Science.gov

Sample records for original layered structure

  1. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-01-01

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM. PMID:26656721

  2. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-01-01

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM. PMID:26656721

  3. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-01

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  4. Origins of Igneous Layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Bruce

    Anyone who has ever seen a photo of a layered intrusion, let alone visited one first hand, or even seen a thin section from one, cannot help but be impressed by the stunning record of crystal growth and deposition. Such bodies stand as majestic monuments of undeniable evidence that intricate magmatic processes exist, processes that couple crystallization, convection, and crystal sorting to form rocks so highly ordered and beautiful that they are a wonder to behold. These are the altars to which petrologists must carry their conceived petrologic processes for approval.Although significant in number, the best layered intrusions seem to be found almost always in remote places. Their names, Bushveld, Muskox, Kiglapait, Stillwater, Duke Island, Skaergaard, Rhum, ring through igneous petrology almost as historic military battles (Saratoga, Antietam, Bull Run, Manassas, Gettysburg) do through American history. People who have worked on such bodies are almost folk heros: Wager, Deer, Brown, Jackson, Hess, Irvine, McBirney, Morse; these names are petrologic household words. Yet with all this fanfare and reverence, layered instrusions are nearly thought of as period pieces, extreme examples of what can happen, but not generally what does. This is now all changing with the increasing realization that these bodies are perhaps highly representative of all magmatic bodies. They are simply more dynamically complete, containing more of the full range of interactions, and of course, exposing a more complete record. They are one end of a spectrum containing lava flows, lava lakes, large sills, plutons, and layered intrusions. This book uniquely covers this range with an abundance of first-hand field observations and a good dose of process conceptualization, magma physics, and crystal growth kinetics.

  5. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  6. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  7. Origins and implications of soil layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.; Lorz, Carsten

    2008-08-01

    Layering is common in soils, due to a variety of pedologic and geologic processes, and has important consequences for the interpretation of soils and landscapes. Layering can derive from original sedimentary layering; depositional upbuilding; episodic surface erosion, deposition, and stability; soil production by weathering; vertical or lateral translocation; bioturbation; and various combinations of these. Complex and polygenetic models incorporate both geogenic and pedogenic processes, and allow for physical and biological processes, as well as both vertical and horizontal movements. We review these conceptual frameworks and synthesize them into a vertical contrast model (VCM) for interpreting layered surficial materials. The VCM incorporates a variety of geologic and pedologic processes which may create, destroy, enhance, or obscure vertical contrasts. The model is illustrated via application to sites in the Ouachita Mountains, USA, and northwest Saxonian Lowlands, Germany. The examples illustrate the importance of a comprehensive pedogeomorphic interpretation of layering, since neither standard stratigraphic or top-down pedogenetic principles necessarily apply. The examples also show that the same process can, sometimes contemporaneously, both create and destroy vertical contrasts.

  8. Origin of the dielectric dead layer in nanoscale capacitors.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Massimiliano; Spaldin, Nicola A

    2006-10-12

    Capacitors are a mainstay of electronic integrated circuits and devices, where they perform essential functions such as storing electrical charge, and blocking direct current while allowing alternating currents to propagate. Because they are often the largest components in circuits, extensive efforts are directed at reducing their size through the use of high-permittivity insulators such as perovskite-structure SrTiO3 (refs 1, 2), which should provide more capacitance per unit area of device. Unfortunately, most experiments on thin-film SrTiO3 capacitors have yielded capacitance values that are orders of magnitude smaller than expected. The microscopic origin of this reduced capacitance, which is often discussed in terms of a low-permittivity interfacial 'dead layer', is not well understood. Whether such a dead layer exists at all, and if so, whether it is an intrinsic property of an ideal metal-insulator interface or a result of processing issues such as defects and strains, are controversial questions. Here we present fully ab initio calculations of the dielectric properties of realistic SrRuO3/SrTiO3/SrRuO3 nanocapacitors, and show that the observed dramatic capacitance reduction is indeed an intrinsic effect. We demonstrate the existence of a dielectric dead layer by calculating the dielectric profile across the interface and analyse its origin by extracting the ionic and electronic contributions to the electrostatic screening. We establish a correspondence between the dead layer and the hardening of the collective SrTiO3 zone-centre polar modes, and determine the influence of the electrode by repeating our calculations for Pt/SrTiO3/Pt capacitors. Our results provide practical guidelines for minimizing the deleterious effects of the dielectric dead layer in nanoscale devices. PMID:17036000

  9. Bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials: layered structures meet photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received more and more interest as promising photocatalysts because their unique layered structures endow them with fascinating physicochemical properties; thus, they have great potential photocatalytic applications for environment remediation and energy harvesting. In this article, we explore the synthesis strategies and growth mechanisms of layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials, and propose design principles of tailoring a layered configuration to control the nanoarchitectures for high efficient photocatalysis. Subsequently, we focus on their layered structure dependent properties, including pH-related crystal facet exposure and phase transformation, facet-dependent photoactivity and molecular oxygen activation pathways, so as to clarify the origin of the layered structure dependent photoreactivity. Furthermore, we summarize various strategies for modulating the composition and arrangement of layered structures to enhance the photoactivity of nanostructured bismuth oxyhalides via internal electric field tuning, dehalogenation effect, surface functionalization, doping, plasmon modification, and heterojunction construction, which may offer efficient guidance for the design and construction of high-performance bismuth oxyhalide-based photocatalysis systems. Finally, we highlight some crucial issues in engineering the layered-structure mediated properties of bismuth oxyhalide photocatalysts and provide tentative suggestions for future research on increasing their photocatalytic performance.

  10. Structural Origin of Overcharge-Induced Thermal Instability of Ni-Containing Layered-Cathodes for High-Energy-Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Nam, K.-W.; Wang, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zheng, J.-C.; Yang, X.-Q.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-08-04

    Using a combination of time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and first principles calculations, we explore the structural origin of the overcharge induced thermal instability of two cathode materials, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} and LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}, which exhibit significant difference in thermal stabilities. Detailed TEM analysis reveals, for the first time, a complex core-shell-surface structure of the particles in both materials that was not previously detected by XRD. Structural comparison indicates that the overcharged Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} (x < 0.15) particles consist of a rhombohedral core, a spinel shell, and a rock-salt structure at the surface, while the overcharged Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} consists of a similar core-shell-surface structure but a very different CdI{sub 2}-type surface structure. The thermal instability of Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} can be attributed to the release of oxygen because of the rapid growth of the rock-salt-type structure on the surface during heating. In contrast, the CdI{sub 2}-type surface structure of the overcharged Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} particles delays the oxygen-release reaction to a much higher temperature resulting in better stability. These results gave deep insight into the relationship between the local structural changes and the thermal stability of cathode materials, which is vital to the development of new cathode materials for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Planetary Origin Evolution and Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This wide-ranging grant supported theoretical modeling on many aspects of the formation, evolution and structure of planets and satellites. Many topics were studied during this grant period, including the evolution of icy bodies; the origin of magnetic fields in Ganymede; the thermal histories of terrestrial planets; the nature of flow inside giant planets (especially the coupling to the magnetic field) and the dynamics of silicate/iron mixing during giant impacts and terrestrial planet core formation. Many of these activities are ongoing and have not reached completion. This is the nature of this kind of research.

  12. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2011-02-22

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of ?= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d(14) = -1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d(14) due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, ?-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (C(?)? e(2.5) (?)), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of ?-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22 for ?= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d(14)? e(2.4) (?)). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the ?-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, ?-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein. PMID:23335872

  13. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of ?= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d14 = ?1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d14 due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, ?-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (C?? e2.5 ?), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of ?-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22 for ?= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d14? e2.4 ?). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the ?-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, ?-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein. PMID:23335872

  14. Layered tektites - A multiple impact origin for the Australasian tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    1991-02-01

    The mechanisms proposed for the origin of tektites from the Australasian field are examined using neutron activation data for twenty layered tektites and six splash tektites of known and widely separated sites of a field greater than 1140 km in length. Evidence is presented indicating that the layered tektites formed as sheets or pools of melt. It is argued that their distribution across a field greater than 1140 km in length is inconsistent with their formation in a single crater, and that many impact craters are required to account for their distribution across such a large field.

  15. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  16. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  17. The origin of rhythmic layering in the Cape Neddick Plutonic Complex, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Cape Neddick Plutonic Complex located along the southwestern coast of Maine is a small layered gabbroic body. It contains four concentric gabbros of differing composition, From the center to the exterior these are Cortlandtitic, Anorthositic, Normal, and Pegmatitic gabbros. They vary slightly in the proportion of essential minerals; plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, and biotite [+-] opaques and olivine. Rhythmic layering is seen in all four gabbros. This layering is also concentric around the center of the complex. The best exposure of the layering is along the coast where non-graded and graded rhythmic layering is seen extensively in the Normal gabbro. Only non-graded layering is seen in the Anorthositic gabbro. Non-graded layers were sampled at two localities. One locality is on Cape Nubble Island in the Normal gabbro. The second locality is in the Anorthositic gabbro along the northern coast. The layers are roughly 5--8 cm in width and are continuous around the complex. They are identified on weathered surfaces as alternating bands of felsic and mafic minerals. Layers are not obvious in hand sample. Approximately 15--20 layers were sampled perpendicular to layering. Petrographic and geochemical studies will help constrain the origin of rhythmic layering in the Cape Neddick Complex. Crystal settling or structural processes seem highly unlikely due to the small distance between the layers and the fact that they are not graded. Possible models include multiple pulses of magma within the same magma chamber, density currents, or in situ fractionation by a nucleation-diffusion process. Modal and chemical analysis of mineral phases within individual layers will allow comparison of the bulk composition of each layer. Analysis of coexisting pyroxene and plagioclase can be used to estimate compositional variations in the parent liquid.

  18. Radiative Impacts of Elevated Aerosol Layers from Different Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Heimerl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are omnipresent in the Earth's atmosphere and have important impacts on weather and climate by their effects on the atmospheric radiative balance. With the advent of more and more sophisticated representations of atmospheric processes in earth system models, the lack of reliable input data on aerosols leads to significant uncertainties in the prediction of future climate scenarios. In recent years large discrepancies in radiative forcing estimates from aerosol layers in modeling studies have been revealed emphasizing the need for detailed and systematic observations of aerosols. Airborne in-situ measurements represent an important pillar for validating both model results and retrievals of aerosol distributions and properties from remote sensing methods on global scales. However, detailed observations are challenging and therefore are subject to substantial uncertainties themselves. Here we use data from airborne in-situ measurements of elevated aerosol layers from various field experiments in different regions of the world. The data set includes Saharan mineral dust layers over Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean from the SALTRACE and the SAMUM campaigns as well as long-range transported biomass burning aerosol layers from wild fires in the Sahel region and North America measured over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Europe and the Arctic detected during SAMUM2, CONCERT2011, DC3 and ACCESS 2012. We aim to characterize the effects of the measured aerosol layers, in particular with respect to ageing, mixing state and vertical structure, on the overall atmospheric radiation budget as well as local heating and cooling rates. We use radiative transfer simulations of short and long-wave radiation and aerosol optical properties derived in a consistent way from the in-situ observations of microphysical properties using T-matrix calculations. The results of this characterization will help to improve the parameterization of the effects of elevated aerosol layers in earth system models. In addition, we assess uncertainties in radiative forcing estimates introduced by uncertainties in the measured aerosol properties.

  19. Understanding the Origin of Enhanced Performances in Core-Shell and Concentration-Gradient Layered Oxide Cathode Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Dawei; Hou, Peiyu; Wang, Xiaoqing; Shi, Xixi; Zhang, Lianqi

    2015-06-17

    Core-shell and concentration-gradient layered oxide cathode materials deliver superior electrochemical properties such as long cycle life and outstanding thermal stability. However, the origin of enhanced performance is not clear and seldom investigated until now. Here, a specific structured layered oxide (LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2) consisting of concentration-gradient core, transition layer, and stable outer shell, is designed and achieved from double-shelled precursors to overcome the great challenge by comparison with the normal layered LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2. As expected, the specific structured layered oxide displays excellent cycle life and thermal stability. After numerous cycles, the valence state of Ni and Co at normal layered oxide surface tends to a higher oxidation state than that of the specific structured oxide, and the spinel phase is observed on particle surface of normal layered oxide. Also, the deficient spinel/layered mixed phases lead to high surface film and charge-transfer resistance for normal layered oxide, whereas the specific structured one still remains a layered structure. Those results first illustrate the origin of improved electrochemical performance of layered core-shell and concentration-gradient cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26017733

  20. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with cystic structures of sweat duct origin.

    PubMed

    Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Semoglou, Christos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Karkavelas, Georgios

    2007-08-01

    Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is an unusual soft tissue tumor, mostly arising in the subcutaneous fibro-adipose tissue of children and young adults and measuring a few centimeters in greatest dimension. Reported herein is a unique case of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma containing epithelium-lined cystic structures. This large tumor (12 cm) was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the left leg of a 28-year-old woman. The cystic structures were variably sized and were lined by a double cell layer with areas of squamous metaplasia. Their overall histological features suggested a sweat duct origin. Immunohistochemical stains confirmed such origin, demonstrating an inner epithelial and an outer myoepithelial (smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 17 positive) cell layer. The present case is illustrative of a mechanism of sweat duct dilatation that may occur during the growth of neoplasms involving the dermis and subcutis, resulting in formation of tumors with unusual histological features. PMID:17610476

  1. Water Content and Deformation Microstructure of Layered Panzhihua Gabbro: Implications for the Origin of Rhythmic Layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, F.; Wang, Z.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Panzhihua, Hongge and Baima mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions host three giant Fe-Ti oxide deposites in the Pangzhihua-Xichang (Panxi) region, SW China. Various proportions of silicates (plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine), ilmenite and magnitite form rhythmic layering in the upper part of the intrusions. The origin of rhythmic layering in mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions has been debated for a long time in the literatures. Here we provide detailed FTIR and EBSD studies on the water content and deformation microstructure of gabbros from the Panzhihua intrusion. The FTIR analyses revealed a significant amount of hydroxyls in both clinopyroxene (411-775 ppm) and plagioclase (328-716 ppm), suggesting a high water content mantle plume source. The EBSD analyses show: 1) a weak clinopyroxene fabric of (100) parallel to foliation and [001] parallel to lineation; 2) a strong plagioclase fabric of (010) parallel to foliation and [100] parallel to lineation; 3) a weak ilmenite fabric of (001) parallel to foliation and [hk0] parallel to lieantion; 4) a near random magnitite fabric. These results suggest weak plagioclase is the main strain accommedation phase in lower crustal rocks under hydrous conditions, which is also consistent with previous deformation experiments on plagioclase and clinoproxene. Water plays an important role in deteriming the rheology contrast between plagioclase and clinoproxene. Our results revealed strong layer-parallel shearing deformation during the formation of the Panxi layered intrusions. We propose that the formation of the rhythmic layering is mainly caused by rheological stratification rather than chemical stratification of Fe-Ti oxides and gabbros.

  2. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, J. E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2 dimensional particle in cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double layer electric field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic field alignment. The numerical simulations of spatially periodic two dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron beam excited electrostatic electron cyclotron waves and (ion beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers.

  3. Two layer structure for reinforcing pothole repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Yuan, Kuo-Yao; Zou, Linhua; Yang, Jenn-Ming; Ju, Jiann-Wen; Kao, Wei; Carlson, Larry

    2013-04-01

    We have applied dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) resin for reinforcing pothole patch materials due to its unique properties - low cost, low viscosity at beginning and ultra-toughness after curing, chemical compatibility with tar, tunable curing profile through catalyst design. In this paper, we have designed a two layer structure - well compacted base layer and DCPD reinforced 1-1.5" top layer - for pothole repair. By choosing two graded asphalt mixes, a porous top layer and fully compacted base layer was prepared after compaction and ready for DCPD resin infiltration. The DCPD curing and infiltration profile within this porous top layer was measured with thermocouples. The rutting resistance was tested with home-made wheel rutter. The cage effect due to the p-DCPD wrapping was characterized with wheel penetration test. The results showed that this two layer structure pothole repair has greatly improved properties and can be used for pothole repair to increase the service life.

  4. The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen Kern

    1991-01-01

    The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

  5. Structure of the low latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.

  6. Structure and origin of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.; Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    There is strong evidence that a comet nucleus consists of a single object whose basic structure is Whipple's icy conglomerate. A number of cometary phenomena indicate that the nucleus is a low density, fragile object with a large degree of radial uniformity in structure and composition. Details of the ice-dust pattern are more uncertain. A working model is proposed which is based on theories of accumulation of larger objects from grains. This nucleus is a distorted spherical aggregate of a hierarchy of ice-dust cometesimals. These cometesimals retain some separate identity which lead to comet fragmentation when larger components break off. The outer layers of new comets were modified by cosmic ray irradiation in the Oort Cloud. The evidence for meteorite-comet association is steill controversial. Current dynamical studies do not seem to require a cometary source of meteorites.

  7. Origins of serotonin innervation of forebrain structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, K. J.; Brown, P. A.; Madrid, J.; Bernstein, M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Mehler, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase activity and high-affinity uptake of (3H) serotonin ((3H)5-HT) were measured in five discrete brain regions of rats following lesions of the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Dorsal raphe lesions reduced enzyme and uptake activity in the striatum only. Median raphe lesions reduced activities in the hippocampus, septal area, frontal cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the hypothalamus. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the dorsal and median raphe nuclei are the origins of two separate ascending serotonergic systems - one innervating striatal structures and the other mesolimbic structures, predominantly. In addition, the data suggest that measurements of high-affinity uptake of (3H)5-HT may be a more reliable index of innervation than either 5-HT content or tryptophan hydroxylase activity.

  8. Origin of voltage decay in high-capacity layered oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sathiya, M; Abakumov, A M; Foix, D; Rousse, G; Ramesha, K; Saubanre, M; Doublet, M L; Vezin, H; Laisa, C P; Prakash, A S; Gonbeau, D; VanTendeloo, G; Tarascon, J-M

    2015-02-01

    Although Li-rich layered oxides (Li1+xNiyCozMn1-x-y-zO2 > 250 mAh g(-1)) are attractive electrode materials providing energy densities more than 15% higher than today's commercial Li-ion cells, they suffer from voltage decay on cycling. To elucidate the origin of this phenomenon, we employ chemical substitution in structurally related Li2RuO3 compounds. Li-rich layered Li2Ru1-yTiyO3 phases with capacities of ~240 mAh g(-1) exhibit the characteristic voltage decay on cycling. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveals that the migration of cations between metal layers and Li layers is an intrinsic feature of the charge-discharge process that increases the trapping of metal ions in interstitial tetrahedral sites. A correlation between these trapped ions and the voltage decay is established by expanding the study to both Li2Ru1-ySnyO3 and Li2RuO3; the slowest decay occurs for the cations with the largest ionic radii. This effect is robust, and the finding provides insights into new chemistry to be explored for developing high-capacity layered electrodes that evade voltagedecay. PMID:25437258

  9. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers.

  10. Structural origin of light emission in germanium quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Little, W.; Karatutlu, A.; Bolmatov, D.; Trachenko, K.; Sapelkin, A. V.; Cibin, G.; Taylor, R.; Mosselmans, F.; Dent, A. J.; Mountjoy, G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a combination of optically-detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulations to explore the origins of light emission in small (5?nm to 9?nm) Ge nanoparticles. Two sets of nanoparticles were studied, with oxygen and hydrogen terminated surfaces. We show that optically-detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows sufficient sensitivity to reveal the different origins of light emission in these two sets of samples. We found that in oxygen terminated nanoparticles its the oxide-rich regions that are responsible for the light emission. In hydrogen terminated nanoparticles we established that structurally disordered Ge regions contribute to the luminescence. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and optically-detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy we show that these disordered regions correspond to the disordered layer a few thick at the surface of the simulated nanoparticle. PMID:25487681

  11. The structure of APG turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan; Simens, Mark P.; Soria, Julio

    2013-11-01

    A boundary layer under influence of a strong APG is studied using DNS. Transition to turbulence is triggered using a trip wire which is modelled using the immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number close to the exit of the numerical domain is Re? = 2175 and the shape-factor H = 2 . 5 . Two dimensional two-point spatial correlation functions are obtained in this region and close to the transition region. Cvu with a reference point close to the transition region shows a flow periodicity until Re? ~ 1600 . This periodicity is related to the shear layer instability of the separation bubble created as a result of the APG. The Cvv and Cww correlations obtained far from the transition region at Re? = 2175 and at y / ? = 0 . 4 coincide with results obtained for a ZPG boundary layer. Implying that the structure of the v , w fluctuations is the same as in ZPG. However, Cuu indicates that the structure of the u fluctuation in an APG boundary layer is almost twice as short as the ZPG structures. The APG structures are also less correlated with the flow at the wall. The near wall structure of strong APG flows is different from ZPG flows in that streaks are much shorter or absent. Funded in part by ITU, NSERC of Canada, ARC Discovery Grant, and Multiflow program of the ERC.

  12. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  13. Structural rearrangements in self-assembled surfactant layers at surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun

    2010-03-25

    The transition from compact to extended configuration in ionic surfactant layers under the influence of salt, surfactant surface density and temperature is studied using the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The increase in ionic strength of aqueous salt solution or in surfactant surface density leads to the transition from the hemicylindrical to the perpendicular monolayer configuration of the molecules. Although producing the same structural rearrangement in the surfactant layer the origin of the effect of salt and surface density is different. While the addition of salt increases the out-of-plane attractive interactions with the solvent, the increase in density results in the increase in the in-plane repulsion in surfactant layer. The temperature effects are subtler and are mainly manifested in the reduction of the solution structuring at elevated temperatures.

  14. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    PubMed Central

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  15. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers.

    PubMed

    Gin, Stphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frdric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1?nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  16. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Stphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frdric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-02-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1?nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal.

  17. The Origins of Subsurface Layers below Tribological Contacts: A Historical Perspective on Research and Understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by Sir George Beilby's research on polished surfaces in the 1920's, continuing progress in microscopy and surface probes has furthered understanding of tribo-formed layers. Known by various names, these highly-deformed and textured layers vary in thickness, defect arrangement, and uniformity. Their nature depends on the type of material being deformed and the type of wear process to which the surface is subjected. Under otherwise similar sliding conditions, different highly-deformed structures form in different materials because of the effects of stacking fault energy, the arrangement of phases, and the partition of frictional work into heat, fracture, and deformation. Third-body deposits originating from adhesive transfer and wear can shield the deformed layers, and the periodic growth and removal of plateaus can result in time-dependent variations in friction and wear. Combinations of tribo-contact modes, like impact with fretting, can also affect the nature of the near surface layers and their attendant effects on wear and friction.

  18. Structural phase transitions in layered perovskitelike crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    Possible symmetry changes due to small tilts of octahedra are considered for layered perovskite-like crystals containing slabs of several ({ell}) layers of comer-sharing octahedra. In the crystals with {ell} > 1, four types of distortions are possible; as a rule, these distortions correspond to the librational modes of the parent lattice. Condensation of these soft modes is the reason for structural phase transitions or sequences of phase transitions. The results obtained are compared with the known experimental data for a number of layered ferroelectric and ferroelastic perovskite-like compounds. An application of the results to the initial stage of determining unknown structures is discussed with particular attention paid to high-temperature superconductors. 76 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Electronic structure of bacterial surface protein layers

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr V.; Mertig, Ingrid; Bredow, Thomas; Mertig, Michael; Vyalikh, Denis V.; Molodtsov, Serguei L.

    2008-01-15

    We report an approach for the calculation of the electronic density of states of the dried two-dimensional crystalline surface protein layer (S layer) of the bacterium Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602. The proposed model is based on the consideration of individual amino acids in the corresponding conformation of the peptide chain which additively contribute to the electronic structure of the entire protein complex. The derived results agree well with the experimental data obtained by means of photoemission (PE), resonant PE, and near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  20. Identifying layers in random multiphase structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Kevin; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray microscopic methods, benefiting from the large penetration depth of X-rays in many materials, enable 3D investigation of a wide variety of samples. This allows for a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological structures to be seen and explored, in some cases even in real time. Such measurements have lead to insights into paleontology, vulcanology, genetics, and material science. The ability to see and visualize complex systems can provide otherwise unobtainable information on structure, interactions, mechanical behavior, and evolution. The field has, however, led to a massive amount of new, heterogenous, difficult to process data. We present a general, model-free approach for characterizing multiphase 3D systems and show how the method can be applied to experimental X-ray microscopy data to better understand and quantify layer structure in two typical systems: investigation of layered fibers and clay samples.

  1. Origin and effect of nonlocality in a layered composite.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A simple demonstration of nonlocality in a heterogeneous material is presented. By analysis of the microscale deformation of a two-component layered medium, it is shown that nonlocal interactions necessarily appear in a homogenized model of the system. Explicit expressions for the nonlocal forces are determined. The way these nonlocal forces appear in various nonlocal elasticity theories is derived. The length scales that emerge involve the constituent material properties as well as their geometrical dimen- sions. A peridynamic material model for the smoothed displacement eld is derived. It is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data that the incorporation of non- locality in modeling dramatically improves the prediction of the stress concentration in an open hole tension test on a composite plate.

  2. Ice Layers Origins in Icy Satellites and Icy Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzik, J. E.; Lee, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Icy giant planets such as Uranus and Neptune are believed to have differentiated into three primary sections: an atmosphere of helium, methane gas, and molecular hydrogen; an icy mantle of water, ammonia, and methane; and a core of rock and iron. Icy satellites of the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn are also thought to have layers of ices that include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, although at reduced pressures and temperatures. Here we investigate ammonium bicarbonate (NH4)HCO3, which degenerates to water, carbon dioxide and ammonia between 36 and 60 C at room pressure. We performed quasi-hydrostatic high-pressure diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments up to 30 GPa over a range of temperatures (22 to 150 C). Preliminary analysis shows that ammonium bicarbonate not only breaks down to its icy components with increased temperature, but also at increased pressures of ~2 GPa. The individual reaction components reformed into ammonium bicarbonate upon pressure quenching for unheated samples.

  3. Persistent Structures in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Chabalko, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Persistent structures in the turbulent boundary layer are located and analyzed. The data are taken from flight experiments on large commercial aircraft. An interval correlation technique is introduced which is able to locate the structures. The Morlet continuous wavelet is shown to not only locates persistent structures but has the added benefit that the pressure data are decomposed in time and frequency. To better understand how power is apportioned among these structures, a discrete Coiflet wavelet is used to decompose the pressure data into orthogonal frequency bands. Results indicate that some structures persist a great deal longer in the TBL than would be expected. These structure contain significant power and may be a primary source of vibration energy in the airframe.

  4. Tracing Heliospheric Structures to Their Solar Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    The solar wind creates a giant plasma bubble in our immediate, very local interstellar medium (VLISM), the heliosphere. As is true for every physical system, its structure is determined by dynamic processes and by the boundary conditions at the Sun and in the VLISM. Because of the supersonic expansion of the solar wind the structure of the inner (several AU) heliosphere is (nearly) exclusively determined by the Sun. As simple as this may all appear, the problem of linking heliospheric structure to solar features is remarkably complex and has so far eluded satisfactory solutions. ESA and NASA have implemented the Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions to tackle and solve the mystery of how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere. Previous missions, especially the twin Helios mission, lacked two crucial elements, remote-sensing of solar features and their dynamics, and composition measurements of the solar plasma, wind, and energetic particles. Solar Orbiter has both elements in its highly sophisticated payload and will allow us to link solar features to the solar wind sampled in situ by using composition and energetic particles as tracers. The composition of the solar wind is altered from its photospheric origin by two processes very probably acting at different altitudes in the solar atmosphere. Elemental composition of the solar wind appears to be fractionated by its First Ionization Potential (FIP) or time (FIT), indicating that some mechanism separates neutral atoms from ions. This requires temperatures low enough to allow a substantial neutral fraction of the solar plasma and therefore the FIP-effect is believed to act primarily in the chromosphere. Charge states on the other hand are determined by the expansion and acceleration of the solar wind and the electron temperature high in the corona. Solar Orbiter will allow remote-sensing measurements of the elemental composition of solar features and comparison with that measured in situ after the solar wind has traveled from the Sun to the spacecraft. Further information about the linkage between Sun and heliosphere will come from energetic particles which are tightly bound to magnetic field lines and therefore serve as good tracers for the magnetic connection between Sun and heliosphere.

  5. Structure and dynamics of layered molecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Jennifer Conrad

    This dissertation focuses on the goal of understanding and controlling layered material properties from a molecular perspective. With this understanding, materials can be synthetically tailored to exhibit predetermined bulk properties. This investigation describes the optical response of a family of metal-phosphonate (MP) monolayers and multilayers, materials that are potentially useful because the films are easy to synthesize and are chemically and thermally stable. MP films have shown potential in a variety of chemical sensing and optical applications, and in this dissertation, the suitability of MP films for optical information storage is explored For this application, the extent of photonic energy transport within and between optically active layers is an important factor in determining the stability and specificity of optical modifications made to a material. Intralayer and interlayer energy transport processes can be studied selectively in MP films because the composition, and thus the properties, of each layer are controlled synthetically. It was determined by fluorescence relaxation dynamics in conjunction with atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the substrate and layer morphologies are key factors in determining the layer optical and physical properties. The initial MP layers in a multilayer are structurally heterogeneous, characterized by randomly distributed islands that are ~50 A in diameter. The population dynamics measured for these layers are non-exponential, chromophore concentration-independent, and identical for two different chromophores. The data is explained in the context of an excitation hopping model in a system where the surface is characterized by islands of aggregated chromophores as well as non-aggregated monomers. Within a MP monolayer, the dynamics are dominated by intra-island excitation hopping. Forster (dipolar) energy transfer between the energetically overlapped chromophores does not play a significant role in determining the relaxation dynamics of these systems, as the islands are separated by distances greater than the critical distance required for this process. Investigation of the interlayer energy transfer behavior revealed that transport between adjacent chromophore layers is precluded by the spatial modulation of the dielectric response of the MP film. These results are important for understanding the morphological, structural, and optical properties that will be useful for the incorporation of layered organic materials in future technologies.

  6. Multi-Layer Laminated Thin Films for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, Andre; Plett, Gary; Mannella, Jerami

    2005-01-01

    Special-purpose balloons and other inflatable structures would be constructed as flexible laminates of multiple thin polymeric films interspersed with layers of adhesive, according to a proposal. In the original intended application, the laminate would serve as the envelope of the Titan Aerobot a proposed robotic airship for exploring Titan (one of the moons of Saturn). Potential terrestrial applications for such flexible laminates could include blimps and sails. In the original application, the multi-layered laminate would contain six layers of 0.14-mil (0.0036-mm)-thick Mylar (or equivalent) polyethylene terephthalate film with a layer of adhesive between each layer of Mylar . The overall thickness and areal density of this laminate would be nearly the same as those of 1-mil (0.0254-mm)-thick monolayer polyethylene terephthalate sheet. However, the laminate would offer several advantages over the monolayer sheet, especially with respect to interrelated considerations of flexing properties, formation of pinholes, and difficulty or ease of handling, as discussed next. Most of the damage during flexing of the laminate would be localized in the outermost layers, where the radii of bending in a given bend would be the largest and, hence, the bending stress would be the greatest. The adverse effects of formation of pinholes would be nearly completely mitigated in the laminate because a pinhole in a given layer would not propagate to adjacent layers. Hence, the laminate would tend to remain effective as a barrier to retain gas. Similar arguments can be made regarding cracks: While a crack could form as a result of stress or a defect in the film material, a crack would not propagate into adjacent layers, and the adjacent layer(s) would even arrest propagation of the crack. In the case of the monolayer sheet, surface damage (scratches, dents, permanent folds, pinholes, and the like) caused by handling would constitute or give rise to defects that could propagate through the thickness as cracks or pinholes that would render the sheet less effective or ineffective as a barrier. In contrast, because damage incurred during handling of the laminate would ordinarily be limited to the outermost layers, the barrier properties of the laminate would be less likely to be adversely affected. Therefore, handling of the laminate would be easier because there would be less of a need to exercise care to ensure against surface damage.

  7. Origin of the outer layer of martian low-aspect ratio layered ejecta craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Barlow, Nadine G.

    2015-01-01

    Low-aspect ratio layered ejecta (LARLE) craters are one of the most enigmatic types of martian layered ejecta craters. We propose that the extensive outer layer of these craters is produced through the same base surge mechanism as that which produced the base surge deposits generated by near-surface, buried nuclear and high-explosive detonations. However, the LARLE layers have higher aspect ratios compared with base surge deposits from explosion craters, a result of differences in thicknesses of these layers. This characteristics is probably caused by the addition of large amounts of small particles of dust and ice derived from climate-related mantles of snow, ice and dust in the areas where LARLE craters form. These deposits are likely to be quickly stabilized (order of a few days to a few years) from eolian erosion by formation of duricrust produced by diffusion of water vapor out of the deposits.

  8. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  9. DUAL ORIGIN OF AEROSOLS IN TITAN'S DETACHED HAZE LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Cours, T.; Burgalat, J.; Rannou, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Brahic, A.

    2011-11-10

    We have analyzed scattered light profiles from the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem, taken at the limb and at several large phase angles. We also used results from an occultation observed by Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph in the ultraviolet. We found that particles responsible for the scattering in the detached haze have an effective radius around 0.15 {mu}m and the aerosol size distribution follows a power law (exponent about -4.5). We discuss these results along with microphysical constraints and thermal equilibrium of the detached haze, and we conclude that only a strong interaction with atmospheric dynamics can explain such a structure.

  10. A challenging interpretation of a hexagonally layered protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Michael C.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe the structure determination of a hexagonally layered protein structure that suffered from a complicated combination of translational non-crystallographic symmetry and hemihedral twinning. This case serves as a reminder that broken crystallographic symmetry resulting from doubling of a unit-cell axis often requires a new choice of origin. The carboxysome is a giant protein complex that acts as a metabolic organelle in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. Its outer structure is formed by the assembly of thousands of copies of hexameric shell protein subunits into a molecular layer. The structure determination of a CcmK1 shell protein mutant (L11K) from the ?-carboxysome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 led to challenges in structure determination. Twinning, noncrystallographic symmetry and packing of hexameric units in a special arrangement led to initial difficulties in space-group assignment. The correct space group was clarified after initial model refinement revealed additional symmetry. This study provides an instructive example in which broken symmetry requires a new choice of unit-cell origin in order to identify the highest symmetry space group. An additional observation related to the packing arrangement of molecules in this crystal suggests that these hexameric shell proteins might have lower internal symmetry than previously believed.

  11. View of hyphen stair hall between original abobe structure and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hyphen stair hall between original abobe structure and wood frame addition (note original exterior siding now enclosed) - Zanetta House, San Juan Bautista State Historical Park, San Juan Bautista, San Benito County, CA

  12. Flow visualization of turbulent boundary layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, M. R.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    1980-01-01

    The results from flow visualization experiments performed using an argon-ion laser to illuminate longitudinal and transverse sections of the smoke filled boundary layer in zero pressure gradient are discussed. Most of the experiments were confined to the range 600 Re sub theta 10,000. Results indicate that the boundary layer consists almost exclusively of vortex loops or hairpins, some of which may extend through the complete boundary layer thickness and all of which are inclined at a more or less constant characteristic angle of approximately 45 deg to the wall. Since the cross-stream dimensions of the hairpins appear to scale roughly with the wall variables U sub tau and nu, while their length is limited only by the boundary layer thickness, there are very large scale effects on the turbulence structure. At high Reynolds numbers (Re sub theta = 10,000) there is little evidence of large-scale coherent motions, other than a slow overturning of random agglomerations of the hairpins just mentioned.

