not require to consider the transport of optical signals or causality. To also cover these special cases, a generalization of the terms "beam" and "propagation" is necessary. The problem becomes clearer by representing the angular spectra of the propagating wave fields by rays or Poynting vectors. It is known that quasi-nondiffracting beams can be described as caustics of ray bundles. Their decomposition into Poynting vectors by Shack-Hartmann sensors indicates that, in the frame of their classical definition, the corresponding local wavefronts are ambiguous and concepts based on energy density are not appropriate to describe the propagation completely. For this reason, quantitative parameters like the beam propagation factor have to be treated with caution as well. For applications like communication or optical computing, alternative descriptions are required. A heuristic approach based on vector field based information transport and Fourier analysis is proposed here. Continuity and discontinuity of far field distributions in space and time are discussed. Quantum aspects of propagation are briefly addressed.

  9. Suppressing Anomalous Localized Waffle Behavior in Least Squares Wavefront Reconstructors

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D

    2002-10-08

    A major difficulty with wavefront slope sensors is their insensitivity to certain phase aberration patterns, the classic example being the waffle pattern in the Fried sampling geometry. As the number of degrees of freedom in AO systems grows larger, the possibility of troublesome waffle-like behavior over localized portions of the aperture is becoming evident. Reconstructor matrices have associated with them, either explicitly or implicitly, an orthogonal mode space over which they operate, called the singular mode space. If not properly preconditioned, the reconstructor's mode set can consist almost entirely of modes that each have some localized waffle-like behavior. In this paper we analyze the behavior of least-squares reconstructors with regard to their mode spaces. We introduce a new technique that is successful in producing a mode space that segregates the waffle-like behavior into a few ''high order'' modes, which can then be projected out of the reconstructor matrix. This technique can be adapted so as to remove any specific modes that are undesirable in the final reconstructor (such as piston, tip, and tilt for example) as well as suppress (the more nebulously defined) localized waffle behavior.

  10. Study on test metrology of large aperture optical system wavefront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiying; Fu, Yuegang; Gao, Tianyuan; Wang, Zhijian

    2009-05-01

    Large aperture optical system test has been a key problem for a long time. It could be solved by sub-aperture stitching method after the sub-apertures are tested. Sub-aperture stitching technology is a feasible method for testing large diameter optical system with small diameter interferometer sub-aperture stitching. Auto-collimating component will be needed with interferometer stitching method. Auto-collimating component is defined that the image could be kept stable when the optical component rotates about any axis in space. And the beam could be back along original optical path. By this means, auto collimation could be realized. The auto-collimating component is smaller than the test system. The whole wavefront of large aperture system could be tested through the method that the auto-collimating component moves along the guide rail and rotates about optical axis. A right angle roof prism is chosen as the auto-collimating component due to its character of easier manufacture. The active matrix, characteristic orientation and extreme axial is deduced with dynamic optics. The sub-aperture stitching testing process is simulated by ZEMAX in detail. The test result by stitching method is compared with that by directive test method for large aperture optical system. It is shown that the relative test error is less than 4.3λ 0/00. The sub -aperture stitching test method is verified.

  11. Robust Wave-front Correction in a Small Scale Adaptive Optics System Using a Membrane Deformable Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, S.; Baik, S.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.; Yoo, J.

    A small scale laboratory adaptive optics system using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS) and a membrane deformable mirror (DM) has been built for robust image acquisition. In this study, an adaptive limited control technique is adopted to maintain the long-term correction stability of an adaptive optics system. To prevent the waste of dynamic correction range for correcting small residual wave-front distortions which are inefficient to correct, the built system tries to limit wave-front correction when a similar small difference wave-front pattern is repeatedly generated. Also, the effect of mechanical distortion in an adaptive optics system is studied and a pre-recognition method for the distortion is devised to prevent low-performance system operation. A confirmation process for a balanced work assignment among deformable mirror (DM) actuators is adopted for the pre-recognition. The corrected experimental results obtained by using a built small scale adaptive optics system are described in this paper.

  12. Algorithm for Wavefront Sensing Using an Extended Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Green, Joseph; Ohara, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A recently conceived algorithm for processing image data acquired by a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor is not subject to the restriction, previously applicable in SH wavefront sensing, that the image be formed from a distant star or other equivalent of a point light source. That is to say, the image could be of an extended scene. (One still has the option of using a point source.) The algorithm can be implemented in commercially available software on ordinary computers. The steps of the algorithm are the following: 1. Suppose that the image comprises M sub-images. Determine the x,y Cartesian coordinates of the centers of these sub-images and store them in a 2xM matrix. 2. Within each sub-image, choose an NxN-pixel cell centered at the coordinates determined in step 1. For the ith sub-image, let this cell be denoted as si(x,y). Let the cell of another subimage (preferably near the center of the whole extended-scene image) be designated a reference cell, denoted r(x,y). 3. Calculate the fast Fourier transforms of the sub-sub-images in the central NxN portions (where N < N and both are preferably powers of 2) of r(x,y) and si(x,y). 4. Multiply the two transforms to obtain a cross-correlation function Ci(u,v), in the Fourier domain. Then let the phase of Ci(u, v) constitute a phase function, phi(u,v). 5. Fit u and v slopes to phi (u,v) over a small u,v subdomain. 6. Compute the fast Fourier transform, Si(u,v) of the full NxN cell si(x,y). Multiply this transform by the u and phase slopes obtained in step 4. Then compute the inverse fast Fourier transform of the product. 7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 in an iteration loop, cumulating the u and slopes, until a maximum iteration number is reached or the change in image shift becomes smaller than a predetermined tolerance. 8. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for the cells of all other sub-images.

  13. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  14. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schaedler, Martin; Schima, Robert; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  15. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  16. Wavefront sensing applications of binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    The advent of micro- or binary optics technology has made possible the fabrication of a variety of new optical devices. Optical fabrication is no longer limited by surfaces that can be made by grinding and polishing, or even diamond turning. In fact, optics with no symmetry, no smooth surfaces, and that perform multiple functions can be readily fabricated. While these optics have a large number of applications, they are extremely useful for systems that require arrays of small optics or aperture multiplexing, since these are fabricated using computer controlled photo-lithography and etching processes. We have applied binary optics technology to construct various wavefront sensing using four mask processes to create 16 level optics. They are binary in the sense that they use discrete phase levels, not in the sense of using only two levels (they might more properly be called digital optics). We have found that 16 levels is adequate for most systems, giving greater than 99% of efficiency.

  17. Constrained least squares estimation incorporating wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stephen D.; Welsh, Byron M.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1998-11-01

    We address the optimal processing of astronomical images using the deconvolution from wave-front sensing technique (DWFS). A constrained least-squares (CLS) solution which incorporates ensemble-averaged DWFS data is derived using Lagrange minimization. The new estimator requires DWFS data, noise statistics, optical transfer function statistics, and a constraint. The constraint can be chosen such that the algorithm selects a conventional regularization constant automatically. No ad hoc parameter tuning is necessary. The algorithm uses an iterative Newton-Raphson minimization to determine the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Computer simulation of a 1m telescope imaging through atmospheric turbulence is used to test the estimation scheme. CLS object estimates are compared with the corresponding long exposure images. The CLS algorithm provides images with superior resolution and is computationally inexpensive, converging to a solution in less than 10 iterations.

  18. Telescope Multi-Field Wavefront Control with a Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John Z.; Redding, David; Sigrist, Norbert; Basinger, Scott

    2008-01-01

    An effective multi-field wavefront control (WFC) approach is demonstrated for an actuated, segmented space telescope using wavefront measurements at the exit pupil, and the optical and computational implications of this approach are discussed. The integration of a Kalman Filter as an optical state estimator into the wavefront control process to further improve the robustness of the optical alignment of the telescope will also be discussed. Through a comparison of WFC performances between on-orbit and ground-test optical system configurations, the connection (and a possible disconnection) between WFC and optical system alignment under these circumstances are analyzed. Our MACOS-based computer simulation results will be presented and discussed.

  19. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  20. Propagation of aberrated wavefronts using a ray transfer matrix.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    A ray transfer matrix is used to calculate the propagation of aberrated wavefronts across a homogeneous refractive index. The wavefront is represented by local surface normals, i.e., by a ray bundle, and the propagation is accomplished by transferring those rays across the space. Wavefront shape is generated from the slopes and positions of the collection of rays. Calculation methods are developed for the paraxial case, for higher-order expansions, and for the exact tangent case. A numerical example is used to compare results between an analytical method and the methods developed here. PMID:24979628

  1. Wavefront curvature of an opticaly pumped waveguide laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tacke, M.

    1983-05-01

    The influence of inhomogeneous gain on the wavefront shape is discussed for waveguide lasers. As an example, the curvature of the EH(11) mode of an optically pumped FIR laser is computed, its influence on the output beam is discussed.

  2. Wavefront shaping through emulated curved space in waveguide settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chong; Bekenstein, Rivka; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Segev, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable progress in wavefront shaping, including shaping of beams in free space, of plasmonic wavepackets and of electronic wavefunctions. In all of these, the wavefront shaping was achieved by external means such as masks, gratings and reflection from metasurfaces. Here, we propose wavefront shaping by exploiting general relativity (GR) effects in waveguide settings. We demonstrate beam shaping within dielectric slab samples with predesigned refractive index varying so as to create curved space environment for light. We use this technique to construct very narrow non-diffracting beams and shape-invariant beams accelerating on arbitrary trajectories. Importantly, the beam transformations occur within a mere distance of 40 wavelengths, suggesting that GR can inspire any wavefront shaping in highly tight waveguide settings. In such settings, we demonstrate Einstein's Rings: a phenomenon dating back to 1936.

  3. Wavefront and divergence of the beamlet prototype laser

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M A; Salmon, J T; Seppala, L G; Van Wonterghem, B M; Wegner, P J; Weiland, T L; Williams, W H

    1998-10-30

    We have measured the wavefront and the divergence of the Beamlet prototype laser under a variety of conditions. Emphasis of the tests was on quantifying best attainable divergence in the angular regime below 30 {micro}rad to benchmark propagation models that are used to set wavefront gradient specifications for NIF optical components. Performance with and without active wavefront correction was monitored with radial shearing interferometers that measured near-field wavefront at the input and output of the main amplifier with a spatial resolution of 1 cm, and cameras which measured the corresponding intensity distributions in the far field with an angular resolution of 0.3 {micro}rad. Details of the measurements are discussed and related to NIF focal spot requirements and optics specifications.

  4. Wavefront shaping through emulated curved space in waveguide settings

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Chong; Bekenstein, Rivka; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Segev, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable progress in wavefront shaping, including shaping of beams in free space, of plasmonic wavepackets and of electronic wavefunctions. In all of these, the wavefront shaping was achieved by external means such as masks, gratings and reflection from metasurfaces. Here, we propose wavefront shaping by exploiting general relativity (GR) effects in waveguide settings. We demonstrate beam shaping within dielectric slab samples with predesigned refractive index varying so as to create curved space environment for light. We use this technique to construct very narrow non-diffracting beams and shape-invariant beams accelerating on arbitrary trajectories. Importantly, the beam transformations occur within a mere distance of 40 wavelengths, suggesting that GR can inspire any wavefront shaping in highly tight waveguide settings. In such settings, we demonstrate Einstein's Rings: a phenomenon dating back to 1936. PMID:26899285

  5. Wavefront distortion optimized with volume Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Xiaojie; Yuan, Xiao

    2016-03-15

    The wavefront characteristics in 2D angular filtering on the basis of two orthogonal transmitting volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is presented. The experimental results show that middle-high frequency wavefront distortions are efficiently suppressed with VBGs. The peak-valley value of the beam at a wavelength of 1053 nm reduces from 2.075λ to 0.209λ, and the root mean square value reduces from 0.207λ to 0.041λ. The wavefront power spectrum density shows that the wavefront distribution of the beam in medium and high frequencies is corrected by the VBGs. Additionally, the far-field distribution and focusing properties of the beam are improved. The beam Strehl ratio increases from 0.43 to 0.96, and the encircled energy improves from 95% energy at 4.01 mrad to 95% energy at 1.26 mrad. PMID:26977639

  6. Wavefront shaping through emulated curved space in waveguide settings.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chong; Bekenstein, Rivka; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Segev, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable progress in wavefront shaping, including shaping of beams in free space, of plasmonic wavepackets and of electronic wavefunctions. In all of these, the wavefront shaping was achieved by external means such as masks, gratings and reflection from metasurfaces. Here, we propose wavefront shaping by exploiting general relativity (GR) effects in waveguide settings. We demonstrate beam shaping within dielectric slab samples with predesigned refractive index varying so as to create curved space environment for light. We use this technique to construct very narrow non-diffracting beams and shape-invariant beams accelerating on arbitrary trajectories. Importantly, the beam transformations occur within a mere distance of 40 wavelengths, suggesting that GR can inspire any wavefront shaping in highly tight waveguide settings. In such settings, we demonstrate Einstein's Rings: a phenomenon dating back to 1936. PMID:26899285

  7. Manipulating Acoustic Wavefront by Inhomogeneous Impedance and Steerable Extraordinary Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators. PMID:23985717

  8. Manipulating acoustic wavefront by inhomogeneous impedance and steerable extraordinary reflection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators. PMID:23985717

  9. Manipulating Acoustic Wavefront by Inhomogeneous Impedance and Steerable Extraordinary Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-08-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators.

  10. Adaptive Wavefront Calibration and Control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-02-02

    Quasi-static errors in the science leg and internal AO flexure will be corrected. Wavefront control will adapt to current atmospheric conditions through Fourier modal gain optimization, or the prediction of atmospheric layers with Kalman filtering.

  11. Multi-layer surface profiling using gated wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Nordin, Nur Dalilla; Tik, Eddy Chow Mun; Tan, ChingSeong; Chew, Kuew Wai; Menoni, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multi-layer surface profiling and inspection has been considered an emerging topic that can be used to solve various manufacturing inspection problems, such as graded index lenses, TSV (Thru-Silicon Via), and optical coating. In our study, we proposed a gated wavefront sensing approach to estimate the multi-layer surface profile. In this paper, we set up an experimental platform to validate our theoretical models and methods. Our test bed consists of pulse laser, collimator, prism, well-defined focusing lens, testing specimen, and gated wavefront sensing assembly (e.g., lenslet and gated camera). Typical wavefront measurement steps are carried out for the gated system, except the reflectance is timed against its time of flight as well as its intensity profile. By synchronizing the laser pulses to the camera gate time, it is possible to discriminate a multi-layer wavefront from its neighbouring discrete layer reflections.

  12. Multiple Field of View Layer Oriented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo; Fedrigo, Enrico; Marchetti, Enrico; Tordi, Massimiliano.; Kirkman, David

    In layer oriented MCAO the same number of detectors and Deformable Mirrors are conjugated to a specific layer on the sky and collect light from a number of references, coadding them simultaneously and in an optical way. The correction achieved is perfect for the conjugated layer and it is limited to the smaller spatial frequencies for the layers within the DMs, approaching the optimum when a certain Field of View is considered. Here we introduce a further step, namely the use of different Field of View for the different DMs. In this way stars from an anulus are taken to correct for the ground layer, while stars within a certain patch are used to correct for the high altitude layers and for the residuals due to the not perfect correction on the ground volume (because of the large FoV used there). We show, along with an optomechanical design of such an approach, that in this way one can easily reach 30% of sky coverage near the Galactic Poles WITHOUT using any sort of gain introduced by the use of pyramid wavefront sensor, limiting the number of stars to the 20 brightest and assuming an overall efficiency of the order of 10%. The result in term of Sthrel is of the order of 0.2 at 800nm over an average continuum Cn2 profile distribution at Paranal (as devised from literature data). Extension to 100m class telescopes or the use of pyramid WFS are briefly discussed.

  13. User requirements and user acceptance of current and next-generation satellite mission and sensor complement, oriented toward the monitoring of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Robinson, P.

    1975-01-01

    Principal water resources users were surveyed to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to their present and future requirements. Analysis of responses was used to assess the levels of adequacy of LANDSAT 1 and 2 in fulfilling hydrological functions, and to derive systems specifications for future water resources-oriented remote sensing satellite systems. The analysis indicates that water resources applications for all but the very large users require: (1) resolutions on the order of 15 meters, (2) a number of radiometric levels of the same order as currently used in LANDSAT 1 (64), (3) a number of spectral bands not in excess of those used in LANDSAT 1, and (4) a repetition frequency on the order of 2 weeks. The users had little feel for the value of new sensors (thermal IR, passive and active microwaves). What is needed in this area is to achieve specific demonstrations of the utility of these sensors and submit the results to the users to evince their judgement.

  14. Wave-front measurement errors from restricted concentric subdomains.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, K A; Geary, K

    2001-09-01

    In interferometry and optical testing, system wave-front measurements that are analyzed on a restricted subdomain of the full pupil can include predictable systematic errors. In nearly all cases, the measured rms wave-front error and the magnitudes of the individual aberration polynomial coefficients underestimate the wave-front error magnitudes present in the full-pupil domain. We present an analytic method to determine the relationships between the coefficients of aberration polynomials defined on the full-pupil domain and those defined on a restricted concentric subdomain. In this way, systematic wave-front measurement errors introduced by subregion selection are investigated. Using vector and matrix representations for the wave-front aberration coefficients, we generalize the method to the study of arbitrary input wave fronts and subdomain sizes. While wave-front measurements on a restricted subdomain are insufficient for predicting the wave front of the full-pupil domain, studying the relationship between known full-pupil wave fronts and subdomain wave fronts allows us to set subdomain size limits for arbitrary measurement fidelity. PMID:11551047

  15. Advanced wavefront measurement and analysis of laser system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Auerback, J.M.

    1994-11-15

    High spatial resolution measurements of the reflected or transmitted wavefronts of large aperture optical components used in high peak power laser systems is now possible. These measurements are produced by phase shifting interferometry. The wavefront data is in the form of 3-D phase maps that reconstruct the wavefront shape. The emphasis of this work is on the characterization of wavefront features in the mid-spatial wavelength range (from 0.1 to 10.0 mm) and has been accomplished for the first time. Wavefront structure from optical components with spatial wavelengths in this range are of concern because their effects in high peak power laser systems. At high peak power, this phase modulation can convert to large magnitude intensity modulation by non-linear processes. This can lead to optical damage. We have developed software to input the measured phase map data into beam propagation codes in order to model this conversion process. We are analyzing this data to: (1) Characterize the wavefront structure produced by current optical components, (2) Refine our understanding of laser system performance, (3) Develop a database from which future optical component specifications can be derived.

  16. MEMS deformable mirror embedded wavefront sensing and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Donald; Schoen, Michael; Bush, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic Membrane Deformable Mirror (MDM) technology developed using silicon bulk micro-machining techniques offers the potential of providing low-cost, compact wavefront control systems for diverse optical system applications. Electrostatic mirror construction using bulk micro-machining allows for custom designs to satisfy wavefront control requirements for most optical systems. An electrostatic MDM consists of a thin membrane, generally with a thin metal or multi-layer high-reflectivity coating, suspended over an actuator pad array that is connected to a high-voltage driver. Voltages applied to the array elements deflect the membrane to provide an optical surface capable of correcting for measured optical aberrations in a given system. Electrostatic membrane DM designs are derived from well-known principles of membrane mechanics and electrostatics, the desired optical wavefront control requirements, and the current limitations of mirror fabrication and actuator drive electronics. MDM performance is strongly dependent on mirror diameter and air damping in meeting desired spatial and temporal frequency requirements. In this paper, we present wavefront control results from an embedded wavefront control system developed around a commercially available high-speed camera and an AgilOptics Unifi MDM driver using USB 2.0 communications and the Linux development environment. This new product, ClariFast TM, combines our previous Clarifi TM product offering into a faster more streamlined version dedicated strictly to Hartmann Wavefront sensing.

  17. Preparation of highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on Hastelloy tapes with Y2O3 buffer layer for flexible SAW sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bin; Jiang, Jianying; Chen, Guo; Shu, Lin; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Wanli; Liu, Xinzhao

    2016-02-01

    Highly c-axis oriented aluminum nitrade (AlN) films were successfully deposited on flexible Hastelloy tapes by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and piezoelectric properties of the AlN films were investigated. The results show that the AlN films deposited directly on the bare Hastelloy substrate have rough surface with root mean square (RMS) roughness of 32.43nm and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN (0002) peak is 12.5∘. However, the AlN films deposited on the Hastelloy substrate with Y2O3 buffer layer show smooth surface with RMS roughness of 5.46nm and its FWHM of the AlN (0002) peak is only 3.7∘. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 of the AlN films deposited on the Y2O3/Hastelloy substrate is larger than three times that of the AlN films deposited on the bare Hastelloy substrate. The prepared highly c-axis oriented AlN films can be used to develop high-temperature flexible SAW sensors.