  13. Marine boundary layer structure and fractional cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Jensen, Michael P.; Syrett, William J.

    1995-07-01

    Radiosonde data collected during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE), 1987, the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), 1992, and the Tropical Instability and Waves Experiment (TIWE), 1990, were used to develop four composite thermodynamic soundings of the marine boundary layer for cloud conditions ranging from solid stratocumulus to trade cumulus and sea surface temperatures ranging from 16 to 27C. Average cloud fraction and cloud base height for the composite soundings were estimated using laser ceilometers located at each of the four sites. The average fractional cloudiness varied from 0.83 off the coast of California at San Nicolas Island (33.4N, 119.6W) during FIRE to 0.26 over the central equatorial Pacific during TIWE (0N, 140.0W). During ASTEX, two sites in the vicinity of the Azores generally experienced cloud conditions characterized by cumulus clouds penetrating into a stratocumulus layer. At the more northerly site, the island of Santa Maria (37.0N, 25.2W), the average fractional cloudiness was 0.67 compared with 0.40, 1000 km downstream at the German R/V Valdivia (28.0N, 24.0W). The two composite soundings from ASTEX and the composite sounding from TIWE indicate decoupled boundary layer structures. These three soundings have a cloud layer that is conditionally unstable and show a systematic increase in relative humidity with increasing fractional cloudiness. The effect of cloud top entrainment on fractional cloudiness was evaluated. For the four composite soundings the fractional cloudiness decreases as the slope of the normalized w-? mixing line increases (greater instability), but this decrease is 4 times less than that from previous studies. Fractional cloudiness diagnosed from parameterizations using cloud layer relative humidity compares well with the observed mean cloudiness.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic Origin Recognition Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bleichert, Franziska; Botchan, Michael R.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. The 3.5 Å resolution crystal structure of Drosophila ORC reveals that the 270 kDa initiator core complex comprises a two-layered notched ring in which a collar of winged-helix domains from the Orc1-5 subunits sits atop a layer of AAA+ ATPase folds. Although canonical inter-AAA+ domain interactions exist between four of the six ORC subunits, unanticipated features are also evident, including highly interdigitated domain-swapping interactions between the winged-helix folds and AAA+ modules of neighboring protomers, and a quasi-spiral arrangement of DNA binding elements that circumnavigate a ~20 Å wide channel in the center of the complex. Comparative analyses indicate that ORC encircles DNA, using its winged-helix domain face to engage the MCM2-7 complex during replicative helicase loading; however, an observed >90° out-of-plane rotation for the Orc1 AAA+ domain disrupts interactions with catalytic amino acids in Orc4, narrowing and sealing off entry into the central channel. Prima facie, our data indicate that Drosophila ORC can switch between active and autoinhibited conformations, suggesting a novel means for cell cycle and/or developmental control of ORC functions. PMID:25762138

  15. Origins of microspherules from the Permian-Triassic boundary event layers in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zheng, Quan-feng

    2014-09-01

    Volcanism and impact scenarios are two of the most plausible ways of interpreting the causes of the largest biological mass extinction at the end-Permian. Microspherules have previously been widely reported from tens of different Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections in South China and some other regions. These microspherules have been interpreted as either the product of volcanic eruptions or an impact event. In order to test these scenarios, we collected 60 samples from 12 intensively-studied PTB sections in South China. In addition, four soil samples close to these PTB layers were also collected for comparison. Our investigation indicates that abundant microspherules with mosaic or dot shape crystals on rounded surface are present in the surface samples in the PTB layers at Meishan, Meili, and Shatian sections and most soil background samples in South China. Those microspherules consist of four different types based on their main chemical composition, surface features, and internal structure including iron, magnetite-silicate, glassy, pyrite microspherules and framboids. In contrast, microspherules have not been found in a few sections in remote areas such as the Selong Xishan section in Tibet and the Dalongkou section in Xinjiang, Northwest China, in the deeply-excavated samples at the Shangsi section and the hard tuff layers around the PTB at the Xiaochehe Section in Guiyang. Microspherules decrease in abundance with depth in PTB clay beds. All these microspherules except the pyrite microspherules and framboids are found in both the PTB layers and the nearby soil background samples. The iron microspherules are pure iron oxides such as magnetite, hematite or maghemite and contain low concentrations of nickel and chromium, and lack an Ni-Fe core and general extraterrestrial mineral wüstite. All these external and chemical characteristics suggest that most of iron microspherules previously reported from PTB sections in South China are modern industrial fly ashes. A low ratio of Fe3 +/FeTotal in crystals of magnetite-silicate microspherules and high ZnO contents can identify them as industrial contaminants. The pyrite microspherules and framboidal pyrite found from bed 24e and bed 26 at the Meishan sections are of depositional or/and diagenetic origins, and only the rounded quartz and the fragments containing extremely high SiO2 and TiO2 are possibly of volcanic origin.

  16. Origin and phylogeographical structure of Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Lei, C Z; Chen, H; Zhang, H C; Cai, X; Liu, R Y; Luo, L Y; Wang, C F; Zhang, W; Ge, Q L; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Sun, W B

    2006-12-01

    Complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 231 samples were used to explore the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese cattle. Phylogenetical analysis of these sequences revealed both Bos taurus and Bos indicus mitochondrial types in Chinese cattle. Four of the previously identified mitochondrial DNA lineages (T1-T4) were identified in the Bos taurus type, including lineage T1, which was found for the first time in Chinese cattle. Two lineages (I1 and I2) were identified in the Bos indicus type. Our results support the suggestion that the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is the domestication site of Chinese zebu. We also found evidence that Tibetan cattle originated from taurine and zebu cattle. The distribution pattern of Chinese cattle breeds was closely related to the geographical and climatic background. It was possible to divide Chinese cattle in this study into two major groups: northern and southern cattle. PMID:17121603

  17. What is the Age and Origin of the Spherule Bearing Layer in some Ross Sea Cores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C.; Abbott, D. H.; Anders, M. H.; Breger, D.

    2012-12-01

    L.P. Khyranina (1985) was the first to suggest that there were two structures present on the Antarctic continental shelf beneath the Ross Sea. One was the ~100 km Bowers impact crater candidate. However, there was no solid evidence that proved an extraterrestrial impact produced the Bowers structure. Debate has ensued for decades on whether the Bowers structure was an impact crater. Now we have come close to finding an answer. We used core samples taken near the crater and sieved into four size fractions (>250,>125,>63,>38 μm). Impact ejecta candidates were then picked from cores ELT 32-08, ELT 32-03, ELT 32-43, ELT 32-06, DSDP 273, DSDP 274, and NPB 95-01 39KC and were analyzed for chemical composition and physical features. All but DSDP site 274 contain pure SiO2 glasses that resemble tektites. We also found candidates for flow textured impact glass and shocked quartz. This led us to conclude that the origin of the spherule-bearing layer was from an impact. With the use of dated core NBP 95-01 39KC, we have constrained the age to lie between 7,305±80 BP and 11,150±95 BP (corrected radiocarbon ages) (Cunningham et al., 1999).

  18. The nature and origin of lateral composition modulations in short-period strained-layer superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN,A.G.; AHRENKIEL,S.P.; MOUTINHO,H.R.; BALLIF,C.; ALJASSIM,M.M.; MASCARENHAS,A.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; RENO,JOHN L.; JONES,ERIC D.; MIRECKI-MILLUNCHICK,J.; TWESTEN,R.D.

    2000-01-27

    The nature and origin of lateral composition modulations in (AlAs){sub m}(InAs){sub n} SPSs grown by MBE on InP substrates have been investigated by XRD, AFM, and TEM. Strong modulations were observed for growth temperatures between {approx} 540 and 560 C. The maximum strength of modulations was found for SPS samples with InAs mole fraction x (=n/(n+m)) close to {approx} 0.50 and when n {approx} m {approx} 2. The modulations were suppressed at both high and low values of x. For x >0.52 (global compression) the modulations were along the <100> directions in the (001) growth plane. For x < 0.52 (global tension) the modulations were along the two <310> directions rotated {approx} {+-} 27{degree} from [110] in the growth plane. The remarkably constant wavelength of the modulations, between {approx} 20--30 nm, and the different modulation directions observed, suggest that the origin of the modulations is due to surface roughening associated with the high misfit between the individual SPS layers and the InP substrate. Highly uniform unidirectional modulations have been grown, by control of the InAs mole fraction and growth on suitably offcut substrates, which show great promise for application in device structures.

  19. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    Societies are built on social interactions among individuals. Cooperation represents the simplest form of a social interaction: one individual provides a benefit to another one at a cost to itself. Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social interactions in a society. The behaviour of an individual towards others and of others towards the individual shape the individual's neighbourhood and hence the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic social networks by focussing on each individual's actions instead of interactions between individuals. This eliminates the traditional dichotomy between the strategy of individuals and the structure of the population and easily complements empirical studies. As a consequence, altruists, egoists and fair types are naturally determined by the local social structures, while globally egalitarian networks or stratified structures arise. Cooperative interactions drive the emergence and shape the structure of social networks.

  20. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Societies are built on social interactions among individuals. Cooperation represents the simplest form of a social interaction: one individual provides a benefit to another one at a cost to itself. Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social interactions in a society. The behaviour of an individual towards others and of others towards the individual shape the individual's neighbourhood and hence the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic social networks by focussing on each individual's actions instead of interactions between individuals. This eliminates the traditional dichotomy between the strategy of individuals and the structure of the population and easily complements empirical studies. As a consequence, altruists, egoists and fair types are naturally determined by the local social structures, while globally egalitarian networks or stratified structures arise. Cooperative interactions drive the emergence and shape the structure of social networks. PMID:25030202

  1. The Levantine Basincrustal structure and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzeband, G. L.; Gohl, K.; Hbscher, C. P.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Dehghani, G. A.; Gajewski, D.; Liersch, P.

    2006-06-01

    The origin of the Levantine Basin in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea is related to the opening of the Neo-Tethys. The nature of its crust has been debated for decades. Therefore, we conducted a geophysical experiment in the Levantine Basin. We recorded two refraction seismic lines with 19 and 20 ocean bottom hydrophones, respectively, and developed velocity models. Additional seismic reflection data yield structural information about the upper layers in the first few kilometers. The crystalline basement in the Levantine Basin consists of two layers with a P-wave velocity of 6.0-6.4 km/s in the upper and 6.5-6.9 km/s in the lower crust. Towards the center of the basin, the Moho depth decreases from 27 to 22 km. Local variations of the velocity gradient can be attributed to previously postulated shear zones like the Pelusium Line, the Damietta-Latakia Line and the Baltim-Hecateus Line. Both layers of the crystalline crust are continuous and no indication for a transition from continental to oceanic crust is observed. These results are confirmed by gravity data. Comparison with other seismic refraction studies in prolongation of our profiles under Israel and Jordan and in the Mediterranean Sea near Greece and Sardinia reveal similarities between the crust in the Levantine Basin and thinned continental crust, which is found in that region. The presence of thinned continental crust under the Levantine Basin is therefore suggested. A ?-factor of 2.3-3 is estimated. Based on these findings, we conclude that sea-floor spreading in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea only occurred north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, and the oceanic crust was later subducted at the Cyprus Arc.

  2. Boundary-Layer Origin for Jets, and Non-Existence of the Boundary Layer in Young Jet-Producing Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Pringle suggested a boundary-layer origin for jets from YSOs. The jets were driven by a toroidal magnetic field generated by strong shear in the accretion boundary layer. Such a mechanism is clearly non-magnetocentrifugal in nature.Nearly fifteen years ago, we suggested a cartoon of the jet-launching mechanism in protostars in which shear, acting upon MHD turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), generated a tangled, toroidal magnetic field capable of driving a jet. This picture, which is also manifestly non-magnetocentrifugal in nature, relied upon a novel model for MRI-driven MHD turbulence based on a viscoelastic, rather than a viscous, prescription for the turbulent stress. Our hypothesis has some clear similarities to Pringle's mechanism, but it relied upon a large envelope surrounding the central star.An accretion boundary layer has long been recognized as a promising source for protostellar jets in good part because in a standard thin disk, matter loses circa half of all its accretion energy in this layer, but it is problematic to drive a well-collimated outflow from a boundary layer in a thin disk. In this presentation, we argue paradoxically that the "boundary layer" can drive jets when a true boundary layer, like the thin disk, does not exist. This changes the inner boundary condition for viscous angular momentum flux in the disk.The standard argument for a thin boundary layer is, we argue, circular. In high accretion-rate systems, or when the gas cannot cool efficiently, there is no reason to suspect the turbulent viscosity in this boundary layer to be small, and therefore neither is the boundary layer. When the boundary layer becomes larger than the central accretor itself, it is arguably no longer a boundary layer, but rather an envelope. It is still, however, a substantial source of power and toroidal MRI-driven magnetic fields.It is, again, only in relatively hot or high-accretion rate systems in which the boundary layer would be expected to inflate and so disappear. Not coincidentally, it is in such systems, such as Class 0 and Class I protostars, in which we have the strongest evidence for powerful, well-collimated jet outflows.

  3. A challenging interpretation of a hexagonally layered protein structure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael C; Yeates, Todd O

    2014-01-01

    The carboxysome is a giant protein complex that acts as a metabolic organelle in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. Its outer structure is formed by the assembly of thousands of copies of hexameric shell protein subunits into a molecular layer. The structure determination of a CcmK1 shell protein mutant (L11K) from the ?-carboxysome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 led to challenges in structure determination. Twinning, noncrystallographic symmetry and packing of hexameric units in a special arrangement led to initial difficulties in space-group assignment. The correct space group was clarified after initial model refinement revealed additional symmetry. This study provides an instructive example in which broken symmetry requires a new choice of unit-cell origin in order to identify the highest symmetry space group. An additional observation related to the packing arrangement of molecules in this crystal suggests that these hexameric shell proteins might have lower internal symmetry than previously believed. PMID:24419393

  4. A wind origin for Titan's haze structure.

    PubMed

    Rannou, P; Hourdin, F; McKay, C P

    2002-08-22

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is the only satellite in the Solar System with a dense atmosphere. Titan's atmosphere is mainly nitrogen with a surface pressure of 1.5 atmospheres and a temperature of 95 K (ref. 1). A seasonally varying haze, which appears to be the main source of heating and cooling that drives atmospheric circulation, shrouds the moon. The haze has numerous features that have remained unexplained. There are several layers, including a 'polar hood', and a pronounced hemispheric asymmetry. The upper atmosphere rotates much faster than the surface of the moon, and there is a significant latitudinal temperature asymmetry at the equinoxes. Here we describe a numerical simulation of Titan's atmosphere, which appears to explain the observed features of the haze. The critical new factor in our model is the coupling of haze formation with atmospheric dynamics, which includes a component of strong positive feedback between the haze and the winds. PMID:12192403

  5. Corona structures on Venus - Models of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Parmentier, E. M.; Head, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The present study assesses the mantle diapir models of corona origin using the basic characteristics of coronas: relatively raised topography, annuli of compressional ridges, volcanism, and peripheral trough. Both rising and and sinking diapirs are modeled quantitatively. Rising mantle diapirs are caused by heating at depth, while sinking mantle diapirs may result from cooling or a phase change causing increased density and negative buoyancy at the base of the lithosphere. The hotspot model is most consistent with the major characteristics of coronas, with gravitational relaxation occurring as a modificational process. The sinking mantle diapir produces dominant central compression that is not observed at coronas. Higher-resolution image and altimetry data from Magellan can be used to distinguish more fully between the two models. Coronas in various states of formation and degradation can be identified in the Venera 15/16 data, suggesting that the process may be continuing today.

  6. Characteristic Lifelength of Coherent Structure in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic lifelength is defined by which a Gaussian distribution is fit to data correlated over a 3 sensor array sampling streamwise sidewall pressure. The data were acquired at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds aboard a Tu-144. Lifelengths are estimated using the cross spectrum and are shown to compare favorably with Efimtsov's prediction of correlation space scales. Lifelength distributions are computed in the time/frequency domain using an interval correlation technique on the continuous wavelet transform of the original time data. The median values of the lifelength distributions are found to be very close to the frequency averaged result. The interval correlation technique is shown to allow the retrieval and inspection of the original time data of each event in the lifelength distribution, thus providing a means to locate and study the nature of the coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer. The lifelength data can be converted to lifetimes using the convection velocity. The lifetime of events in the time/frequency domain are displayed in Lifetime Maps. The primary purpose of the paper is to validate these new analysis techniques so that they can be used with confidence to further characterize coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer.

  7. Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Observations confirm that planet formation is a ubiquitous process that produces a diversity of planetary systems. However, a class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the thousands of currently known planets and candidates, the overwhelming majority of which are more easily detectable than direct counterparts of the Sun's worlds. To understand whether our solar system's history was unusual and, more generally, to properly characterize the galactic population of extrasolar planets, we must identify how differences in formation environment translate into different planetary system architectures. In this talk, I will consider our solar system in the context of theoretical advances in planet formation driven by the study of extrasolar planets. Along the way, I will discuss several examples of physical processes operating at different stages of planet formation that imprint observable structures on the dynamical and compositional demographics of planetary systems.

  8. Origin and population structure of the Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Williams, J T

    1993-04-01

    The Norse and Celtic contributions to the founding population of Iceland have been estimated previously on a pan-Icelandic basis using gene frequency data for the entire island. Accounts of the settlement of Iceland, however, suggest that different regions received different proportions of Norse and Celtic settlers, indicating the need to incorporate geographic variation into Icelandic admixture studies. A formal likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis of regional homogeneity in admixture proportions. Here, regional admixture estimates for Iceland are reported; they are in agreement with the settlement pattern inferred from historical accounts. The western, northern, and southern regions of Iceland exhibit a moderate Celtic component, consistent with historical indications that these regions were settled by Norse Vikings from the British Isles, accompanied by Celtic wives and slaves. Eastern Iceland, believed to have been settled chiefly by Vikings from Scandinavia, is characterized by a large Norse component of admixture. The northwestern peninsula is also found to be predominantly Norse. Regional genetic data are used to elucidate the contemporary population structure of Iceland. The observed structure correlates well with patterns of Icelandic geography, history, economy, marriage, urbanization, and internal migration. The northeastern region is strongly isolated, the urbanized areas of the north and southwest are representative of the overall population, and the remaining regions exhibit small-scale variation about the genetic central tendency. A high level of genetic homogeneity is indicated (RST = 0.0005), consistent with the high internal migration rate of the Icelanders. A regression of mean per-locus heterozygosity on distance from the gene frequency centroid reveals a greater than average external gene flow into the eastern region, whereas the northwestern peninsula has received less than average external gene flow. Iceland is compared with possible founding populations and was found to have diverged markedly from other northern European countries. PMID:8449480

  9. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex.

    PubMed

    Bleichert, Franziska; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2015-03-19

    Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. Here we describe the crystal structure of Drosophila ORC at 3.5 Å resolution, showing that the 270 kilodalton initiator core complex comprises a two-layered notched ring in which a collar of winged-helix domains from the Orc1-5 subunits sits atop a layer of AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) folds. Although canonical inter-AAA+ domain interactions exist between four of the six ORC subunits, unanticipated features are also evident. These include highly interdigitated domain-swapping interactions between the winged-helix folds and AAA+ modules of neighbouring protomers, and a quasi-spiral arrangement of DNA binding elements that circumnavigate an approximately 20 Å wide channel in the centre of the complex. Comparative analyses indicate that ORC encircles DNA, using its winged-helix domain face to engage the mini-chromosome maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7) complex during replicative helicase loading; however, an observed out-of-plane rotation of more than 90° for the Orc1 AAA+ domain disrupts interactions with catalytic amino acids in Orc4, narrowing and sealing off entry into the central channel. Prima facie, our data indicate that Drosophila ORC can switch between active and autoinhibited conformations, suggesting a novel means for cell cycle and/or developmental control of ORC functions. PMID:25762138

  10. Origin of ferromagnetism enhancement in bi-layer chromium-doped indium zinc oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2012-08-06

    This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to {approx}30 emu/cm{sup 3}. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism.

  11. Acoustic emissions from unsteady transitional boundary layer flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marboe, Richard Chostner

    The acoustic radiation contribution of boundary layer flow structures has long been the subject of debate. The research described critically examines the popular approaches to modeling the radiation mechanisms and attempts to bring some degree of closure to the physical and practical significance of noise and pseudo-noise originating in the laminar-to-turbulent transition zone within a natural boundary layer. This includes improving models to include recent computational and experimental statistics, evaluation of model sensitivities to input parameters, and applicability to situations of engineering relevance. Prior efforts to model wall pressure fluctuation statistics resulting from boundary layer transition zone flow structures allow further development of direct radiation prediction codes. Several refinements were made to theoretical models for directly radiated noise based upon the Liepmann analogy for fluctuating displacement thickness including the incorporation of a semi- empirically derived space-time correlation function for the intermittency indicator. A similar two-fluids model uses a Lighthill acoustic analogy. Radiation by vortex structures and direct numerical simulation methods are reviewed to help define their useful role in predicting sound radiation from transition. The role of pressure gradient in axisymmetric body flows, flat plate flows, and over hydrofoils is investigated. A quiet airflow facility was developed to measure the direct acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Real-time acoustic intensity measurement instrumentation was developed if measurements of isolated spots in otherwise laminar flow had been necessary. This technique uses a hot film signal from the transition structure to obtain the coherent output intensity (COI). Model predictions are compared to the measured acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Radiated noise measurements isolating the direct transition zone radiation demonstrated similar dependence with axial location within the transition zone as previous wall pressure measurements. The measurements suggest that radiation from transition flow structures is multipolar and has low radiation efficiency. Transition noise per unit area is greater than TBL noise per unit area. Thus, the contribution to overall directly radiated flow noise from the transition zone in typical engineering applications is negligible compared to the radiation from the much larger area of fully turbulent flow.

  12. 79. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  13. 75. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  14. 78. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  15. 76. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. 77. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G1 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  17. 80. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Photocopy of original structural shop drawing, Passaic Rolling Mill Company, 1892/1893, (original in possession of New York City Department of Transportation), lattice girder elevation & details - girder G2 - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  18. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    PubMed Central

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two homologous tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The ?-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties. PMID:22753492

  19. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-09-05

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two 'homologous' tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The {beta}-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  20. Moving femtosecond soliton in layered structure with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, T. M.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss a soliton mode of laser femtosecond pulse propagation in a layered structure with cubic nonlinear response in certain layers. Soliton under consideration occupies a few layers. It moves across the layers without its shape destroying. Using computer simulation, we investigate the features of soliton reflection from ambient linear and nonlinear medium. Soliton reflection depends in a strong way on the optical properties of boundary layers. However, in any situation a part of soliton leaves the photonic crystal during some time interval.

  1. 2. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING STRUCTURE WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING STRUCTURE WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY A METHODIST CHURCH AND ONCE THE GARFIELD REFRACTORIES COMPANY OFFICE ON WASHINGTON STREET. - Town of Bolivar, Bolivar, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. Typhoon kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer structure from dropsonde composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Jie; Zhang, Jun A.; Rogers, Robert F.

    2015-04-01

    The data from 438 Global Positioning System dropsondes in six typhoons are analyzed to investigate the mean atmospheric boundary layer structure in a composite framework. Following a recent study on boundary layer height in Atlantic hurricanes, we aim to quantify characteristics of boundary layer height scales in Western Pacific typhoons including the inflow layer depth (hinflow), height of the maximum tangential wind speed (hvtmax), and thermodynamic mixed layer depth. In addition, the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer structures are compared between the dropsonde composites using data in typhoons and hurricanes. Our results show that similar to the hurricane composite, there is a separation between the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer heights in typhoons, with the thermodynamic boundary layer depth being much smaller than hinflow and hvtmax in the typhoon boundary layer. All three boundary layer height scales tend to decrease toward the storm center. Our results confirm that the conceptual model of Zhang et al. (2011a) for boundary layer height variation is applicable to typhoon conditions. The kinematic boundary layer structure is generally similar between the typhoon and hurricane composites, but the typhoon composite shows a deeper inflow layer outside the eyewall than the hurricane composite. The thermodynamic structure of the typhoon boundary layer composite is warmer and moister outside the radius of maximum wind speed than the hurricane composite. This difference is attributed to different environmental conditions associated with typhoons compared to the hurricanes studied here.

  3. Vertical columns originated in layers of depth hoar and near-surface faceted crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocianova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Vertical columns originated in layers of depth hoar and near-surface faceted crystals Milena Kocianova (1), Nils ke Andersson (2), Josef Harcarik (1) (1) Krkonose National Park Administration, Dobrovskeho 3, 54301 Vrchlabi, Czech republic (2)Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko, Sweden Within the winter subpolar climatic conditions, the deep layers of depth hoar crystals/sugar snow are common. In course of study snow profiles between Abisko and Kiruna (Northern Sweden) in March/April 2008, we have observed complexes of vertical columns composed of chain of depth hoar crystals repeatably. The height of columns reaches to 20 cm and about 5 cm in diameter, columns were formed in distance from several centimetres to some tens of centimetres between them. The best developed columns were formed by ice body inside. Within deeper snow profile (to 1 m) the columns formed two layers one above another. Earlier, in May 2006, similar layers of columns we were discovered inside continuous snowpack near Riksgransen and inside rest of snow patches in Abisko as well. Columns were formed by harder firn grains. Their origin should correspond to International classification for seasonal snow (Collbeck at al.1990), subclass. No 8b Ice column". (Ice column from refreezing of draining meltwater within flow fingers). However, based on our knowledges from 2008, there should exist another way of their origin, e.g. temperature metamorphosis of depth hoar columns. Consequently, analogous vertical columns were found within layers of near-surface faceted crystals in subalpine and mountain areas of the Krkonose Mountains (Central Europe). We suppose the influence of space design of all three types of harder columns (originated in depth hoar, near-surface faceted crystals, refreezing of meltwater) and adjacent soft interspace as on the flux of air (gases) inside snowpack as on its stability. Photodocumentation of all forms is enclosed.

  4. Origin and evolution of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedell, S. S.; Squyres, S. W.; Andersen, D. W.

    1987-06-01

    Four hypotheses are discussed concerning the origin of the layered deposits in the Martian Valles Marineris, whose individual thicknesses range from about 70 to 300 m. The hypothesized processes are: (1) aeolian deposition; (2) deposition of remnants of the material constituting the canyon walls; (3) deposition of volcanic eruptions; and (4) deposition in standing bodies of water. The last process is chosen as most consistent with the rhythm and lateral continuity of the layers, as well as their great thickness and stratigraphic relationship with other units in the canyons. Attention is given to ways in which the sediments could have entered an ice-covered lake; several geologically feasible mechanisms are identified.

  5. Origin and evolution of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedell, Susan S.; Squyres, Steven W.; Andersen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Four hypotheses are discussed concerning the origin of the layered deposits in the Martian Valles Marineris, whose individual thicknesses range from about 70 to 300 m. The hypothesized processes are: (1) aeolian deposition; (2) deposition of remnants of the material constituting the canyon walls; (3) deposition of volcanic eruptions; and (4) deposition in standing bodies of water. The last process is chosen as most consistent with the rhythm and lateral continuity of the layers, as well as their great thickness and stratigraphic relationship with other units in the canyons. Attention is given to ways in which the sediments could have entered an ice-covered lake; several geologically feasible mechanisms are identified.

  6. Structure and dynamics of electrical double layers in organic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Qiao, Rui; Feng, Guang

    2010-01-01

    The organic electrolyte of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) in the aprotic solvent of acetonitrile (ACN) is widely used in electrochemical systems such as electrochemical capacitors. In this paper, we examine the solvation of TEA{sup +} and BF{sub 4}{sup -} in ACN, and the structure, capacitance, and dynamics of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the TEABF{sub 4}-ACN electrolyte using molecular dynamics simulations complemented with quantum density functional theory calculations. The solvation of TEA+ and BF4- ions is found to be much weaker than that of small inorganic ions in aqueous solutions, and the ACN molecules in the solvation shell of both types of ions show only weak packing and orientational ordering. These solvation characteristics are caused by the large size, charge delocalization, and irregular shape (in the case of TEA+ cation) of the ions. Near neutral electrodes, the double-layer structure in the organic electrolyte exhibits a rich organization: the solvent shows strong layering and orientational ordering, ions are significantly contact-adsorbed on the electrode, and alternating layers of cations/anions penetrate ca. 1.1 nm into the bulk electrolyte. The significant contact adsorption of ions and the alternating layering of cation/anion are new features found for EDLs in organic electrolytes. These features essentially originate from the fact that van der Waals interactions between organic ions and the electrode are strong and the partial desolvation of these ions occurs easily, as a result of the large size of the organic ions. Near charged electrodes, distinct counter-ion concentration peaks form, and the ion distribution cannot be described by the Helmholtz model or the Helmholtz + Poisson-Boltzmann model. This is because the number of counter-ions adsorbed on the electrode exceeds the number of electrons on the electrode, and the electrode is over-screened in parts of the EDL. The computed capacitances of the EDLs are in good agreement with that inferred from experimental measurements. Both the rotations (ACN only) and translations of interfacial ACN and ions are found to slow down as the electrode is electrified. We also observe an asymmetrical dependence of these motions on the sign of the electrode charge. The rotation/diffusion of ACN and the diffusion of ions in the region beyond the first ACN or ion layer differ only weakly from those in the bulk

  7. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  8. Endoscopic treatments for small gastric subepithelial tumors originating from muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-Ping; Mao, Xin-Li

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic resection has become an increasingly popular method for patients with small (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Currently, the main endoscopic therapies for patients with such tumors are endoscopic muscularis excavation, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. Although these endoscopic techniques can be used for complete resection of the tumor and provide an accurate pathological diagnosis, these techniques have been associated with several negative events, such as incomplete resection, perforation, and bleeding. This review provides detailed information on the technical details, likely treatment outcomes, and complications associated with each endoscopic method for treating/removing small gastric SETs that originate from the MP layer. PMID:26327758

  9. Endoscopic treatments for small gastric subepithelial tumors originating from muscularis propria layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-Ping; Mao, Xin-Li

    2015-08-28

    Minimally invasive endoscopic resection has become an increasingly popular method for patients with small (less than 3.5 cm in diameter) gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. Currently, the main endoscopic therapies for patients with such tumors are endoscopic muscularis excavation, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection. Although these endoscopic techniques can be used for complete resection of the tumor and provide an accurate pathological diagnosis, these techniques have been associated with several negative events, such as incomplete resection, perforation, and bleeding. This review provides detailed information on the technical details, likely treatment outcomes, and complications associated with each endoscopic method for treating/removing small gastric SETs that originate from the MP layer. PMID:26327758

  10. Structural properties of replication origins in yeast DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Jia; Yan, Hong

    2008-09-01

    Sequence-dependent DNA flexibility is an important structural property originating from the DNA 3D structure. In this paper, we investigate the DNA flexibility of the budding yeast (S. Cerevisiae) replication origins on a genome-wide scale using flexibility parameters from two different models, the trinucleotide and the tetranucleotide models. Based on analyzing average flexibility profiles of 270 replication origins, we find that yeast replication origins are significantly rigid compared with their surrounding genomic regions. To further understand the highly distinctive property of replication origins, we compare the flexibility patterns between yeast replication origins and promoters, and find that they both contain significantly rigid DNAs. Our results suggest that DNA flexibility is an important factor that helps proteins recognize and bind the target sites in order to initiate DNA replication. Inspired by the role of the rigid region in promoters, we speculate that the rigid replication origins may facilitate binding of proteins, including the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, Cdt1 and the MCM2-7 complex.

  11. Evidence for the biogenic origin of manganese-enriched layers in Lake Superior sediments.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Christine; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe)-enriched sediment layers were discovered in Lake Superior within, above and below the oxic-anoxic interface. While the role of bacteria in redox reactions with Mn is known to be significant, little information exists about indigenous microbial communities in many freshwater environments. This study examined the bacterial communities of Mn-enriched layers in Lake Superior to identify the potential Mn(II) oxidizers responsible for the formation of Mn oxides. Anaerobic Mn(II) oxidation occurring in the Mn-enriched layers at the oxic-anoxic interface was investigated using Mn(II)-enriched cultures. High-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic investigations provided evidence of the biogenic formation of Mn oxides on cell surfaces. Spectroscopic mapping confirmed high levels of Mn in structures resembling biogenic Mn oxides. These structures were observed in enrichment cultures and in Mn-enriched layer sediment samples, indicating the significance of biogenic Mn oxidation occurring in situ. 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria potentially responsible for Mnoxide formation in the enrichment cultures and Mn-enriched layers, revealing that the Mn-enriched layer contains classes with known Mn(II)-oxidizing members. Pyrosequencing of bacterial cultures suggested that these bacteria may be Bacillus strains, and that anaerobic microbial-mediated Mn(II) oxidation contributes to the formation of the layers. PMID:26636960

  12. Do large structures control their own growth in a mixing layer? - An assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    1988-01-01

    Two different two-dimensional free shear layers, the T-layer developing in time from an initial tangential velocity discontinuity separating the two half-spaces, and the S-layer which develops downstream of the origin where two uniform streams of unequal velocity are brought into tangential contact, are compared. Calculations are performed in order to determine to what extent the perturbations induced upstream by large concentrations of vorticity found downstream hasten or retard the subharmonic instability that leads to the formations of these large structures. The results show that the elliptic influence, or the feedback, in a mixing layer is relatively small for small velocity ratios.

  13. Experimentally excellent beaming in a two-layer dielectric structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tasolamprou, Anna C.; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that a two-layer dielectric structure can provide collimation and enhanced transmission of a Gaussian beam passing through it. This is due to formation of surface localized states along the layered structure and the coupling of these states to outgoing propagating waves. As a result, a system of multiple cascading two-layers can sustain the beaming for large propagation distances.

  14. Formation of layered perovskite structure by folding monolayer during compression.

    PubMed

    Arita, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenji; Narita, Takayuki; Takahara, Atsushi; Era, Masanao; Oishi, Yushi

    2012-10-01

    The morphology and layered structure of an alkyl ammonium bromide ultrathin film prepared on an aqueous solution of lead bromide were investigated on the basis of surface pressure-area curve measurements, reflection spectrum measurements, X-ray reflectivity measurements and atomic force microscopic observations. It became apparent that the layered structure sandwiched a two-dimensional inorganic layer between two organic monolayers was formed by folding the monolayer by compression on an aqueous PbBr2 solution. PMID:23421184

  15. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  16. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R. (Midland, MI); Cleereman, Robert J. (Midland, MI); Eurich, Gerald (Merrill, MI); Graham, Andrew T. (Midland, MI); Langmaid, Joe A. (Caro, MI)

    2012-04-24

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  17. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

    2013-01-29

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  18. What Are the Origins of Detached Layers of Dust on Mars ? Investigation with Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, T.; Spiga, A.; Forget, F.

    2014-12-01

    The climate on Mars is strongly controlled by the amount of dust lifted and transported in the atmosphere, which causes fluctuations of air opacity and affects temperatures and winds. Recently, observations of the vertical dust distribution of the Martian atmosphere by the Mars Climate Sounder on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed a phenomenon which is still poorly understood: the formation of detached layers of dust. These detached layers, also confirmed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on-board the Mars Global Surveyor, reside above the planetary boundary layer typically at altitudes between 20 and 40 km and have been mostly observed at low latitudes. These detached layers of dust are not reproduced by Global Climate Models (GCM) and different atmospheric processes are discussed and can be combined to explain their origin, such as small-scale lifting, upslope topographic winds, scavenging by water ice clouds, dust storms Here we use the Martian GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Mtorologie Dynamique (LMD) to simulate the formation of detached layers of dust. To start, we developed a new implementation of the water cycle, taking into account nucleation on dust particles, ice particle growth, and scavenging of dust particles due to the condensation of ice. However, this method didn't yield to satisfying results in the GCM. Then, we performed the parameterization in the GCM of the so-called "rocket dust storms", governed by deep convection and able to inject dust at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere. By coupling this new parameterization with general circulation of the GCM, we succeed to model detached layers of dust. Here we present this parameterization and we discuss about the spatial and temporal variability of the detached layers of dust, in comparison with observations.

  19. Simple methods for determining the virtual origin of turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flow on sharp-edged flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods for determining the virtual origin of turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flow are evaluated. The results of the analyses are restricted to wind-tunnel models having sharp-edged surfaces with zero or small pressure gradients. Virtual origin and skin friction estimates from these two methods are compared with values from a base method for which the virtual origin is calculated from the measured momentum thickness at a station downstream of boundary layer transition.

  20. Interply layer degradation effects on composite structural response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Williams, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center to computationally evaluate the effects of interply layer progressive weakening (degradation) on the structural response of a composite beam are summarized. The structural responses of interest include: (1) bending, (2) buckling, (3) free vibrations, (4) periodic excitation, and (5) impact. Finite element analysis was used for the computational evaluations. The interply layer degradation effects on the various structural responses were determined and assessed as a function of the interply layer modulus varying from 1 million psi down to 1000 psi and even lower for some limiting cases. The results obtained show that the interply layer degradation has generally negligible effectss on composite structural response and, therefore, structural integrity, unless the interply layer modulus degrades to about 10,000 psi or less.

  1. Interply layer degradation effects on composite structural response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Williams, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Recent research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center to computationally evaluate the effects of interply layer progressive weakening (degradation) on the structural response of a composite beam are summarized. The structural responses of interest include: (1) bending, (2) buckling, (3) free vibrations, (4) periodic excitation, and (5) impact. Finite element analysis was used for the computational evaluations. The interply layer degradation effects on the various structural responses were determined and assessed as a function of the interply layer modulus varying from 1 million psi down to 1000 psi and even lower for some limiting cases. The results obtained show that the interply layer degradation has generally negligible effects on composite structural response and, therefore, structural integrity, unless the interply layer modulus degrades to about 10,000 psi or less.

  2. High-pressure layered structure of carbon disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghavi, S. Shahab; Crespo, Yanier; Martok, Roman; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-06-01

    Solid CS2 is superficially similar to CO2, with the same C m c a molecular crystal structure at low pressures, which has suggested similar phases also at high pressures. We carried out an extensive first-principles evolutionary search in order to identify the zero-temperature lowest-enthalpy structures of CS2 for increasing pressure up to 200 GPa. Surprisingly, the molecular C m c a phase does not evolve into ? -cristobalite as in CO2 but transforms instead into phases HP2 and HP1, both recently described in high-pressure SiS2. HP1 in particular, with a wide stability range, is a layered P 21/c structure characterized by pairs of edge-sharing tetrahedra and is theoretically more robust than all other CS2 phases discussed so far. Its predicted Raman spectrum and pair correlation function agree with experiment better than those of ? -cristobalite, and further differences are predicted between their respective IR spectra. The band gap of HP1-CS2 is calculated to close under pressure, yielding an insulator-metal transition near 50 GPa, in agreement with experimental observations. However, the metallic density of states remains modest above this pressure, suggesting a different origin for the reported superconductivity.

  3. Surface double-layer structure in (110) oriented BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tieying; Zhang, Xingmin; Gao, Xingyu; Li, Zhong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Can; Feng, Yu; Guo, Haizhong; Jin, Kuijuan

    2014-11-17

    Surface double-layer structure different from the interior was found in BiFeO{sub 3} thin film grown on SrRuO{sub 3} covered SrTiO{sub 3} (110) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. It was shown that BiFeO{sub 3} film exhibits epitaxial phase with single domain. X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed a skin layer of less than 1 nm with a reduced electron density and different surface state. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction convinced a surface multi-domain structure of several nm beneath the surface skin layer. The double-layer near surface structure would be originated from the large depolarization field produced by the single-domain structure with strain.

  4. Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique along path toward structures at rear of parcel. Original skinny mosaic path along edge of structures was altered (delineation can be seen in concrete) path was widened with a newer mosaic to make access to the site safer. Structures (from right) edge of Round House (with "Spring Garden"), Pencil house, Shell House, School House, wood lattice is attached to chain-link fence along north (rear) property line. These structures were all damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Camera facing northeast. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  5. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  6. A New View on Origin, Role and Manipulation of Large Scales in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corke, T. C.; Nagib, H. M.; Guezennec, Y. G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of passive 'manipulators' for altering the large scale turbulent structures in boundary layers was investigated. Utilizing smoke wire visualization and multisensor probes, the experiment verified that the outer scales could be suppressed by simple arrangements of parallel plates. As a result of suppressing the outer scales in turbulent layers, a decrease in the streamwise growth of the boundary layer thickness was achieved and was coupled with a 30 percent decrease in the local wall friction coefficient. After accounting for the drag on the manipulator plates, the net drag reduction reached a value of 20 percent within 55 boundary layer thicknesses downstream of the device. No evidence for the reoccurrence of the outer scales was present at this streamwise distance thereby suggesting that further reductions in the net drag are attainable. The frequency of occurrence of the wall events is simultaneously dependent on the two parameters, Re2 delta sub 2 and Re sub x. As a result of being able to independently control the inner and outer boundary layer characteristics with these manipulators, a different view of these layers emerged.

  7. An origin of marginal reversal of the Fongen-Hyllingen layered intrusion by prolonged magma emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, V.; Latypov, R.

    2012-04-01

    The ~100 m thick marginal zone of the Fongen-Hyllingen Intrusion (FHI) consists of nonlayered, highly iron-enriched ferrodiorites that are overlain by a ~6 km thick layered sequence of gabbroic to dioritic rocks of the Layered Series. From the base upwards the marginal zone become more primitive as exemplified by a significant increase in whole-rock MgO, Mg-number, and normative An. The reverse trends are also evident from an upward increase in An-content of plagioclase (from ~30 to ~43 at.%) and Mg-number of amphibole (from ~9 to ~23 at.%) and clinopyroxene (from ~23 to ~37 at.%). The marginal zone is abruptly terminated at the contact with the overlying Layered Series as is evident from a step-like increase in Mg-number of mafic minerals and An-content of plagioclase, as well as a sharp increase in whole-rock MgO and Mg-number in overlying olivine gabbronorites of the Layered Series. Based on these features the marginal zone of the FHI can be interpreted as an aborted marginal reversal. Reverse trends in whole-rock and mineral compositions, as well as a sharp break in these parameters are indicative of its formation in an open system with the involvement of the prolonged emplacement of magma that became increasingly more primitive. Such development of the marginal reversal was interrupted by the emplacement of a major influx of more primitive magma that produced the Layered Series. The open system evolution of a basaltic magma chamber may represent a general mechanism for the origin of marginal reversals in mafic sills and layered intrusions.

  8. 52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing original masonry structure at right and concrete weir at left added later. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Chasma Australe Mars: Structural Framework for a Catastrophic Outflow Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguita, F.; Babin, R.; Benito, G.; Collado, A.; Gomez, D.; Rice, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    Chasma Australe is the most remarkable of the martian south pole erosional reentrants carved in the polar layered deposits. Ms chasma originates near the south pole and runs across the polar troughs over a distance of about 500 km. Its width varies between 20 and 80 km and, with a depth up to 1000 m, it reaches the bedrock. Following an idea put forward originally for Chasma Boreale, we propose for the genesis of Chasma Australe a mechanism of catastrophic outflow preceded by a tectonically induced powerful sapping process. A detailed geomorphological analysis of Chasma Australe shows erosional and depositional features that can be interpreted as produced by the motion of a fluid. Like other polar reentrants, Chasma Australe is clearly assymetric, with a steep eastern margin where basal and lateral erosion prevailed, and a gentler western side, where the stepped topography and bedrock spurs favored deposition.

  10. Air-mass origin in the tropical lower stratosphere: The influence of Asian boundary layer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    A climatology of air-mass origin in the tropical lower stratosphere is presented for the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model. During late boreal summer and fall, air-mass fractions reveal that as much as 20% of the air in the tropical lower stratosphere last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over Asia; by comparison, the air-mass fractions corresponding to last PBL contact over North America and over Europe are negligible. Asian air reaches the extratropical tropopause within a few days of leaving the boundary layer and is quasi-horizontally transported into the tropical lower stratosphere, where it persists until January. The rapid injection of Asian air into the lower stratosphereand its persistence in the deep tropics through late (boreal) winteris important as industrial emissions over East Asia continue to increase. Hence, the Asian monsoon may play an increasingly important role in shaping stratospheric composition.

  11. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan

    Ceramic materials are finding increasing usage in the area of biomechanical replacements---dental crowns, hip and bone implants, etc.---where strength, wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical durability and even aesthetics are critical issues. Aesthetic ceramic crowns have been widely used in dentistry to replace damaged or missing teeth. However, the failure rates of ceramic crowns, especially all-ceramic crowns, can be 1%6% per year, which is not satisfactory to patients. The materials limitations and underlying fracture mechanisms of these prostheses are not well understood. In this thesis, fundamental fracture and damage mechanisms in model dental bilayer and trilayer structures are studied. Principle failure modes are identified from in situ experimentation and confirmed by fracture mechanics analysis. In bilayer structures of ceramic/polycarbonate (representative of ceramic crown/dentin structure), three major damage sources are identified: (i) top-surface cone cracks or (ii) quasiplasticity, dominating in thick ceramic bilayers; (iii) bottom-surface radial cracks, dominating in thin ceramic bilayers. Critical load P for each damage mode are measured in six dental ceramics: Y-TZP zirconia, glass-infiltrated zirconia and alumina (InCeram), glass-ceramic (Empress II), Porcelain (Mark II and Empress) bonded to polymer substrates, as a function of ceramic thickness d in the range of 100 mum to 10 mm. P is found independent of d for mode (i) and (ii), but has a d 2 relations for mode (iii)---bottom surface radial cracking. In trilayer structures of glass/core-ceramic/polycarbonate (representing veneer porcelain/core/dentin structures), three inner fracture origins are identified: radial cracks from the bottom surface in the (i) first and (ii) second layers; and (iii) quasiplasticity in core-ceramic layer. The role of relative veneer/core thickness, d1/d 2 and materials properties is investigated for three core materials with different modulus (114--270GPa) and strength (400--1400MPa): Y-TZP zirconia, InCeram alumina and Empress II glass-ceramic. Explicit relations for the critical loads P to produce these different damage modes in bilayer and trilayer structures are developed in terms of basic material properties (modulus E, strength, hardness H and toughness T) and geometrical variables (thickness d and contact sphere radius r). These experimentally validated relations are used to design of optimal material combinations for improved fracture resistance and to predict mechanical performance of current dental materials.

  12. Original size of the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therriault, A. M.; Reid, A. M.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-01-01

    The Vredefort structure is located approximately 120 km southwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, and is deeply eroded. Controversies remain on the origin of this structure with the most popular hypotheses being: (1) by impact cratering about 2.0 Ga; (2) as a cryptoexplosion structure about 2.0 Ga; and (3) by purely tectonic processes starting at about 3.0 Ga and ending with the Vredefort event at 2.0 Ga. In view of recent work in which the granophyre dikes are interpreted as the erosional remants of a more extensive impact melt sheet, injected downward into the underlying country rocks, the impact origin hypothesis for Vredefort is adopted. In order to estimate the original dimensions of the Vredefort impact structure, it is assumed that the structure was initially circular, that its predeformation center corresponds to the center of the granitic core, and that the pre-Vredefort geology of the area prior to approximately 2.0 Ga ago is as suggested by Fletcher and Reimold. The spatial relationship between shock metamorphic effects, the shock pressures they record, and the morphological features of the crater were established for a number of large terrestrial craters. The principles of crater formation at large complex impact structures comparable in size to Vredefort were also established, although many details remain unresolved. An important conclusion is that the transient crater, which is formed directly by excavation and displacement by the shock-induced cratering flow-field (i.e., the particle velocity flow field existing in the region of the transient crater but behind the initial outgoing shock front), is highly modified during the late stage processes. The original transient crater diameter lies well within the final rim of the crater, which is established by structural movements during late-stage cavity modification.

  13. Impact origin of the Sudbury structure: Evolution of a theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the origin, development, and present status of the widely accepted theory, proposed by Robert S. Dietz in 1962, that the Sudbury structure was formed by meteoritic or asteroidal impact. The impact theory for the origin of the Sudbury structure seems supported by a nearly conclusive body of evidence. However, even assuming an impact origin to be correct, at least three major questions require further study: (1) the original size and shape of the crater, before tectonic deformation and erosion; (2) the source of the melt now forming the Sudbury Igneous Complex; and (3) the degree, if any, to which the Ni-Cu-platinum group elements are meteoritic. The history of the impact theory illustrates several under-appreciated aspects of scientific research: (1) the importance of cross-fertilization between space research and terrestrial geology; (2) the role of the outsider in stimulating thinking by insiders; (3) the value of small science, at least in the initial stages of an investigation, Dietz's first field work having been at his own expense; and (4) the value of analogies (here, between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the maria), which although incorrect in major aspects, may trigger research on totally new lines. Finally, the Sudbury story illustrates the totally unpredictable and, by implication, unplannable nature of basic research, in that insight to the origin of the world's then-greatest Ni deposit came from the study of tektites and the Moon.

  14. Double-layer structure of OH dayglow in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; Ward, William; Smith, Anne K.; Chen, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Observations by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite from January 2002 to June 2014 are used to study the vertical structure of OH dayglow. The results indicate for the first time that there is a double-layer structure in the distributions of 12 year averaged OH airglow emission, [O3], and [H] during the daytime. The upper layer of OH dayglow is located in the mesopause region (~88 km) at a similar altitude to that of the OH nightglow. The lower layer is situated in the range of 70-85 km. Both the peak emission and height of the lower layer increase with local time. The distance between the two layers decreases with local time. At the equator, the lower layer forms at ~09:00 LT and lasts for about 8 h; during this time the interlayer distance decreases from 13 km to 5 km. The double-layer structure is more obvious and longer-lived during the equinoxes and at lower latitudes. The double-layer structure of OH dayglow emission is a long-term stable structure and is mainly caused by photochemical processes involving [O3]. It is also modulated by background atmospheric temperature and [H].

  15. Bi-layer structures as solid oxide fuel cell interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenhua; Gopalan, Srikanth

    A new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important designing variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. By careful design of the composition and thicknesses of the two layers, one can, in principle, obtain an IC with a low cell-to-cell resistance.

  16. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-10-07

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  17. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Das, Kaushik; Konovalov, Oleg

    2013-09-01

    Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001) substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  18. Characteristics of surface layer structure formation during laser boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananko, I. A.; Levchenko, A. A.; Guiva, R. T.; Guiva, V. A.; Sittsevaia, E. Iu.

    1989-08-01

    The surface layers of a mild steel and steels 40 and U8 were studied metallographically following a laser boriding treatment. In particular, the structure and properties of the borided layer were investigated as a function of the irradiation rate and the thickness of the coating compound. It is shown that laser boriding produces a sharp increase in the hardness of the steels and leads to the formation of hardened layers that are as thick as those produced by diffusion boriding treatments.

  19. Dislocations and domain structures in layer crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolikas, C.; Amelinckx, S.

    1980-01-01

    The domain configurations in the transition metal dichalcogenides, NbTe 2, ?-MoTe 2, ReSe 2 and ReSe 2 with a deformed cadmium iodide or cadmium chloride structure, are analysed by electron diffraction and imaging techniques. Structural models are proposed for the different types of boundaries. The dislocation fine structure is analysed in detail, in particular in NbTe 2. The peculiar behaviour of dislocations in ?-MoTe 2 is also discussed. The interaction between the dislocation multiribbons and the domain boundaries is studied.

  20. Origin of the F-Layer by ``Snowfall'' in the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernlund, J. W.; Li, J.; Armentrout, M. M.; Buono, A. S.; Chen, B.; Durand, S.; Gaeman, J.; Pigott, J. S.; Waszek, L.; Zheng, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Recent seismological observations of phases reflecting (PKiKP), diffracting (PKPdiff), or going through the inner core (PKIKP) called for modification of PREM at the top of the Inner Core Boundary (ICB). Both the AK135 and PREM2 models proposed a flattened P-wave velocity gradient relative to PREM in the ~200 km region above the ICB, often referred to as the F-layer. This reduced velocity gradient implies density stratification, which may reflect a gradient in the light element concentration decreasing from the top of the F-layer to the ICB. Here we propose a mechanism to generate a chemical stratification in the F-layer through crystallization of solid iron “snow” at the top of the F-layer, which then precipitates, partially dissolves, and eventually accumulates at the ICB to produce the F-layer and contribute to the growth of the inner core. The formation of iron “snow” in the outer core (OC) requires that the core geotherm intercepts the FeX liquidus, where X is an alloying light element, to create a region of stability for solid iron at the base of the OC. This study examines two potential scenarios in which iron “snowfall” might occur in the F-layer. The first scenario involves the FeX liquidus gradient decreasing or even changing sign such that a region of solid stability is created at the top of the F-layer. This behavior is observed in the Fe-S binary system at lower pressures and has been proposed to cause “snowing” in the interiors of Mercury and Ganymede. In the second case, the outer core temperature may increase relative to the FeX liquidus near the ICB due to viscomagnetic heating. Results based on mineral physics calculations of an iron-sulfur binary system show that an F-layer composition ranging from 7.2 wt% S at the top of the F-layer to 5.7 wt% S at the ICB is sufficient to explain the Vp structure of the F-layer in AK135. In these calculations, the density and bulk modulus as a function of depth were determined using the 3rd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Temperature was accounted for using the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye equation of state. Published experimental values for Fe-FeS solid and liquid end-members were used and those of intermediate compositions were determined using ideal solution theory. The crystal fraction was assumed to be small enough to allow approximation of a pure liquid composition in the F-layer. Comparison of our F-layer model to PREM results in a better fit to the observed travel time data. Comparison of normal mode eigenfrequencies from the two models shows subtle differences; therefore normal modes have been determined to be insensitive to the small-scale structure of the relatively thin F-layer

  1. Origin of Martian Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) by atmospherically driven processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the first photogeologic exploration of Mars, vast mounds of layered sediments found within the Valles Marineris canyon system (Interior Layered Deposits or ILDs) have remained unexplained. Recent spectroscopic results showing that these materials contain coarse-grained hematite [1] and sulfate [2-8] suggest that they are fundamentally similar to layered sulfate deposits seen elsewhere on Mars [3], and are therefore a key piece of Mars' global aqueous history. Layered sulfate deposits (including ILDs) are often considered to have formed in association with transient, wet surface environments caused by groundwater upwelling [9] in the Hesperian. Here, we use spectroscopic mapping along with geomorphic observations and mass balance calculations to demonstrate that the sulfate-bearing ILDs likely did not form due to groundwater upwelling or any similar playa-lacustrine scenario. Instead, the ILDs likely formed from atmospherically driven processes in a configuration similar to that observed today. We suggest that Hesperian layered sulfate deposits formed in response to massive amounts of pyroclastic volcanism and SO2-outgassing that peaked near 3.5-3.7 Ga in a Martian climate that was largely cold and dry. This origin for the ILDs is also applicable to other layered terrain of similar age and characteristics, including sulphate-bearing crater fill, chaos terrains, and the Meridiani Planum sediments. [1] Weitz, C. M., Lane, M. D., Staid, M. & Dobrea, E. N. Gray hematite distribution and formation in Ophir and Candor chasmata. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 113, doi:E02016 10.1029/2007je002930 (2008). [2] Wendt, L. et al. Sulfates and iron oxides in Ophir Chasma, Mars, based on OMEGA and CRISM observations. Icarus 213, 86-103, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.02.013 (2011). [3] Murchie, S. et al. Evidence for the origin of layered deposits in Candor Chasma, Mars, from mineral composition and hydrologic modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 114, doi:E00d05 10.1029/2009je003343 (2009). [4] Mangold, N. et al. Spectral and geological study of the sulfate-rich region of West Candor Chasma, Mars. Icarus 194, 519-543, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.10.021 (2008). [5] Le Deit, L. et al. Morphology, stratigraphy, and mineralogical composition of a layered formation covering the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars: Implications for its geological history. Icarus 208, 684-703, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.012 (2010). [6] Gendrin, A. et al. Suffates in martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars Express view. Science 307, 1587-1591, doi:10.1126/science.1109087 (2005). [7] Bibring, J.-P. et al. Coupled Ferric Oxides and Sulfates on the Martian Surface. Science 317, 1206-1210, doi:10.1126/science.1144174 (2007). [8] Roach, L. H., Mustard, J. F., Lane, M. D., Bishop, J. L. & Murchie, S. L. Diagenetic haematite and sulfate assemblages in Valles Marineris. Icarus 207, 659-674, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.029 (2010). [9] Andrews-Hanna, J. C. & Lewis, K. W. Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 116, doi:E02007 10.1029/2010je003709 (2011).

  2. Growth and Structure of the First Layers of Ice on Ru(0001) and Pt(111).

    PubMed

    Maier, Sabine; Lechner, Barbara A J; Somorjai, Gabor A; Salmeron, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to probe the structure and growth of the first few layers of water on Ru(0001) and Pt(111) at the molecular level. The surface-bound first layer is composed of a mixture of water molecules forming hexagonal structures, both in registry and out-of-registry with the substrate atoms. The hexagons are connected by pentagonal and heptagonal units. At temperatures below 140 K, this layer structure gives rise to the growth of metastable amorphous structures in the second and higher layers. We found that in the transition from amorphous to crystalline ice the structure of the original bottom layer changes to one in perfect local registry with the hexagonal surfaces of Ru(0001) and Pt(111). We further discovered structural defects in the form of extended one-dimensional lines of five- and eight-membered rings that are domain boundaries and stacking faults in the growing ice layers, which lead to the formation of metastable cubic ice. PMID:26844953

  3. Dynamic characteristics of specialty composite structures with embedded damping layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    Damping mechanics for simulating the damped dynamic characteristics in specialty composite structures with compliant interlaminar damping layers are presented. Finite-element based mechanics incorporating a discrete layer (or layer-wise) laminate damping theory are utilized to represent general laminate configurations in terms of lay-up and fiber orientation angles, cross-sectional thickness, shape, and boundary conditions. Evaluations of the method with exact solutions and experimental data illustrate the accuracy of the method. Additional applications investigate the potential for significant damping enhancement in angle-ply composite laminates with cocured interlaminar damping layers.

  4. Cocured damped layers in composite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rotz, C.A. ); Barrett, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on the feasibility of laminating and cocuring graphite fiber-epoxy prepreg with plies of commercially available damping materials for form beams and hat-stiffened panels. Experiments showed that cocuring did not adversely affect the damping materials and that excellent structural damping properties could be obtained. The construction of the hat-stiffened panels proved that complex parts containing damping materials could be fabricated. Dynamic testing of these components showed that internal architectural features could be designed to promote damping in primary structure.

  5. Structural, compositional and optical properties of PECVD silicon nitride layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouta, Fouad; Vora, Kaushal; Tian, Jie; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the correlation between the various plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process parameters on the structural, compositional and optical properties of SiNx layers. The investigated process parameters are gas composition, radio frequency power and its frequency and deposition temperature. We also investigated SiON and ammonia-free SiNx layers. Refractive index, thickness, residual stress, structure and composition of the dielectric layers were determined using interferometry, wafer bowing, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. SiNx films can be deposited to be almost stress-free with relatively low concentration of hydrogen (10 to 19% of atomic H). SiNx layers have the potential to cover a wide range of refractive indices (1.8-2.1) with possible extension down to 1.40 through various SiON layers.

  6. Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ?10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ?50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

  7. Structure of the Stern layer in Phospholipid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangaveti, Sweta; Travesset, Alex

    2011-03-01

    The structure of the Stern layer in Phospholipid Systems results from a subtle competition of salt concentration, ionic valence, specific ionic-phospolipid interactions and pH. It becomes very challenging to develop a rigorous theory that encompasses all these effects, yet its understanding is extremely relevant for both model and biological systems, as the structure of the Stern layer determines the interactions of phospholipids with proteins or electrostatic phase separation (rafts). In this talk we will present our theoretical model for the Stern Layer and discuss how all these effects are included. Particularly emphasis is made to Phosphoinositides and Phosphatidic acid. This work is supported by grant NSF DMR-0748475.

  8. Origin of the Vredefort structure, South Africa: Impact model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therriault, A. M.; Reid, A. M.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-01-01

    A model is presented for the evolution of the Vredefort structure, based on reasoned constraints on the original size of the Vredefort structure from observational data and comparison with other terrestrial impact craters. The models for complex craters (ring and multi-ring basins) of Croft, Grieve, and co-workers, and Schultz and co-workers, were used to reconstruct the Vredefort impact event, using a final crater diameter of 300 km, as estimated by Therriault. The sequence of events (stages 2-5) is illustrated diagramatically. The stages are: initial penetration, excavation and compression, dynamic rebound and uplift, maximum radial growth and collapse, and final crater form.

  9. The origin of layered gabbros from the mid lower ocean crust, Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheadle, M. J.; Brown, T. C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Meyer, R.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Exp. 345 Holes U1415 I & J cored a ~30m thick unit of conspicuously layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust at Hess Deep. These rocks likely come from >1500m below the dike gabbro transition and thus provide an unique opportunity to study the origin of layering and the formation of relatively deep, fast spread plutonic crust formed at the EPR. Here we report the initial results of a comprehensive high-resolution petrologic, geochemical and petrographic study of this unit, which focuses on a fairly continuous 1.5m long section recovered at Hole I. The rocks consist of opx-bearing olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbro and exhibit 1-10cm scale modal layering. Some layers host spectacular 2-3 cm diameter cpx oikocrysts encapsulating partially resorbed plagioclase laths. Downhole variations in mineral chemistry are complicated. Olivine, cpx and opx Mg#'s partly reflect equilibration and show a subtle metre-scale variation (1-2 Mg#), whereas, for example, plagioclase anorthite, and cpx TiO2 contents reveal a more complicated 10-20 cm-scale variation (2-4 An, and 0.2 TiO2). Mineral zonation, for all but Mg# in equilibrated olivine, is of higher magnitude than downhole variations in average mineral compositions. Trace element geochemistry reveals rather homogeneous plagioclase and opx compositions; however cpx exhibits variation at the mineral scale. Cpx shows an increased range of, and highest REE concentrations, in the more olivine rich, near cotectic, composition gabbros, whereas the more plagioclase rich, cumulates show no variation of, and low REE, concentrations.Plagioclase fabrics are moderate to weak and partially modally controlled, but the strength of the plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) varies dramatically, within the 1.5m core showing a significant part of the variation recorded by Oman ophiolite plutonic crust. Plagioclase shape preferred orientation and CPO match well suggesting that diffusion enabled compaction was not significant. Overall, our combined observations and the similarity of composition and textures to those found in the Rum layered mafic intrusion (Scotland); an intrusion built by multiple ~100m thick replenishments of magma, suggests that the studied layered sequence is best interpreted as having formed in a lower crustal sill.

  10. Metal diphosphonates with double-layer and pillared layered structures based on N-cyclohexylaminomethanediphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yanhui; Cao Dengke; Duan Yan; Li Yizhi; Zheng Limin

    2010-07-15

    Based on N-cyclohexylaminomethanediphosphonic acid (cmdpH{sub 4}), four new metal diphosphonate compounds with formula M{sub 3}(cmdpH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} [M=Zn(1), Co(2)] and M{sub 2}(cmdpH{sub 2}){sub 2}(4,4'-bipy){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O) [M=Co(3), Mn(4)] have been obtained and structurally determined. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural. Within the structure, the M(2)O{sub 6} octahedra are each corner-shared with four PO{sub 3}C tetrahedra to form a single layer containing 3- and 7-member rings. Neighboring single layers are pillared by M(1)O{sub 4} tetrahedra, resulting in a novel double-layer structure. The organic moieties of cmdpH{sup 3-} are grafted on the two sides of the double layer. Compounds 3 and 4 are also isostructural, displaying a pillared layered structure. Within the inorganic layer, the M(1)O{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids and M(2)NO{sub 5} octahedra are each linked by PO{sub 3}C tetrahedra through corner-sharing, forming a layer in the ab plane which contains 3- and 10-member rings. These layers are pillared by 4,4'-bipyridine via coordination with the M(2) atoms from the adjacent layers, leading to a three-dimensional open framework structure with channels generated along the a-axis. The organic groups of cmdpH{sub 2}{sup 2-} locate within the channels. Magnetic studies show that antiferromagnetic interactions are dominant in compounds 2-4. Field dependent magnetization reveals a spin flop behavior for 2. - Graphical abstract: Based on N-cyclohexylaminomethanediphosphonate (cmdp{sup 4-}), compounds Zn{sub 3}(cmdpH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1) and Co{sub 3}(cmdpH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (2) with a double-layer structure and compounds Co{sub 2}(cmdpH{sub 2}){sub 2}(4,4'-bipy){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O) (3) and Mn{sub 2}(cmdpH{sub 2}){sub 2}(4,4'-bipy){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O) (4) with a pillared layered structure are reported in this paper. Dominant antiferromagnetic interactions are found in compounds 2-4 and an interesting spin flop behavior is observed in 2.

  11. Structural response of plates with piezoceramic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dipen K.; Joshi, Shiv P.; Chan, Wen S.

    1993-09-01

    Smart structures can be developed using a variety of sensors and actuators such as piezoelectric, fiber-optic, acoustic, and pyroelectric materials, etc. A piezoelectric material produces electric charge when it is mechanically deformed and conversely, an electric potential causes mechanical deformation of the material. The main thrust of research in the area of smart structures has been in vibration control and geometric shape manipulation. Finite element analysis techniques have been introduced recently in vibration suppression and modal control. In the present study a finite element formulation is developed to analyze laminated plates with arbitrarily placed piezoceramic patches. The technique is applied to obtain static response and stress fields due to application of electric field to the piezoceramic patches.

  12. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  13. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  14. A single metal layer MEMS self-assembling coplanar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagolini, A.; Giacomozzi, F.; Margesin, B.; Bellutti, P.

    2007-05-01

    Self-assembling perforated microplates modeled and fabricated on silicon wafers by means of surface micromachining are presented. The structures consist of a single Cr/Au metal layer and are set into position by the residual tensile in-plane stress of the material; the geometry is designed to obtain a lifted microplate coplanar to the surface of the wafer. The structures are modeled both analytically and by finite element simulation to correlate the displacement with the strain of the structural material. Samples are fabricated using IC technology on standard 4-inch silicon wafers by surface micromachining; a photoresist is used as a sacrificial layer and electroplated gold is used as a structural layer on a chromium-gold PVD seedlayer. The fabricated structures exhibit a vertical displacement of 38 m. The resulting estimated strain is 0.001 66, which corresponds to a tensile stress of 173 MPa and is consistent with thermal residual strain.

  15. Manipulation by exchange coupling in layered magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, M. A.; Uzdin, V. M.; Zabel, H.

    2014-02-01

    Exchange coupling in magnetic heterostructures can be modified via introduction of additional magnetic spacer layers at the interfaces. The magnetic characteristics and the spacer layer thickness determine the functional properties of the whole system. We show that the hysteresis loop area of trilayer spring magnets with two different soft magnetic layers (s1, s2) and one hard magnetic layer (h) with the sequence s1/s2/h can be increased as compared to both bilayer structures s1/h and s2/h with the same total thickness of the soft layers and for definite thickness ratios of the soft layers and their sequences. For ferrimagnetic spin valves, the perpendicular exchange bias effect can be tuned via the thickness of non-magnetic spacer layers at the interface, which determine the exchange coupling between ferrimagnets. A simple quasi one-dimensional phenomenological model is able to describe the magnetic hysteresis of even complex layered structures and to predict optimal geometrical and magnetic parameters of such heterostructures.

  16. Manipulation by exchange coupling in layered magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, M. A.; Uzdin, V. M.; Zabel, H.

    2014-02-07

    Exchange coupling in magnetic heterostructures can be modified via introduction of additional magnetic spacer layers at the interfaces. The magnetic characteristics and the spacer layer thickness determine the functional properties of the whole system. We show that the hysteresis loop area of trilayer spring magnets with two different soft magnetic layers (s1, s2) and one hard magnetic layer (h) with the sequence s1/s2/h can be increased as compared to both bilayer structures s1/h and s2/h with the same total thickness of the soft layers and for definite thickness ratios of the soft layers and their sequences. For ferrimagnetic spin valves, the perpendicular exchange bias effect can be tuned via the thickness of non-magnetic spacer layers at the interface, which determine the exchange coupling between ferrimagnets. A simple quasi one-dimensional phenomenological model is able to describe the magnetic hysteresis of even complex layered structures and to predict optimal geometrical and magnetic parameters of such heterostructures.

  17. Evaluation of layer-by-layer graphene structures as supercapacitor electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaobei; Li, Peixu; Chen, Qiao; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Zhu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Very less attention has been paid recently to the electrochemical properties of graphene films with intrinsic flat structure prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this work, button supercapacitors were fabricated using ionic liquid as electrolytes and layer-by-layer graphene structures as electrodes. The specific capacitances of the supercapacitors increased with the increase of layer number. The areal specific capacitance of ten-layer graphene supercapacitor was 0.29 mF/cm2 at the scan rate of 50 mV/s, which was about three times of that of monolayer graphene supercapacitor (0.1 mF/cm2). The sandwiched multi-layer structures with oxide deposition further improved the device performance. However, the polycrystalline nature of CVD-grown graphene films introduced structural instability during charge-discharge process, resulting in degraded capacitive performance and cycling stability. Our results suggest that graphene films with intrinsic "in-plane" structure might not be ideal candidates for electrode materials.

  18. Structure analysis of layer-by-layer multilayer films of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batys, Piotr; Nosek, Magdalena; Weroński, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We have mimicked the layer-by-layer self-assembling process of monodisperse colloidal particles at a solid-liquid interface using the extended random sequential adsorption model of hard spheres. We have studied five multilayer structures of similar thickness, each created at a different single-layer surface coverage. For each multilayer, we have determined its particle volume fraction as a function of distance from the interface. Additionally, we have characterized the film structure in terms of 2D and 3D pair-correlation functions. We have found that the coverage of about 0.3 is optimal for producing a uniform, constant-porosity multilayer in a minimum number of adsorption cycles. The single-layer coverage has also a significant effect on the primary maximum of 2D radial distribution function. In the case of multilayer with the coverage lower than 0.30 the 2D pair-correlation functions of even layers exhibit maxima decreasing with the increase in the layer number. We have verified our theoretical predictions experimentally. We have used fluorescence microscopy to determine the 2D pair-correlation functions for the second, third, and fourth layers of multilayer formed of micron-sized spherical latex particles. We have found a good agreement between our theoretical and experimental results, which confirms the validity of the extended RSA model.