  18. Asymmetric wavefront aberrations and pupillary shapes induced by electrical stimulation of ciliary nerve in cats measured with compact wavefront aberrometer.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Suguru; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Hirohara, Yoko; Endo, Takao; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the wavefront aberrations and pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. Seven eyes of seven cats were studied under general anesthesia. Trains of monophasic pulses (current, 0.1 to 1.0 mA; duration, 0.5 ms/phase; frequency, 5 to 40 Hz) were applied to the lateral or medial branch of the short ciliary nerve near the posterior pole of the eye. A pair of electrodes was hooked onto one or both branch of the short ciliary nerve. The electrodes were placed about 5 mm from the scleral surface. The wavefront aberrations were recorded continuously for 2 seconds before, 8 seconds during, and for 20 seconds after the electrical stimulation. The pupillary images were simultaneously recorded during the stimulation period. Both the wavefront aberrations and the pupillary images were obtained 10 times/sec with a custom-built wavefront aberrometer. The maximum accommodative amplitude was 1.19 diopters (D) produced by electrical stimulation of the short ciliary nerves. The latency of the accommodative changes was very short, and the accommodative level gradually increased up to 4 seconds and reached a plateau. When only one branch of the ciliary nerve was stimulated, the pupil dilated asymmetrically, and the oblique astigmatism and one of the asymmetrical wavefront terms was also altered. Our results showed that the wavefront aberrations and pupillary dilations can be measured simultaneously and serially with a compact wavefront aberrometer. The asymmetric pupil dilation and asymmetric changes of the wavefront aberrations suggest that each branch of the ciliary nerve innervates specific segments of the ciliary muscle and dilator muscle of the pupil. PMID:25144536

  19. Phase-Controlled Magnetic Mirror for Wavefront Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Typically, light interacts with matter via the electric field and interaction with weakly bound electrons. In a magnetic mirror, a patterned nanowire is fabricated over a metallic layer with a dielectric layer in between. Oscillation of the electrons in the nanowires in response to the magnetic field of incident photons causes a re-emission of photons and operation as a "magnetic mirror." By controlling the index of refraction in the dielectric layer using a local applied voltage, the phase of the emitted radiation can be controlled. This allows electrical modification of the reflected wavefront, resulting in a deformable mirror that can be used for wavefront control. Certain applications require wavefront quality in the few-nanometer regime, which is a major challenge for optical fabrication and alignment of mirrors or lenses. The use of a deformable magnetic mirror allows for a device with no moving parts that can modify the phase of incident light over many spatial scales, potentially with higher resolution than current approaches. Current deformable mirrors modify the incident wavefront by using nano-actuation of a substrate to physically bend the mirror to a desired shape. The purpose of the innovation is to modify the incident wavefront for the purpose of correction of fabrication and alignment-induced wavefront errors at the system level. The advanced degree of precision required for some applications such as gravity wave detection (LISA - Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) or planet finding (FKSI - Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer) requires wavefront control at the limits of the current state of the art. All the steps required to fabricate a magnetic mirror have been demonstrated. The modification is to apply a bias voltage to the dielectric layer so as to change the index of refraction and modify the phase of the reflected radiation. Light is reflected off the device and collected by a phase-sensing interferometer. The interferometer determines the

  20. Manipulation of wavefront using helical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhaokun; Tao, Huan; Zhao, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Helical metamaterials, a kind of 3-dimensional structure, has relatively strong coupling effect among the helical nano-wires. Therefore, it is expected to be a good candidate for generating phase shift and controlling wavefront with high efficiency. In this paper, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we studied the phase shift properties in the helical metamaterials. It is found that the phase shift occurs for both transmitted and reflected light waves. And the maximum of reflection coefficients can reach over 60%. In addition, the phase shift (φ) is dispersionless in the range of 600 nm to 860 nm, that is, it is only dominated by the initial angle (θ) of the helix. The relationship between them is φ = ± 2θ. Using Jones calculus we give a further explanation for these properties. Finally, by arranging the helixes in an array with a constant phase gradient, the phenomenon of anomalous refraction was also observed in a broad wavelength range. PMID:27505790

  1. OCAM2: world's fastest and most sensitive camera system for advanced Adaptive Optics wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Feautrier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1500 Hz frame rate and with 240x240-pixel. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240x240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This talk demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1500 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCAM2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCAM2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCAM2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCAM2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism. A picture of OCAM2, the commercial version of OCam, is shown in Figure 2. OCAM2 is commercialized by the "First Light Imaging" company.

  2. Optical focusing in scattering media with photoacoustic wavefront shaping (PAWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Puxiang; Tay, Jian Wei; Wang, Lidai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Controllable light delivery to the region of interest is essential to biomedical optical imaging methods like photoacoustic microscopy. It is, however, challenging beyond superficial depths in biological tissue (~1 mm beneath human skin) due to the strong scattering of light that scrambles the photon propagation paths. Recently, optical wavefront shaping has been proposed to modulate the incident light wavefront to compensate for the scattering-induced phase distortions, and consequentially, convey light optimally to a desired location behind or inside turbid media. To reach an optimum wavefront, a searching algorithm is usually required to optimize a feedback signal. In this work, we present our latest explorations, which use photoacoustic signals as the feedback to remotely and non-invasively guide the wavefront shaping process. Our method does not require direct optical access to the target region or the invasive embedding of fluorescence probes inside turbid media. Experimentally, we have demonstrated that diffuse light can be converged to the ultrasound focus by maximizing the amplitude of photoacoustic emissions from the intended absorbing site. Moreover, we show that wavefront-shaped light focusing can enhance existing optical imaging modalities like photoacoustic microscopy, in regard to signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and potentially, resolution.

  3. Aero-optical jitter estimation using higher-order wavefronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Matthew R.; Goorskey, David J.; Drye, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Wavefront measurements from wind tunnel or flight testing of an optical system are affected by jitter sources due to the measurement platform, system vibrations, or aero-mechanical buffeting. Depending on the nature of the testing, the wavefront jitter will be a composite of several effects, one of which is the aero-optical jitter; i.e., the wavefront tilt due to random air density fluctuations. To isolate the aero-optical jitter component from recent testing, we have developed an estimation technique that uses only higher-order wavefront measurements to determine the jitter. By analogy with work done previously with free-stream turbulence, we have developed a minimum mean-square error estimator using higher-order wavefront modes to compute the current-frame tilt components through a linear operation. The estimator is determined from computational fluid dynamics evaluation of aero-optical disturbances, but does not depend on the strength of such disturbances. Applying this technique to turret flight test data, we found aero-optical jitter to be 7.7±0.8 μrad and to scale with (ρ/ρSL)M2 (˜1 μrad in the actual test cases examined). The half-power point of the aero-optical jitter variance was found to be ˜2u∞/Dt and to roll off in temporal frequency with a power law between f and f.

  4. Non-iterative adaptive optical microscopy using wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Azucena, O.; Kubby, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper will review the development of wide-field and confocal microscopes with wavefront sensing and adaptive optics for correcting refractive aberrations and compensating scattering when imaging through thick tissues (Drosophila embryos and mouse brain tissue). To make wavefront measurements in biological specimens we have modified the laser guide-star techniques used in astronomy for measuring wavefront aberrations that occur as star light passes through Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Here sodium atoms in Earth's mesosphere, at an altitude of 95 km, are excited to fluoresce at resonance by a high-power sodium laser. The fluorescent light creates a guide-star reference beacon at the top of the atmosphere that can be used for measuring wavefront aberrations that occur as the light passes through the atmosphere. We have developed a related approach for making wavefront measurements in biological specimens using cellular structures labeled with fluorescent proteins as laser guide-stars. An example is a fluorescently labeled centrosome in a fruit fly embryo or neurons and dendrites in mouse brains. Using adaptive optical microscopy we show that the Strehl ratio, the ratio of the peak intensity of an aberrated point source relative to the diffraction limited image, can be improved by an order of magnitude when imaging deeply into live dynamic specimens, enabling near diffraction limited deep tissue imaging.

  5. An effective trace-guided wavefront navigation and map-building approach for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Jan, Gene Eu

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to address a trace-guided real-time navigation and map building approach of an autonomous mobile robot. Wave-front based global path planner is developed to generate a global trajectory for an autonomous mobile robot. Modified Vector Field Histogram (M-VFH) is employed based on the LIDAR sensor information to guide the robot locally to be autonomously traversed with obstacle avoidance by following traces provided by the global path planner. A local map composed of square grids is created through the local navigator while the robot traverses with limited LIDAR sensory information. From the measured sensory information, a map of the robot's immediate limited surroundings is dynamically built for the robot navigation. The real-time wave-front based navigation and map building methodology has been successfully demonstrated in a Player/Stage simulation environment. With the wave-front-based global path planner and M-VFH local navigator, a safe, short, and reasonable trajectory is successfully planned in a majority of situations without any templates, without explicitly optimizing any global cost functions, and without any learning procedures. Its effectiveness, feasibility, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed real-time navigation and map building of an autonomous mobile robot have been successfully validated by simulation and comparison studies. Comparison studies of the proposed approach with the other path planning approaches demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of planning more reasonable and shorter collision-free trajectories autonomously.

  6. OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz Garcia, José Javier

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240 × 240 pixel frame-transfer eight-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This article demonstrates, for the first time, subelectron readout noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e- pixel-1 frame-1. It reports on the quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220, including readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency. OCam includes a low-noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks, and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user-friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, has been designed to offer enhanced performance, a completely sealed camera package, and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally challenging applications. New features of OCam2 are presented in this article. This instrumental development will strongly impact the performance of the most advanced AO systems to come.

  7. Accelerated wavefront determination technique for optical imaging through scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hexiang; Wong, Kam Sing

    2016-03-01

    Wavefront shaping applied on scattering light is a promising optical imaging method in biological systems. Normally, optimized modulation can be obtained by a Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM) and CCD hardware iteration. Here we introduce an improved method for this optimization process. The core of the proposed method is to firstly detect the disturbed wavefront, and then to calculate the modulation phase pattern by computer simulation. In particular, phase retrieval method together with phase conjugation is most effective. In this way, the LC-SLM based system can complete the wavefront optimization and imaging restoration within several seconds which is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional technique. The experimental results show good imaging quality and may contribute to real time imaging recovery in scattering medium.