  19. Impact origin of the Newporte structure, Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, N.F.; Gerlach, T.R.; Anderson, N.L.

    1996-05-01

    The Newporte field is located just south of the United States-Canada border in Renville County, North Dakota, in the north-central portion of the Williston basin. Integration of seismic, well-log, and core data supports the interpretation of an impact origin for the Newporte structure. The structure involves both Precambrian basement and lower Paleozoic sedimentary units. Oil and gas production began in 1977 from brecciated basement rocks along the rim of the 3.2-km-diameter circular structure. Both well logs and seismic data were used to determine thickness changes of sedimentary units overlying the structure. Resulting isopach maps reveal a circular, bowl-shaped feature with a recognizable rim. Microscopic shock metamorphic features in quartz and feldspar are visible in basement clasts that form a mixed breccia with Cambrian Deadwood sandstone within the western rim of the structure. A Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician age is suggested for the structure because of the presence of flatlying Deadwood sandstone overlying mixed basement/sandstone breccia along portions of the rim. Identification of the Newporte structure as an impact crater adds to the growing base of evidence revealing the relevance of impact craters to petroleum exploration.

  20. Perturbation of the Heat Lateral Diffusion by Interface Resistance in Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frtigny, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Fournier, D.

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that interface resistances do usually exist in layered structures, and their values strongly depend on their origin. They may arise from different vibrational properties of the layers, nonharmonic processes at the interface, surface chemical contamination, interfacial defects, etc. Numerous studies have been published to evaluate their values, most of the time, in a perpendicular heat diffusion scheme. In this paper, the effect of interface resistances on the lateral modulated surface temperature of a layered structure for cylindrical symmetry heat diffusion is studied. The thermoreflectance microscope is a particularly convenient tool to record heat lateral diffusion from a surface modulated heated point and thus to evidence the presence of such resistance interfaces. In a first part, the theoretical model of heat diffusion in cylindrical symmetry, in a layered structure exhibiting an interface resistance between the layer and the substrate, is briefly described. In a second part, the C/I configuration (good conductive layer deposited on an insulating substrate, with an interface resistance) is investigated. Experimental results illustrate the theory. In the third part, the reverse case I/C (insulating layer deposited on a conductive substrate, with an interface resistance) is discussed. To conclude, all the cases and the ability of the lateral diffusion to recover interface thermal resistances are compared.

  1. Modulated structures of flexoelectric origin in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Barbero, G; Lelidis, I

    2003-06-01

    A structural instability of flexoelectric origin is predicted in a homeotropic cell, of insulating nematic liquid crystal, by the action of an electric field applied in the direction of the initially nonperturbed nematic director. The instability gives rise to a two-dimensional periodic structure. The critical field to observe the predicted modulated structure as well as the wavelength at the threshold are evaluated. Both vary as the inverse square root of the cell thickness. The role of the dielectric anisotropy on the phenomenon is investigated. Our analysis is performed in the limit of weak anchoring energy strength, where the extrapolation length is large with respect to the thickness of the nematic sample. PMID:16241245

  2. Efficient vertical mode expansion method for scattering by arbitrary layered cylindrical structures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hualiang; Lu, Ya Yan

    2015-06-01

    A relatively simple and efficient numerical method is developed for analyzing the scattering of light by a layered cylindrical structure of arbitrary cross section surrounded by a layered background. The method significantly extends an existing vertical mode expansion method (VMEM) for circular or elliptic cylindrical structures. The original VMEM and its extension give rise to effective two-dimensional formulations for the three-dimensional scattering problems of layered cylindrical structures. The extended VMEM developed in this paper uses boundary integral equations to handle the two-dimensional Helmholtz equations that appear in the vertical mode expansion process. The method is applied to analyze the transmission of light through subwavelength apertures in metallic films and the scattering of light by metallic nanoparticles. PMID:26072822

  3. The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.

  4. Development of a dual layered dielectric-loaded accelerating structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Nenasheva, E.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; KEK

    2008-09-01

    Due to the high magnetic field-induced surface currents on its conducting sleeve, a conventional single layer Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure exhibits a relatively high RF loss. One possible way to solve this problem is to use multilayered DLA structures. In these devices, the RF power attenuation is reduced by making use of the Bragg Fiber concept: the EM fields are well confined by multiple reflections from multiple dielectric layers. This paper presents the design of an X-band dual layer DLA structure as well as the results of bench tests of the device. We will also present results on the design, numerical modeling, and fabrication of structures for coupling RF into multilayer DLAs such as a novel TM{sub 03} mode launcher and a TM{sub 01}-TM{sub 03} mode converter using dielectric-loaded corrugated waveguide.

  5. Composition, structure, and properties of iron-rich nontronites of different origins

    SciTech Connect

    Palchik, N. A. Grigorieva, T. N.; Moroz, T. N.

    2013-03-15

    The composition, structure, and properties of smectites of different origins have been studied by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microprobe analysis. The results showed that nontronites of different origins differ in composition, properties, morphology, and IR spectroscopic characteristics. Depending on the degree of structural order and the negative charge of iron-silicate layers in nontronites, the shift of the 001 reflection to smaller angles as a result of impregnation with ethylene glycol (this shift is characteristic of the smectite group) occurs differently. The calculated values of the parameter b (from 9.11 to 9.14A) are valid for the extreme terms of dioctahedral smectite representatives: nontronites.

  6. Original Size and Shape of the Sudbury Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence bearing on the original size and shape of the Sudbury impact structure. Current opinion is almost unanimous that the structure is a multiring basin with an original diameter of about 200 km and a circular shape that has since been shortened in a northwest-southeast direction by Penokean deformation Evidence for this interpretation, collected chiefly from north of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), includes supposed outer rings on Landsat imagery, distant occurrences of "Sudbury breccia" (generally defined as pseudotachylite), shatter cone occurrences, and outliers of Huronian sedimentary rock thought to be down-faulted rings. New data from imaging radar and field work north of the SIC, however, contradict this evidence. Radar imagery shows no signs of the supposed outer rings mapped by earlier workers on Landsat images. The most prominent ring has been found to be a chance alignment of two independent fracture sets. Radar imagery from the CCRS Convair 580, with look direction almost normal to the north rim of the SIC, shows no evidence of the rings despite strong look azimuth highlighting. Radar imagery has shown many unmapped diabase dikes north of the SIC. Several exposures of supposed Sudbury breccia are associated with these dikes or with Nipissing diabase intrusions, in some cases actually inside the dikes or directly continuous with them. They appear to be igneous intrusion breccias with no relation to impact. Shock-wave interaction at lithologic contacts cannot be invoked for most of these, because they are part of a northwest trending swarm cutting the SIC in the North Range, and hence too young for an impact origin. Similar diabase-related breccias and pseudotachylite-like veins have been found far outside the Sudbury area between Chapleau and Thessalon. Shatter cones north of the SIC are few and poorly developed, perhaps due to the coarse-grained Footwall rock, and cannot be considered a continuous zone analogous to their occurrence on the South Range in Huronian rocks. Supposed down-faulted outliers of Huronian rocks north of the SIC show no consistent relation to faulting, and the Huronian/Archean contact is locally erosional. Radar imagery and field-checking confirm Rousell's conclusion that the North Range has undergone little or no Penokean deformation. T'his implies that the plan view outline of the crater (floor of the SIC) is original. Extrapolation of the North Range as part of a circular arc leads to an impossibly great diameter. It is concluded that although Penokean deformation largely accounts for the structure's shape, the original crater was not circular and was much smaller than 200 km across.

  7. Origin of weak layer contraction in de Vries smectic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M; Yoon, HyungGuen; Dey, Sonal; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-03-01

    Structural investigations of the de Vries smectic-A (SmA) and smectic-C (SmC) phases of four mesogens containing a trisiloxane end segment reveal a linear molecular conformation in the SmA phase and a bent conformation resembling a hockey stick in the SmC phase. The siloxane and the hydrocarbon parts of the molecule tilt at different angles relative to the smectic layer normal and are oriented along different directions. For the compounds investigated, the shape of orientational distribution function (ODF) is found to be sugarloaf shaped and not the widely expected volcano like with positive orientational order parameters: ?P2? = 0.53-0.78, ?P4? = 0.14-0.45, and ?P6??0.10. The increase in the effective molecular length, and consequently in the smectic layer spacing caused by reduced fluctuations and the corresponding narrowing of the ODF, counteracts the effect of molecular tilt and significantly reduces the SmC layer contraction. Maximum tilt of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule lies between approximately 18 and 25 and between 6 and 12 for the siloxane part. The critical exponent of the tilt order parameter, ??0.25, is in agreement with tricritical behavior at the SmA-SmC transition for two compounds and has lower value for first-order transition in the other compounds with finite enthalpy of transition. PMID:24730863

  8. Origin of weak layer contraction in de Vries smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Yoon, HyungGuen; Dey, Sonal; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-03-01

    Structural investigations of the de Vries smectic-A (SmA) and smectic-C (SmC) phases of four mesogens containing a trisiloxane end segment reveal a linear molecular conformation in the SmA phase and a bent conformation resembling a hockey stick in the SmC phase. The siloxane and the hydrocarbon parts of the molecule tilt at different angles relative to the smectic layer normal and are oriented along different directions. For the compounds investigated, the shape of orientational distribution function (ODF) is found to be sugarloaf shaped and not the widely expected volcano like with positive orientational order parameters: ?P2? = 0.53-0.78, ?P4? = 0.14-0.45, and ?P6?0.10. The increase in the effective molecular length, and consequently in the smectic layer spacing caused by reduced fluctuations and the corresponding narrowing of the ODF, counteracts the effect of molecular tilt and significantly reduces the SmC layer contraction. Maximum tilt of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule lies between approximately 18 and 25 and between 6 and 12 for the siloxane part. The critical exponent of the tilt order parameter, ?0.25, is in agreement with tricritical behavior at the SmA-SmC transition for two compounds and has lower value for first-order transition in the other compounds with finite enthalpy of transition.

  9. Guided waves in a multi-layered optical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Pedro J.

    2006-09-01

    Motivated by the study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a multi-layered optical medium, we prove the existence of two different kinds of homoclinic solutions to the origin in a Schrdinger equation with a nonlinear term. We use a Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem together with a compactness criterion due to Zima. The main results are illustrated with concrete examples of practical interest such as self-focusing nonlinearities of Kerr and non-Kerr type.

  10. Electronic origin of high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X. J.

    2012-07-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds has attracted much attention. How to further increase the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and how to understand the superconductivity mechanism are two prominent issues facing the current study of iron-based superconductors. The latest report of high-Tc superconductivity in a single-layer FeSe is therefore both surprising and significant. Here we present investigations of the electronic structure and superconducting gap of the single-layer FeSe superconductor. Its Fermi surface is distinct from other iron-based superconductors, consisting only of electron-like pockets near the zone corner without indication of any Fermi surface around the zone centre. Nearly isotropic superconducting gap is observed in this strictly two-dimensional system. The temperature dependence of the superconducting gap gives a transition temperature Tc~ 55 K. These results have established a clear case that such a simple electronic structure is compatible with high-Tc superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  11. Electronic origin of high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe superconductor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds has attracted much attention. How to further increase the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and how to understand the superconductivity mechanism are two prominent issues facing the current study of iron-based superconductors. The latest report of high-T(c) superconductivity in a single-layer FeSe is therefore both surprising and significant. Here we present investigations of the electronic structure and superconducting gap of the single-layer FeSe superconductor. Its Fermi surface is distinct from other iron-based superconductors, consisting only of electron-like pockets near the zone corner without indication of any Fermi surface around the zone centre. Nearly isotropic superconducting gap is observed in this strictly two-dimensional system. The temperature dependence of the superconducting gap gives a transition temperature T(c)~ 55 K. These results have established a clear case that such a simple electronic structure is compatible with high-T(c) superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. PMID:22760630

  12. Combinations of processes responsible for Martian impact crater ``layered ejecta structures'' emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Di Lorenzo, Stefano; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Neukum, Gerhard

    2007-06-01

    We utilized images and stereo-derived topographic data acquired by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images together with other data in order to study the geology of ``layered ejecta structures'' associated with relatively pristine Martian impact craters. The geomorphology and morphometric properties indicate their origin as complex combinations of a variety of impact processes. The studied (inner) layered ejecta structures often exhibit ground-hugging characteristics, and many of them do not have topographic profiles expected from simple ballistic emplacement. Such profiles include ones that are plateau-shaped or thickening outward. We think that water-rich fluidized flows driven by the momentum due to the impact and by gravity, together with ballistic emplacement and vortex produced by the atmosphere-ejecta curtain interaction, were essential to the (inner) layered ejecta structure formation. We hypothesize that the thinner outer layered ejecta structures were formed by various combinations of shockwave-induced liquefaction of water-rich near-surface sediments, ballistic emplacement of ejecta-entraining water, and strong winds (expanding vapor, vortex, base surge) related to the impact. The contribution of each proposed layered ejecta structure formation mechanism should have been variable depending on the condition of the impact.

  13. Origin of weak magnetism in compounds with cubic laves structure.

    PubMed

    Torun, E; Janner, A; de Groot, R A

    2016-02-17

    The origin of the weak itinerant magnetism in materials such as TiBe2 and ZrZn2 is investigated. The huge peak in the density of states at the Fermi energy is attributed to a special symmetry of the C15 structure: no crystal field splitting of the d levels occurs in the case of coordination by spherical ligands. Crystal field splitting is also investigated for the f orbitals in C15 structures such as PuZn2 and ThMg2. It is observed that the situation in f levels is more complicated than the d levels because the characteristics of the crystal field splitting for f levels does not only depend on the the local point symmetry of the compounds. PMID:26795899

  14. Structural origin of slow diffusion in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hoi Sung; Piana-Agostinetti, Stefano; Shaw, David E; Eaton, William A

    2015-09-25

    Experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of small proteins suggest that interresidue contacts not present in the folded structure play little or no role in the self-assembly mechanism. Non-native contacts can, however, influence folding kinetics by introducing additional local minima that slow diffusion over the global free-energy barrier between folded and unfolded states. Here, we combine single-molecule fluorescence with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to discover the structural origin for the slow diffusion that markedly decreases the folding rate for a designed ?-helical protein. Our experimental determination of transition path times and our analysis of the simulations point to non-native salt bridges between helices as the source, which provides a quantitative glimpse of how specific intramolecular interactions influence protein folding rates by altering dynamics and not activation free energies. PMID:26404828

  15. Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5-Specific Antibodies for Detection of S-Layer Protein in Grana Padano Protected-Designation-of-Origin Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Brockmann, Eeva-Christine; Huovinen, Tuomas; Guglielmetti, Simone; Mora, Diego; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; De Noni, Ivano; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain variable-fragment antibodies (scFvs) have considerable potential in immunological detection and localization of bacterial surface structures. In this study, synthetic phage-displayed antibody libraries were used to select scFvs against immunologically active S-layer protein of Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5. After three rounds of panning, five relevant phage clones were obtained, of which four were specific for the S-layer protein of L. helveticus MIMLh5 and one was also capable of binding to the S-layer protein of L. helveticus ATCC 15009. All five anti-S-layer scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue, and their specificity profiles were characterized by Western blotting. The anti-S-layer scFv PolyH4, with the highest specificity for the S-layer protein of L. helveticus MIMLh5, was used to detect the S-layer protein in Grana Padano protected-designation-of-origin (PDO) cheese extracts by Western blotting. These results showed promising applications of this monoclonal antibody for the detection of immunomodulatory S-layer protein in dairy (and dairy-based) foods. PMID:24242242

  16. Manipulation of the structure of a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Theodore Brooks

    The manipulation of a turbulent boundary layer for the purpose of net drag reduction is an attractive topic for research, because even modest success will result in large energy savings. The focus is on passive manipulation, one of the simplest manipulation techniques. The most promising manipulator is the so-called BLADE device, consisting of two thin ribbons or foils suspended in the outer portion of the boundary layer. When the research was begun, there was significant controversy over the magnitude of the net drag reduction possible (20 percent) and the maximum skin friction reduction obtainable (50 percent). Accurate local skin-friction measurements were made using sublayer fences in a perturbed boundary layer. By comparing the direct measurements with those obtained by indirect methods, it was determined that the degree of drag reduction obtained depends on the method used to calculate the combined device drag and skin friction drag. Using auto and two-point correlation measurements as well as space-time correlations, the effects of BLADE were investigated on the turbulent structures in the boundary layer, comparing them with wire devices, which are not known to produce a net reduction in drag. The space-time correlation revealed that the most significant effect of the BLADE device was on the large structures (the dominant structures in the outer region of the boundary layer). The inner layer devices consisting of sublayer wires were also investigated. The results from both the inner and outer layer manipulations suggest that the effective alteration of a turbulent boundary layer depends on the scaling of the device.

  17. Electromagnetic cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Feng, Yijun; Jiang, Tian

    2007-09-01

    Electromagnetic invisibility cloak requires material with anisotropic distribution of the constitutive parameters as first proposed by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)]. In this paper, we proposed an electromagnetic cloak structure that does not require metamaterials with subwavelength structured inclusions to realize the anisotropy or inhomogeneity of the material parameters. We constructed a concentric layered structure of alternating homogeneous isotropic materials that can be treated as an effective medium with the required radius-dependent anisotropy. With proper design of the permittivity or the thickness ratio of the alternating layers, we demonstrated the low-reflection and power-flow bending properties of the proposed cloaking structure through rigorous analysis of the scattered electromagnetic fields. The proposed cloaking structure could be possibly realized by normal materials, therefore may lead to a practical path to an experimental demonstration of electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range. PMID:19547468

  18. Local layer structures in circular domains of an achiral bent-core mesogen observed by x-ray microbeam diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo; Watanabe, Junji; Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atsuo

    2003-07-01

    The local layer structures have been investigated by x-ray microbeam diffraction in the circular domains of the SmCP phase of a banana-shaped molecule. Originally, the molecules form tilted layers with a certain tilt angle as well as nontilted ones. The application of a low electric field induces a tilted layer with a continuous change of the tilt angle; i.e., the tilted layer gradually changes the tilt angle, finally being upright at the center of circular domains. Upon application of a high electric field, the smectic layer forms a cylindrical-type structure. The layer structure changes from cylindrical to onionlike after turning off the high field.

  19. The Tsenkher structure in the Gobi-Altai, Mongolia: Geomorphological hints of an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Olsen, John W.; Orm, Jens; di Achille, Gaetano; Kring, David A.; Matsui, Takafumi

    2006-03-01

    The Tsenkher structure, in the Gobi-Altai region of Mongolia, was studied using a wide array of remote sensing data and field observations. The structure has a shallow, 3.6 km wide, central depression bordered by a near-circular ridge (putative crater rim) with breaches to the northwest. The central depression is obliterated partially by fluvial infill through these breaches. Outside the ridge, the western side is a rugged terrain, but the eastern half is characterized by a concentric outer ridge that occurs at about one radius distance from the inner ridge. Although intrusion, salt tectonics and maar crater hypotheses cannot be completely ruled out, its morphology strongly implies an impact origin for the Tsenkher structure. If of impact origin, it has a well-preserved morphology and its position in the basin fills indicates that the formation may have occurred relatively recently, sometime during the late Tertiary or Quaternary. The outer ridge morphology is similar to rampart craters on Mars, whose formation has been attributed to fluidization of a water-rich target layer and ejecta materials, or to atmospheric entrainment and deposition of ejected materials. However, other hypotheses including erosional remnant of ejecta blanket, erosional scarp of structural rim uplift, multi-ring or deeply eroded crater rim of a peak-ring crater are also possible at this stage. A complex fluvial and probable lacustrine history is envisaged within the Tsenkher structure. The structure is also associated with archaeology, including Paleolithic and Bronze Age remains.

  20. Structural templating of multiple polycrystalline layers in organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lassiter, Brian E; Lunt, Richard R; Renshaw, Kyle; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate that organic photovoltaic cell performance is influenced by changes in the crystalline orientation of composite layer structures. A 1.5 nm thick self-organized, polycrystalline template layer of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) orients subsequently deposited layers of a diindenoperylene exciton blocking layer, and the donor, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). Control over the crystalline orientation of the CuPc leads to changes in its frontier energy levels, absorption coefficient, and surface morphology, resulting in an increase of power conversion efficiency at 1 sun from 1.42 ± 0.04% to 2.19 ± 0.05% for a planar heterojunction and from 1.89 ± 0.05% to 2.49 ± 0.03% for a planar-mixed heterojunction.

  1. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent geophysical studies have provided important constraints on the deep structure and origin of the active intraplate volcanoes in Mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab (e.g., Zhao et al., 2009a), while the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well (Zhao et al., 2009b). The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate) (Lei et al., 2009a). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle (Lei et al., 2009b; Zhao, 2009). The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions (Zhao, 2009). References Lei, J., D. Zhao, Y. Su, 2009a. Insight into the origin of the Tengchong intraplate volcano and seismotectonics in southwest China from local and teleseismic data. J. Geophys. Res. 114, B05302. Lei, J., D. Zhao, B. Steinberger et al., 2009b. New seismic constraints on the upper mantle structure of the Hainan plume. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 33-50. Zhao, D., 2009. Multiscale seismic tomography and mantle dynamics. Gondwana Res. 15, 297-323. Zhao, D., Z. Wang, N. Umino, A. Hasegawa, 2009a. Mapping the mantle wedge and interplate thrust zone of the northeast Japan arc. Tectonophysics 467, 89-106. Zhao, D., Y. Tian, J. Lei, L. Liu, 2009b. Seismic image and origin of the Changbai intraplate volcano in East Asia: Role of big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 173, 197-206.

  2. Novel layer-by-layer structured nanofibrous mats coated by protein films for dermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shangjing; Li, Xueyong; Wang, Qun; Huang, Rong; Xu, Xiaoli; Lei, Zhanjun; Deng, Hongbing

    2014-05-01

    Layer-by-layer coating technique is effective in modifying the surface of nanofibrous mats, but overmuch film-coating makes the mats less porous to hardly suit the condition for tissue engineering. We developed novel nanofibrous mats layer-by-layer coated by silk fibroin and lysozyme on the cellulose electrospun template via electrostatic interaction. The film-coating assembled on the mats was not excessive because the charge of the proteins varied in the coating process due to different pH value. In addition, pure nature materials made the mats nontoxic, biodegradable and low-cost. The morphology and composition variation during layer-by-layer coating process was investigated and the results showed that the structure and thickness of film-coatings could be well-controlled. The antibacterial assay and in vitro cell experiments indicated that the mats could actively inhibit bacteria and exhibit excellent biocompatibility. In vivo implant assay further verified the mats cultured with human epidermal cells could promote wound healing and avoid wound infection. Therefore, these mats showed promising prospects when performed for dermal reconstruction. PMID:24734533

  3. Ternary metal-rich sulfide with a layered structure

    DOEpatents

    Franzen, Hugo F.; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    1993-08-17

    A ternary Nb-Ta-S compound is provided having the atomic formula, Nb.sub.1.72 Ta.sub.3.28 S.sub.2, and exhibiting a layered structure in the sequence S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S wherein S represents sulfur layers and M1, M2, and M3 represent Nb/Ta mixed metal layers. This sequence generates seven sheets stacked along the [001] direction of an approximate body centered cubic crystal structure with relatively weak sulfur-to-sulfur van der Waals type interactions between adjacent sulfur sheets and metal-to-metal bonding within and between adjacent mixed metal sheets.

  4. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  5. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    SciTech Connect

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S.; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  6. Atomistic origin of an ordered superstructure induced superconductivity in layered chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, R.; Wang, Z. C.; Chen, C. L.; Tang, J.; Liu, N.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. J.; Sun, Y. P.; Mori, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Interplay among various collective electronic states such as charge density wave and superconductivity is of tremendous significance in low-dimensional electron systems. However, the atomistic and physical nature of the electronic structures underlying the interplay of exotic states, which is critical to clarifying its effect on remarkable properties of the electron systems, remains elusive, limiting our understanding of the superconducting mechanism. Here, we show evidence that an ordering of selenium and sulphur atoms surrounding tantalum within star-of-David clusters can boost superconductivity in a layered chalcogenide 1T-TaS2-xSex, which undergoes a superconducting transition in the nearly commensurate charge density wave phase. Advanced electron microscopy investigations reveal that such an ordered superstructure forms only in the x area, where the superconductivity manifests, and is destructible to the occurrence of the Mott metal-insulator transition. The present findings provide a novel dimension in understanding the relationship between lattice and electronic degrees of freedom.

  7. Structural reinforcement of microvascular networks using electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly with halloysite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Olugebefola, Solar C; Hamilton, Andrew R; Fairfield, Daniel J; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R

    2014-01-28

    We demonstrate a method for tailoring local mechanical properties near channel surfaces of vascular structural polymers in order to achieve high structural performance in microvascular systems. While synthetic vascularized materials have been created by a variety of manufacturing techniques, unreinforced microchannels act as stress concentrators and lead to the initiation of premature failure. Taking inspiration from biological tissues such as dentin and bone, these mechanical deficiencies can be mitigated by complex hierarchical structural features near to channel surfaces. By employing electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL) to deposit films containing halloysite nanotubes onto scaffold surfaces followed by matrix infiltration and scaffold removal, we are able to controllably deposit nanoscale reinforcement onto 200 micron diameter channel surface interiors in microvascular networks. High resolution strain measurements on reinforced networks under load verify that the halloysite reduces strain concentrations and improves mechanical performance. PMID:24652338

  8. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  9. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R.; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene. PMID:26888259

  10. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  11. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moir superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene. PMID:26888259

  12. Initial condition effects on large scale structure in numerical simulations of plane mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullan, W. A.; Garrett, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Large Eddy Simulations are performed on the spatially developing plane turbulent mixing layer. The simulated mixing layers originate from initially laminar conditions. The focus of this research is on the effect of the nature of the imposed fluctuations on the large-scale spanwise and streamwise structures in the flow. Two simulations are performed; one with low-level three-dimensional inflow fluctuations obtained from pseudo-random numbers, the other with physically correlated fluctuations of the same magnitude obtained from an inflow generation technique. Where white-noise fluctuations provide the inflow disturbances, no spatially stationary streamwise vortex structure is observed, and the large-scale spanwise turbulent vortical structures grow continuously and linearly. These structures are observed to have a three-dimensional internal geometry with branches and dislocations. Where physically correlated provide the inflow disturbances a "streaky" streamwise structure that is spatially stationary is observed, with the large-scale turbulent vortical structures growing with the square-root of time. These large-scale structures are quasi-two-dimensional, on top of which the secondary structure rides. The simulation results are discussed in the context of the varying interpretations of mixing layer growth that have been postulated. Recommendations are made concerning the data required from experiments in order to produce accurate numerical simulation recreations of real flows.

  13. Turbulent boundary-layer structure of flows over freshwater biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. M.; Sargison, J. E.; Henderson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The structure of the turbulent boundary-layer for flows over freshwater biofilms dominated by the diatom Tabellaria flocculosa was investigated. Biofilms were grown on large test plates under flow conditions in an Australian hydropower canal for periods up to 12 months. Velocity-profile measurements were obtained using LDV in a recirculating water tunnel for biofouled, smooth and artificially sandgrain roughened surfaces over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 3,000-8,000. Significant increases in skin friction coefficient of up to 160 % were measured over smooth-wall values. The effective roughnesses of the biofilms, k s, were significantly higher than their physical roughness measured using novel photogrammetry techniques and consisted of the physical roughness and a component due to the vibration of the biofilm mat. The biofilms displayed a k-type roughness function, and a logarithmic relationship was found between the roughness function and roughness Reynolds number based on the maximum peak-to-valley height of the biofilm, R t. The structure of the boundary layer adhered to Townsend's wall-similarity hypothesis even though the scale separation between the effective roughness height and the boundary-layer thickness was small. The biofouled velocity-defect profiles collapsed with smooth and sandgrain profiles in the outer region of the boundary layer. The Reynolds stresses and quadrant analysis also collapsed in the outer region of the boundary layer.

  14. Love waves in layered piezoelectric/piezomagnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-xi; Fang, Dai-Ning; Wei, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The propagation of Love waves in layered structures is investigated for two cases: a piezomagnetic (PM) layer on a piezoelectric (PE) half-space and the reverse configuration. The dispersion relations are obtained in explicit form. The numerical examples are provided to illustrate the variations of the phase and group velocities versus the wavenumber for the combinations of different materials. The results show that: (1) the phase and group velocities initiate at the bulk shear wave velocity of the half-space medium and approach the bulk shear wave velocity of the layer with increasing wavenumber; (2) the influence of the magnetic permeabilities of PE materials on the phase velocity can be neglected; (3) for the layered medium consisting of a PM layer and a PE half-space, the properties of PE materials have a great influence on the phase and group velocities at lower wavenumber for the lowest mode. These findings are useful for PE/PM composite media or structures in the microwave technology.

  15. One-seeded fruits in the core Caryophyllales: their origin and structural diversity.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Struwig, Madeleen; Nilova, Maya V; Dzhalilova, Khalima Kh; Balandin, Sergey A; Erst, Andrey; Krinitsyna, Anastasiya A

    2015-01-01

    The core Caryophyllales consist of approximately 30 families (12,000 species) distributed worldwide. Many members evolved one-seeded or conjoined fruits, but their origin and structural diversity have not been investigated. A comparative anatomical investigation of the one-seeded fruits within the core Caryophyllales was conducted. The origin of the one-seeded fruits and the evolutionary reconstructions of some carpological characters were traced using a tree based on rbcl and matK data in order to understand the ancestral characters and their changes. The one-seeded fruit type is inferred to be an ancestral character state in core Caryophyllales, with a subsequent increase in the seed number seen in all major clades. Most representatives of the 'Earlier Diverging' clade are distinguished in various carpological traits. The organization of the pericarp is diverse in many groups, although fruits with a dry, many-layered pericarp, consisting of sclerenchyma as outer layers and a thin-walled parenchyma below, with seeds occupying a vertical embryo position, are likely ancestral character states in the core Caryophyllales clade. Several carpological peculiarities in fruit and seed structure were discovered in obligate one-seeded Achatocarpaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Seguieriaceae and Sarcobataceae. The horizontal embryo evolved in only certain groups of Chenopodiaceae. The bar-thickening of endotegmen cells appears to be an additional character typical of core Caryophyllales. The syncarpy-to-lysicarpy paradigm in Caryophyllaceae needs to be reinterpreted. PMID:25710481

  16. One-Seeded Fruits in the Core Caryophyllales: Their Origin and Structural Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Struwig, Madeleen; Nilova, Maya V.; Dzhalilova, Khalima Kh.; Balandin, Sergey A.; Erst, Andrey; Krinitsyna, Anastasiya A.

    2015-01-01

    The core Caryophyllales consist of approximately 30 families (12 000 species) distributed worldwide. Many members evolved one-seeded or conjoined fruits, but their origin and structural diversity have not been investigated. A comparative anatomical investigation of the one-seeded fruits within the core Caryophyllales was conducted. The origin of the one-seeded fruits and the evolutionary reconstructions of some carpological characters were traced using a tree based on rbcl and matK data in order to understand the ancestral characters and their changes. The one-seeded fruit type is inferred to be an ancestral character state in core Caryophyllales, with a subsequent increase in the seed number seen in all major clades. Most representatives of the ‘Earlier Diverging’ clade are distinguished in various carpological traits. The organization of the pericarp is diverse in many groups, although fruits with a dry, many-layered pericarp, consisting of sclerenchyma as outer layers and a thin-walled parenchyma below, with seeds occupying a vertical embryo position, are likely ancestral character states in the core Caryophyllales clade. Several carpological peculiarities in fruit and seed structure were discovered in obligate one-seeded Achatocarpaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Seguieriaceae and Sarcobataceae. The horizontal embryo evolved in only certain groups of Chenopodiaceae. The bar-thickening of endotegmen cells appears to be an additional character typical of core Caryophyllales. The syncarpy-to-lysicarpy paradigm in Caryophyllaceae needs to be reinterpreted. PMID:25710481

  17. An experimental study on the preparation of tochilinite-originated intercalation compounds comprised of Fe 1-xS host layers and various kinds of guest layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yiya; Xi, Guangcheng; Zhong, Chang; Wang, Linping; Lu, Jun; Sun, Ximeng; Zhu, Lu; Han, Qikun; Chen, Lin; Shi, Lei; Sun, Mei; Li, Qianrong; Yu, Min; Yin, Mingwen

    2009-08-01

    Tochilinite represents a mineral group of ordered mixed-layer structures containing alternating Fe 1-xS layers with mackinawite-like structure and metal hydroxide layers with Mg(OH) 2-like structure. In this article, we report the preparation of a series of tochilinite-originated (or Fe 1-xS-based) intercalation compounds (ICs). According to their preparation procedures, these ICs can be divided into four kinds. The first kind of IC was sodium tochilinite (Na-tochilinite), which was prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of metallic Fe particles with concentrated Na 2S·9H 2O aqueous solutions. The hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite was a mixed hydroxide of Na + ions along with a certain amount of Fe 2+ ions. When the hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite completely dissolved in aqueous solutions, a Fe-deficient mackinawite-like phase Fe 1-xS was obtained, which was probably an electron-deficient p-type conductor. The second kind of ICs was prepared by 'low-temperature direct intercalation in aqueous solutions, using Na-tochilinite as a parental precursor. When the Na-tochilinite was ultrasonicated in aqueous solutions containing Lewis basic complexing agents (like NH 3, N 2H 4, 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)), the Na + ions of the Na-tochilinite were removed and the Lewis basic complexing agents entered the hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite and became coordinated with the Fe 2+ ions, and the second kind of ICs was thus produced. The second kind of ICs includes NH 3 IC, N 2H 4 IC, N 2H 4-NH 3 IC, [Fe(bipy) 3] 2+-containing IC and [Fe(phen) 3] 2+-containing IC. The third kind of ICs, which includes NH 3 IC, N 2H 4-NH 3 IC and N 2H 4-LiOH (NaOH) IC, was prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of metallic Fe particles with (NH 4) 2S aqueous solution, S (elemental) + N 2H 4·H 2O aqueous solution, and S + N 2H 4·H 2O + LiOH (NaOH) aqueous solution, respectively. The third kind of ICs has a close relationship with the second kind of ICs both in composition and structure. The fourth kind of ICs was prepared by the oxidation and reduction of some of the N 2H 4-containing ICs mentioned above, which include N 2H 2 (diazene or diimide) IC, N 2 (dinitrogen) IC and NH 3 IC. The N 2H 2 IC was prepared by mild air oxidation of the N 2H 4-LiOH IC. The N 2 IC was prepared by strong air oxidation of the N 2H 4-LiOH IC, however, we have not been able to separate the pure phase N 2 IC. Hydrothermal reduction of the N 2H 4 IC made by the direct intercalation method in strong reducing environment by H 2S + Fe (metal) led to the production of the NH 3 IC of the fourth kind of ICs. The NH 3 ICs prepared by the three methods had similar compositions and structures. As almost all the ICs reported in this paper were extremely sensitive both to air and to the electron beam, they were mainly characterized by XRD. The properties and interrelationships (or mutual transformations) of the Fe 1-xS-based ICs revealed novel chemistry occurring in the sub-nanoscopic space between the micrometer- to nanometer-sized electron-deficient Fe 1-xS layers. An important finding of this novel chemistry was that the Fe 1-xS-based ICs tended to oxidize or reduce the intercalated species when the redox state of their environments varied. The results of our experiments potentially have many cosmochemical implications. The most important implication is that our experimental results, along with previous studies, strongly suggested that some of the ammonium salts, ammonia and carbonates existing in the matrix of the CM carbonaceous chondrites may have been formed by abiotic reactions employing molecular nitrogen as the nitrogen source and carbon monoxide as the carbon source and iron sulfide and/or iron hydroxide as catalysts.

  18. Origins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S

    1985-10-01

    The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe. PMID:17817144

  19. Origin and deformation of intra-salt sulphate layers: an example from the Dutch Zechstein (Late Permian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehl, B. C.; Reuning, L.; Strozyk, F.; Kukla, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    From salt mine galleries and well data it is known that thick rock salt layers can contain anhydrite and carbonate layers with thicknesses on the millimetre to tens of metre scale. The relatively thick Zechstein 3 anhydrite-carbonate layer in the northern Netherlands has been studied previously using 3-D seismic data. Observations from geophysical well logs in this study reveal the presence of thin sulphate layers on the sub-seismic scale imbedded in the Zechstein 2 (Z2) salt. Core samples, thin sections, seismic data and geochemical measurements were used to determine the mineralogy and origin of one of these Z2 sulphate layers. Bromine analyses show that they mark a freshening event in the Z2 salt, which can be correlated over large distances in the northern Netherlands. Their core-calibrated log signature indicates that the Z2 sulphate layers consist either of pure anhydrite or of anhydrite and polyhalite. The mineralogy and thickness of the sulphate layers are interpreted to vary between synsedimentary morphologic lows (thin anhydrite-polyhalite couplets) and highs (thicker anhydrite layers). Such a combination of core observations and well log analysis is a powerful tool to detect lateral trends in evaporite mineralogy and to reconstruct the environmental setting of their formation. Salt internal geometries can further be used to distinguish between different deformation mechanisms. In our study area, the distribution of sulphate layers within the Z2 salt indicates that subjacent salt dissolution was not the dominant process leading to salt-related deformation.

  20. Stable single-layer honeycomblike structure of silica.

    PubMed

    zelik, V Ongun; Cahangirov, S; Ciraci, S

    2014-06-20

    Silica or SiO(2), the main constituent of Earth's rocks has several 3D complex crystalline and amorphous phases, but it does not have a graphitelike layered structure in 3D. Our theoretical analysis and numerical calculations from the first principles predict a single-layer honeycomblike allotrope, h? silica, which can be viewed to be derived from the oxidation of silicene and it has intriguing atomic structure with reentrant bond angles in hexagons. It is a wide band gap semiconductor, which attains remarkable electromechanical properties showing geometrical changes under an external electric field. In particular, it is an auxetic metamaterial with a negative Poisson's ratio and has a high piezoelectric coefficient. While it can form stable bilayer and multilayer structures, its nanoribbons can show metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on their chirality. Coverage of dangling Si orbitals by foreign adatoms can attribute new functionalities to h? silica. In particular, Si(2)O(5), where Si atoms are saturated by oxygen atoms from top and bottom sides alternatingly can undergo a structural transformation to make silicatene, another stable, single layer structure of silica. PMID:24996101

  1. Electromagnetic Response of Layered Dielectric Structures to Pulsed Acoustical Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespal'ko, A. A.; Lyukshin, B. A.; Utsyn, G. E.; Yavorovich, L. V.

    2015-08-01

    The process of elastic wave propagation in the inhomogeneous sample with the known stress-strength properties is numerically modeled. The stress intensity distribution over the sample having a defect is calculated for different moments of time. The calculated stress intensities are compared with the experimentally measured parameters of electromagnetic signals arising in the model layered system under mechanoelectrical transformations accompanying the acoustic pulse propagation. The influence of the layered structure on the amplitude of the electromagnetic response is demonstrated experimentally for a serpentinite rock sample under deterministic action of the acoustic pulse.

  2. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2009-03-15

    A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations. PMID:19282957

  3. The motor origins of human and avian song structure

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2011-01-01

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:6980]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  4. Multi-functional layered structure having structural and radiation shielding attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor); Barghouty, Abdulnasser Fakhri (Inventor); Penn, Benjamin G. (Inventor); Hulcher, Anthony Bruce (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cosmic and solar radiation shielding structure that also has structural attributes is comprised of three layers. The first layer is 30-42 percent by volume of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene fibers, 18-30 percent by volume of graphite fibers, and a remaining percent by volume of an epoxy resin matrix. The second layer is approximately 68 percent by volume of UHMW polyethylene fibers and a remaining percent by volume of a polyethylene matrix. The third layer is a ceramic material.

  5. Multiple-scattering theory for clean superconducting layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koperdraad, R. T. W.; Otadoy, R. E. S.; Blaauboer, M.; Lodder, A.

    2001-09-01

    An exact expression is derived for the matrix Green's function of a clean superconducting layered structure with an arbitrary number of interfaces. A multiple-scattering approach is employed, in which the interfaces act as the scattering centres. Some initial applications of the theory to systems with transverse dimensions which vary from narrow to wide are given. The local density of states is calculated for an SNS and for an SNSNS junction ('S' standing for a superconducting layer and 'N' for a normal layer). For certain critical transverse widths the exact theory shows remarkable features not seen in the Andreev approximation. If the gap function for the systems is calculated self-consistently it turns out that for transverse dimensions smaller than twenty per cent of the superconducting coherence length, superconductivity is suppressed.

  6. Crystallographic structure and superconductive properties of Nb-Ti films with an artificially layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, N. )

    1990-06-15

    Artificially layered niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti) films with various thickness ratios (3/1--1/3) and periodicities (2--100 A) are made in an argon or in a mixed argon/nitrogen atmosphere by a dc magnetron sputtering method. Films with small periodicities (less than 30 A) have an artificial superlattice structure (ASL) with crystallographic coherence between constituent layers, where Nb and Ti grow epitaxially on the closest planes. The crystallographic structures of films are bcc with the (110) plane parallel to the film for films with the same or a thicker Nb layer than a Ti layer, and hcp with the (001) plane parallel to the film for films with a thinner Nb layer than a Ti layer. Films with large periodicities have an artificial superstructure (ASS) with only periodic stacking of constituent layers. Films deposited in the Ar/N atmosphere also have the artificially layered structures of ASL or ASS. The artificially layered structure is thermally stable at temperatures up to 500 {degree}C. The superconducting properties of the films depend strongly on the periodicity and thickness ratio of Nb and Ti layers. The dependence of the transition temperature on the periodicity and thickness ratio is qualitatively explained by a proximity effect with a three-region model. Films with periodicities less than 20 A, composed of the same or a thicker Nb layer than a Ti layer, show high transition temperatures (above 9.3 K). The highest {ital T}{sub {ital c}} of about 13.6 K is obtained in the film composed of monatomic layers of constituents deposited in an Ar atmosphere including 30 vol % N.

  7. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites: Structure, morphology, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawani, Pranav

    Layered silicates are important fillers for improving various mechanical, flame retardant, and barrier properties of polymers, which can be attributed to their sheet-like morphology. Layered silicates can be modified with organic surfactants to render them compatible with polymer matrices. Organically modified silicates (organoclays) having large surface areas are very cost-efficient non-toxic nanofillers effective at very low loads and are readily available. Upon amalgamation of organoclays with polymer matrix nanocomposites, polymer chains can penetrate in between the silicate layers and result in an intercalated structure where the clay stack remains intact but the interlayer spacing is increased. When penetration becomes more severe, disintegration of clay stacks can occur, resulting in an exfoliated structure. It has often been observed that exfoliation is not complete down to the level of isolated silicate layers; rather, the large clay stacks are broken up into shorter stacks termed 'tactoids' together with a few individual silicate layers, resulting in a kind of mixed intercalated-exfoliated structure. Organoclay particles are mostly intercalated, having a preferred orientation with the clay gallery planes being preferentially parallel to the plane of the pressed film. Preferential orientation of organoclays affects the barrier properties of polymer membranes. Additional fillers like carbon black can induce a change in the orientation of organoclays. The effect of carbon black on the orientation of organoclays was elucidated and a relationship between orientation and permeability of air through such membranes was established. We have also investigated the flammability properties of a series of polymer nanocomposites, containing various Transition Metal Ion (TMI) modified organoclays. The improved fire retardation in nanocomposites with TMI-modified organoclays can be attributed to enhanced carbonaceous char formation during combustion, i.e., charring promoted by the presence of catalytically active TMI. Polymer nanocomposite materials depend not only on the properties of individual components but also on their morphology and interfacial interactions. In polymer nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions are maximized due to the large surface area of the filler particles exposed to the polymer matrix, resulting in unique anisotropic properties. Thus, it will be of great importance to achieve exfoliation of the lamellar stacks prior to mixing with the polymer matrix, in the dry powder state or in a solution state. In layered silicates the lamellar stacks are held by electrostatic interactions between the basal charges and ions present within the basal spacing. Lamellar stacks of layered silicates can be exfoliated if the amount of energy gained by them is higher than the electrostatic energy required to hold the lamellar stacks together. Using 'Microwave radiation', exfoliation of organoclays was achieved. Various characterization techniques were used to evaluate structure, morphology and properties of fillers and polymer nanocomposites.

  8. Structural origin of the colored reflections from the black-billed magpie feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol Vigneron, Jean; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Rassart, Marie; Ingram, Abigail L.; Lousse, Virginie

    2006-02-01

    The structural origin of the weak iridescence on some of the dark feathers of the black-billed magpie, Pica pica (Corvidae), is found in the structure of the ribbon-shaped barbules. The cortex of these barbules contains cylindrical holes distributed as the nodes of an hexagonal lattice in the hard layer cross section. The cortex optical properties are described starting from a photonic-crystal film theory. The yellowish-green coloration of the birds tail can be explained by the appearance of a reflection band related to the photonic-crystal lowest-lying gap. The bluish reflections from the wings are produced by a more complicated mechanism, involving the presence of a cortex second gap.

  9. Structural origin of the colored reflections from the black-billed magpie feathers.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Rassart, Marie; Ingram, Abigail L; Lousse, Virginie

    2006-02-01

    The structural origin of the weak iridescence on some of the dark feathers of the black-billed magpie, Pica pica (Corvidae), is found in the structure of the ribbon-shaped barbules. The cortex of these barbules contains cylindrical holes distributed as the nodes of an hexagonal lattice in the hard layer cross section. The cortex optical properties are described starting from a photonic-crystal film theory. The yellowish-green coloration of the bird's tail can be explained by the appearance of a reflection band related to the photonic-crystal lowest-lying gap. The bluish reflections from the wings are produced by a more complicated mechanism, involving the presence of a cortex second gap." PMID:16605369

  10. Structural transformation of implanted diamond layers during high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubanov, S.; Fairchild, B. A.; Suvorova, A.; Olivero, P.; Prawer, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the recent years graphitization of ion-beam induced amorphous layers became the basic tool for device fabrication in diamond. The etchable graphitic layers can be removed to form free-standing membranes into which the desired structures can be sculpted using FIB milling. The optical properties of the devices fabricated using this method are assumed on the model of sharp diamond-air interface. The real quality of this interface could depend on degree of graphitization of the amorphous damage layers after annealing. In the present work the graphitization process was studied using conventional and analytical TEM. It was found that annealing at 550 C results in a partial graphitization of the implanted volume with formation of the nano-crystalline graphitic phase sandwiched between layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Annealing at 1400 C resulted in complete graphitization of the amorphous layers. The average size of graphite nano-crystals did not exceed 5 nm with predominant orientation of c-planes normal to the sample surface.

  11. Nonlinear Stability and Structure of Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, M. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used to investigate issues of nonlinear flow development and mixing in compressible reacting shear layers. Particular interest is placed on investigating the change in flow structure that occurs when compressibility and heat release are added to the flow. These conditions allow the 'outer' instability modes- one associated with each of the fast and slow streams-to dominate over the 'central', Kelvin-Helmholtz mode that unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting mixing layers. Analysis of scalar probability density functions in flows with dominant outer modes demonstrates the ineffective, one-sided nature of mixing that accompany these flow structures. Colayer conditions, where two modes have equal growth rate and the mixing layer is formed by two sets of vortices, offer some opportunity for mixing enhancement. Their extent, however, is found to be limited in the mixing layer's parameter space. Extensive validation of the PSE technique also provides a unique perspective on central- mode vortex pairing, further supporting the view that pairing is primarily governed perspective sheds insight on how linear stability theory is able to provide such an accurate prediction of experimentally-observed, fully nonlinear flow phenomenon.

  12. Atomistic origin of an ordered superstructure induced superconductivity in layered chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Ang, R; Wang, Z C; Chen, C L; Tang, J; Liu, N; Liu, Y; Lu, W J; Sun, Y P; Mori, T; Ikuhara, Y

    2015-01-01

    Interplay among various collective electronic states such as charge density wave and superconductivity is of tremendous significance in low-dimensional electron systems. However, the atomistic and physical nature of the electronic structures underlying the interplay of exotic states, which is critical to clarifying its effect on remarkable properties of the electron systems, remains elusive, limiting our understanding of the superconducting mechanism. Here, we show evidence that an ordering of selenium and sulphur atoms surrounding tantalum within star-of-David clusters can boost superconductivity in a layered chalcogenide 1T-TaS2-xSex, which undergoes a superconducting transition in the nearly commensurate charge density wave phase. Advanced electron microscopy investigations reveal that such an ordered superstructure forms only in the x area, where the superconductivity manifests, and is destructible to the occurrence of the Mott metal-insulator transition. The present findings provide a novel dimension in understanding the relationship between lattice and electronic degrees of freedom. PMID:25625438

  13. Layered hafnium phosphates. Synthesis, characterization, crystalline structure and intercalation behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, M.; Barcina, L. M.; Llavona, R.; Rodríguez, J.

    1998-10-01

    This review compiles the recent investigations on layered hafnium phosphates in the α and γ varieties. Their preparation, properties and crystalline structures are described. The behaviour of both compounds during the intercalation of n-alkylamines ( n=1-6) and the cyclic amines aniline, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, piperidine, pyridine, n-methylpiperidine and 4-methylpiperidine, in the vapour and liquid phases, is reported. The formula of the intercalates and the estimation of the guests arrangement in the interlayer space is discussed.

  14. Toward the origin of exciton electronic structure in phycobiliproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womick, Jordan M.; Miller, Stephen A.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2010-07-01

    Femtosecond laser spectroscopies are used to examine the electronic structures of two proteins found in the phycobilisome antenna of cyanobacteria, allophycocyanin (APC) and C-phycocyanin (CPC). The wave function composition involving the pairs of phycocyanobilin pigments (i.e., dimers) found in both proteins is the primary focus of this investigation. Despite their similar geometries, earlier experimental studies conducted in our laboratory and elsewhere observe clear signatures of exciton electronic structure in APC but not CPC. This issue is further investigated here using new experiments. Transient grating (TG) experiments employing broadband quasicontinuum probe pulses find a redshift in the signal spectrum of APC, which is almost twice that of CPC. Dynamics in the TG signal spectra suggest that the sub-100 fs dynamics in APC and CPC are respectively dominated by internal conversion and nuclear relaxation. A specialized technique, intraband electronic coherence spectroscopy (IECS), photoexcites electronic and nuclear coherences with nearly full suppression of signals corresponding to electronic populations. The main conclusion drawn by IECS is that dephasing of intraband electronic coherences in APC occurs in less than 25 fs. This result rules out correlated pigment fluctuations as the mechanism enabling exciton formation in APC and leads us to propose that the large Franck-Condon factors of APC promote wave function delocalization in the vibronic basis. For illustration, we compute the Hamiltonian matrix elements involving the electronic origin of the ?84 pigment and the first excited vibronic level of the ?84 pigment associated with a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging mode at 800 cm-1. For this pair of vibronic states, the -51 cm-1 coupling is larger than the 40 cm-1 energy gap, thereby making wave function delocalization a feasible prospect. By contrast, CPC possesses no pair of vibronic levels for which the intermolecular coupling is larger than the energy gap between vibronic states. This study of APC and CPC may be important for understanding the photophysics of other phycobiliproteins, which generally possess large vibronic couplings.

  15. Structural Investigation of Layered Niobates by DFT Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari Subin, Jhashanath

    Layered forms of inorganic niobates have been used for various applications, such as charge transport and storage, photo-catalysis, solid acids, magnetic materials, superconductors, magneto-resistors and photo-luminescence devices. The layered niobates exists in different geometrical forms and composition with variation in the packing of oxide lattice by the constituting monovalent, divalent/trivalent and pentavalent cations. Four different types of lamellar niobates are studied in this research by theoretical methods, namely the all-electron full-potential DFT method using plane wave and periodic boundary conditions. A common feature of all the layered niobates is that the basic building block, NbO6 octahedral units are shared with each other at the corners and edges forming a covalent network and that the sharing is terminated in a particular direction. These octahedral units get modulated along with the geometry of interlayer interface with the change in the composition of the material. The macroscopic structure change is reflected by the alteration of the unit cell axes whereas the local change at various sites in the structure is revealed by the variation of the atomic distances and angles/tilt. The different properties of the layered compounds are a function of these structural variations and thus understanding the mechanism and the characteristics requires atomic level analysis. Calculations reveal the local bonding details and the bulk geometry of a material and can be compared to that obtained from powder diffraction methods. The EFG tensor which is a sensitive probe of the electronic environment around a quadrupolar nucleus can be used to monitor the minor changes in the bond lengths and angles in various structures. Among the configurations lying in the minima of the potential energy surfaces, the one representing the real material would be the one matching with the EFG tensor calculated from DFT methods with that determined from the SSNMR experiments. The main aims of this research work are summarized as follows- 1. Calculation of the crystal structure of layered material and comparison with the published ones for the refinement. 2. Proposition of the crystal structure of acid forms of the layered materials and of the nanosheets. 3. Elucidation of the distortion of NbO6 building blocks, tilting along various axes, stacking sequences of the adjacent slabs, rearrangement of the interlayer gallery and location of protons; comparison of the results with those obtained from powder diffraction methods in case of availability. 4. Calculation of the EFG tensors at various sites (93Nb, 2H and 87Rb) in the lattice; comparison of the results with those obtained from SSNMR experiments in case of availability. 5. Using quadrupolar coupling as a guide for atomic level details for modeling the crystal structure of layered niobates and nanosheets with unknown geometry. 6. Establishing a correlation between a structure parameter and the quadrupolar coupling of various 93Nb sites in the structure.

  16. Plasmon and exciton superconductivity mechanisms in layered structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabovich, A. M.; Pashitskiy, E. A.; Uvarova, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    Plasmon and exciton superconductivity mechanisms are discussed. Superconductivity in a three layer metal semiconductor metal and insulator semimetal insulator sandwich structure was described in terms of the temperature dependent Green function of the longitudinal (Coulomb) field. The dependences of the superconducting transition temperature on structure parameters were obtained. In a semiconducting film, as a result of interactions of degenerate free carriers with excitons, superconductivity exists only in a certain range of parameter values, and the corresponding critical temperature is much lower than in the plasmon mechanism of superconductivity.

  17. Origin and Timing of Voltage-Sensitive Dye Signals within layers of the Turtle Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Michael; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Optical recording techniques were applied to the turtle cerebellum to localize synchronous responses to microstimulation of its cortical layers and reveal the cerebellum's three-dimensional processing. The in vitro yet intact cerebellum was first immersed in voltage–sensitive dye and its responses while intact were compared to those measured in thick cerebellar slices. Each slice is stained throughout its depth, even though the pial half appeared darker during epi-illumination and lighter during trans-illumination. Optical responses were shown to be mediated by the voltage–sensitive dye because the evoked signals had opposite polarity for 540- and 710-nm light, but no response to 850-nm light. Molecular layer stimulation of the intact cerebellum evoked slow transverse beams. Similar beams were observed in the molecular layer of thick transverse slices but not sagittal slices. With low currents, beams in transverse slices were restricted to sublayers within the molecular layer, conducting slowly away from the stimulus site. These excitatory beams were observed nearly all the way across the turtle cerebellum, distances of 4-6 mm. Microstimulation of the granule cell layer of both transverse or sagittal slices either evoked a local membrane depolarization restricted to a radial wedge, but these radial responses did not activate measurable molecular layer beams in transverse slices. White matter microstimulation in sagittal slices (near the ventricular surface of the turtle cerebellum) activated the granule cell and Purkinje cell layers, but not the molecular layer. These responses were nearly synchronous, were primarily caudal to the stimulation, and were blocked by cobalt ions. Therefore, synaptic responses in all cerebellar layers contribute to optical signals recorded in intact cerebellum in vitro (Brown and Ariel, 2009). Rapid radial signaling connects a sagittally-oriented, fast-conduction system of the deep layers with the transverse-oriented, slow-conducting molecular layer, thereby permitting complex temporal processing between two tangential but orthogonal paths in the cerebellar cortex. PMID:20707989

  18. Thermal Structure of Protoplanetary Disks undergoing Layered Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Desch, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the most likely candidate for angular momentum transport and radial flow of mass in protoplanetary disks (PPDs), but demands a minimum ionization fraction for the gas to couple to the magnetic field. It is known that large regions of PPDs are insufficiently ionized for the MRI to act, and are dead zones. Only at the disks surface will the MRI operate: the disk undergoes layered accretion. The ionization fraction and magnetic coupling are sensitive to the disks temperature structure. All previous models of PPD temperatures including accretion have assumed a height-independent viscosity. We have constructed the first model of the temperature structure considering accretional heating in the active layers only. Our model self-consistently calculates the temperature and ionization fraction, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, solving the equations of radiative transfer at each annulus self-consistently with the disk flaring angle, and solving a sophisticated ionization chemistry network. The location of the dead zones and active layers is found using a linear stability criterion accounting for Ohmic dissipation, ambipolar diffusion and Hall terms. As an example, we consider a typical T Tauri star (M=0.5 MSun, R=2.5 RSun, T=4000 K) and disk (MDISK=0.01 MSun, column density ? ? r-3/2). For a magnetic field strength B=0.1 G, we find that inside 1.5 AU the active layers have uniform thickness ?a 25 g cm-2, but ?a rises rapidly with radius between 1.5 and 4 AU until the entire disk is active at larger radii. The midplane temperatures are sensitive to the magnitude and spatial variation of the active layer: they are higher than those of a passive disk, but lower than those of a disk with the same mass accretion rate but a uniform viscosity (no dead zone). Near the boundary of the dead zone, midplane temperatures can actually rise with increasing radius.

  19. The origin of SH-wave resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Baan, Mirko

    2009-09-01

    Resonance frequencies are often analysed in geo-engineering studies to evaluate seismic risk and microzonation in urban areas. The Nakamura technique constitutes a popular approach that computes the spectral ratio of horizontal-to-vertical ground motion in ambient noise recordings to reveal the existence of any site resonance frequencies. Its theoretical basis remains however unclear with some authors arguing that the method de-emphasizes any Rayleigh-wave contributions and that the resonance frequencies are solely caused by vertically incident SH waves. Other authors explain the same resonance frequencies by the ellipticity of the fundamental Rayleigh wave. Recent numerical simulations reveal that the magnitude of the peak frequency is proportional to the relative portion of Love waves present. This study demonstrates that Love waves alone can be responsible for any observed resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers. Yet sharp SH-wave resonance frequencies are only excited by a source in the bedrock. These resonance frequencies are caused by inhomogeneous waves excited by the bedrock source that tunnel through the high-velocity bedrock to emerge in the low-velocity sediments with a very reduced range of slownesses. The resulting SH waves are then free to interfere constructively thereby creating the observed resonance frequencies. This general trigger mechanism leads to resonances that are almost offset independent. The resulting resonance frequencies map onto points of maximum curvature in the Love-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves at or just beyond the critical horizontal slowness. They can be analysed with the quarter-wavelength law if a large velocity contrast exists between the unconsolidated sediments and the bedrock. A minor modification of the quarter-wavelength law provides more accurate predictions, also for smaller velocity contrasts. Multisource simulations show that site amplification factors as determined by horizontal-over-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios would not only depend on the relative portion of Love waves in the total wavefield but also on the depth distribution and the relative strength of the SH sources inside the bedrock compared with those in the sediments. An accurate interpretation of site amplification factors by means of H/V peak frequencies would thus require in-depth knowledge of the causes and origins of the local microseismic noise field.

  20. Modeling a Possible Volcanic Origin for Interior Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. G.; Kneissl, T.

    2011-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the valid range of temperatures required for sub-ice volcanic origin of interior layered deposits (ILDs) in Valles Marineris. To this end, using GIS the volume estimates of Ophir Chasma and its 4 ILDs were mapped and measured. The GIS volumes in this study are based on high-res HRSC topography overlain on MOLA. We determined the void space of Ophir Chasma sans ILDs to be 92,319 km3. Volumes for each ILD mound were determined to be 6,185 km3, 4,833 km3, 2,628 km3, and 0.2 km3 (negligible); totaling 13,642 km3. A sub-ice volcano requires eruption beneath an existing ice sheet or ponded ice. If during the formation of a sub-ice volcano the associated unstable englacial meltwater lake is drained by jkulhlaups or if the volcano rises above the meltwater, effused subaerial lava will cap the tuff cone forming resistant sheet lavas. Hence, the lava cap horizon can be used to estimate the minimum height of ice. Three resistant ILD caprock locales (found only on the 2 largest ILDs) were mapped and the hypothetical ice volumes measured beneath their elevations are 77,391 km3, 79,899 km3, and 51,695 km3. Following the equation from Chapman et al. (2003), if the known ILDs in Ophir are assumed to be basaltic subice volcanoes, calorimetry can be used to estimate the volumes of meltwater generated by their eruption [Allen, 1980; Bjrnsson, 1988; Gudmundsson and Bjrnsson, 1991; Gudmundsson et al., 1997; Hskuldsson and Sparks, 1997]. These estimates are based on (1) the volume and likely mound density, (2) the heat content of basaltic magmas, and (3) the specific heat capacity and the latent heat of fusion for ice. The ice that can be melted by a mass of magma as it solidifies and cools can be calculated by equating the heat content of the magma with the heat used for melting. Two possible end member cases were used. In the first case it is assumed that the chasma contained ice at its melting point of 273 K and in the other case the present day temperature at the latitude of Juventae Chasma of 150 K [Haberle et al., 1999] is assumed. At 273 K the predicted volume of melted ice = 96,465 km3 exceeds the void volume, so at this temperature it would be fairly impossible for ILD sub-ice edifices to form unless the ice greatly exceeded plateau height. At 150 K, the predicted volume of melted ice = 55,755 km3, and this plus the measured volume of the ILD mounds (13,642 km3) = 69,401 km3 or 22,918 km3 less than the volume of the Ophir void. So, at this temperature sub-ice volcano formation is within the realm of possibility. Also, the equivalent meltwater volume of 51,152 km3 is close to that calculated to lie beneath the lowest caprock height. The additional missing 22,918 km3 may represent loss due to ash escaping the chasma, ILD erosion, and sublimation of remaining ice. In conclusion, modeling indicates that the possibility the ILDs may have been sub-ice volcanoes increases in validity as temperature near 150 K. A sub-ice origin also implies prolonged volcanically-induced hydrothermal systems.

  1. Distinct layered structure with density modulation in solid phase formed from B2 phase of banana molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Ogino, Kumiko; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi; Takezoe, Hideo; Watanabe, Junji

    2006-01-01

    A unique two-dimensional (2D) long-range structure has been observed in a low-temperature phase X1 for a banana molecule having bromine atom substituted on the central core using synchrotron radiation (SR) x-ray scattering measurements. The X1 phase is formed from the B2 phase with the SmCAPA structure upon cooling and then shows multiple reflections around the first layer line, which are interpreted as a peculiar frustrated structure with long-range layer modulation order. Furthermore, the observation of a well-defined (100) reflection with a spacing of 171Å means that there is the electron density modulation along the layers. By coupling these reflections, a 2D lattice with a=173Å , c=53.4Å , and β=81.1° is determined where the a axis is parallel to the original layer of the B2 phase. This unique structure with modulation can be interpreted as an undulated layer structure and suggested to be the result from deformation with polarization splay defects periodically occurring along the layer. The angle, β=81.1° , between a and c axes indicates that the position of splay defects in one layer is staggered from that in the neighboring layer. In other words, the splay defect lines run in a direction tilted by roughly 80° with respect to the a axis.

  2. A Numerical Simulation for the Origins of Solar Magnetic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate numerically a new model for the origin of the solar coronal magnetic field structure observed in filament channels and in the complex structures of the slow wind. Using the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamic Solver (ARMS), we perform a series of numerical experiments to study the evolution of magnetic helicity injected into the solar corona by photospheric motions. Our simulation domain consists of a Cartesian box with an initially uniform vertical magnetic field and a low-beta plasma with uniform pressure and density. This system is driven by imposing flow patterns at the top and bottom boundary planes corresponding to the twisting motions expected from the quasi-random photospheric motions. We consider a variety of flow patterns made up of twist arranged in regular geometric orders (e.g. four twists in a quadrilateral arrangement, seven twists in a hexagonal), which generate sets of twisted flux tubes in the interior of the simulation box, the corona. This driving twist injects both energy and helicity into the coronal field. Depending upon the sense of the applied twist, we can inject either positive or negative helicity. If helicity of the same sign is injected into each of the flux tubes (the co-helicity case), we expect that the twist magnetic-field component of neighboring flux tubes will be oppositely directed and, therefore, will reconnect; on the other hand, if helicity of opposite signs is injected into neighboring flux tubes (the counter-helicity case), reconnection will not occur. This conjecture is confirmed by our simulations. We also have found generally that in co-helicity cases the reconnection indeed occurs and leads to a state in which the twist propagates to the largest scale: essentially, the individual flux tubes merge into one large twisted tube, with the twist concentrated at its outer boundary. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolution of coronal helicity and for the formation of filament channels on the Sun and slow-wind structures in the Heliosphere. Our research was sponsored by NASA.

  3. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy. PMID:26538495

  4. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    The reactions of BaCl 22H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  5. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The reactions of BaCl 22H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  6. Hierarchical fractal structure of perfect single-layer grapheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Ding, K.

    2013-12-01

    The atomic lattice structure of perfect singlelayer graphene that can actually be regarded as a kind of hierarchical fractal structure from the perspective of fractal geometry was studied for the first time. Three novel and special discoveries on hierarchical fractal structure and sets were unveiled upon examination of the regular crystal lattices of the single-layer graphene. The interior fractaltype structure was discovered to be the fifth space-filling curve from physical realm. Two efficient methods for calculating the fractal dimension of this fresh member was also provided. The outer boundary curve had a fractal dimension equal to one, and a multi-fractal structure from a naturally existing material was found for the first time. A series of strict self-similar hexagons comprised a rotating fractal set. These hexagons slewed at a constant counterclockwise angle ? of 19.1 when observed from one level to the next higher level. From the perspective of fractal geometry, these pioneering discoveries added three new members to the existing regular fractal structures and sets. A fundamental example of a multi-fractal structure was also presented.

  7. 3D multi-layered fibrous cellulose structure using an electrohydrodynamic process for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-11-01

    Micro/nanofibrous structures have been applied widely in various tissue-engineering applications because the topological structures are similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which encourages a high degree of cell adhesion and growth. However, it has been difficult to produce a three-dimensional (3D) fibrous structure using controllable macro-pores. Recently, cellulose has been considered a high-potential natural-origin biomaterial, but its use in 3D biomedical structures has been limited due to its narrow processing window. Here, we suggest a new 3D cellulose scaffold consisting of multi-layered struts made of submicron-sized entangled fibers that were fabricated using an electrohydrodynamic direct jet (EHDJ) process that is spin-printing. By optimizing processing conditions (electric field strength, cellulose feeding rate, and distance between nozzle and target), we can achieve a multi-layered cellulose structure consisting of the cylindrically entangled cellulose fibers. To compare the properties of the fabricated 3D cellulose structure, we used a PCL fibrous scaffold, which has a similar fibrous morphology and pore geometry, as a control. The physical and in vitro biocompatibilities of both fibrous scaffolds were assessed using human dermal fibroblasts, and the cellulose structure showed higher cell adhesion and metabolic activities compared with the control. These results suggest the EHDJ process to be an effective fabricating tool for tissue engineering and the cellulose scaffold has high potential as a tissue regenerative material. PMID:26164251

  8. Magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, K.; Habu, K.; Sato, N.

    1988-11-15

    The magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetization of the films. Ferrimagnetic coupling between Tb and Fe through the interface was explicitly observed up to about 9-A Tb and 10-A Fe layers. Films with thinner Tb and Fe layers than these thicknesses are composed of only ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe regions. Films with thicker layers of Tb and Fe are composed of ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe, ferromagnetic Fe, ferromagnetic Tb, and/or magnetically compensated Tb regions. The Tb-Fe films exhibit various temperature dependencies of the magnetization corresponding to these magnetic structures.

  9. Double graphene-layer structures for adaptive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, V.; Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Among different carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes), graphene and more complex graphene-based structures attracted a considerable attention. The gapless energy spectrum of graphene implies that graphene can absorb and emit photons with rather low energies corresponding to terahertz (THz) and infrared (IR) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this presentation, the discussion is focused on the double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures. In these structures, GLs are separated by a barrier layer (Boron Nitride, Silicon Carbide, and so on). Applying voltage between GLs, one can realize the situation when one GL is filled with electrons while the other is filled with holes. The variation of the applied voltage leads to the variations of the Fermi energies and, hence, to the change of the interband and intraband absorption of electromagnetic radiation and to the variation of the tunneling current. The plasma oscillations in double-GL structures exhibit interesting features. This is mainly because each GL serves as the gate for the other GL. The spectrum of the plasma oscillations in the double-GL structures falls into the terahertz range (THz) of frequencies and can be effectively controlled by the bias voltage. In this paper, we discuss the effects of the excitation of the plasma oscillations by incoming THz radiation and by optical radiation of two lasers with close frequencies as well as negative differential conductivity of the N-type and Z-type. These effects can be used in resonant THz detectors and THz photomixers. The models of devices based on double-GL structures as well as their characteristics are discussed.

  10. Origin of the Mackenzie large igneous province and sourcing of flood basalts from layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. M.; Pearson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 1.27 Ga Coppermine continental flood basalt (CFB) in northern Canada represents the extrusive manifestation of the Mackenzie large igneous province (LIP) that includes the Mackenzie dyke swarm and the Muskox layered intrusion. New Re-Os isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, Os) abundance data are reported together with whole-rock major- and trace-element abundances and Nd isotopes to examine the behaviour of the HSE during magmatic differentiation and to place constraints on the extent of crustal interaction with mantle-derived melts. Mineral-chemical data are also reported for an unusual andesite glass flow (4.9 wt.% MgO) found in proximity to newly recognised picrites (>20 wt.% MgO) in the lowermost stratigraphy of the Coppermine CFB. Compositions of mineral phases in the andesite are similar to equivalent phases found in Muskox Intrusion chromitites and the melt composition is identical to Muskox chromite melt inclusions. Elevated HSE contents (e.g., 3.8 ppb Os) and the mantle-like initial Os isotope composition of this andesitic glass contrast strongly with oxygen isotope and lithophile element evidence for extensive crustal contamination. These signatures implicate an origin for the glass as a magma mingling product formed within the Muskox Intrusion during chromitite genesis. The combination of crust and mantle signatures define roles for both these reservoirs in chromitite genesis, but the HSE appear to be dominantly mantle-sourced. Combined with Nd isotope data that places the feeder for lower Coppermine CFB picrites and basalts within the Muskox Intrusion, this provides the strongest evidence yet for direct processing of some CFB within upper-crustal magma chambers. Modeling of absolute and relative HSE abundances in CFB reveal that HSE concentrations decrease with increasing fractionation for melts with <8×1 wt.% MgO in the Coppermine CFB, with picrites (>13.5wt.% MgO) from CFB having higher Os abundances than ocean island basalt (OIB) equivalents. The differences between CFB and OIB picrite absolute Os abundances may result from higher degrees of partial melting to form CFB but may also reflect incorporation of trace sulphide in CFB picrites from magmas that reached S-saturation in shallow-level magma chambers. Significant inter-element fractionation between (Re+Pt+Pd)/(Os+Ir+Ru) are generated during magmatic differentiation in response to strongly contrasting partitioning of these two groups of elements into sulphides and/or HSE-rich alloys. Furthermore, fractional crystallization has a greater role on absolute and relative HSE abundances than crustal contamination under conditions of CFB petrogenesis due to the dilution effect of continental crust. The Coppermine CFB define a Re-Os isochron with an age of 1263 +16/-20 Ma and initial gamma Os = +2.2×0.8. Combined data for the basaltic and intrusive portions of the Mackenzie LIP indicate a mantle source broadly within the range of the primitive upper mantle. The majority of Archaean komatiites and Phanerozoic CFB also require mantle sources with primitive upper mantle to chondritic Re/Os evolution, with exceptions typically being from analyses of highly-fractionated MgO-poor basalts.