  8. Reflected wavefront manipulation based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Liang, Bin; Gu, Zhong-ming; Zou, Xin-ye; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of metasurfaces has renewed the Snell's law and opened up new degrees of freedom to tailor the optical wavefront at will. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the generalized Snell's law can be achieved for reflected acoustic waves based on ultrathin planar acoustic metasurfaces. The metasurfaces are constructed with eight units of a solid structure to provide discrete phase shifts covering the full 2π span with steps of π/4 by coiling up the space. By careful selection of the phase profiles in the transverse direction of the metasurfaces, some fascinating wavefront engineering phenomena are demonstrated, such as anomalous reflections, conversion of propagating waves into surface waves, planar aberration-free lens and nondiffracting Bessel beam generated by planar acoustic axicon. Our results could open up a new avenue for acoustic wavefront engineering and manipulations. PMID:23986034

  9. Wavefront Sensing for WFIRST with a Linear Optical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  10. Growth of Large-Size SnS Thin Crystals Driven by Oriented Attachment and Applications to Gas Sensors and Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lian, Gang; Xu, Zhenghao; Fu, Chen; Lin, Zhaojun; Li, Liyi; Wang, Qilong; Cui, Deliang; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-04-20

    Freestanding large-size SnS thin crystals are synthesized via two-dimensional oriented attachment (OA) growth of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in a novel high-pressure solvothermal reaction. The SnS thin crystals present a uniform rectangular shape with a lateral size of 20-30 um and thickness of <10 nm. The evolution process demonstrates that a synergetic effect of pressure, aging time and organic ligands results in polycrystal-to-monocrystal formation and defect annihilation. Furthermore, gas sensor and photodetector devices, based on SnS thin single crystals, are also prepared. The sensing devices present high sensitivity, superior selectivity, low detection limit (≪100 ppb) and reversibility to NO2 at room temperature. The fabricated photodetector devices exhibit a high responsivity of 2.04 × 10(3) A W(1-) and high external quantum efficiency of ∼4.75 × 10(5) % at 532 nm, which are much higher than most of the photodetector devices. PMID:27054920

  11. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material. PMID:24594662

  12. The development and test of a device for the reconstruction of 3-D position and orientation by means of a kinematic sensor assembly with rate gyroscopes and accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Maccioni, Giovanni; Macellari, Velio

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a device for the Position and Orientation (P&O) reconstruction of human segmental locomotion tasks. It is based on three mono-axial accelerometers and three angular velocity sensors, geometrically arranged to form two orthogonal terns. The device was bench tested using step-by-step motor-based equipment. The characteristics of the six channels under bench test conditions were: crosstalk absent, non linearity < +/- 0.1% fs, hysteresis < 0.1% fs, accuracy 0.3% fs, overall resolution better than 0.04 deg/s, 2 x g x 10(-4). The device was validated with the stereophotogrammetric body motion analyzer during the execution of three different locomotion tasks: stand-to-sit, sit-to-stand, gait-initiation. Results obtained comparing the trajectories of the two methods showed that the errors were lower than 3 x 10(-2) m and 2 deg during a 4s of acquisition and lower than 6 x 10(-3) m and 0.2 deg during the effective duration of a locomotory task; showing that the wearable device hereby presented permits the 3-D reconstruction of the movement of the body segment to which it is affixed for time-limited clinical applications. PMID:16041990

  13. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-03-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material.

  14. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material. PMID:24594662

  15. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional sub-wavelength grating anti-reflection coating on a f/1.7 lens surface is dominated by defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 waves and the magnitude of the piston approaches 1 wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 waves of astigmatism like variation and more than 0.01 waves of retardance induced defocus like variation.

  16. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi Cheng, Ying; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-11-30

    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing.

  17. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-11-01

    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing.

  18. Stationary phase analysis of generalized cubic phase mask wavefront coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Hui, Mei; Jia, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The modified generalized cubic phase mask (GCPM) has recently been applied in wavefront coding systems including infrared imaging and microscopy. In this paper, the stationary phase method is employed to analyze the GCPM characteristics. The SPA of the modulation transfer function (MTF) under misfocus aberration is derived for a wavefront coding system with a GCPM. The approximation corresponds with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach. On the basis of this approximation, we compare the characteristics of GCPM and cubic phase masks (CPM). A GCPM design approach based on stationary phase approximation is presented which helps to determine the initial parameter of phase mask, significantly decreasing the computational time required for numerical simulation.

  19. Generation of atmospheric wavefronts using binary micromirror arrays.

    PubMed

    Anzuola, Esdras; Belmonte, Aniceto

    2016-04-10

    To simulate in the laboratory the influence that a turbulent atmosphere has on light beams, we introduce a practical method for generating atmospheric wavefront distortions that considers digital holographic reconstruction using a programmable binary micromirror array. We analyze the efficiency of the approach for different configurations of the micromirror array and experimentally demonstrate the benchtop technique. Though the mirrors on the digital array can only be positioned in one of two states, we show that the holographic technique can be used to devise a wide variety of atmospheric wavefront aberrations in a controllable and predictable way for a fraction of the cost of phase-only spatial light modulators. PMID:27139872

  20. Optimization of sub-cells orientation for assembly of a high-quality transmission sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    The transmission sphere (TS) provides a high-quality reference wavefront which is common path with a test wavefront to generate interference fringes in a Fizeau interferometer. The optical path difference (OPD) of the reference wavefront should be controlled within peak-to-valley (PV) 5 λ (λ=0.6328 um), because too large OPD makes interference fringes distorted. Therefore, the tolerance analysis of the reference wavefront is very critical. Because the surface irregularity of lens can change the phase of a wavefront, surface deformation after mounting highly impacts on the wavefront error. For large optics, such as φ 6-inch in this study, surface deformation dominates the quality of the reference wavefront. For minimizing surface deformation after mounting, semi-kinematic mounting technology is used in sub-cells design to avoid over-constraint forces and unpredictable deformation. Then, the deformation due to gravity force of each surface can be constrained around PV 0.3 λ with Zernike trefoil in vertical setup TS; however, the superposition of the distorted wavefront may deteriorate the optical performance. A method of optimizing orientation of each lens around optical axis is presented in this paper. Sub-cells are designed to be rotational around optical axis respectively. The wavefront error of the reference beam of the worst case is improved significantly after optimization. Consequently, the method can effectively reduce the difficulty of lenses fabrication and mounting, and then the specification of the surface irregularity can be lower for cost saving. Based on the optimization in our study, a good reference wavefront can be acquired without any tight tolerance or complicated assembly.

  1. Measurement and compensation of wavefront deformations and focal shifts in high-power laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, K.; Schäfer, B.; Stubenvoll, M.; Hentschel, K.; Zenz, M.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation.

  2. Wavefront reconstruction for extremely large telescopes via CuRe with domain decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor is an accurate, extremely fast reconstruction algorithm for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. But it has shown an unacceptable high noise propagation for large apertures. Therefore, in this paper we describe a domain decomposition approach to deal with this drawback. We show that this adaptation of the algorithm gives the same reconstruction quality as the original algorithm and leads to a significant improvement with respect to noise propagation. The method is combined with an integral control and compared to the classical matrix vector multiplication algorithm on an end-to-end simulation of a single conjugate adaptive optics system. The reconstruction time is 20n (number of subapertures), and the method is parallelizable. PMID:23201793

  3. Measurement and compensation of laser-induced wavefront deformations and focal shifts in near IR optics.

    PubMed

    Stubenvoll, Martin; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation. PMID:25401572

  4. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

    2014-04-22

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

  5. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  6. 2D-FFT implementation on FPGA for wavefront phase recovery from the CAFADIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Magdaleno Castelló, E.; Domínguez Conde, C.; Rodríguez Valido, M.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.

    2008-07-01

    The CAFADIS camera is a new sensor patented by Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source at the same time in a real time process. It uses specialized hardware: Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGAs). These two kinds of electronic hardware present an architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream in a massively parallel approach. Of course, FPGAs are faster than GPUs, this is why it is worth it using FPGAs integer arithmetic instead of GPUs floating point arithmetic. GPUs must not be forgotten, as we have shown in previous papers, they are efficient enough to resolve several problems for AO in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of time processing requirements; in addition, the GPUs show a widening gap in computing speed relative to CPUs. They are much more powerful in order to implement AO simulation than common software packages running on top of CPUs. Our paper shows an FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. This is done in two steps: the estimation of the telescope pupil gradients from the telescope focus image, and then the very novelty 2D-FFT over the FPGA. Time processing results are compared to our GPU implementation. In fact, what we are doing is a comparison between the two different arithmetic mentioned above, then we are helping to answer about the viability of the FPGAs for AO in the ELTs.

  7. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Vogel, Curtis R.

    2003-09-01

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 104-105 degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wave-front control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 104 actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10-2 Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 103 Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner.

  8. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Vogel, Curtis R

    2003-09-10

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 10(4)-10(5) degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wavefront control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 10(4) actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10(-2) Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 10(3) Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner. PMID:14503692

  9. Two Improved Algorithms for Envelope and Wavefront Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumfert, Gary; Pothen, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Two algorithms for reordering sparse, symmetric matrices or undirected graphs to reduce envelope and wavefront are considered. The first is a combinatorial algorithm introduced by Sloan and further developed by Duff, Reid, and Scott; we describe enhancements to the Sloan algorithm that improve its quality and reduce its run time. Our test problems fall into two classes with differing asymptotic behavior of their envelope parameters as a function of the weights in the Sloan algorithm. We describe an efficient 0(nlogn + m) time implementation of the Sloan algorithm, where n is the number of rows (vertices), and m is the number of nonzeros (edges). On a collection of test problems, the improved Sloan algorithm required, on the average, only twice the time required by the simpler Reverse Cuthill-Mckee algorithm while improving the mean square wavefront by a factor of three. The second algorithm is a hybrid that combines a spectral algorithm for envelope and wavefront reduction with a refinement step that uses a modified Sloan algorithm. The hybrid algorithm reduces the envelope size and mean square wavefront obtained from the Sloan algorithm at the cost of greater running times. We illustrate how these reductions translate into tangible benefits for frontal Cholesky factorization and incomplete factorization preconditioning.

  10. Wavefront Control Toolbox for James Webb Space Telescope Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiri, Ron; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffery Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Sabatke, Erin

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a Matlab toolbox for wavefront control of optical systems. We have applied this toolbox to the optical models of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in general and to the JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) in particular, implementing both unconstrained and constrained wavefront optimization to correct for possible misalignments present on the segmented primary mirror or the monolithic secondary mirror. The optical models implemented in Zemax optical design program and information is exchanged between Matlab and Zemax via the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface. The model configuration is managed using the XML protocol. The optimization algorithm uses influence functions for each adjustable degree of freedom of the optical mode. The iterative and non-iterative algorithms have been developed to converge to a local minimum of the root-mean-square (rms) of wavefront error using singular value decomposition technique of the control matrix of influence functions. The toolkit is highly modular and allows the user to choose control strategies for the degrees of freedom to be adjusted on a given iteration and wavefront convergence criterion. As the influence functions are nonlinear over the control parameter space, the toolkit also allows for trade-offs between frequency of updating the local influence functions and execution speed. The functionality of the toolbox and the validity of the underlying algorithms have been verified through extensive simulations.