  11. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-03-30

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi{sub 5}Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 18} layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO{sub 2}, which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO{sub 2} at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO{sub 2}, the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties.

  12. Changes in the turbulent boundary layer structure associated with net drag reduction by outer layer manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, N.; Falco, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A specially designed wind tunnel was used to examine the effects of tandemly arranged parallel plate manipulators (TAPPMs) on a turbulent boundary-layer structure and the associated drag. Momentum balances, as well as measurements of the local shear stress from the velocity gradient near the wall, were used to obtain the net drag and local skin friction changes. Two TAPPMs, identical except for the thickness of their plates, were used in the study. Results with .003 inch plates were a maximum net drag reduction of 10 percent at 58 beta sub o (using a momentum balance). At 20 beta sub o, simultaneous laser sheet flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry data showed that the Reynolds stress in the large eddies was significantly reduced, as were the streamwise and normal velocity components. Using space-time correlations the reductions were again identified. Furthermore, quantitative flow visualization showed that the outward normal velocity of the inner region was also significantly decreased in the region around 20 beta sub o. However, throughout the first 130 beta sub o, the measured sublayer thickness with the TAPPMs in place was 15 to 20 percent greater. The data showed that the skin friction, as well as the structure of the turbulence, was strongly modified in the first 35 beta sub o, but that they both significantly relaxed toward unmanipulated boundary layer values by 50 beta sub o.

  13. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. A.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  14. Nanosized NiAl layered double hydroxidesStructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jitianu, Mihaela; Gunness, Darren C.; Aboagye, Doreen E.; Zaharescu, Maria; Jitianu, Andrei

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? The takovite anionic clays were obtained using the solgel method. ? The effect of samples composition on the structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. ? X-ray analysis. ? FTIR spectroscopy evidenced a disordered interlayer structure. ? FESEM and TEM analysis showed that the samples have high porosity. - Abstract: Takovite, a natural mineral with the formula Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}CO{sub 3}5H{sub 2}O belongs to the large class of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and contains positively charged Ni(II) and Al(III) layers alternating with layers containing carbonate ions and water molecules. Mesoporous takovite-type layered double hydroxides (LDH) of the general formula [Ni{sub 1?x}Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}]{sup x+}(CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}){sub x/2}nH{sub 2}O with different Ni/Al molar ratios (1.92.8) have been successfully synthesized by the solgel method, followed by anionic exchange using nickel acetylacetonate and aluminum isopropylate as cation precursors. A single LDH phase and an anisotropic growth of very small crystallites (below 4 nm) have been evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The effect of samples composition on their structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. The BET surface area values are in the range of 100122 m{sup 2}/g. BJH pore radius decreased with increase in the Al(III) content in the LDHs. FESEM micrographs show large aggregates of highly porous LDH particles, while TEM analysis reveals irregular agglomerates of crystallites, among which some of them displayed a developing hexagonal shape. The average particle size variation with the Al(III) content in the samples follows the same trend as the pore radius, the sample with the highest Ni/Al ratio displaying also the smallest particle size. This sample becomes even more interesting, since TEM analysis shows agglomerates with inside circular structures, feature not observed for the other Ni/Al ratios investigated.

  15. The role of layer structure in tin oxidation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhalde, S.; Arcondo, B.; Sirkin, H.

    1991-11-01

    Tin exhibits different oxidation kinetics which are composition dependent, when it forms intermetallic compounds with the chalcogenides S and Se. This phenomenon is related to the layer compounds SnS2 and SnSe2 crystalline structure. These minerals have anisotropic bonding characteristics, due to Van der Waals bonds presence between chalcogenides adjoining planes. The mentioned weak bonds allow the oxygen diffusion to the bulk, favouring the reaction with the inner tin atoms. In this work we study samples of Sn-S alloy with different thermal treatment by XRD and Mssbauer spectroscopy. Results are discussed and compared with those obtained for Sn-Se alloy in an early work [1].

  16. Towards a model for the in situ origin of PGE reefs in layered intrusions: insights from chromitite seams of the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, Rais; O'Driscoll, Brian; Lavrenchuk, Andrey

    2013-07-01

    The current debate on the origin of platinum-group element (PGE) reefs in layered intrusions centres mostly on gravity settling of sulphide liquid from overlying magma versus its introduction with interstitial melt/fluids migrating upward from the underlying cumulate pile. Here, we show that PGE-rich chromitite seams of the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion provide evidence for an alternative origin of such deposits in layered intrusions. These laterally extensive 2-mm-thick chromitite seams occur at the bases of several cyclic mafic-ultramafic units and show lithological and textural relationships suggesting in situ growth directly at a crystal-liquid interface. This follows from chromitite development along the edges of steeply inclined culminations and depressions at unit boundaries, even where these are vertically oriented or overhanging. High concentrations of PGE (up to 2-3 ppm Pd + Pt) are controlled by fine-grained base-metal sulphides, which are closely associated with chromitite seams. The following sequence of events explains the origin of the PGE-rich chromitite seams: (a) emplacement of picritic magma that caused thermal and mechanical erosion of underlying cumulate, followed by in situ growth of chromite against the base, (b) precipitation of sulphide droplets on chromite grains acting as favourable substrate or catalyst for sulphide nucleation, (c) the scavenging of PGE by sulphide droplets from fresh magma continuously brought towards the base by convection. Since the rate of magma convection is 105-107 times higher than that of the solidification (km/year to km/day versus 0.5-1.0 cm/year), the in situ formed sulphide droplets can equilibrate with picritic magma of thousands to million times their own volume. As a result, the sulphide-bearing rocks are able to reach economic concentrations of PGE (several ppm). We tentatively suggest that the basic principles of our model may be used to explain the origin of PGE-rich chromitites and classical PGE reefs in other layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions.

  17. Effect of image charges on double layer structure and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2014-03-01

    The study of the electrical double layer lies at the heart of colloid and interface sciences. Here, we examine the electrical double layer structure and forces between two neutral or like-charged plates by accounting for the image charge effects under weak-coupling conditions. By treating the fluctuation effect on the ion distribution and free energy self-consistently and nonperturbatively, we show that the image charge interaction appears as part of the self-energy in the Boltzmann factor: there is no limiting condition for which Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory is valid, contrary to the general consensus in the community that PB theory is the exact theory in the weak coupling limit. For electrolyte solutions between two neutral plates, we show that depletion of the salt ions by the image charge repulsion results in short-range attractive and long-range repulsive forces. If cations and anions are of different valency, the asymmetric depletion leads to the formation of an induced electrical double layer. In comparison to a 1:1 electrolyte solution, both the attractive and the repulsive parts of the interaction are stronger for the 2:1 electrolyte solution. For two charged plates, the competition between the surface charge and the image charge effect can give rise to like-charge attraction and charge inversion. These results are in stark contrast with predictions from the PB theory.

  18. Intrinsic growth of layered structure GaS microtubes from banana-leaf like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anuja; Sinha, Godhuli; Panda, Subhendu K.

    2013-04-01

    We report the growth of highly crystalline GaS tubular structures directly on Ga metal from banana-leaf like structures via a facile catalyst free physical vapor deposition process. GaS microtube arrays with 1.5-2 ?m length were synthesized by promoting the intrinsic layered crystal structure of GaS during thermal evaporation where the thermal stress and interlayer interactions are mostly dominant. We monitored the growth process systematically to build a proper understanding of the formed tubular structures in this layered material. Microstructural analyses indicate that the GaS microtubes start with the formation of ultra-long, uniform banana-leaf like morphology that eventually splits into thinner flakes and starts rolling in nanometer size diameters. Final realization of GaS microtubes happened by the expansion of these intermediate rolled-up layers in their outer diameter by minimizing the strain energy in the system in a self-catalytic growth process.

  19. Model-based damage evaluation of layered CFRP structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Rafael; Bochud, Nicolas; Rus, Guillermo; Peralta, Laura; Melchor, Juan; Chiacho, Juan; Chiacho, Manuel; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    An ultrasonic evaluation technique for damage identification of layered CFRP structures is presented. This approach relies on a model-based estimation procedure that combines experimental data and simulation of ultrasonic damage-propagation interactions. The CFPR structure, a [0/90]4s lay-up, has been tested in an immersion through transmission experiment, where a scan has been performed on a damaged specimen. Most ultrasonic techniques in industrial practice consider only a few features of the received signals, namely, time of flight, amplitude, attenuation, frequency contents, and so forth. In this case, once signals are captured, an algorithm is used to reconstruct the complete signal waveform and extract the unknown damage parameters by means of modeling procedures. A linear version of the data processing has been performed, where only Young modulus has been monitored and, in a second nonlinear version, the first order nonlinear coefficient ? was incorporated to test the possibility of detection of early damage. The aforementioned physical simulation models are solved by the Transfer Matrix formalism, which has been extended from linear to nonlinear harmonic generation technique. The damage parameter search strategy is based on minimizing the mismatch between the captured and simulated signals in the time domain in an automated way using Genetic Algorithms. Processing all scanned locations, a C-scan of the parameter of each layer can be reconstructed, obtaining the information describing the state of each layer and each interface. Damage can be located and quantified in terms of changes in the selected parameter with a measurable extension. In the case of the nonlinear coefficient of first order, evidence of higher sensitivity to damage than imaging the linearly estimated Young Modulus is provided.

  20. On the Impact Origin of the Anomalous "Blockhorizont" Layer in Eastern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwmark, C.; Ferrière, L.; Hofmann, B. A.; Holm-Alwmark, S.; Meier, M. M. M.

    2015-09-01

    Here we confirm the presence of shocked quartz grains, by measurements and indexing of PDFs, in the so-called "Blockhorizont", a 10-15 cm thick anomalous layer situated in Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in the North Alpine foreland basin.

  1. Identifying the origin of groundwater samples in a multi-layer aquifer system with Random Forest classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Alonso-Sarra, Francisco; Garca-Arstegui, Jos Lus; Cnovas-Garca, Fulgencio; Martnez-Vicente, David; Moreno-Brotns, Jess

    2013-08-01

    Accurate identification of the origin of groundwater samples is not always possible in complex multilayered aquifers. This poses a major difficulty for a reliable interpretation of geochemical results. The problem is especially severe when the information on the tubewells design is hard to obtain. This paper shows a supervised classification method based on the Random Forest (RF) machine learning technique to identify the layer from where groundwater samples were extracted. The classification rules were based on the major ion composition of the samples. We applied this method to the Campo de Cartagena multi-layer aquifer system, in southeastern Spain. A large amount of hydrogeochemical data was available, but only a limited fraction of the sampled tubewells included a reliable determination of the borehole design and, consequently, of the aquifer layer being exploited. Added difficulty was the very similar compositions of water samples extracted from different aquifer layers. Moreover, not all groundwater samples included the same geochemical variables. Despite of the difficulty of such a background, the Random Forest classification reached accuracies over 90%. These results were much better than the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Decision Trees (CART) supervised classification methods. From a total of 1549 samples, 805 proceeded from one unique identified aquifer, 409 proceeded from a possible blend of waters from several aquifers and 335 were of unknown origin. Only 468 of the 805 unique-aquifer samples included all the chemical variables needed to calibrate and validate the models. Finally, 107 of the groundwater samples of unknown origin could be classified. Most unclassified samples did not feature a complete dataset. The uncertainty on the identification of training samples was taken in account to enhance the model. Most of the samples that could not be identified had an incomplete dataset.

  2. Structure change, layer sliding, and metallization in high-pressure MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatti, Erio; Hromadova, Liliana; Martonak, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Based on ab initio calculations and metadynamics simulations, we predict that 2H-MoS2, a layered insulator, will metallize under pressures in excess of 20-30 GPa. In the same pressure range, simulations and enthalpy optimization predict a structural transition. Reminiscent of this material's frictional properties, free mutual sliding of layers takes place at this transition, where the original 2Hc stacking changes to a 2Ha stacking typical of 2H-NbSe2, a transformation which explains for the first time previously mysterious X-ray diffraction data. Phonon and electron phonon calculations suggest that metallic pristine MoS2 will require ultrahigh pressures in order to develop superconductivity. Supported by EU-Japan Project LEMSUPER, by a SNF Sinergia Project, and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency

  3. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  4. The Electronic Structure of Single-Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, David Alan

    Single-layer graphene has been widely researched in recent years due to its perceived technological applicability and its scientific importance as a unique model system with relativistic Dirac Fermions. Because of its unique geometric and electronic structure, the properties of graphene can be tuned or manipulated in several ways. This tunability is important for technological applications in its own right, and it also allows us to study the fundamental properties of Dirac Fermions, including unique many-body interactions and the nature of the quasiparticles at half-filling. This thesis is a detailed examination of the electronic and structural properties of graphene, studied with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and other surface science techniques like low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction. This thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the electronic and structural properties of single-layer graphene. It provides a brief historical overview of major theoretical and experimental milestones and sets the stage for the important theoretical and experimental questions that this thesis addresses. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the experimental setup. Chapter 2 discusses the experimental techniques used in this thesis with particular focus on the mechanics of ARPES. Chapter 3 discusses the different graphene growth techniques that were used to create our sample with particular focus on our characterization of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Chapters 4 and 5 form the meat of this thesis: they provide a thorough discussion of the electronic properties of graphene as studied by ARPES. Chapter 4 describes how various perturbations can result in the manipulation of the bare electronic band structure, including the deposition of atomic or molecular species on top of an epitaxial graphene sheet as well as the interactions between graphene and its substrate. Chapter 5 describes the many-body physics in single-layer graphene. It begins with a discussion of the electron-electron interaction in undoped graphene, demonstrating that these interactions qualitatively differ from ordinary metals and semiconductors and depart from the standard Fermi liquid picture for quasiparticles; it then continues by describing how screening the electron-electron and electron-impurity interactions can impact the electronic properties of graphene. Chapter 5 ends with a discussion of the doping-dependent coupling strength of the electron-phonon interaction.

  5. Do The Concentrations Of Platinum Group Elements In The Younger Dryas Black Layer Really Support An Extraterrestrial Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, P.; Paquay, F.; Goderis, S.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2008-12-01

    An enigmatic carbon-rich black layer, of possible worldwide occurrence, is interpreted to indicate an extraterrestrial impact around 12.9 ka, a period coeval with the Younger Dryas (YD) environmental changes (Firestone et al. 2007, PNAS 104). This interpretation is based on the possible identification of a series of markers postulated to be of impact origin, such as magnetic grains and microspherules, charcoal, soot, C- spherules, nanodiamonds, fullerenes with extraterrestrial He and elevated concentrations of Ir. Among these markers, only the elevated Ir concentration is a non-ambiguous impact indicator. In early 2007, one of us (PC) measured the concentration of platinum group elements (including Ir) in 4 samples of this black layer. Allen West provided the samples along with their Ir concentrations. The samples originated from Howard Bay, NC (level HB-11D2) and Blackwater Draw, NM (levels BW-DT, D/C and BW-B/A), and were supposed to contain 15 ng/g Ir (<150 micron magnetic fraction), 2.0 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment), 2.25 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment) and <0.1 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment) respectively. In Table 1 of Firestone et al. (2007) the Blackwater Draw sample contains 2.3 ng/g Ir, and the separated magnetic fraction rises up 24 ng/g. The obtained results showed that none of the 4 samples yielded PGE concentrations above 0.5 ng/g. Considering the attention the claim of a possible YD impact has generated in the last year, we are currently reanalyzing these 4 samples of the black layer using high precision NiS fire-assay preconcentration combined with ICP-MS analyses. On proven crater melt rocks or impact layers, the quantitation limits reach: 0.06 ng/g Ru, 0.01 ng/g Rh, 0.14 ng/g Pd, 0.06 ng/g Ir, and 0.1 ng/g Pt, far below the Ir values claimed by Firestone et al. (2007). In addition, these 4 samples are being analyzed for Os isotopes, known to be most sensitive for the detection of minute amounts of extraterrestrial components (%<%%<%0.05 wt%) in impact layers. The results of these new analyses will confirm or not the extraterrestrial origin of the Younger Dryas C-rich black layer.

  6. Growth of high quality GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene network structure as intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Taeo Hoon; Park, Ah Hyun; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2015-03-01

    In general, high-quality GaN layers are synthesized on low-temperature (LT) GaN buffer layer on a single crystal sapphire substrate. However, large differences in fundamental properties such as lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN layer and sapphire substrate generate high density of threading dislocation (TD) that leads to deterioration of optical and structural properties. Graphene has been attracting much attention due to its excellent physical properties However, direct epitaxial growth of GaN film onto graphene layer on substrates is not easily accessible due to the lack of chemical reactivity on graphene which consisted of C-C bond of sp2 hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with no dangling bonds. In this work, an intermediate layer for the GaN growth on sapphire substrate was constructed by inserting carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid structure (CGH) Optical and structural properties of GaN layer grown on CGH were compared with those of GaN layer directly grown on sapphire CNTs act as nucleation sites and play a crucial role in the growth of single crystal high-quality GaN on graphene layer. Also, graphene film acts as a mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN layer, which can effectively reduce TD density. A grant from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) institutional program.

  7. Fabrication of luminescent porous silicon with stain etches and evidence that luminescence originates in amorphous layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Lin, T. L.; Pike, W. T.; Vasquez, R. P.; Wu, Z.-C.

    1992-01-01

    Simple immersion of Si in stain etches of HF:HNO3:H2O or NaNO2 in aqueous HF was used to produce films exhibiting luminescence in the visible similar to that of anodically-etched porous Si. All of the luminescent samples consist of amorphous porous Si in at least the near surface region. No evidence was found for small crystalline regions within these amorphous layers.

  8. Origin of photogenerated carrier recombination at the metal-active layer interface in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan Mamun; Adhikari, Nirmal; Qiao, Qiquan; Bommisetty, Venkat

    2015-11-01

    The role of the metal-active layer interface in photogenerated recombination has been investigated using nanoscale current sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) in as-deposited, pre-annealed and post-annealed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Aluminum (Al) confined post-annealed BHJ solar cells exhibited a significantly improved device efficiency compared to pre-annealed BHJ solar cells having similar photocarrier harvesting ability in the active layer. The nanoscale topography and CS-AFM results indicate a uniform PCBM rich phase at the metal-active layer interface in the post-annealed cells, but PCBM segregation in the pre-annealed cells. These two different annealing processes showed different carrier dynamics revealed using IMPS under various light intensities. The IMPS results suggest reduced photo generated carrier recombination in uniform PCBM rich post-annealed BHJ solar cells. This study reveals the importance of the metal-bend interface in BHJ solar cells in order to obtain efficient charge carrier extraction for high efficiency. PMID:26431263

  9. Origin and reduction of impurities at GaAs epitaxial layer-substrate interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanber, H.; Yang, H. T.; Zielinski, T.; Whelan, J. M.

    1988-09-01

    Surface cleaning techniques used for semi-insulating GaAs substrates prior to epitaxial growth can have an important and sometimes detrimental effect on the quality and characteristics of epitaxial layers that are grown on them. We observe that a HF rinse followed by a 5:1:1 H 2SO 4:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse drastically reduced the maximum concentrations and total amount of both SIMS detected S and Si for MOCVD grown GaAs undoped epitaxial layers. Subsequent final HCl and H 2O reduced the S interfacial residues to the SIMS detection limit. Total amounts of residual Si are estimated to be equivalent to 10 -2 to 10 -3 monolayers. Residual S is less. Alternately the S residue can be comparable reduced by a HF rinse followed by a NH 4OH:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse. Hot aqueous HCl removes S but not Si residues. The Si residue is not electrically active and most likely exists as islands of SiO 2. The relative significance of the impurity residues is most pronounced for halide VPE, smaller for MBE and least for MOCVD grown GaAs epitaxial layers.

  10. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    An impact origin has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of impact structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic impact areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of impact events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known impact structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed impact origin for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used frequencies, the electromagnetic profiles show lower apparent electrical conductivities in the circular structures' base, while the rims present notably higher values. Curvature attributes, analytic signal, horizontal gradient and Euler solutions were calculated for the magnetic data. 2.5D magnetic models were developed across the studied circular structures. Our results suggest that in the circular structures' bases up to 12 m of Pampa Sastre conglomerate would have been removed. On the contrary, the circular structures' rims exhibit high-amplitude, localized magnetic anomalies and higher apparent electrical conductivities, which would be related to the anomalous accumulation of basalt boulders and blocks remanently magnetized. Such high-amplitude anomalies are not present outside the surveyed circular structures. The geomorphological, geological and geophysical features of the studied circular structures can only be explained by means of an extra-terrestrial projectile impact. We conclude that, considering the results obtained to date, Bajada del Diablo should be envisaged as a focus of further research, which could provide novel information about impact events, associated processes and their evidences. Particularly, the data produced in this study could represent one of the first documented geophysical signatures of the impact of a comet nucleus on Earth.

  11. Layered Double Hydroxides: Proposal of a One-Layer Cation-Ordered Structure Model of Monoclinic Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, K; Nagendran, Supreeth; Kamath, P Vishnu

    2015-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides are obtained by partial isomorphous substitution of divalent metal ions by trivalent metal ions in the structure of mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2. The widely reported three-layer polytype of rhombohedral symmetry, designated as polytype 3R1, is actually a one-layer polytype of monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/m, a = 5.401 , b = 9.355 , c = 11.02 , ? = 98.89). This structure has a cation-ordered metal hydroxide layer defined by a supercell a = ?3 a0; b = 3 a0 (a0 = cell parameter of the cation-disordered rhombohedral cell). Successive layers are translated by (1/3, 0, 1) relative to one another. When successive metal hydroxide layers are translated by (2/3, 0, 1) relative to one another, the resultant crystal, also of monoclinic symmetry, generates a powder pattern corresponding to the polytype hitherto designated as 3R2. This structure model not only removes all the anomalies intrinsic to the widely accepted cation-disordered structure but also abides by Pauling's rule that forbids trivalent cations from occupying neighboring sites and suggests that it is unnecessary to invoke rhombohedral symmetry when the metal hydroxide layer is cation ordered. These results have profound implications for the correct description of polytypism in this family of layered compounds. PMID:26267263

  12. Interfacial Interactions, Director Configurations and Layer Structures of Surface Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhiming

    1991-02-01

    When sandwiched in a micron thick gap between flat solid substrates, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) can exhibit a variety of surface stabilized states of different molecular orientations. This orientational bistability, along with fast switching (microseconds) in response to external electric field, make the surface stabilized FLC (SSFLC) one of the most promising electrooptic devices. The physical properties as well as the potential technical applications of SSFLCs strongly depend on the surface interactions, layer structure, and molecular orientations in the SSFLC cells, facts that provided the motivations for the work presented in this thesis described briefly in the following paragraph. We first characterized the polarization space charge effects of FLCs and applied the results to geometries of practical interest. This is of current importance because of the increasing availability of high polarization FLC materials. We then carried out a polarized light microspectrophotometry study on SSFLC cells prepared with surface treatments which promote both planar and non-planar molecular alignment at the bounding plates. The measured spectra were compared with the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous anisotropic dielectric medium based on our model of the layer and molecular orientation structure in SSFLC cells. The results revealed the origin of differences in domain shape as well as contrast in the SSFLC switching process. We noticed a exact optical symmetry during the spectral studies which provided crucial evidence for the aforementioned model. Additionally we investigated the surface molecular orientation directly via depolarized total internal reflection (TIR) and found out a surprising plastic orientational effect at FLC-polymer interface. The TIR results were also interpreted using the numerical solutions of the Maxwell's equations. Finally we developed a three dimensional model explaining the newly observed layer defects in SSFLC cells, the mountain defects, whose formation indicates that the chevron layer structure is not necessarily a stable structure.

  13. Aliphatic structure of humic acids; a clue to their origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Maciel, G.E.; Dennis, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (both 1H and 13C) of humic acids from diverse depositional environments indicate the presence of aromatic chemical structures, most likely derived from lignin of vascular plants, and complex, paraffinic structures, most likely derived from algal or microbial sources. The latter components account for a major fraction of humic acid structures in both terrestrial and aquatic environments, suggesting that algae or microbes play a large role in humification of organic remains from both systems. ?? 1981.

  14. Propagation of longitudinal thermoplastic waves in layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2000-05-01

    The recent advances in photonics and laser instrumentation have been creating a favorable environment for thermal-based elastic wave generation techniques and their applications in various fields, such as nondestructive testing and smart structures. The main advantages of laser-based NDE include noncontact evaluation, freedom for complex surface geometry, high spatial and temporal resolution, easy access to cavities, and fast scanning. Two disadvantages are that the laser-based method requires a good physical understanding of thermoelastic wave propagation in solids, which is considerably more complicated than elastic wave propagation, and more complicated instrumentation needed for data collection. In an idealized solid, thermal energy is transported by two different mechanisms: by quantized electronic excitations, which are called free electrons, and the quanta of lattice vibrations, which are called phonons. These quanta undergo collisions of a dissipative nature, giving rise to thermal resistance in the medium. A relaxation time is associated with the average communication time between these collisions for the commencement of resistive flow. There are a number of optical methods available for elastic wave generation and detection. The most commonly utilized techniques include interferometric and noninterferometric techniques, optical heterodyning, differential interferometry, and time-delay interferometry. In the current work, a transfer matrix formulation including the second sound effect is developed for a thermoelastic layer. The second sound effect is included to eliminate the thermal wave travelling with infinite velocity as predicted by the diffusion heat transfer model, and, consequently, the immediate arrival of waves. Utilizing this formulation and the periodic systems framework, the attenuation and propagation properties of one-dimensional thermoelastic wave in both continuum and layered structures are studied. A perturbation analysis is carried out to study the behavior of propagation constants. Values of the attenuation factor, defined as the real part of the propagation constant, are obtained for thermoelastic solids under investigation. The reflection and transmission coefficients between half-spaces are also calculated. To clarify the link between the transformed (frequency-wave number) and the physical (temporal-spatial) domains, a number of numerical simulation results obtained through an FFT based transient analysis are generated and presented. The transient analysis is carried out for two bi-periodic layered structures. Strong localization of thermal wave predicted by the analysis in the transformed domain demonstrated in the time-special domain. The thermal wave localization predicted by the transformed domain analysis and its extent are demonstrated by these transient response results.

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensional layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Patricia; Solis, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature, among other thermodynamic properties are reported for an ideal boson gas inside layered structures created by trapping potential of the Kronig-Penney type. We start with a big box where we introduce the Kronig-Penney potential in three directions to get a honey comb of cubes of side a size and walls of variable penetrability (P=mV0ab/^2), with bosons instead of bees. We are able to reduce the dimensions of the cubes to simulate bosons inside quantum dots. The critical temperature, starting from that of an ideal boson gas inside the big box, decreases as the small cube wall impenetrability increases arriving to a tiny but different from zero when the penetrability is zero (P-->∞). We also calculate the internal energy and the specific heat, and compare them to the ones obtained for the case of the same Kronig-Penney potential in one direction (simulating layers), and two directions (nanotubes).

  16. Boundary Layer Height and Structure during the NATO LASIE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, R.; Sempreviva, A. M.; Schiano, E.; Bozzano, R.; Miranda, P. M.; Pensieri, S.; Semedo, A.; Teixeira, J.

    2009-09-01

    The NATO Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE) took place in 2007, from 16 to 22 June, in the Mediterranean Sea. This filed campaign was organized under the auspices of the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), located in La Spezia, Italy. The main scientific goal was to contribute to the evaluation and development of parameterizations of the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers and their interactions. Extensive meteorological and oceanographic measurements were collected, on board the research vessels Leonardo, Planet, and Urania, and from the spar buoy ODAS Italia 1. In this study ceilometer (Vaisala CL31) and atmospheric radiosondes (Vaisala DigiCORA) measurements are used to assess the evolution of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) structure and height during the LASIE cruise. The ceilometer measured continuously the cloud height base, while the radiosondes, launched every 3 hours, recorded vertical profiles of wind speed, wind direction, potential temperature and relative humidity. Several methods available in the literature are used to determine the height of the MABL from observations. The results from these methods are compared with the MABL heights from the limited-area numeric weather prediction models WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and MM5 (Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model).

  17. Controlling molecular deposition and layer structure with supramolecular surface assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, James A.; Oxtoby, Neil S.; Phillips, Michael A.; Champness, Neil R.; Beton, Peter H.

    2003-08-01

    Selective non-covalent interactions have been widely exploited in solution-based chemistry to direct the assembly of molecules into nanometre-sized functional structures such as capsules, switches and prototype machines. More recently, the concepts of supramolecular organization have also been applied to two-dimensional assemblies on surfaces stabilized by hydrogen bonding, dipolar coupling or metal co-ordination. Structures realized to date include isolated rows, clusters and extended networks, as well as more complex multi-component arrangements. Another approach to controlling surface structures uses adsorbed molecular monolayers to create preferential binding sites that accommodate individual target molecules. Here we combine these approaches, by using hydrogen bonding to guide the assembly of two types of molecules into a two-dimensional open honeycomb network that then controls and templates new surface phases formed by subsequently deposited fullerene molecules. We find that the open network acts as a two-dimensional array of large pores of sufficient capacity to accommodate several large guest molecules, with the network itself also serving as a template for the formation of a fullerene layer.

  18. Homogeneous optical cloak constructed with uniform layered structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Liu; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Shuang; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2011-04-25

    The prospect of rendering objects invisible has intrigued researchers for centuries. Transformation optics based invisibility cloak design is now bringing this goal from science fictions to reality and has already been demonstrated experimentally in microwave and optical frequencies. However, the majority of the invisibility cloaks reported so far have a spatially varying refractive index which requires complicated design processes. Besides, the size of the hidden object is usually small relative to that of the cloak device. Here we report the experimental realization of a homogenous invisibility cloak with a uniform silicon grating structure. The design strategy eliminates the need for spatial variation of the material index, and in terms of size it allows for a very large obstacle/cloak ratio. A broadband invisibility behavior has been verified at near-infrared frequencies, opening up new opportunities for using uniform layered medium to realize invisibility at any frequency ranges, where high-quality dielectrics are available. PMID:21643114

  19. Coherent structures in the Es layer and neutral middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Zbyek; Knov, Petra Kouck; Potunkov, Kate?ina

    2015-12-01

    The present paper shows results from the summer campaign performed during geomagnetically quiet period from June 1 to August 31, 2009. Within time-series of stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures at pressure levels 10-0.1 hPa, mesospheric winds measured in Collm, Germany, and the sporadic E-layer parameters foEs and hEs measured at the Pruhonice station we detected specific coherent wave-bursts in planetary wave domain. Permanent wave-like activity is observed in all analyzed data sets. However, the number of wave-like structures persistent in large range of height from the stratosphere to lower ionosphere is limited. The only coherent modes that are detected on consequent levels of the atmosphere are those corresponding to eigenmodes of planetary waves.

  20. Structure function scaling in a Re? = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2011-12-01

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Re? = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  1. On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Ji, Yun; Liu, Wei; Tiam Tan, Swee; Kyaw, Zabu; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang; Hasanov, Namig; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Yiping; Zhu, Binbin; Wei Sun, Xiao E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org; Volkan Demir, Hilmi E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org

    2014-02-17

    In this work, the origin of electron blocking effect of n-type Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N electron blocking layer (EBL) for c+ InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes has been investigated through dual-wavelength emission method. It is found that the strong polarization induced electric field within the n-EBL reduces the thermal velocity and correspondingly the mean free path of the hot electrons. As a result, the electron capture efficiency of the multiple quantum wells is enhanced, which significantly reduces the electron overflow from the active region and increases the radiative recombination rate with holes.

  2. Modified endoscopic submucosal dissection with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric subepithelial tumors are usually asymptomatic and observed incidentally during endoscopic examination. Although most of these tumors are considered benign, some have a potential for malignant transformation, particularly those originating from the muscularis propria layer. For this type of tumor, surgical resection is the standard treatment of choice. With recent advent of endoscopic resection techniques and devices, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been considered as an alternative way of treatment. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified ESD technique with enucleation for removal of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer, and to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods From November 2009 to May 2011, a total of 16 patients received a modified ESD with enucleation for their subepithelial tumors. All tumors were smaller than 5?cm and originated from the muscularis propria layer of the stomach, as shown by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The procedure was conducted with an insulated-tip knife 2. Patients demographics, tumor size and pathological diagnosis, procedure time, procedure-related complication, and treatment outcome were reviewed. Results Fifteen of the sixteen tumors were successful complete resection. The mean tumor size measured by EUS was 26.1?mm (range: 2042?mm). The mean procedure time was 52?minutes (range: 30120?minutes). Endoscopic features of the 4 tumors were pedunculated and 12 were sessile. Their immunohistochemical diagnosis was c-kit (+) stromal tumor in 14 patients and leiomyoma in 2 patients. There was no procedure-related perforation or overt bleeding. During a mean follow up duration of 14.8?months (range: 622?months), there was no tumor recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions Using a modified ESD with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer and larger than 2?cm, complete resection can be successfully performed without serious complication. It is a safe and effective alternative to surgical therapy for these tumors of 2 to 5?cm in size. PMID:22978826

  3. Origin of structure in the universe: quantum cosmology reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-09-01

    Based on a more careful canonical analysis, we motivate a reduced quantizationin the sense of superspace quantizationof slightly inhomogeneous cosmology in place of the Dirac quantization in the existing literature, and provide it in the vacuum case. This is attained through consideration of configuration space geometries at various levels of reduction. Some of these have the good fortunate of being flat. Geometrically natural coordinates for these are interpreted in terms of the original redundant formulation's well-known mode expansion coefficients.

  4. Cap structures as diagnostic indicators of silcrete origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullyott, J. Stewart; Nash, David J.; Huggett, Jennifer M.