  11. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  12. Dispersionless Manipulation of Reflected Acoustic Wavefront by Subwavelength Corrugated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Li, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Xue; Tu, Juan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Free controls of optic/acoustic waves for bending, focusing or steering the energy of wavefronts are highly desirable in many practical scenarios. However, the dispersive nature of the existing metamaterials/metasurfaces for wavefront manipulation necessarily results in limited bandwidth. Here, we propose the concept of dispersionless wavefront manipulation and report a theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the design of a reflective surface capable of controlling the acoustic wavefront arbitrarily without bandwidth limitation. Analytical analysis predicts the possibility to completely eliminate the frequency dependence with a specific gradient surface which can be implemented by designing a subwavelength corrugated surface. Experimental and numerical results, well consistent with the theoretical predictions, have validated the proposed scheme by demonstrating a distinct phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic reflection within an ultra-broad band. For acquiring a deeper insight into the underlying physics, a simple physical model is developed which helps to interpret this extraordinary phenomenon and predict the upper cutoff frequency precisely. Generations of planar focusing and non-diffractive beam have also been exemplified. With the dispersionless wave-steering capability and deep discrete resolution, our designed structure may open new avenue to fully steer classical waves and offer design possibilities for broadband optical/acoustical devices. PMID:26077772

  13. Dispersionless Manipulation of Reflected Acoustic Wavefront by Subwavelength Corrugated Surface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Zou, Xin-Ye; Li, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Xue; Tu, Juan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Free controls of optic/acoustic waves for bending, focusing or steering the energy of wavefronts are highly desirable in many practical scenarios. However, the dispersive nature of the existing metamaterials/metasurfaces for wavefront manipulation necessarily results in limited bandwidth. Here, we propose the concept of dispersionless wavefront manipulation and report a theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the design of a reflective surface capable of controlling the acoustic wavefront arbitrarily without bandwidth limitation. Analytical analysis predicts the possibility to completely eliminate the frequency dependence with a specific gradient surface which can be implemented by designing a subwavelength corrugated surface. Experimental and numerical results, well consistent with the theoretical predictions, have validated the proposed scheme by demonstrating a distinct phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic reflection within an ultra-broad band. For acquiring a deeper insight into the underlying physics, a simple physical model is developed which helps to interpret this extraordinary phenomenon and predict the upper cutoff frequency precisely. Generations of planar focusing and non-diffractive beam have also been exemplified. With the dispersionless wave-steering capability and deep discrete resolution, our designed structure may open new avenue to fully steer classical waves and offer design possibilities for broadband optical/acoustical devices. PMID:26077772

  14. Application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to transmissive optic metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammage, Ron R.; Neal, Daniel R.; Copland, Richard J.

    2002-11-01

    Human vision correction optics must be produced in quantity to be economical. At the same time every human eye is unique and requires a custom corrective solution. For this reason the vision industries need fast, versatile and accurate methodologies for characterizing optics for production and research. Current methods for measuring these optics generally yield a cubic spline taken from less than 10 points across the surface of the lens. As corrective optics have grown in complexity this has become inadequate. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is a device that measures phase and irradiance of light in a single snapshot using geometric properties of light. Advantages of the Shack-Hartmann sensor include small size, ruggedness, accuracy, and vibration insensitivity. This paper discusses a methodology for designing instruments based on Shack-Hartmann sensors. The method is then applied to the development of an instrument for accurate measurement of transmissive optics such as gradient bifocal spectacle lenses, progressive addition bifocal lenses, intrarocular devices, contact lenses, and human corneal tissue. In addition, this instrument may be configured to provide hundreds of points across the surface of the lens giving improved spatial resolution. Methods are explored for extending the dynamic range and accuracy to meet the expanding needs of the ophthalmic and optometric industries. Data is presented demonstrating the accuracy and repeatability of this technique for the target optics.

  15. Broadband Phase Retrieval for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2007-01-01

    A focus-diverse phase-retrieval algorithm has been shown to perform adequately for the purpose of image-based wavefront sensing when (1) broadband light (typically spanning the visible spectrum) is used in forming the images by use of an optical system under test and (2) the assumption of monochromaticity is applied to the broadband image data. Heretofore, it had been assumed that in order to obtain adequate performance, it is necessary to use narrowband or monochromatic light. Some background information, including definitions of terms and a brief description of pertinent aspects of image-based phase retrieval, is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the present development. Phase retrieval is a general term used in optics to denote estimation of optical imperfections or aberrations of an optical system under test. The term image-based wavefront sensing refers to a general class of algorithms that recover optical phase information, and phase-retrieval algorithms constitute a subset of this class. In phase retrieval, one utilizes the measured response of the optical system under test to produce a phase estimate. The optical response of the system is defined as the image of a point-source object, which could be a star or a laboratory point source. The phase-retrieval problem is characterized as image-based in the sense that a charge-coupled-device camera, preferably of scientific imaging quality, is used to collect image data where the optical system would normally form an image. In a variant of phase retrieval, denoted phase-diverse phase retrieval [which can include focus-diverse phase retrieval (in which various defocus planes are used)], an additional known aberration (or an equivalent diversity function) is superimposed as an aid in estimating unknown aberrations by use of an image-based wavefront-sensing algorithm. Image-based phase-retrieval differs from such other wavefront-sensing methods, such as interferometry, shearing interferometry, curvature

  16. Integrated Wavefront Correction and Bias Estimation for the High-Contrast Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado

    Just over two decades ago the first planet outside our solar system was found, and thousands more have been discovered since. Nearly all these exoplanets were indirectly detected by sensing changes in their host stars' light. However, exoplanets must be directly imaged to determine their atmospheric compositions and the orbital parameters unavailable from only indirect detections. The main challenge of direct imaging is to observe stellar companions much fainter than the star and at small angular separations. Coronagraphy is one method of suppressing stellar diffraction to provide high star-to-planet contrast, but coronagraphs are extremely sensitive to quasi-static aberrations in the optical system. Active correction of the stellar wavefront is performed with deformable mirrors to recover high-contrast regions in the image. Estimation and control of the stellar electric field is performed iteratively in the camera's focal plane to avoid non-common path aberrations arising from a separate pupil sensor. Estimation can thus be quite time consuming because it requires several high-contrast intensity images per correction iteration. This thesis focuses on efficient focal plane wavefront correction (FPWC) for coronagraphy. Time is a precious commodity for a space telescope, so there is a strong incentive to reduce the total exposure time required for focal plane wavefront estimation. Much of our work emphasizes faster, more robust estimation via Kalman filtering, which optimally combines prior data with new measurements. The other main contribution of this thesis is a paradigm shift in the use of estimation images. Time for FPWC has generally been considered to be lost overhead, but we demonstrate that estimation images can be used for the detection and characterization of exoplanets and disks. These science targets are incoherent with their host stars, so we developed and implemented an iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) for simultaneous estimation of the stellar

  17. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-07-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional subwavelength-grating antireflection coating on an f/1.7 lens surface are shown to be small with noticeable contributions of defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 wave, and the magnitude of the piston approaches one wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 wave of astigmatismlike variation and more than 0.01 wave of retardance-induced defocuslike variation. A small coupling between polarization states occurs in the form of the familiar Maltese cross, yielding a maximum of 3% coupling in the four diagonal edges of the pupil.

  18. Synthetic holography in microscopy: opportunities arising from advanced wavefront shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesacher, Alexander; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computer-generated or synthetic holography has created a wealth of possibilities for wavefront shaping in optics. We discuss the impact this has had on optical microscopy. Synthetic Holographic Microscopy utilises wavefront shaping by a computer-generated 'hologram' (CGH) to modify light on the illumination or the detection side, or both. This enables modifications of the general sample appearance concerning contrast, resolution and other aspects. Multiplexing CGHs can perform several tasks at once, for instance splitting the image into sub-images corresponding to different depths in the sample, or displaying differently contrasted images of the sample, e.g. bright field, darkfield or (spiral) phase contrast, in different sub-images. We give an overview of the options and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using programmable holographic elements inside an optical microscope.

  19. Applications of ultrafast wavefront rotation in highly nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, F.; Vincenti, H.; Borot, A.; Monchocé, S.; Hammond, T. J.; Taec Kim, Kyung; Wheeler, J. A.; Zhang, Chunmei; Ruchon, T.; Auguste, T.; Hergott, J. F.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Lopez-Martens, R.

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultrafast wavefront rotation of femtosecond laser pulses and its various applications in highly nonlinear optics, focusing on processes that lead to the generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses. In this context, wavefront rotation can be exploited in different ways, to obtain new light sources for time-resolved studies, called ‘attosecond lighthouses’, to perform time-resolved measurements of nonlinear optical processes, using ‘photonic streaking’, or to track changes in the carrier-envelope relative phase of femtosecond laser pulses. The basic principles are explained qualitatively from different points of view, the experimental evidence obtained so far is summarized, and the perspectives opened by these effects are discussed.

  20. Terahertz wavefront control by tunable metasurface made of graphene ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yatooshi, Takumi; Ishikawa, Atsushi Tsuruta, Kenji

    2015-08-03

    We propose a tunable metasurface consisting of an array of graphene ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO{sub 2} gap layer to control reflected wavefront at terahertz frequencies. The graphene ribbons exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO{sub 2} layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering the 0-to-2π range for full control of the wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle beam steering up to 53° with a high reflection efficiency of 60% is achieved at 5 THz within a switching time shorter than 0.6 ps.

  1. Scene-based Wave-front Sensing for Remote Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; LaFortune, K; Chan, C

    2003-07-30

    Scene-based wave-front sensing (SBWFS) is a technique that allows an arbitrary scene to be used for wave-front sensing with adaptive optics (AO) instead of the normal point source. This makes AO feasible in a wide range of interesting scenarios. This paper first presents the basic concepts and properties of SBWFS. Then it discusses that application of this technique with AO to remote imaging. For the specific case of correction of a lightweight optic. End-to-end simulation results establish that in this case, SBWFS can perform as well as point-source AO. Design considerations such as noise propagation, number of subapertures and tracking changing image content are analyzed.