    2015-07-01

    Cap structures within silcretes have long been used as a diagnostic indicator of pedogenic silicification. However, a growing number of studies of the micromorphology of non-pedogenic silcretes indicate that this may no longer be appropriate. This paper presents the first systematic investigation of the micro-fabric, geochemistry and mineralogy of cap structures in groundwater silcretes, through an analysis of conglomeratic varieties (puddingstones) from the southern UK. Our results suggest that cap structures in groundwater silcretes fall within a spectrum of types, related to the degree of sorting in the inter-gravel host sediment. At one end of this spectrum are well-defined caps within otherwise well-sorted, overgrowth-dominated silcretes. These caps exhibit a grain-supported fabric, are cemented by micro- and/or cryptocrystalline silica, and contain floating silt-sized quartz and Ti-oxide grains. We propose that these structures developed mainly as a result of in-washing of fine sediments that were subsequently silicified. At the other end of the spectrum are silcretes with caps defined by concentrations of Ti-oxide grains, as opposed to cement type and grain size. These formed mainly as a result of the remobilisation and precipitation of Ti during the silicification of gravels containing interstitial clay-rich sandy sediment. Between these end-members are silcretes with cap structures formed by a combination of in-washing and redistribution of fines plus some local remobilisation of Ti. Overall, the cap structures in this study exhibit a simple micromorphology, lacking the alternating Ti- and silica-rich lamellae typical of pedogenic silcrete. We conclude that the presence of cap structures alone should not be considered diagnostic of pedogenic silicification unless accompanied by other indicators such as a differentiated profile and abundant, complex, way-up structures within the micro-fabric.

  5. Structure Identification Within a Transitioning Swept-Wing Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Keith; Glauser, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using streamwise spatial POD solutions which isolate the growth of the primary and secondary instability mechanisms in the first and second modes, respectively. Temporal evolutions of dominant POD modes in all measured fields are calculated. These scalar POD coefficients contain the integrated characteristics of the entire field, greatly reducing the amount of data to characterize the instantaneous field. These modes may then be used to train future flow control algorithms based on neural networks.

  6. Corrosion detection in multi-layered rotocraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    ROACH,DENNIS P.; WALKINGTON,PHILLIP D.; HOHMAN,ED; MARSHALL,GREG

    2000-04-25

    Rotorcraft structures do not readily lend themselves to quantifiable inspection methods due to airframe construction techniques. Periodic visual inspections are a common practice for detecting corrosion. Unfortunately, when the telltale signs of corrosion appear visually, extensive repair or refurbishment is required. There is a need to nondestructively evaluate airframe structures in order to recognize and quantify corrosion before visual indications are present. Nondestructive evaluations of rotorcraft airframes face inherent problems different from those of the fixed wing industry. Most rotorcraft lap joints are very narrow, contain raised fastener heads, may possess distortion, and consist of thinner gage materials ({approximately}0.012--0.125 inches). In addition the structures involve stack-ups of two and three layers of thin gage skins that are separated by sealant of varying thickness. Industry lacks the necessary data techniques, and experience to adequately perform routine corrosion inspection of rotorcraft. In order to address these problems, a program is currently underway to validate the use of eddy current inspection on specific rotorcraft lap joints. Probability of detection (POD) specimens have been produced that simulate two lap joint configurations on a model TH-57/206 helicopter. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia Labs and Bell Helicopter have applied single and dual frequency eddy current (EC) techniques to these test specimens. The test results showed enough promise to justify beta site testing of the eddy current methods evolved in this study. The technique allows users to distinguish between corrosion signals and those caused by varying gaps between the assembly of skins. Specific structural joints were defined as prime corrosion areas and a series of corrosion specimens were produced with 5--20% corrosion distributed among the layers of each joint. Complete helicopter test beds were used to validate the laboratory findings. This paper will present the laboratory and field results that quantify the EC technique's corrosion detection performance. Plans for beta site testing, adoption of the new inspection procedure into routine rotorcraft maintenance, and NDI training issues will also be discussed.

  7. Structure identification within a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Keith Lance

    1997-08-01

    Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use linear stochastic estimation (LSE) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using streamwise spatial POD solutions which isolate the growth of the primary and secondary instability mechanisms in the first and second modes, respectively. Temporal evolutions of dominant POD modes in all measured fields are calculated. These scalar POD coefficients contain the integrated characteristics of the entire field, greatly reducing the amount of data to characterize the instantaneous field. These modes may then be used to train future flow control algorithms based on neural networks.

  8. On the origins of the mitotic shift in proliferating cell layers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During plant and animal development, monolayer cell sheets display a stereotyped distribution of polygonal cell shapes. In interphase cells these shapes range from quadrilaterals to decagons, with a robust average of six sides per cell. In contrast, the subset of cells in mitosis exhibits a distinct distribution with an average of seven sides. It remains unclear whether this ‘mitotic shift’ reflects a causal relationship between increased polygonal sidedness and increased division likelihood, or alternatively, a passive effect of local proliferation on cell shape. Methods We use a combination of probabilistic analysis and mathematical modeling to predict the geometry of mitotic polygonal cells in a proliferating cell layer. To test these predictions experimentally, we use Flp-Out stochastic labeling in the Drosophila wing disc to induce single cell clones, and confocal imaging to quantify the polygonal topologies of these clones as a function of cellular age. For a more generic test in an idealized cell layer, we model epithelial sheet proliferation in a finite element framework, which yields a computationally robust, emergent prediction of the mitotic cell shape distribution. Results Using both mathematical and experimental approaches, we show that the mitotic shift derives primarily from passive, non-autonomous effects of mitoses in neighboring cells on each cell’s geometry over the course of the cell cycle. Computationally, we predict that interphase cells should passively gain sides over time, such that cells at more advanced stages of the cell cycle will tend to have a larger number of neighbors than those at earlier stages. Validating this prediction, experimental analysis of randomly labeled epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing disc demonstrates that labeled cells exhibit an age-dependent increase in polygonal sidedness. Reinforcing these data, finite element simulations of epithelial sheet proliferation demonstrate in a generic framework that passive side-gaining is sufficient to generate a mitotic shift. Conclusions Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the mitotic shift reflects a time-dependent accumulation of shared cellular interfaces over the course of the cell cycle. These results uncover fundamental constraints on the relationship between cell shape and cell division that should be general in adherent, polarized cell layers. PMID:24886286

  9. Potassium under pressure: Electronic origin of complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyareva, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent high-pressure X-ray diffraction studies of alkali metals revealed unusual complex structures that follow the body-centred and face-centred cubic structures on compression. The structural sequence of potassium under compression to 1 Mbar is as follows: bcc-fcc-h-g (tI19*), hP4-oP8-tI4-oC16. We consider configurations of Brillouin-Jones zones and the Fermi surface within a nearly-free-electron model in order to analyze the importance of these configurations for the crystal structure stability. Formation of Brillouin zone planes close to the Fermi surface is related to opening an energy gap at these planes and reduction of crystal energy. Under pressure, this mechanism becomes more important leading to appearance of complex low-symmetry structures. The stability of the post-fcc phases in K is attributed to the changes in the valence electron configuration under strong compression.

  10. A structural origin for the cantaloupe terrain of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Cantaloupe terrain is unique to Triton. It is Triton's oldest terrain and includes about 250,000 km sq. region displaying sparsely cratered, closely spaced, nearly circular dimples about 30-40 km across. This terrain is found on no other planet because, only on Triton the final major global thermal pulse (1) caused completed (or nearly) interior melting resulting in a cooling history where large thermal stresses shattered and contorted a thin, weak lithosphere, and (2) occurred after heavy bombardment so that the surface features were preserved. The cantaloupe terrain is composed of intersecting sets of structures (folds and/or faults) that have developed as a result of global compression generated by volumetric changes associated with cooling of Triton's interior. Further, it is proposed that these structures developed after the period of heavy bombardment, and resulted from the last major global thermal epoch in Triton's unique history (either caused by tidal or radio metric heating). Initially, as the body cooled and the structures formed, their surface topography was most likely modified by thermal relaxation of the warm surface ices. In other bodies like Mercury, thermal stresses generated from global cooling and contraction have resulted in widely spaced thrust faults, whereas on Triton, thermal stresses produced more closely-spaced folds and faults sets. This difference in structural style is probably due to differences in lithospheric properties (thickness, strength, etc.), the magnitude of stress (directly dependent on the thermal history), and when the structures formed, relative to the period of heavy bombardment.

  11. Dynamical Origin and the Pole Structure of X(3872)

    SciTech Connect

    Danilkin, I. V.; Simonov, Yu. A.

    2010-09-03

    The dynamical mechanism of channel coupling with the decay channels is applied to the case of coupled charmonium--DD{sup *} states with J{sup PC}=1{sup ++}. A pole analysis is done and the DD{sup *} production cross section is calculated in qualitative agreement with experiment. The sharp peak at the D{sub 0}D{sub 0}{sup *} threshold and flat background are shown to be due to Breit-Wigner resonance, shifted by channel coupling from the original position of 3954 MeV for the 2{sup 3}P{sub 1}, QQ state. A similar analysis, applied to the n=2, {sup 3}P{sub 2}, {sup 1}P{sub 1}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}, allows us to associate the first one with the observed Z(3930) J=2 and explains the destiny of {sup 3}P{sub 0}.

  12. Structural origin of bulk molecular hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Pohl, R.O.; Crandall, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The elastic anomaly observed previously at the triple point of bulk molecular hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition has also been observed in deuterated films at the triple point of D{sub 2}. The origin of this anomaly has now been traced to bubbles formed at the crystalline-amorphous interface. An upper limit of the pressure in these bubbles at their formation temperature, 440 C, has been estimated to be 11 MPa, and is suggested to be a measure of the bonding strength between film and substrate at that temperature. Bubble formation after heat treatment at 400 C has also been observed in films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. The internal friction anomalies resemble those observed previously in cold-worked hydrogenated iron where they have been interpreted through plastic deformation of solid hydrogen in voids.

  13. The structural origin of anomalous properties of liquid water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Water is unique in its number of unusual, often called anomalous, properties. When hot it is a normal simple liquid; however, close to ambient temperatures properties, such as the compressibility, begin to deviate and do so increasingly on further cooling. Clearly, these emerging properties are connected to its ability to form up to four well-defined hydrogen bonds allowing for different local structural arrangements. A wealth of new data from various experiments and simulations has recently become available. When taken together they point to a heterogeneous picture with fluctuations between two classes of local structural environments developing on temperature-dependent length scales. PMID:26643439

  14. The structural origin of anomalous properties of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Water is unique in its number of unusual, often called anomalous, properties. When hot it is a normal simple liquid; however, close to ambient temperatures properties, such as the compressibility, begin to deviate and do so increasingly on further cooling. Clearly, these emerging properties are connected to its ability to form up to four well-defined hydrogen bonds allowing for different local structural arrangements. A wealth of new data from various experiments and simulations has recently become available. When taken together they point to a heterogeneous picture with fluctuations between two classes of local structural environments developing on temperature-dependent length scales.

  15. The structural origin of anomalous properties of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2015-01-01

    Water is unique in its number of unusual, often called anomalous, properties. When hot it is a normal simple liquid; however, close to ambient temperatures properties, such as the compressibility, begin to deviate and do so increasingly on further cooling. Clearly, these emerging properties are connected to its ability to form up to four well-defined hydrogen bonds allowing for different local structural arrangements. A wealth of new data from various experiments and simulations has recently become available. When taken together they point to a heterogeneous picture with fluctuations between two classes of local structural environments developing on temperature-dependent length scales. PMID:26643439

  16. Intercalation of cellulase enzyme into a hydrotalcite layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, N.; Plank, J.

    2015-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material whereby cellulase enzyme is incorporated into a hydrotalcite type layered double hydroxide (LDH) structure is reported. The Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH was synthesized via co-precipitation from Mg/Al nitrate at pH=9.6. Characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). From XRD and SAXS measurements, a d-value of ~5.0 nm was identified for the basal spacing of the Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH. Consequently, the cellulase enzyme (hydrodynamic diameter ~6.6 nm) attains a slightly compressed conformation when intercalated. Formation of the LDH hybrid was also confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH phases appear as ~20 nm thin foils which are intergrown to flower-like aggregates. Activity of the enzyme was retained after deintercalation from the Mg2Al-LDH framework using anion exchange. Accordingly, cellulase is not denatured during the intercalation process, and LDH presents a suitable host structure for time-controlled release of the biomolecule.

  17. Exploring the origin of ultralow thermal conductivity in layered BiOCuSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, a systematic study of the lattice dynamics and related (e.g., dielectric and anharmonic) properties of BiOCuSe (bismuth-copper oxyselenide), along with a comparison with its isostructural analog LaOCuSe, is performed to find the origin of the ultralow thermal conductivity κ in BiOCuSe. From the marked differences in some of these properties of the two materials, the reasons why BiOCuSe is a better thermal insulator than LaOCuSe are elucidated. For this class of oxychalcogenide thermoelectrics, phonon frequencies with symmetries, characters, spectroscopic activities, displacement patterns, and pressure coefficients of different zone-center modes, dielectric constants, dynamical charges, and phonon and Grüneisen dispersions are also determined.

  18. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jerome Sutherland

    2001-05-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.

  19. Time-resolved ring structure of backscattered circularly polarized beams from forward scattering layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-02-01

    The backscattering of circularly polarized light at normal incidence to a half-space composed of two index matched layers with different absorption coefficients is studied using the Electric Field Monte Carlo method. The top layer, of thickness L I = 2.5[l s], where l s is the scattering length, is non-absorbing and is composed of particles suspended in water with anistropy factor g = 0.8. The bottom layer, of thickness L II = 25[l s], is composed of absorbing particles with g = 0.8. The backscattered light with the same helicity (co-polarized) as the incident beam emerging from the top surface is analyzed in the time domain as absorption in the second layer increases from 1% to 10% of the scattering coefficient, μs. For the case of a homogenous half-space, composed of non absorbing particles with anisotropy factor g = 0.8, a ring-peak is known to be observed in the time-resolved co-polarized backscattered light intensity. For the two layer geometry tested here, a similar ring structure is found and used to determine the path length of photons traveling in the second layer. In recent studies, the ring-peak was postulated to be comprised of photons undergoing semi-circular trajectories as a result of near forward scattering events in the forward scattering media. This ideal picture of photon trajectories is tested and found to be an accurate characterization of photon trajectories in forward scattering media. Specifically, it is shown that time-sliced measurements of the backscattered co-polarized intensity at the ring-peak and path lengths of photons determined from the segment of arc of their idealized semi-circluar trajectories in the second layer can be used in conjunction with Beer's law to reproduce the known absorption coefficient of the second layer. This is a first indication that photons contributing to the ring-peak in co-polarized backscatter follow semi-circular trajectories. Moreover, it demonstrates that ring-structure can be used to determine subsurface features such as absorption coefficients in layered structures.

  20. Layered structure in the interaction of thin foil with two laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yahong; Shen, Baifei E-mail: jill@siom.ac.cn; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Xiaomei; Ji, Liangliang E-mail: jill@siom.ac.cn; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Zhang, Lingang; Wen, Meng

    2014-02-15

    An interesting layered structure of multiple high density layers are formed when two counter-propagating circularly polarized laser pulses with the same polarization direction irradiate on an ultra-thin foil. This structure changes periodically. For light atoms most of which electrons may be fully ionized, this layered structure can keep for dozens of laser periods after the laser-foil interaction. This interesting structure may have potential applications.

  1. Thermoacoustic effects on layered structures for the evaluation of structural parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareille, Olivier A.; Chronopoulos, Dimitrios; Ichchou, Mohamed N.; Troclet, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependent material characteristics of a layered panel are experimentally measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA) configuration. The temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of the panel are subsequently computed using a Wave Finite Element Method (WFEM). The WFEM predictions are eventually used within a wave context SEA approach in order to calculate the temperature dependent Sound Transmission Loss (STL) of the layered panel. Results on the STL for temperatures varying between -100 C to 160 C are computed for a structure operating at sea level. The importance of the glass transition region on the panel's vibroacoustic response is exhibited and discussed.

  2. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jerome Sutherland

    2001-06-27

    Over the last ten years, photonic band gap (PBG) theory and technology have become an important area of research because of the numerous possible applications ranging from high-efficiency laser diodes to optical circuitry. This research concentrates on reducing the length scale in the fabrication of layered photonic band gap structures and developing procedures to improve processing consistency. Various procedures and materials have been used in the fabrication of layered PBG structures. This research focused on an economical micro transfer molding approach to create the final PBG structure. A poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber mold was created from a silicon substrate. It was filled with epoxy and built layer-by-layer to create a 3-D epoxy structure. This structure was infiltrated with nanoparticle titania or a titania sol-gel, then fired to remove the polymer mold, leaving a monolithic ceramic inverse of the epoxy structure. The final result was a lattice of titania rolds that resembles a face-centered tetragonal structure. The original intent of this research was to miniaturize this process to a bar size small enough to create a photonic band gap for wavelengths of visible electro-magnetic radiation. The factor limiting progress was the absence of a silicon master mold of small enough dimensions. The Iowa State Microelectronics Research Center fabricated samples with periodicities of 2.5 and 1.0 microns with the existing technology, but a sample was needed on the order of 0.3 microns or less. A 0.4 micron sample was received from Sandia National Laboratory, which was made through an electron beam lithography process, but it contained several defects. The results of the work are primarily from the 2.5 and 1.0 micron samples. Most of the work focused on changing processing variables in order to optimize the infiltration procedure for the best results. Several critical parameters were identified, ranging from the ambient conditions to the specifics of the procedure. It is believed that most critical for fabrication of high quality samples is control of the temperature of the sample during and after infiltration, and the rate and amount of time spent applying epoxy to the PDMS.

  3. Noise and vibration level reduction by covering metal structures with layers of damping materials. [considering viscoelastic insulation layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rugina, I.; Paven, H. T. O.

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important methods of reducing the noise and vibration level is the damping of the secondary sources, such as metal plates, often used in vehicle structures, by means of covering materials with high internal viscosity. Damping layers are chosen at an optimum thickness corresponding to the frequency and temperature range in which a certain structure works. The structure's response corresponding to various real situations is analyzed by means of a measuring chain including electroacoustical or electromechanical transducers. The experimental results provide the dependence of the loss factor and damping transmission coefficient as a function of the damping layer thickness or of the frequency for various viscoelastic covering materials.

  4. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2006-01-22

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the stripe pattern of a butterfly, Morpho cypris. It is found that besides the dorsal and ventral scale layers, the wing substrate also has the corresponding stripe pattern. Quantitative optical measurements and analysis using a simple model for the wing structure reveal the origin of the higher reflectance which makes the white stripe brighter. PMID:16555778

  5. Structure and Origin of the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Timothy; Sims, M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Blaney, D. L.; Schmidt, M. E.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Rice, J. W.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Haldemann, A.

    2007-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has yielded profound insights into features at millimeter to decimeter scales. However, the origin of the Columbia Hills has remained enigmatic given the traverse across one peak [1]. We present a geologic history of the Hills consistent with their morphology, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphy. The Columbia Hills form a triangle 4.2 by 2.3 km, are bounded by linear to slightly concave margins, lie near the center of Gusev Crater, and have peaks rising to 90 m. Bedding dips away from a NNE-SSW axis cutting the Tennessee Valley. Husband Hill dips (15-32) are steeper than local topography ( 8-10) and those on West Spur are conformable with greater scatter in strike and shallower dips (7-15). Husband Hill is cored by volcaniclastic rocks and impact breccias altered to various extents (Wishstone, Watchtower and Descartes classes), ringed by ultramafic volcaniclastic rocks and sulfate-cemented sands (Algonquin and Peace classes), ringed by localized impact breccias and volcaniclastic deposits (West Spur and Home Plate) [2]. The Columbia Hills likely formed by (1) Uplift of the Gusev Crater central peak, raising the Hills to 3 km above the crater floor, assuming the Hills are deeply-rooted and subsequently buried. Uplift by overlapping crater rims is inconsistent with bedding attitudes, but may have modified the margins of the Hills. (2) Draping by impact and volcaniclastic rocks and sands with localized alteration and cementation. Fragile rocks (Peace) and in situ soils (Paso Robles) would not have survived Gusev Crater formation. (3) Mass wasting of the Tennessee Valley removed tens of meters from the peak of the Hills, exposing older units in the core, (4) Plains (Adirondack) basalts surrounded and embayed the Hills, and (5) Small impacts redistributed rocks. [1] Rice J.W. (2004) Fall AGU, #P23B-03. [2] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR 111, E02S11.

  6. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  7. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Groves, James R.; Jia, Quanxi

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  8. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-01

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element ( Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube ( a), its effective length ( l), the twist factor of the tube field ( k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements ( d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 50; a = 150 50 km; l 5000 km, and d = 80 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker "spaghetti" model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  9. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    SciTech Connect

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-15

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 50; a = 150 50 km; l ? 5000 km, and d = 80 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker spaghetti model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  10. Localised Ag(+) vibrations at the origin of ultralow thermal conductivity in layered thermoelectric AgCrSe2.

    PubMed

    Damay, F; Petit, S; Rols, S; Braendlein, M; Daou, R; Elkaïm, E; Fauth, F; Gascoin, F; Martin, C; Maignan, A

    2016-01-01

    In materials science, the substructure approach consists in imagining complex materials in which a particular property is associated with a distinct structural feature, so as to combine different chosen physical characteristics, which otherwise have little chance to coexist. Applied to thermoelectric materials, it has been used to achieve simultaneously phonon-glass and electron-crystal properties. Mostly studied for its superionic conductivity, AgCrSe2 is a naturally layered compound, which achieves very low thermal conductivity, ~0.4 W.K(-1).m(-1) at RT (room temperature), and is considered a promising thermoelectric. The Cr atoms of the [CrSe2]∞ layer bear a spin S = 3/2, which orders below TN = 55 K. Here we report low temperature inelastic neutron scattering experiments on AgCrSe2, alongside the magnetic field evolution of its thermal and electrical transport. We observe a very low frequency mode at 3 meV, ascribed to large anharmonic displacements of the Ag(+) ions in the [Ag]∞ layer, and 2D magnetic fluctuations up to 3 TN in the chromium layer. The low thermal conductivity of AgCrSe2 is attributed to acoustic phonon scattering by a regular lattice of Ag(+) oscillating in quasi-2D potential wells. These findings highlight a new way to achieve localised phonon modes in a perfectly crystalline solid. PMID:27000414

  11. Localised Ag+ vibrations at the origin of ultralow thermal conductivity in layered thermoelectric AgCrSe2

    PubMed Central

    Damay, F.; Petit, S.; Rols, S.; Braendlein, M.; Daou, R.; Elkaïm, E.; Fauth, F.; Gascoin, F.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.

    2016-01-01

    In materials science, the substructure approach consists in imagining complex materials in which a particular property is associated with a distinct structural feature, so as to combine different chosen physical characteristics, which otherwise have little chance to coexist. Applied to thermoelectric materials, it has been used to achieve simultaneously phonon-glass and electron-crystal properties. Mostly studied for its superionic conductivity, AgCrSe2 is a naturally layered compound, which achieves very low thermal conductivity, ~0.4 W.K−1.m−1 at RT (room temperature), and is considered a promising thermoelectric. The Cr atoms of the [CrSe2]∞ layer bear a spin S = 3/2, which orders below TN = 55 K. Here we report low temperature inelastic neutron scattering experiments on AgCrSe2, alongside the magnetic field evolution of its thermal and electrical transport. We observe a very low frequency mode at 3 meV, ascribed to large anharmonic displacements of the Ag+ ions in the [Ag]∞ layer, and 2D magnetic fluctuations up to 3 TN in the chromium layer. The low thermal conductivity of AgCrSe2 is attributed to acoustic phonon scattering by a regular lattice of Ag+ oscillating in quasi-2D potential wells. These findings highlight a new way to achieve localised phonon modes in a perfectly crystalline solid. PMID:27000414

  12. Mirror instability and origin of morningside auroral structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Schulz, M.; Fennell, J. F.; Kishi, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral optical imagery shows marked differences between auroral features of the evening and morning sectors: the separation between diffuse and discrete auroras in the evening sector is not distinct in the morning sector, which is dominated by auroral patches and multiple banded structures aligned along some direction. Plasma distribution function signatures also show marked differences: downward electron beams and inverted-V signatures prefer the evening sector, while the electron spectra on the morning sector are similar to the diffuse aurora. A theory of morningside auroras consistent with these features was constructed. The theory is based on modulation of the growth rates of electron cyclotron waves by the mirror instability, which is in turn driven by inward-convected ions that have become anisotropic. This modulation produces alternating bands of enhanced and reduced electron precipitation which approximate the observed multiple auroral bands and patches of the morning sector.

  13. Structural Origin of Circularly Polarized Iridescence in Jeweled Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-07-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, which selectively reflects left circularly polarized light, possesses an exoskeleton decorated by hexagonal cells (~10 ?m) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. The fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in dark field. With use of confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric nested arcs that lie on the surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. These textures provide the basis for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response of the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  14. Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crne, Matija; Sharma, Vivek; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2010-03-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, selectively reflects left circularly polarized light. The exoskeleton is decorated by hexagonal cells (10 micron) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. We find that the fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in the dark field. Using confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric, nested arcs that lie on surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. The microstructure provides the bases for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  15. Mirror instability and the origin of morningside auroral structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Y.T.; Schulz, M.; Fennell, J.F.; Kishi, A.M.

    1983-05-01

    Auroral optical imagery shows marked differences between auroral features of the evening and morning sectors: The separation between diffuse and discrete auroras in the evening sector is not distinct in the morning sector, which is dominated by auroral patches and multiple banded structures aligned along some direction. Plasma distribution function signatures also show marked differences: downward electron beams and inverted-V signatures prefer the evening sector, while the electron spectra on the morning sector are similar to the diffuse aurora. We have constructed a theory of morningside auroras consistent with these features. The theory is based on modulation of the growth rates of electron cyclotron waves by the mirror instability, which is in turn driven by inward-convected ions that have become anisotropic. This modulation produces alternating bands of enhanced and reduced electron precipitation which approximate the observed multiple auroral bands and patches of the morning sector.

  16. Origin of the coloration and structure of azobenzene chromogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Yu. A.; Guseva, L. N.; Ershov, Yu. A.

    2015-11-01

    Enhancement of the visible (VIS) absorption band intensity of trans-azobenzene ( t-AB) in solutions containing water and hydrogen ions is established. This contradicts the current belief that it is part of the n → π* transition. At the same time, it qualitatively reflects the properties of the π → π* bands of protonated azobenzene (ABH+). It is concluded that t-AB molecules display an autopolarization property and exist in the form of two individual electronic (e) tautomers. One of these is nonpolar and has the canonical chemical structure; its content considerably exceeds that of the polar e-tautomer. The polar e-tautomer forms as a result of the reversible transfer of an electron from the nonbonding donor sp 2 orbital of nitrogen to the nonbonding acceptor Rydberg's 3 S orbital ( R 3 S ) of the local N=N chromophore within the molecule. The positively charged chromogen corresponding to it displays a π → π* transition in the visible spectral region, and the π→π* transition (not the traditionally postulated n → π* transition) is clearly responsible for the orange color of AB. A model of transient e-configurations with the participation of R 3 S and explaining the previous poorly understood experimental results from optical absorption, fluorescent, raman spectroscopic, and photoionization femtosecond kinetic studies is considered. It is shown that famous ideas about the violation of Kasha's rule in t-AB fluorescence and photoisomerization processes are incorrect. The reasons for the increased intensity of the VIS band of cis-azobenzene ( c-AB) are explained. It is concluded that there is an equilibrium between nonpolar and polarized e-tautomers in cis-azobenzene as well, but it is shifted more toward the polar tautomer in c-AB due to its structural features, making the VIS band more intense.

  17. Structure of the low-latitude boundary layer. [in magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. OE.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    High temporal resolution observations of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer made with the fast plasma analyzer aboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft are reported. The data are found to be compatible with a boundary layer that is always attached to the magnetopause but where the layer thickness has a large-scale spatial modulation pattern which travels tailward past the spacecraft. Periods are included when the thickness is essentially zero and others when it is of the order of 1 earth radius. The duration of these periods is highly variable but is typically in the range of 2-5 min corresponding to a distance along the magnetopuase of approximately 3-8 earth radii. The observed boundary layer features include a steep density gradient at the magnetopause with an approximately constant boundary layer plasma density amounting to about 25% of the magnetosheath density, and a second abrupt density decrease at the inner edge of the layer.

  18. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2015-04-01

    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent ?. Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of ?, the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure. PMID:25974520

  19. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2015-04-01

    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent ? . Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of ? , the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure.

  20. Crustal Structure of Salton Trough using Deformable Layer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salton Trough is an important geologic structure to understand the active rift between Imperial Fault and San Andreas Fault. To determine the underground geometry of Salton Trough and its nearby faults, we analyzed seismic phase data recorded by Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC). Both 2-D and 3-D models have been made to refine the velocity model so as to determine the basin and moho geometry beneath Salton Trough region. Here three inline and five cross-line velocity profiles were built by using 2D Deformable Layer Tomography (DLT) method. From these 2D profiles, we can see that the velocity gradient is very small in the low velocity zone. The low velocity anomaly can be detected beneath the axis of the Salton Trough around the depth of 19-21 km, and the relatively high velocity can be seen beneath the San Andreas faults. Within 100*150*40 km3 model volume, 90,180 P-wave and S-wave first arrival picks from 27,663 local events (from 2001 to 2012), which were obtained from 44 stations, were used to build 3D seismic velocity model of the crust. During the iterations of velocity updating, full 3-D ray tracing is implemented. From these 3-D velocity models with different sizes of grids, low velocity anomalies are present under the southwest of Salton Sea, while high velocity zone is present across Southern San Andreas Fault throughout all the depths. Profiles from 2-D velocity models compared to 3-D velocity models show similar geometry. 3-D crustal structure, which is determined from 3-D DLT, helps to better understand the divergent boundary between the North American and the Pacific tectonic plates

  1. Controlling structure distortions in 3-layer ferroelectric Aurivillius oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Eric J.; Shi, Jiawanjun; Huq, Ashfia; Vogel, Sven C.; Misture, Scott T.

    2013-01-15

    Combined Rietveld refinements of x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data were used to understand the subtle structure distortions in 3-layer Aurivillius oxides that yield off-centering displacements in ferroelectric and multiferroic compositions. Ferroelectric phases including Bi{sub 2}A{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (A=La, Pr, Nd, La/Pr, La/Nd, Pr/Nd), Bi{sub 2}A{sub 2}TiNb{sub 2}O{sub 12} (A=Ca/Sr, Sr, and Sr/Ba) and Bi{sub 2}A{sub 2}TiTa{sub 2}O{sub 12} (A=Ca/Sr, and Sr/Ba) were studied to separate the effects of cation size and charge on the structure distortions and properties. A new approach to describing the local coordination around the Ti, Nb, and/or Ta ions is presented, where the oxygen octahedra are characterized as containing kinks in three dimensions. The kink angles follow trends with the A-site ionic radius and the ferroelectric polarization. The driving force for extensive cation site mixing between the Bi and A-site cations has been clearly established, with site mixing required to maintain interlayer bonding. - Graphical abstract: Distortion of the oxygen octahedra from planar geometries can be controlled via choice of the perovskite A-site cation, and the kink angle correlates with cation off-centering and ferroelectric polarization. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-site cations define the tilt and distortion of the octahedral. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distortions of oxygen octahedra, ignoring the central cation, link to ferroelectric polarization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi ion occupancy in the perovskite causes distortion of the oxygen sublattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predict multiferroic behavior from off-centering caused by the Bi ion lone pair.

  2. Molecular analysis of neocortical layer structure in the ferret

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Joanna J.; Mallik, Atul K.; Dugas-Ford, Jennifer; Ragsdale, Clifton W.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers that distinguish specific layers of rodent neocortex are increasingly employed to study cortical development and the physiology of cortical circuits. The extent to which these markers represent general features of neocortical cell type identity across mammals is, however, unknown. To assess the conservation of layer markers more broadly, we isolated orthologs for fifteen layer-enriched genes in the ferret, a carnivore with a large, gyrencephalic brain, and analyzed their patterns of neocortical gene expression. Our major findings are: (1) Many but not all layer markers tested show similar patterns of layer-specific gene expression between mouse and ferret cortex, supporting the view that layer-specific cell type identity is conserved at a molecular level across mammalian superorders; (2) Our panel of deep layer markers (ER81/ETV1, SULF2, PCP4, FEZF2/ZNF312, CACNA1H, KCNN2/SK2, SYT6, FOXP2, CTGF) provides molecular evidence that the specific stratifications of layer 5 and 6 into 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b are also conserved between rodents and carnivores. (3) Variations in layer-specific gene expression are more pronounced across areas of ferret cortex than between homologous areas of mouse and ferret cortex; (4) This variation of area gene expression was clearest with the superficial layer markers studied (SERPINE2, MDGA1, CUX1, UNC5D, RORB/NR1F2, EAG2/KCNH5). Most dramatically, the layer 4 markers RORB and EAG2 disclosed a molecular sublamination to ferret visual cortex and demonstrated a molecular dissociation among the so-called agranular areas of the neocortex. Our findings establish molecular markers as a powerful complement to cytoarchitecture for neocortical layer and cell-type comparisons across mammals. PMID:20575059

  3. The origin of subdural neomembranes. I. Fine structure of the dura-arachnoid interface in man.

    PubMed Central

    Schachenmayr, W.; Friede, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the in situ fixation of human meninges for electron microscopic examination is described. It was found that the cranial meninges of humans do not include a subdural space. Instead there is a complex, tight layer of cells, the interface layer, composed in the innermost portion of the dura mater (the dural border cells) and the outermost portion of the arachnoid (the arachnoid barrier layer). The fusion of these components within the interface layer is much more intimate than is either the attachment of the dural border cells to the dura proper or that of the arachnoid barrier layer to the rest of the arachnoid. The fine structural characteristics of these layers are defined. The erroneous macroscopic impression of a subdural space results from an extraordinary lack of cohesion within the dura-arachnoid interface layer conditioned by a) a complete absence of a collagenous reinforcement within this zone, b) the presence of large extracellular cisterns between the dural border cells, and c) a paucity of intercellular contacts within that latter layer. An understanding of the fine structural organization of the interface layer is essential to any consideration of the pathogenesis of subdural lesions: these form within a sheet of torn dural border cells and not within a preexistent tissue compartment. Images Figure 11 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:686148

  4. Development of titanium oxide layer containing nanocrystalline zirconia particles with tetragonal structure: Structural and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the microstructural, mechanical and biological properties of oxide layers containing tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) particles on pure titanium produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this purpose, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 200mA/cm(2) for 180s in potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) electrolytes with and without t-ZrO2 powder. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy exhibited that the present nanocrystalline oxide layer evidenced the successful incorporation of a myriad of t-ZrO2 particles working as an intermediate medium to reinforce the adhesion strength between the substrate and oxide layer. Regarding biomimetic apatite formation, the t-ZrO2 particles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the nucleation and growth of biomimetic apatite on the surface of the oxide layer immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. The growth and proliferation rates of the osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on the oxide layer with t-ZrO2 particles were higher than that without t-ZrO2 particles due to the higher roughness providing the better sites for the filopodia extension and interlocking. PMID:25956745

  5. Origin of Permeability and Structure of Flows in Fractured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Erhel, J.; Le Goc, R.; Maillot, J.; Meheust, Y.; Pichot, G.; Poirriez, B.