  2. Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Jian Wei; Lai, Puxiang; Suzuki, Yuta; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Phase distortions due to scattering in random media restrict optical focusing beyond one transport mean free path. However, scattering can be compensated for by applying a correction to the illumination wavefront using spatial light modulators. One method of obtaining the wavefront correction is by iterative determination using an optimization algorithm. In the past, obtaining a feedback signal required either direct optical access to the target region, or invasive embedding of molecular probes within the random media. Here, we propose using ultrasonically encoded light as feedback to guide the optimization dynamically and non-invasively. In our proof-of-principle demonstration, diffuse light was refocused to the ultrasound focal zone, with a focus-to-background ratio of more than one order of magnitude after 600 iterations. With further improvements, especially in optimization speed, the proposed method should find broad applications in deep tissue optical imaging and therapy. PMID:24472822

  3. Optimization-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Jacopo; van Werkhoven, Tim; Verhaegen, Michel; Truong, Hoa H; Keller, Christoph U; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2014-06-01

    Optical aberrations have detrimental effects in multiphoton microscopy. These effects can be curtailed by implementing model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics, which only requires the addition of a wavefront shaping device, such as a deformable mirror (DM) to an existing microscope. The aberration correction is achieved by maximizing a suitable image quality metric. We implement a model-based aberration correction algorithm in a second-harmonic microscope. The tip, tilt, and defocus aberrations are removed from the basis functions used for the control of the DM, as these aberrations induce distortions in the acquired images. We compute the parameters of a quadratic polynomial that is used to model the image quality metric directly from experimental input-output measurements. Finally, we apply the aberration correction by maximizing the image quality metric using the least-squares estimate of the unknown aberration. PMID:24977374

  4. Wavefront Sensing Using a Multi-Object Spectrograph (NIRSpec)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Boucarut, Rene; Hadjimichael, Theo; Smith, Scott

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is presented that illustrates how the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fine-phasing process can be carried out using the Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) data collected at the science focal plane. The analysis considers a multi-plane diffraction model which properly accounts for the microshutter diffractive element placed at the first relay position of the spectrograph. Wavefront sensing results are presented based on data collected from the NASA Goddard Microshutter Testbed.

  5. An adaptive optic for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C A; Wilhelmsen, J

    1999-09-02

    Adaptive Optics used for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations were tested and compared using interferometry, beam propagation, and a far-field test. Results confirm that the design and manufacturing specifications were met. Experimental data also confirms theoretical performance expectations, indicating the usefulness of these optics (especially in a laser-beam processing system), and identifying the resulting differences between the two fabrication methods used to make the optics.

  6. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  7. Wavefront measurement of space infrared telescopes at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Ryoji; Ezaki, Tatsuhiko; Numao, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent activities on wave-front measurement of space infrared telescopes. Optical performance of the 685-mm lightweight telescope on board the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F, has been evaluated at cryogenic temperatures. The mirrors of the ASTRO-F telescope are made of sandwich-type silicon carbide (SiC) material, comprising porous core and CVD coat of SiC on the surface. The total wavefront errors of the telescope were measured with an interferometer from outside a liquid-helium chamber; a 75-cm reflecting flat mirror was used for auto-collimating the light from the interferometer. The cryogenic deformation of the flat mirror was derived independently by shifting it in the chamber and its contribution to the wavefront error was removed. In addition to the ASTRO-F telescope, we are currently developing a 3.5-m telescope system for SPICA, the next Japanese infrared astronomical satellite project. Details of our methodology for the ASTRO-F telescope, together with our optical test plan for the SPICA telescope, are reported.

  8. Research on technique of wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lvjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2010-05-01

    During finely grinding the best fit sphere and initial stage of polishing, surface error of large aperture aspheric mirrors is too big to test using common interferometer. Foucault test is widely used in fabricating large aperture mirrors. However, the optical path is disturbed seriously by air turbulence, and changes of light and dark zones can not be identified, which often lowers people's judging ability and results in making mistake to diagnose surface error of the whole mirror. To solve the problem, the research presents wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test through digital image processing and quantitative calculation. Firstly, real Foucault image can be gained through collecting a variety of images by CCD, and then average these image to eliminate air turbulence. Secondly, gray values are converted into surface error values through principle derivation, mathematical modeling, and software programming. Thirdly, linear deviation brought by defocus should be removed by least-square method to get real surface error. At last, according to real surface error, plot wavefront map, gray contour map and corresponding pseudo color contour map. The experimental results indicates that the three-dimensional wavefront map and two-dimensional contour map are able to accurately and intuitively show surface error on the whole mirrors under test, and they are beneficial to grasp surface error as a whole. The technique can be used to guide the fabrication of large aperture and long focal mirrors during grinding and initial stage of polishing the aspheric surface, which improves fabricating efficiency and precision greatly.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of the GreenSeeker (TM) hand-held optical sensor to variations in orientation and height above canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Handheld optical sensors recently have been introduced to the agricultural market to simplify acquisition of spectral reflectance data. These handheld sensors are able to provide operators with Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) data when cloud cover prevents acquisition of satellite or ...

  10. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  11. Pyramid wavefront sensing with a laser guide star for an ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Brice

    2010-07-01

    The wavefront sensor [WFS] is a key element of an Adaptive Optics [AO] system. It gives access to a direct measurement of the turbulent phase, its curvature or its slope, from which the mirror voltages are computed. The ability of the system to correct efficiently the atmospheric turbulence is strongly dependent on the performance of the WFS in estimating the turbulent phase. The Shack-Hartmann [SH] WFS has been for a long time the standard used in AO systems. In 1996, it has been proposed1 a new generation WFS, the pyramid WFS. It is a focal plane WFS, based on the principle of a Foucault knife-edge. It has been demonstrated that it provides a consistent gain with respect to the Shack-Hartmann.2,5-7 More recently, improvements were proposed to increase the pyramid performance.3, 4 On the framework of the developpement of extremely large telescopes, the interest of a pyramid wave front sensor appears clearly. But its behaviour with laser guide stars [LGS], most probably necessary in any Extremely Large Telescope [ELT], is still relatively unknown. Some WFS dedicated to LGS wave front sensing has already been proposed8,9 but a full study of the pyramid WFS behaviour is still necessary. This work's aim is to bring answers to this topic.

  12. Probability of the residual wavefront variance of an adaptive optics system and its application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Chao; Deng, Ke; Yao, Zhousi; Xian, Hao; Li, Xinyang

    2016-02-01

    For performance evaluation of an adaptive optics (AO) system, the probability of the system residual wavefront variance can provide more information than the wavefront variance average. By studying the Zernike coefficients of an AO system residual wavefront, we derived the exact expressions for the probability density functions of the wavefront variance and the Strehl ratio, for instantaneous and long-term exposures owing to the insufficient control loop bandwidth of the AO system. Our calculations agree with the residual wavefront data of a closed loop AO system. Using these functions, we investigated the relationship between the AO system bandwidth and the distribution of the residual wavefront variance. Additionally, we analyzed the availability of an AO system for evaluating the AO performance. These results will assist in designing and probabilistic analysis of AO systems. PMID:26906850

  13. Wavefront Control and Image Restoration with Less Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    PseudoDiversity is a method of recovering the wavefront in a sparse- or segmented- aperture optical system typified by an interferometer or a telescope equipped with an adaptive primary mirror consisting of controllably slightly moveable segments. (PseudoDiversity should not be confused with a radio-antenna-arraying method called pseudodiversity.) As in the cases of other wavefront- recovery methods, the streams of wavefront data generated by means of PseudoDiversity are used as feedback signals for controlling electromechanical actuators of the various segments so as to correct wavefront errors and thereby, for example, obtain a clearer, steadier image of a distant object in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. There are numerous potential applications in astronomy, remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft, targeting missiles, sighting military targets, and medical imaging (including microscopy) through such intervening media as cells or water. In comparison with prior wavefront-recovery methods used in adaptive optics, PseudoDiversity involves considerably simpler equipment and procedures and less computation. For PseudoDiversity, there is no need to install separate metrological equipment or to use any optomechanical components beyond those that are already parts of the optical system to which the method is applied. In Pseudo- Diversity, the actuators of a subset of the segments or subapertures are driven to make the segments dither in the piston, tilt, and tip degrees of freedom. Each aperture is dithered at a unique frequency at an amplitude of a half wavelength of light. During the dithering, images on the focal plane are detected and digitized at a rate of at least four samples per dither period. In the processing of the image samples, the use of different dither frequencies makes it possible to determine the separate effects of the various dithered segments or apertures. The digitized image-detector outputs are processed in the spatial

  14. Wavefront Sensing With Switched Lenses for Defocus Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2007-01-01

    In an alternative hardware design for an apparatus used in image-based wavefront sensing, defocus diversity is introduced by means of fixed lenses that are mounted in a filter wheel (see figure) so that they can be alternately switched into a position in front of the focal plane of an electronic camera recording the image formed by the optical system under test. [The terms image-based, wavefront sensing, and defocus diversity are defined in the first of the three immediately preceding articles, Broadband Phase Retrieval for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing (GSC-14899-1).] Each lens in the filter wheel is designed so that the optical effect of placing it at the assigned position is equivalent to the optical effect of translating the camera a specified defocus distance along the optical axis. Heretofore, defocus diversity has been obtained by translating the imaging camera along the optical axis to various defocus positions. Because data must be taken at multiple, accurately measured defocus positions, it is necessary to mount the camera on a precise translation stage that must be calibrated for each defocus position and/or to use an optical encoder for measurement and feedback control of the defocus positions. Additional latency is introduced into the wavefront sensing process as the camera is translated to the various defocus positions. Moreover, if the optical system under test has a large focal length, the required defocus values are large, making it necessary to use a correspondingly bulky translation stage. By eliminating the need for translation of the camera, the alternative design simplifies and accelerates the wavefront-sensing process. This design is cost-effective in that the filterwheel/lens mechanism can be built from commercial catalog components. After initial calibration of the defocus value of each lens, a selected defocus value is introduced by simply rotating the filter wheel to place the corresponding lens in front of the camera. The rotation of the

  15. Efficient ray tracing algorithms based on wavefront construction and model based interpolation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin

    Understanding and modeling seismic wave propagation is important in regional and exploration seismology. Ray tracing is a powerful and popular method for this purpose. Wavefront construction (WFC) method handles wavefronts instead of individual rays, thereby controlling proper ray density on the wavefront. By adaptively controlling rays over a wavefront, it efficiently models wave propagation. Algorithms for a quasi-P wave wavefront construction method and a new coordinate system used to generate wavefront construction mesh are proposed and tested for numerical properties and modeling capabilities. Traveltimes, amplitudes, and other parameters, which can be used for seismic imaging such as migrations and synthetic seismograms, are computed from the wavefront construction method. Modeling with wavefront construction code is applied to anisotropic media as well as isotropic media. Synthetic seismograms are computed using the wavefront construction method as a new way of generating synthetics. To incorporate layered velocity models, the model based interpolation (MBI) ray tracing method, which is designed to take advantage of the wavefront construction method as well as conventional ray tracing methods, is proposed and experimental codes are developed for it. Many wavefront construction codes are limited to smoothed velocity models for handling complicated problems in layered velocity models and the conventional ray tracing methods suffer from the inability to control ray density during wave propagation. By interpolating the wavefront near model boundaries, it is possible to handle the layered velocity model as well as overcome ray density control problems in conventional methods. The test results revealed this new method can be an effective modeling tool for accurate and effective computing.

  16. Volumetric imaging of fast biological dynamics in deep tissue via wavefront engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingjie; Tang, Jianyong; Cui, Meng

    2016-03-01

    To reveal fast biological dynamics in deep tissue, we combine two wavefront engineering methods that were developed in our laboratory, namely optical phase-locked ultrasound lens (OPLUL) based volumetric imaging and iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique (IMPACT). OPLUL is used to generate oscillating defocusing wavefront for fast axial scanning, and IMPACT is used to compensate the wavefront distortions for deep tissue imaging. We show its promising applications in neuroscience and immunology.

  17. On-Sky Demonstration of Low-Order Wavefront Sensing and Control with Focal Plane Phase Mask Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    The ability to characterize exoplanets by spectroscopy of their atmospheres requires direct imaging techniques to isolate planet signal from the bright stellar glare. One of the limitations with the direct detection of exoplanets, either with ground- or space-based coronagraphs, is pointing errors and other low-order wavefront aberrations. The coronagraphic detection sensitivity at the diffraction limit therefore depends on how well low-order aberrations upstream of the focal plane mask are corrected. To prevent starlight leakage at the inner working angle of a phase mask coronagraph, we have introduced a Lyot-based low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS), which senses aberrations using the rejected starlight diffracted at the Lyot plane. In this article, we present the implementation, testing, and results of LLOWFS on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system (SCExAO) at the Subaru Telescope. We have controlled 35 Zernike modes of a H-band vector vortex coronagraph in the laboratory and 10 Zernike modes on-sky with an integrator control law. We demonstrated a closed-loop pointing residual of 0.02 mas in the laboratory and 0.15 mas on-sky for data sampled using the minimal 2-s exposure time of the science camera. We have also integrated the LLOWFS in the visible high-order control loop of SCExAO, which in closed-loop operation has validated the correction of the noncommon path pointing errors between the infrared science channel and the visible wavefront sensing channel with pointing residual of 0.23 mas on-sky.

  18. Characterization of OCam and CCD220: the fastest and most sensitive camera to date for AO wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz-Garcia, José Javier

    2010-07-01

    For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240×240-pixel frame rate. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON2 have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240×240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This paper demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCam2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCam2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCam2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism.

  19. Determination of the focal length of microlens array by spherical wavefronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Marimuthu Senthil; Sharma, Rahul; Narayanamurthy, Chittur Subramanian; Kumar, Alur Seelin Kiran

    2014-06-01

    We propose an experimental method consisting of a standard Fizeau interferometer with transmission sphere (TS) for the determination of the focal length of microlens array (MLA) by spherical wavefronts. The TS is axially translated to produce a spherical wavefront of different curvatures with respect to the MLA. The align mode provision of the interferometer helps to monitor the tilt of the MLA with respect to the spherical wavefront. The focal length is determined from the measured distance of adjacent image spots for various spherical wavefronts at the focal plane of the MLA. Error analysis and experimental demonstration with an off-the-shelf MLA are addressed here.

  20. Statistical signal processing in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerriero, Marco

    In this dissertation we focus on decentralized signal processing in Sensor Networks (SN). Four topics are studied: (i) Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation using a Wireless Sensor network (WSN), (ii) multiple target tracking in large SN, (iii) decentralized target detection in SN and (iv) decentralized sequential detection in SN with communication constraints. The first topic of this thesis addresses the problem of estimating the DOA of an acoustic wavefront using a a WSN made of isotropic (hence individually useless) sensors. The WSN was designed according to the SENMA (SEnsor Network with Mobile Agents) architecture with a mobile agent (MA) that successively queries the sensors lying inside its field of view. We propose both fast/simple and optimal DOA-estimation schemes, and an optimization of the MAs observation management is also carried out, with the surprising finding that the MA ought to orient itself at an oblique angle to the expected DOA, rather than directly toward it. We also consider the extension to multiple sources; intriguingly, per-source DOA accuracy is higher when there is more than one source. In all cases, performance is investigated by simulation and compared, when appropriate, with asymptotic bounds; these latter are usually met after a moderate number of MA dwells. In the second topic, we study the problem of tracking multiple targets in large SN. While these networks hold significant potential for surveillance, it is of interest to address fundamental limitations in large-scale implementations. We first introduce a simple analytical tracker performance model. Analysis of this model suggests that scan-based tracking performance improves with increasing numbers of sensors, but only to a certain point beyond which degradation is observed. Correspondingly, we address model-based optimization of the local sensor detection threshold and the number of sensors. Next, we propose a two-stage tracking approach (fuse-before-track) as a possible

  1. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Janata, J.; Josowicz, M.; DeVaney, D.M. )

    1994-06-15

    This review of chemical sensors contains the following topics of interest: books and reviews; reviews of sensors by their type; fabrication and selectivity; data processing; thermal sensors; mass sensors (fabrication, gas sensors, and liquid sensors); electrochemical sensors (potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, and conductometric sensors); and optical sensors (fabrication, liquid sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors). 795 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Curvature sensors: noise and its propagation.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2010-11-01

    The signal measured with a curvature sensor is analyzed. At the outset, we derive the required minimum number of sensing elements at the pupil edges, depending on the total number of sensing elements. The distribution of the sensor signal is further characterized in terms of its mean, variance, kurtosis, and skewness. It is established that while the approximation in terms of a Gaussian distribution is correct down to fairly low photon numbers, much higher numbers are required to obtain meaningful sensor measurements for small wavefront distortions. Finally, we indicate a closed expression for the error propagation factor and for the photon-noise-induced Strehl loss. PMID:21045888

  3. Simulation of electrowetting lens and prism arrays for wavefront compensation.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Juliet T; Bright, Victor M; Cogswell, Carol C; Niederriter, Robert D; Watson, Alexander; Zahreddine, Ramzi; Cormack, Robert H

    2012-09-20

    A novel application of electrowetting devices has been simulated: wavefront correction using an array of electrowetting lenses and prisms. Five waves of distortion can be corrected with Strehl ratios of 0.9 or higher, utilizing piston, tip-tilt, and curvature corrections from arrays of 19 elements and fill factors as low as 40%. Effective control of piston can be achieved by placing the liquid lens array at the focus of two microlens arrays. Seven waves of piston delay can be generated with variation in focal length between 1.5 and 500 mm. PMID:23033033

  4. Lateral shearing interferometry of high-harmonic wavefronts.

    PubMed

    Austin, Dane R; Witting, Tobias; Arrell, Christopher A; Frank, Felix; Wyatt, Adam S; Marangos, Jon P; Tisch, John W G; Walmsley, Ian A

    2011-05-15

    We present a technique for frequency-resolved wavefront characterization of high harmonics based on lateral shearing interferometry. Tilted replicas of the driving laser pulse are produced by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, producing separate focii in the target. The interference of the resulting harmonics on a flat-field extreme ultraviolet spectrometer yields the spatial phase derivative. A comprehensive set of spatial profiles, resolved by harmonic order, validate the technique and reveal the interplay of single-atom and macroscopic effects. PMID:21593877

  5. Managing the wavefront for exoplanet imaging with a space coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Gordon, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We update the designs, demonstrations, and science prospects for the direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanetary systems with the hybrid Lyot coronagraph. We compare model predictions for exoplanet science performance with the flagship AFTA/WFIRST mission and dedicated smaller-class space observatories. Together with a pair of deformable mirrors for optical wavefront control, the hybrid Lyot coronagraph creates high contrast dark fields of view extending to within angular separations of 2.5 lambda/D from the central star at visible wavelengths. Performance metrics and design trades are presented, including image contrast, spectral bandwidth, overall efficiency and throughput, and model-validating laboratory demonstrations.

  6. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  7. Wavefront-Guided Scleral Lens Correction in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Marsack, Jason D.; Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Nguyen, Chi; Ticak, Anita; Koenig, Darren E.; Elswick, James D.; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the performance of state-of-the-art wavefront-guided scleral contact lenses (wfgSCLs) on a sample of keratoconic eyes, with emphasis on performance quantified with visual quality metrics; and to provide a detailed discussion of the process used to design, manufacture and evaluate wfgSCLs. Methods Fourteen eyes of 7 subjects with keratoconus were enrolled and a wfgSCL was designed for each eye. High-contrast visual acuity and visual quality metrics were used to assess the on-eye performance of the lenses. Results The wfgSCL provided statistically lower levels of both lower-order RMS (p < 0.001) and higher-order RMS (p < 0.02) than an intermediate spherical equivalent scleral contact lens. The wfgSCL provided lower levels of lower-order RMS than a normal group of well-corrected observers (p < < 0.001). However, the wfgSCL does not provide less higher-order RMS than the normal group (p = 0.41). Of the 14 eyes studied, 10 successfully reached the exit criteria, achieving residual higher-order root mean square wavefront error (HORMS) less than or within 1 SD of the levels experienced by normal, age-matched subjects. In addition, measures of visual image quality (logVSX, logNS and logLIB) for the 10 eyes were well distributed within the range of values seen in normal eyes. However, visual performance as measured by high contrast acuity did not reach normal, age-matched levels, which is in agreement with prior results associated with the acute application of wavefront correction to KC eyes. Conclusions Wavefront-guided scleral contact lenses are capable of optically compensating for the deleterious effects of higher-order aberration concomitant with the disease, and can provide visual image quality equivalent to that seen in normal eyes. Longer duration studies are needed to assess whether the visual system of the highly aberrated eye wearing a wfgSCL is capable of producing visual performance levels typical of the normal population. PMID:24830371

  8. Wavefront reversal technique for self-referencing collimation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hii, King Ung; Kwek, Kuan Hiang

    2010-02-01

    We present a wavefront reversal technique to produce a dual-field fringe pattern for self-referencing collimation testing in wedge-plate lateral-shear interferometry. The method requires only a suitably placed cubic beam splitter to produce two replicas of the fringe field formed by the wedge-plate lateral-shear interferometer. One of the replicas has a fringe pattern that is the reverse of the other. With these two fringe fields, the collimation testing has a built-in reference, and the detection sensitivity is twice that of a single-wedge-plate technique.

  9. Towards feasible and effective predictive wavefront control for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2008-06-04

    We have recently proposed Predictive Fourier Control, a computationally efficient and adaptive algorithm for predictive wavefront control that assumes frozen flow turbulence. We summarize refinements to the state-space model that allow operation with arbitrary computational delays and reduce the computational cost of solving for new control. We present initial atmospheric characterization using observations with Gemini North's Altair AO system. These observations, taken over 1 year, indicate that frozen flow is exists, contains substantial power, and is strongly detected 94% of the time.

  10. A procedure for accurate calibration of the orientation of the three sensors in a vector magnetometer. [at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for the calibration of a vector magnetometer of high absolute accuracy. It is assumed that the calibration will be performed in the magnetic test facility of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The first main section of the report describes the test equipment and facility calibrations required. The second presents procedures for calibrating individual sensors. The third discusses the calibration of the sensor assembly. In a final section recommendations are made to GSFC for modification of the test facility required to carry out the calibration procedures.

  11. Study of preferred orientation of zinc oxide films on the 64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3} substrates and their applications as liquid sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, S.-J.; Chu, S.-Y.; Huang, T.-Y.; Water, Walter

    2004-11-01

    The preferred (002) orientation of zinc oxide (ZnO) films has been grown and demonstrated on 64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3} substrates using a rf magnetron sputtering system. The film orientations and crystallinity are strongly dependent on the rf power, total chamber pressure, ratio of argon to oxygen, and substrate temperature. We investigated the crystalline structure of the films by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Highly oriented (002) films were obtained under a total chamber pressure of 1.33 Pa, containing 40% oxygen and 60% argon, and a substrate temperature around 120 deg. C. Love-wave devices based on this structure (ZnO/IDTs/64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3}) are presented.

  12. Military target task performance after wavefront-guided (WFG) and wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Tana; Deaver, Dawne; Howell, Christopher; Moyer, Steve; Nguyen, Oanh; Mueller, Greg; Ryan, Denise; Sia, Rose K.; Stutzman, Richard; Pasternak, Joseph; Bower, Kraig

    2014-06-01

    Major decisions regarding life and death are routinely made on the modern battlefield, where visual function of the individual soldier can be of critical importance in the decision-making process. Glasses in the combat environment have considerable disadvantages: degradation of short term visual performance can occur as dust and sweat accumulate on lenses during a mission or patrol; long term visual performance can diminish as lenses become increasingly scratched and pitted; during periods of intense physical trauma, glasses can be knocked off the soldier's face and lost or broken. Although refractive surgery offers certain benefits on the battlefield when compared to wearing glasses, it is not without potential disadvantages. As a byproduct of refractive surgery, elevated optical aberrations can be induced, causing decreases in contrast sensitivity and increases in the symptoms of glare, halos, and starbursts. Typically, these symptoms occur under low light level conditions, the same conditions under which most military operations are initiated. With the advent of wavefront aberrometry, we are now seeing correction not only of myopia and astigmatism but of other, smaller optical aberrations that can cause the above symptoms. In collaboration with the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program and Research Center (WRESP-RC) at Fort Belvoir and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC), the overall objective of this study is to determine the impact of wavefront guided (WFG) versus wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on military task visual performance. Psychophysical perception testing was conducted before and after surgery to measure each participant's performance regarding target detection and identification using thermal imagery. The results are presented here.

  13. Anti-aliasing Wiener filtering for wave-front reconstruction in the spatial-frequency domain for high-order astronomical adaptive-optics systems.

    PubMed

    Correia, Carlos M; Teixeira, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Computationally efficient wave-front reconstruction techniques for astronomical adaptive-optics (AO) systems have seen great development in the past decade. Algorithms developed in the spatial-frequency (Fourier) domain have gathered much attention, especially for high-contrast imaging systems. In this paper we present the Wiener filter (resulting in the maximization of the Strehl ratio) and further develop formulae for the anti-aliasing (AA) Wiener filter that optimally takes into account high-order wave-front terms folded in-band during the sensing (i.e., discrete sampling) process. We employ a continuous spatial-frequency representation for the forward measurement operators and derive the Wiener filter when aliasing is explicitly taken into account. We further investigate and compare to classical estimates using least-squares filters the reconstructed wave-front, measurement noise, and aliasing propagation coefficients as a function of the system order. Regarding high-contrast systems, we provide achievable performance results as a function of an ensemble of forward models for the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (using sparse and nonsparse representations) and compute point-spread-function raw intensities. We find that for a 32×32 single-conjugated AOs system the aliasing propagation coefficient is roughly 60% of the least-squares filters, whereas the noise propagation is around 80%. Contrast improvements of factors of up to 2 are achievable across the field in the H band. For current and next-generation high-contrast imagers, despite better aliasing mitigation, AA Wiener filtering cannot be used as a standalone method and must therefore be used in combination with optical spatial filters deployed before image formation actually takes place. PMID:25606767

  14. Two-dimension lateral shearing interferometry for microscope objective wavefront metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Xing, Tingwen; Jiang, Yadong; Lv, Baobin; Xu, Fuchao

    2014-11-01

    Lateral shearing interferometry was an attractive technique to measure the wavefront aberration of high numerical aperture microscope objective lens. A two-dimension lateral shearing interferometer based on chessboard grating was designed for microscope objective wavefront metrology. By positioning the chessboard grating at the Talbot distance of the objective focal plane, the wavefront was divided and sheared in two-dimension. By applying two-dimensional Fourier transform method and differential Zernike polynomial fitting, Zernike coefficients of the wavefront were obtained. A 10x, NA0.25 microscope objective was measured at 632.8nm wavelength, the results showed that the wavefront of the objective was 0.755λ PV, 0.172λ RMS, the repeatability(3σ) of RMS at random grating position was 2.3mλ, the repeatability(3σ) of Z5 to Z36 at random grating position were better than 17mλ.

  15. Adaptive optics two photon microscopy with direct wavefront sensing using autofluorescent guide-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Norton, Andrew; Kissel, Matthew; Azucena, Oscar; Kubby, Joel

    2014-03-01

    A fast direct wavefront sensing method for dynamic in-vivo adaptive optical two photon microscopy has demonstrated. By using the direct wavefront sensing and open loop control, the system provides high-speed wavefront measurement and correction. To measure the wavefront in the middle of a Drosophila embryo at early stages, autofluorescence from endogenous fluorophores in the yolk were used as reference guide-stars. This method does not rely on fluorescently labeled proteins as guide-stars, which can simplify the sample preparation for wavefront measurement. The method was tested through live imaging of a Drosophila embryo. The aberration in the middle of the embryo was measured directly for the first time. After correction, both contrast and signal intensity of the structure in the middle of the embryo was improved.

  16. Wavefront-error evaluation by mathematical analysis of experimental Foucault-test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The diffraction theory of the Foucault test provides an integral formula expressing the complex amplitude and irradiance distribution in the Foucault pattern of a test mirror (lens) as a function of wavefront error. Recent literature presents methods of inverting this formula to express wavefront error in terms of irradiance in the Foucault pattern. The present paper describes a study in which the inversion formulation was applied to photometric Foucault-test measurements on a nearly diffraction-limited mirror to determine wavefront errors for direct comparison with ones determined from scatter-plate interferometer measurements. The results affirm the practicability of the Foucault test for quantitative wavefront analysis of very small errors, and they reveal the fallacy of the prevalent belief that the test is limited to qualitative use only. Implications of the results with regard to optical testing and the potential use of the Foucault test for wavefront analysis in orbital space telescopes are discussed.

  17. Improved zonal wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Hartmann type test with arbitrary grid patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengyang; Li, Dahai; Zhang, Chen; E, Kewei; Hong, Zhihan; Li, Chengxu

    2015-08-01

    Zonal wavefront reconstruction by use of the well known Southwell algorithm with rectangular grid patterns has been considered in the literature. However, when the grid patterns are nonrectangular, modal wavefront reconstruction has been extensively used. We propose an improved zonal wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Hartmann type test with arbitrary grid patterns. We develop the mathematical expressions to show that the wavefront over arbitrary grid patterns, such as misaligned, partly obscured, and non-square mesh grids, can be estimated well. Both iterative solution and least-square solution for the proposed algorithm are described and compared. Numerical calculation shows that the zonal wavefront reconstruction over nonrectangular profile with the proposed algorithm results in a significant improvement in comparison with the Southwell algorithm.

  18. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology. PMID:26134791

  19. Wavefront construction Kirchhoff migration with ray-amplitude corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, Michael C.; Hildebrand, S. T.; Huang, L.; Alde, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Kirchhoff migration using ray tracing travel times has been a popular imaging method for many years. There are significant limitations in the ability of Kirchhoff migration using only first arrivals to reliably image regions of complex structure. Thus, new methods for imaging have been sought. One approach for improving imaging capability is to use ray tracing methods that allow the calculation of multiple-valued travel time tables to be used in migration. Additional improvements in ray-based imaging methods may be obtained by including amplitudes and phases of rays calculated using some ray tracing approach. One approach for calculating multiple-valued travel time tables along with estimates of amplitudes and phases is the use of wavefront construction ray tracing. We introduce our wavefront construction-based migration algorithm and present some example images obtained using the method. We compare the images obtained with those obtained using a dual-domain wave-equation migration method that we call Extended Local Rytov Fourier migration method.

  20. Wavefront shaping based on three-dimensional optoacoustic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Estrada, Héctor; Ozbek, Ali; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Wavefront shaping techniques have recently evolved as a promising tool to control the light distribution in optically-scattering media. These techniques are based on spatially-modulating the phase of an incident light beam to create positive interference (focusing) at specific locations in the speckle pattern of the scattered wavefield. The optimum phase distribution (mask) of the spatial light modulator that allows focusing at the target location(s) is determined iteratively by monitoring the light intensity at such target. In this regard, optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging may provide the convenient advantage of simultaneous feedback information on light distribution in an entire region of interest. Herein, we showcase that volumetric optoacoustic images can effectively be used as a feedback mechanism in an iterative optimization algorithm allowing controlling the light distribution after propagation through a scattering sample. Experiments performed with absorbing microparticles distributed in a three-dimensional region showcase the feasibility of enhancing the light intensity at specific points. The advantages provided by optoacoustic imaging in terms of spatial and temporal resolution anticipate new capabilities of wavefront shaping techniques in biomedical optics.