    2013-12-01

    After more than three decades of research, flows in fractured media have been shown to result from multi-scale geological structures. Flows result non-exclusively from the damage zone of the large faults, from the percolation within denser networks of smaller fractures, from the aperture heterogeneity within the fracture planes and from some remaining permeability within the matrix. While the effect of each of these causes has been studied independently, global assessments of the main determinisms is still needed. We propose a general approach to determine the geological structures responsible for flows, their permeability and their organization based on field data and numerical modeling [de Dreuzy et al., 2012b]. Multi-scale synthetic networks are reconstructed from field data and simplified mechanical modeling [Davy et al., 2010]. High-performance numerical methods are developed to comply with the specificities of the geometry and physical properties of the fractured media [Pichot et al., 2010; Pichot et al., 2012]. And, based on a large Monte-Carlo sampling, we determine the key determinisms of fractured permeability and flows (Figure). We illustrate our approach on the respective influence of fracture apertures and fracture correlation patterns at large scale. We show the potential role of fracture intersections, so far overlooked between the fracture and the network scales. We also demonstrate how fracture correlations reduce the bulk fracture permeability. Using this analysis, we highlight the need for more specific in-situ characterization of fracture flow structures. Fracture modeling and characterization are necessary to meet the new requirements of a growing number of applications where fractures appear both as potential advantages to enhance permeability and drawbacks for safety, e.g. in energy storage, stimulated geothermal energy and non-conventional gas productions. References Davy, P., et al. (2010), A likely universal model of fracture scaling and its consequence for crustal hydromechanics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 115, 13. de Dreuzy, J.-R., et al. (2012a), Influence of fracture scale heterogeneity on the flow properties of three-dimensional Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN), J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 117(B11207), 21 PP. de Dreuzy, J.-R., et al. (2012b), Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media, Computers and Geosciences(0). Pichot, G., et al. (2010), A Mixed Hybrid Mortar Method for solving flow in Discrete Fracture Networks, Applicable Analysis, 89(10), 1729-1643. Pichot, G., et al. (2012), Flow simulation in 3D multi-scale fractured networks using non-matching meshes, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing (SISC), 34(1). Figure: (a) Fracture network with a broad-range of fracture lengths. (b) Flows (log-scale) with homogeneous fractures. (c) Flows (log-scale) with heterogeneous fractures [de Dreuzy et al., 2012a]. The impact of the fracture apertures (c) is illustrated on the organization of flows.

  6. Communication: Origin of the contributions to DNA structure in phages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher G.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2013-02-01

    Cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data of the interior of phages show ordering of the interior DNA that has been interpreted as a nearly perfectly ordered polymer. We show surface-induced correlations, excluded volume, and electrostatic forces are sufficient to predict most of the major features of the current structural data for DNA packaged within viral capsids without additional ordering due to elastic bending forces for the polymer. Current models assume highly-ordered, even spooled, hexagonally packed conformations based on interpretation of cryo-EM density maps. We show herein that the surface induced packing of short (6mer), unconnected DNA polymer segments is the only necessary ingredient in creating ringed densities consistent with experimental density maps. This implies the ensemble of possible conformations of polymeric DNA within the capsid that are consistent with cryo-EM data may be much larger than implied by traditional interpretations where such rings can only result from highly-ordered spool-like conformations. This opens the possibility of a more disordered, entropically-driven view of phage packaging thermodynamics. We also show the electrostatics of the DNA contributes a large portion of the internal hydrostatic and osmotic pressures of a phage virion, suggesting that nonlinear elastic anomalies might reduce the overall elastic bending enthalpy of more disordered conformations to have allowable free energies.

  7. Catfish gonadotrophins: cellular origin, structural properties and physiology.

    PubMed

    Chaube, R; Joy, K P; Acharjee, A

    2015-06-01

    Gonadotrophins (GTHs) play a central role in the regulation of gametogenesis and spawning. The structural duality of the GTHs [luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] is established in fishes with the exception of ancestral vertebrates. Most studies indicate that, in teleosts, the GTHs are secreted in separate cells. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the common α-subunit of the GTHs (and also of thyroid-stimulating hormone) and LHβ are highly conserved in fishes, as in tetrapods. However, FSHβ shows considerable divergence in teleosts. There may be 12 or 13 cysteine residues, with an additional one near the N-terminus. There may be one or two N-linked glycolsyation sites. In catfishes, there are 13 cysteine residues and one N-linked glycosylation site. In an extreme situation, a potential glycosylation site is lacking in some fishes. Both FSH and LH receptors are characterised in teleosts. The FSH receptor is promiscuous and can be cross-activated by LH. By contrast, the LH receptor is highly selective, being activated by its natural ligand or by heterologous ligands (e.g. human chorionic gonadotrophin). Consequently, teleosts show different patterns of LH and FSH secretion. In catfishes, in the absence of native FSH protein, LH controls all aspects of reproduction, from early gametogenesis to spawning. PMID:25879854

  8. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Adamson, A. J. E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  9. Structuring of metallic bi- and tri-nano-layer films by laser interference irradiation: control of the structure depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagni, A.; Mcklich, F.

    2005-07-01

    A periodical structuring on bi-metallic thin layer films was performed by irradiation in air with an Nd:YAG laser operating in pulsed mode. The samples consist on Fe-Al, Cu-Al, Ni-Al and Fe-Al-Fe over a glass substrate. The influence of the laser fluence, the layer thickness, and the substrate on the structure depth (SD) was studied. A thermal simulation was carried out to estimate the temperature distribution and the quantities of the molten material in each layer. It was found that the maximal SD in the lower energy regime is reached at the threshold laser fluence value at which the topography type changes from a low to a high structured profile type. In addition, it was found that as the thickness of the second layer and the difference between the melting points of the metallic layers increase, the structure depth also increases. In the case of bi-layer films, the structuring of the samples is conducted by the expansion of the Al and the glass-substrate at the interference peaks. Nevertheless, if a third metallic layer is placed over the substrate, the structure depth decreases as the thickness of this layer increases. This occurs because the third layer helps to evacuate the heat from the first two layers much faster than the glass substrate and therefore decreasing the structure depth.

  10. Morphology, Structure, and Origin of Island Paterae on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, R. R.; Lopes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    We are investigating both the small and large scale morphology of those paterae on Jupiter's moon Io which show central islands. At small scales a variety of features may be evidence of volatile transport processes. For example Loki Patera contains small bright spots colloquially known as sulfur bergs, which we suspect are fumarole deposits. They are near the limit of the best spatial resolution obtained in Voyager I images. Our preliminary results indicate their reflectance is consistent with sulfur (but not sulfur dioxide) as would be expected based on the temperatures seen in the infrared. At large scales we are beginning to model the stress patterns which could produce the overall morphology of island paterae. As discussed by Radebaugh (Ph.D. Dissertation, 2005) and Black (M.S. thesis, 2007), of 428 cataloged patera on Io, 35 contain bright islands. Most of these islands are irregularly shaped and may simply be regions not yet covered by lava. However several paterae, in particular Loki and Tupan, show more regular structure. Both patera have one straight edge, and in the case of Loki the most volcanically active part of the patera is located near that edge. As Turtle et al. (2001 JGR 106: 33175) and others have suggested, those straight edges may be faults which relieve the expected global compressive stresses and also act as magma conduits. Radebaugh (2005) has suggested that some of these large islands might be analogs of resurgent domes. We are investigating whether a hybrid stress model may be able to explain the overall morphology.

  11. Antireflection efficiency comparison of single- and double-layered structures for photovoltaic glass covers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Gao, Yanfeng

    2014-06-10

    For single-layer antireflection (AR) on glass, a low refractive index (n) AR layer is required to achieve high AR efficiency, which limits the selection of materials. The double-layered AR structure has a lower requirement on materials' n but is typically used for narrow waveband AR, and photovoltaic glass covers require broadband AR to increase the whole-spectrum solar energy transmittance. With the help of a multilayered optical simulation, we optimized the n and thickness of the single and double layered AR structure and found that, for broadband AR, double-layered structure only showed AR efficiency advantages in very high or low top layers' n compared to single AR layer structure. For a n=1.45 top layer of the double layer structure, the optimized reflectance is 2.57% (single side), while the optimized reflectance of a single AR layer with n=1.45 is 2.87%, which is a negligible AR efficiency advantage (0.30%) when considering production costs. Moreover, in our experiment, using SiO2 and SiO2 and TiO2 composite layers, the absorption of short wavelengths by TiO2 ostensibly cancelled this advantage out (92.87% compare to the single layer's 92.98% for single side AR). PMID:24921132

  12. Tunable Photonic Devices in Ferroelectric-Based Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jianzhuo

    This thesis presents the studies on the optical properties of perovskite ferroelectric thin films, as well as the preparation and applications of ferroelectrics in tunable photonic devices. Ba(Zr,Ti)O3 (BZT) thin films with different Zr concentration were grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition, and their structural and optical properties in the visible range were systematically characterized, including the out-of-plane lattice constant, grain size, refractive index, optical band gap energy, electro-optic coefficient, optical loss and absorption coefficient. The obtained results provide information for the design of BZT thin film-based optical devices. One-dimensional photonic crystal filter working in the terahertz (THz) range was studied. The transmission properties of SrTiO3 (STO) crystals were first characterized by THz time-domain spectroscopy. Si/STO multilayers with different STO defect thicknesses were designed by the transfer matrix method and then constructed by polishing and stacking. The shift of defect mode was observed and comparable with the calculations. Two-dimensional photonic structures in the optical and infra-red range were then attempted. A combination of nanoimprint lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching were investigated on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films. Then, in order to simplify the nanoimprint process and allow thick metal sacrificial layer deposition for high aspect-ratio etching, a transfer imprint lithography technique was developed. Finally, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) tuning via thermally-induced refractive index changes in ferroelectrics was investigated. Ag stripes with periodicity 750 nm were fabricated on flat BST surface by nanoimprint lithography and subsequent lift-off. (-1), (2) and (-2) SP modes from Ag/BST interface were observed in visible range. Red shift of the modes up to 3.9 nm was obtained with increasing temperature. Then continuous Au film on corrugated BST surface with periodicity of 1 mum was obtained by nanoimprint lithography and subsequent dry etching. Thermal tuning of the (-1) SP mode from Au/BST interface by 1 nm was observed in the near infrared range. All the measurement results were comparable with the calculation by Rigorous coupled wave analysis and a simple analytical model. These results indicated the feasibility of active modulation in SPR in solid-state structures.

  13. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and transmission of spin-Hall-effect-induced spin currents by a Hf spacer layer in W/Hf/CoFeB/MgO layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Chi-Feng; Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Vilela-Leão, Luis Henrique; Buhrman, R. A.; Belvin, Carina; Ralph, D. C.

    2014-02-24

    We report that strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer in a W/CoFeB/MgO multilayer structure can be established by inserting a Hf layer as thin as 0.25 nm between the W and CoFeB layers. The Hf spacer also allows transmission of spin currents generated by an in-plane charge current in the W layer to apply strong spin torque on the CoFeB, thereby enabling current-driven magnetic switching. The antidamping-like and field-like components of the spin torque exerted on a 1 nm CoFeB layer are of comparable magnitudes in this geometry. Both components originate from the spin Hall effect in the underlying W layer.

  14. Formation and Origin of Metabreccia from the Parkin Offset Dyke at the Sudbury Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, D.; Osinski, G. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Pntek, A.

    2015-09-01

    Metabreccia is an important litholgy of the Offset Dykes of the Sudbury impact structure, however, its formation and origin is still topic of discussion. Here we present evidence that Metabreccia is a metamorphosed Footwall Breccia.

  15. Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-11-21

    Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS(-) have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS(-)-inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3(-)-intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. PMID:25307611

  16. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrubchak, O.; Wosinski, T.; Gluba, L.; Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; ?uk, J.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  17. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O. Gluba, L.; Żuk, J.; Wosinski, T. Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-07

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  18. Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones: synthesis, facile morphological and structural modification, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Wang, Chengxiang; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-10-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties.Layered zinc hydroxide nanocones intercalated with DS- have been synthesized for the first time via a convenient synthetic approach, using homogeneous precipitation in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS plays a significant role in controlling the morphologies of as-synthesized samples. Conical samples intercalated with various anions were transformed through an anion-exchange route in ethanol solution, and the original conical structure was perfectly maintained. Additionally, these DS--inserted nanocones can be transformed into square-like nanoplates in aqueous solution at room temperature, fulfilling the need for different morphology-dependent properties. Corresponding ZnO nanocones and nanoplates have been further obtained through the thermal calcination of NO3--intercalating zinc hydroxide nanocones/nanoplates. These ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies exhibit promising photocatalytic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Typical SEM images, TGA curves and XRD patterns of as-prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04166f

  19. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-10-15

    Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (~ 6.4 eV), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700?K). The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of ? ? (T/T{sub 0}){sup ??} with ? = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D) carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ?? = 192 meV (or 1546 cm{sup -1}), which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  20. Inner Plasma Structure of the Low-Latitude Reconnection Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Lockwood, M.; Lavraud, B.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Hasegawa, H.; Yang, H. -G.; Liu, R. -Y.; Hu, H. -Q.; Zhang, B. -C.; Pu, Z. -Y.; Yang, Z. -W.; Wang, J.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Berchem, J.; Constantinescu, D.; Volwerk, M.; Frey, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Shen, C.; Shi, J. -K.; Sibeck, D.; Escoubet, P.; Wild, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clear transition through a reconnection layer at the low-latitude magnetopause which shows a complete traversal across all reconnected field lines during northwestward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The associated plasma populations confirm details of the electron and ion mixing and the time history and acceleration through the current layer. This case has low magnetic shear with a strong guide field and the reconnection layer contains a single density depletion layer on the magnetosheath side which we suggest results from nearly field-aligned magnetosheath flows. Within the reconnection boundary layer, there are two plasma boundaries, close to the inferred separatrices on the magnetosphere and magnetosheath sides (Ssp and Ssh) and two boundaries associated with the Alfvén waves (or Rotational Discontinuities, RDsp and RDsh). The data are consistent with these being launched from the reconnection site and the plasma distributions are well ordered and suggestive of the time elapsed since reconnection of the field lines observed. In each sub-layer between the boundaries the plasma distribution is different and is centered around the current sheet, responsible for magnetosheath acceleration. We show evidence for a velocity dispersion effect in the electron anisotropy that is consistent with the time elapsed since reconnection. In addition, new evidence is presented for the occurrence of partial reflection of magnetosheath electrons at the magnetopause current layer.

  1. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

  2. Origin and Evolution of Protein Fold Designs Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis of CATH Domain Structures in Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Syed Abbas; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The spatial arrangements of secondary structures in proteins, irrespective of their connectivity, depict the overall shape and organization of protein domains. These features have been used in the CATH and SCOP classifications to hierarchically partition fold space and define the architectural make up of proteins. Here we use phylogenomic methods and a census of CATH structures in hundreds of genomes to study the origin and diversification of protein architectures (A) and their associated topologies (T) and superfamilies (H). Phylogenies that describe the evolution of domain structures and proteomes were reconstructed from the structural census and used to generate timelines of domain discovery. Phylogenies of CATH domains at T and H levels of structural abstraction and associated chronologies revealed patterns of reductive evolution, the early rise of Archaea, three epochs in the evolution of the protein world, and patterns of structural sharing between superkingdoms. Phylogenies of proteomes confirmed the early appearance of Archaea. While these findings are in agreement with previous phylogenomic studies based on the SCOP classification, phylogenies unveiled sharing patterns between Archaea and Eukarya that are recent and can explain the canonical bacterial rooting typically recovered from sequence analysis. Phylogenies of CATH domains at A level uncovered general patterns of architectural origin and diversification. The tree of A structures showed that ancient structural designs such as the 3-layer (αβα) sandwich (3.40) or the orthogonal bundle (1.10) are comparatively simpler in their makeup and are involved in basic cellular functions. In contrast, modern structural designs such as prisms, propellers, 2-solenoid, super-roll, clam, trefoil and box are not widely distributed and were probably adopted to perform specialized functions. Our timelines therefore uncover a universal tendency towards protein structural complexity that is remarkable. PMID:23555236

  3. The current structure of stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents the bottom shear stress and velocity profiles in stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow by using similarity theory. For a given seabed roughness length, free stream current velocity components, frequency of tidal oscillation, Coriolis parameter and stratification parameter the maximum bottom shear stress is determined for flow conditions in the rough, smooth and transitional smooth-to-rough turbulent regime. Further, the direction of the bottom shear stress and the velocity profiles are given. Comparison is made with data from field measurements of time-independent as well as tidal planetary boundary layer flow for neutral conditions, and the agreement between the predictions and the data is generally good. Further, an example of application for stable stratification is given, and qualitatively the predictions show, as expected, that the bottom shear stress and the thickness of the boundary layer become smaller for stable than for neutral stratification. Other features of the tidal planetary boundary layer flow are also discussed.

  4. Stable thin film resistors using double layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Q. X.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, E.; Anderson, W. A.; Collins, F. M.

    1995-06-01

    Highly stable bilayer thin film resistors, which consist of an underlying layer of tantalum nitride and of a capping layer of ruthenium oxide, were developed by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of two different materials in a single system. The resistors fabricated in such a way were highly stable under power loading or thermal cycling. Resistors with one digit temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) could be easily controlled by the layer thickness ratio of the tantalum nitride to the ruthenium oxide and the ex situ annealing temperature or duration. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile on the thin films indicates that the ruthenium oxide layer is well defined for the as-deposited form. Nevertheless, interdiffusion takes place after thermal treatment of the bilayer which is used to tune the temperature coefficient of resistance and to stabilize the resistance of the resistors.

  5. Stable thin film resistors using double layer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Q.X.; Lee, H.J.; Ma, E.; Anderson, W.A.; Collins, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    Highly stable bilayer thin film resistors, which consist of an underlying layer of tantalum nitride and of a capping layer of ruthenium oxide, were developed by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of two different materials in a single system. The resistors fabricated in such a way were highly stable under power loading or thermal cycling. Resistors with one digit temperature coefficient of resistance could be easily controlled by the layer thickness ratio of the tantalum nitride to the ruthenium oxide and the {ital ex} {ital situ} annealing temperature or duration. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile on the thin films indicates that the ruthenium oxide layer is well defined for the as-deposited form. Nevertheless, interdiffusion takes place after thermal treatment of the bilayer which is used to tune the temperature coefficient of resistance and to stabilize the resistance of the resistors.

  6. Origin of non-spherical particles in the boundary layer over Beijing, China: based on balloon-borne observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Yamada, Maromu; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhenzhu; Lei, Hengchi; Shi, Guangyu

    2015-10-01

    Vertical structures of aerosols from the ground to about 1,000 m altitude in Beijing were measured with a balloon-borne optical particle counter. The results showed that, in hazy days, there were inversions at approximately 500-600 m, below which the particulate matters were well mixed vertically, while the concentration of particles decreased sharply above the mixing layer. Electron microscopic observation of the particles collected with the balloon-borne impactor indicates that the composition of particles is different according to weather conditions in the boundary mixing layer of Beijing city and suggests that dust particles are always dominant in coarse-mode particles. Interestingly, sea-salt particles are frequently identified, suggesting the importance of marine air inflow to the Beijing area even in summer. The Ca-rich spherical particles are also frequently identified, suggesting chemical modification of dust particle by NOx or emission of CaO and others from local emission. Additionally, those types of particles showed higher concentration above the mixing layer under the relatively calm weather condition of summer, suggesting the importance of local-scale convection found in summer which rapidly transported anthropogenic particles above the mixing layer. Lidar extinction profiles qualitatively have good consistency with the balloon-borne measurements. Attenuation effects of laser pulse intensity are frequently observed due to high concentration of particulate matter in the Beijing atmosphere, and therefore quantitative agreement of lidar return and aerosol concentration can be hardly observed during dusty condition. Comparing the depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements with the balloon-borne measurements, the contribution of the dry sea-salt particles, in addition to the dust particles, is suggested as an important factor causing depolarization ratio in the Beijing atmosphere. PMID:25537163

  7. Acoustic double layer structures in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, N.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-11-15

    The acoustic double layer structures are studied using quantum hydrodynamic model in dense magnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The extended Korteweg-de Vries is derived using reductive perturbation method. It is found that increase in the ion concentration in dense magnetized electron-positron plasmas increases the amplitude as well as the steepness of the double layer structure. However, increase in the magnetic field strength and decrease in the obliqueness of the nonlinear acoustic wave enhances only the steepness of the double layer structures. The numerical results have also been shown by using the data of the outer layer regions of white dwarfs given in the literature.

  8. High frequency intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for differentiating arterial wall layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-02-01

    Arterial wall is composed of three layers: intima, media and adventitia. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an important prognostic indicator of atherosclerotic diseases. Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is a commonly used method for delineation of the layered structures, it is inferior to the optical absorption contrast offered by intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging. We introduce an integrated miniature probe that combines the capabilities of IVUS and IVPA imaging for the evaluation of arterial wall layered structures. Healthy rabbit aorta was imaged ex vivo. IVPA results showed superior contrast over IVUS in identifying the layered structures of arterial wall.

  9. Origin of the 2.45 eV luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, R. K.; Dhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide epitaxial layers have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. A structural study shows (0001)-oriented films with good crystalline quality. The temperature and excitation power dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these layers is studied as a function of various growth parameters, such as the growth temperature, oxygen flow rate and Zn flux, which suggest that the origin of the broad visible luminescence (VL), which peaks at 2.45 eV, is the transition between the conduction band and the Zn vacancy acceptor states. A bound excitonic transition observed at 3.32 eV in low temperature PL has been identified as an exciton bound to the neutral Zn vacancy. Our study also reveals the involvement of two activation processes in the dynamics of VL, which has been explained in terms of the fluctuation of the capture barrier height for the holes trapped in Zn vacancy acceptors. The fluctuation, which might be a result of the inhomogeneous distribution of Zn vacancies, is found to be associated with an average height of 7 and 90 meV, respectively, for the local and global maxima.

  10. Flux pinning in the weak layers of superconducting heterogeneous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Takcs, S.

    1999-05-01

    The critical current density in the weak layer ( Jc n) of superconducting composites has been found to be strongly dependent upon the pinning either at the strong/weak layer interface, or within the strongly superconducting layer itself. The particular composites investigated in this work were NbTi(Nb)-Cu multifilamentary (MF) composites, although analogous results would be expected for any heterogeneous superconducting material if the pin spacing is small as compared to the layer thickness. The pinning strength for the weak layer has been calculated under various conditions and as a function of position around the M- B loop. Pinning was investigated for various flux configurations. In particular, shear and bowing pinning mechanisms were described, and the associated Jc n were calculated. These values were differentiated from the `depairing' current density ( JD n). S-N-S boundary conditions (BCs) were reformulated in terms of an anisotropic N-material. Pinning calculations were compared with experimental results and reasonable agreement was seen. In addition, these theories lead naturally to an M- B loop asymmetry frequently seen in many superconducting composites. Finally, some comments have been made on the application of these models to superconducting composites generally, and high Tc superconductors specifically.

  11. Maximizing poling efficiency of a 3-layer NLO polymer-based structure using conductive polymer cladding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, Jeremy B.; Grote, James G.; Nelson, Robert L.; Zetts, John S.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2001-05-01

    Conductive cladding layers for electrode poled nonlinear optic (NLO) polymer waveguides have been investigated for use in electro-optic (EO) switching devices. Dropping most of the poling field across the NLO core material optimized poling efficiencies, which in turn allows for lower poling voltages and in-situ poling. In addition, this method has the potential for realizing higher EO coefficients, shorter devices, and lower operating voltages than conventional devices with passive claddings. Poling efficiency enhancement has been achieved for 2-layer structures resulting in the lowest poling voltage to date, 300 V, for a 2 micrometers thick NLO polymer core layer and a 2 micrometers thick Baytron P/PVA)polyethylene dioxythiphene/polystyrene sulfonate in polyvinyl alcohol) conductive cladding layer. This has rendered up to 13 times increase in the effective EO coefficient. New results are presented from extending the concept to 3-layer device structures using the conductive polymer material for both the top and bottom cladding. Our results show that conductive claddings for NLO polymer waveguides will be realizable in actual devices.

  12. Growth and electronic structure of epitaxial single-layer WS2 on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendzik, Maciej; Michiardi, Matteo; Sanders, Charlotte; Bianchi, Marco; Miwa, Jill A.; Grnborg, Signe S.; Lauritsen, Jeppe V.; Bruix, Albert; Hammer, Bjrk; Hofmann, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Large-area single-layer WS2 is grown epitaxially on Au(111) using evaporation of W atoms in a low pressure H2S atmosphere. It is characterized by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and core level spectroscopy. Its electronic band structure is determined by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The valence-band maximum at K is found to be significantly higher than at ? . The observed dispersion around K is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations for a free-standing monolayer, whereas the bands at ? are found to be hybridized with states originating from the Au substrate. Strong spin-orbit coupling leads to a large spin-splitting of the bands in the neighborhood of the K points, with a maximum splitting of 419(11) meV. The valence-band dispersion around K is found to be highly anisotropic with spin-branch dependent effective hole masses of 0.40 (02 ) me and 0.57 (09 ) me for the upper and lower split valence band, respectively. The large size of the spin splitting and the low effective mass of the valence-band maximum make single-layer WS2 a promising alternative to the widely studied MoS2 for applications in electronics, spintronics, and valleytronics.

  13. The origin of oil in the Cretaceous succession from the South Pars Oil Layer of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Omeid; Aali, Jafar; Junin, Radzuan; Mohseni, Hassan; Padmanabhan, Eswaran; Azdarpour, Amin; Zarza, Sahar; Moayyed, Mohsen; Ghazanfari, Parviz

    2013-07-01

    The origin of the oil in Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian age source rock samples from two oil wells (SPO-2 and SPO-3) in the South Pars oil field has been investigated by analyzing the quantity of total organic carbon (TOC) and thermal maturity of organic matter (OM). The source rocks were found in the interval 1,000-1,044 m for the Kazhdumi Formation (Albian) and 1,157-1,230 m for the Gadvan Formation (Barremian-Hauterivian). Elemental analysis was carried out on 36 samples from the source rock candidates (Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations) of the Cretaceous succession of the South Pars Oil Layer (SPOL). This analysis indicated that the OM of the Barremian-Hauterivian and Albian samples in the SPOL was composed of kerogen Types II and II-III, respectively. The average TOC of analyzed samples is less than 1 wt%, suggesting that the Cretaceous source rocks are poor hydrocarbon (HC) producers. Thermal maturity and Ro values revealed that more than 90 % of oil samples are immature. The source of the analyzed samples taken from Gadvan and Kazhdumi formations most likely contained a content high in mixed plant and marine algal OM deposited under oxic to suboxic bottom water conditions. The Pristane/nC17 versus Phytane/nC18 diagram showed Type II-III kerogen of mixture environments for source rock samples from the SPOL. Burial history modeling indicates that at the end of the Cretaceous time, pre-Permian sediments remained immature in the Qatar Arch. Therefore, lateral migration of HC from the nearby Cretaceous source rock kitchens toward the north and south of the Qatar Arch is the most probable origin for the significant oils in the SPOL.

  14. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOEpatents

    Campbell; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay A.

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  15. UV Sensor Based on Layered Ferrite-Diamond Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskiy, P. Y.; Kondrashov, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Vitko, V. V.; Kalinikos, B. A.; Semenov, A. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Butler, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Design of a UV sensor based on an yttrium-iron garnet/diamond layered cavity is presented. The operation principle of the sensor is based on the change in the spin-wave dispersion law and, consequently, in the frequency and Q-factor of eigenmodes of the cavity under study upon appearance of free carriers generated by UV light.

  16. Local structure of Fe in Fe-doped misfit-layered calcium cobaltite: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Prasoetsopha, Natkrita; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Bootchanont, Atipong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2013-08-15

    Polycrystalline Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} ceramics (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were fabricated using a simple thermal hydro-decomposition method and a spark plasma sintering technique. Thermoelectric property measurements showed that increasing Fe concentration resulted in a decrease in electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure-of-merit, >35% for x=0.05 at 1073 K. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the local structure of Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} structure for the first time. By fitting data from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra and analyzing the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra incorporated with first principle simulation, it was shown that Fe was substituted for Co in the the Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3} (rocksalt, RS) layer rather than in the CoO{sub 2} layer. Variation in the thermoelectric properties as a function of Fe concentration was attributed to charge transfer between the CoO{sub 2} and the RS layers. The origin of the preferential Fe substitution site was investigated considering the ionic radii of Co and Fe and the total energy of the system. - Graphical abstract: The Fe K-edge XANES spectra of: (a) experimental result in comparison to the simulated spectra when Fe atoms were substituted in the RS layer; (b) with magnetic moment; (c) without magnetic moment, and in the CoO{sub 2} layer; (d) with magnetic moment and (e) without magnetic moment. Highlights: • Synthesis, structural studies, and thermoelectric properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ}. • Direct evidence for the local structure of the Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} using XAS analysis. • EXAFS and XANES analysis showed that Fe was likely to be situated in the RS layer structure. • Changes in TE property with Fe content was due to charge transfer between the CoO{sub 2} and the RS layers. • Total energy calculation showed energetically favorable Fe substitution in the RS layer.

  17. Natural layer-by-layer photonic structure in the scales of Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Vigneron, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Hoplia coerulea is known for its spectacular blue-violet iridescence. The blue coloration is caused by the presence of a photonic structure inside the scales which cover the dorsal parts of the insect's body, including the head, the thorax, and the wing cases. The structure can be described by a stack of chitin plates wearing arrays of parallel rods. This arrangement leads to a multilayer structure which only uses a single solid material. The shift of the reflected wavelength to the ultraviolet (passing through violet iridescence) is described and explained on the basis of the optical properties of this structured metamaterial.

  18. Towards a unified model of passive drug permeation I: origins of the unstirred water layer with applications to ionic permeation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Avijit; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we provide a unified theoretical framework describing how drug molecules can permeate across membranes in neutral and ionized forms for unstirred in vitro systems. The analysis provides a self-consistent basis for the origin of the unstirred water layer (UWL) within the Nernst-Planck framework in the fully unstirred limit and further provides an accounting mechanism based simply on the bulk aqueous solvent diffusion constant of the drug molecule. Our framework makes no new assumptions about the underlying physics of molecular permeation. We hold simply that Nernst-Planck is a reasonable approximation at low concentrations and all physical systems must conserve mass. The applicability of the derived framework has been examined both with respect to the effect of stirring and externally applied voltages to measured permeability. The analysis contains data for 9 compounds extracted from the literature representing a range of permeabilities and aqueous diffusion coefficients. Applicability with respect to ionized permeation is examined using literature data for the permanently charged cation, crystal violet, providing a basis for the underlying mechanism for ionized drug permeation for this molecule as being due to mobile counter-current flow. PMID:24211511

  19. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhen; Li, Enling; Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Coherent Vortical Structures in a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2011-03-01

    Characteristics of coherent vortical structures in a compressible turbulent boundary layer are statistically analyzed by means of direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for Mach number M=2 and Reynolds number Re? ? 1000 based on the inlet momentum thickness. It is found that a large variety of hairpin-like and cane-like vortical structures exist in the boundary layer and the most popular structure is the cane-like one. The injection and sweep events contribute a major proportion of the total Reynolds stress. This study indicates structural similarities with the incompressible case. Moreover, the length scales of coherent structures in the streamwise and spanwise directions increase with the distance from the wall. The inclination angle of coherent vortical structures with respect to the streamwise direction increases from the sublayer to the buffer layer and then decreases from the buffer layer to the wake region.

  1. Ferromagnetism and the electronic band structure in (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O.; Sadowski, J.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.

    2014-08-18

    Impact of Bi incorporation into (Ga,Mn)As layers on their electronic- and band-structures as well as their magnetic and structural properties has been studied. Homogenous (Ga,Mn)(Bi,As) layers of high structural perfection have been grown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Post-growth annealing treatment of the layers results in an improvement of their structural and magnetic properties and an increase in the hole concentration in the layers. The modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy results are consistent with the valence-band model of hole-mediated ferromagnetism in the layers. This material combines the properties of (Ga,Mn)As and Ga(Bi,As) ternary compounds and offers the possibility of tuning its electrical and magnetic properties by controlling the alloy composition.

  2. Ovarian carcinoma patient derived xenografts reproduce their tumor of origin and preserve an oligoclonal structure

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Pierre-Emmanuel; du Manoir, Stanislas; Orsetti, Batrice; Bras-Gonalves, Rui; Lambros, Mario B.; MacKay, Alan; Nguyen, Tien-Tuan; Boissire, Florence; Pourquier, Didier; Bibeau, Frdric; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Theillet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) patients frequently relapse by 24 months and develop resistant disease. Research on EOC therapies relies on cancer cell lines established decades ago making Patient Derived Xenografts (PDX) attractive models, because they are faithful representations of the original tumor. We established 35 ovarian cancer PDXs resulting from the original graft of 77 EOC samples onto immuno-compromised mice. PDXs covered the diversity of EOC histotypes and graft take was correlated with early patient death. Fourteen PDXs were characterized at the genetic and histological levels. PDXs reproduced phenotypic features of the ovarian tumors of origin and conserved the principal characteristics of the original copy number change (CNC) profiles over several passages. However, CNC fluctuations in specific subregions comparing the original tumor and the PDXs indicated the oligoclonal nature of the original tumors. Detailed analysis by CGH, FISH and exome sequencing of one case, for which several tumor nodules were sampled and grafted, revealed that PDXs globally maintained an oligoclonal structure. No overgrowth of a particular subclone present in the original tumor was observed in the PDXs. This suggested that xenotransplantation of ovarian tumors and growth as PDX preserved at least in part the clonal diversity of the original tumor. We believe our data reinforce the potential of PDX as exquisite tools in pre-clinical assays. PMID:26334103

  3. Dynamics of coherent structures in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, Fazle; Moser, R. D.; Colonius, T.; Moin, P.; Rogers, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    An incompressible, time developing 3-D mixing layer with idealized initial conditions was simulated numerically. Consistent with the suggestions from experimental measurements, the braid region between the dominant spanwise vortices or rolls develops longitudinal vortices or ribs, which are aligned upstream and downstream of a roll and produce spanwise distortion of the rolls. The process by which this distortion occurs is explained by studying a variety of quantities of dynamic importance (e.g., production of enstrophy, vortex stretching). Other quantities of interest (dissipation, helicity density) are also computed and discussed. The currently available simulation only allows the study of the early evolution (before pairing) of the mixing layer. New simulations in progress will relieve this restriction.

  4. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity. PMID:26832589

  5. Fundamentals of layered nanoparticle covered pyramidal structures formed on nickel during femtosecond laser surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2013-10-01

    The formation of nanoparticle covered pyramidal structures using femtosecond laser pulses with a fluence near the ablation threshold is reported for the first time. These unique structures form through a combination of preferential ablation of flat regions around the pyramids and redeposition of nanoparticles created during the ablation process. The structures are demonstrated on nickel and stainless steel 316. When produced by rastering Gaussian pulses across the sample, layers of nanoparticles join together by sintering to form unique layered shells.

  6. Dichotomy of the electronic structure and superconductivity between single-layer and double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; He, Junfeng; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2014-01-01

    The latest discovery of possible high-temperature superconductivity in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate has generated much attention. Initial work found that, while the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits a clear signature of superconductivity, the double-layer film shows an insulating behaviour. Such a marked layer-dependent difference is surprising and the underlying origin remains unclear. Here we report a comparative angle-resolved photoemission study between the single-layer and double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films annealed in vacuum. We find that, different from the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film, the double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film is hard to get doped and remains in the semiconducting/insulating state under an extensive annealing condition. Such a behaviour originates from the much reduced doping efficiency in the bottom FeSe layer of the double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film from the FeSe-SrTiO3 interface. These observations provide key insights in understanding the doping mechanism and the origin of superconductivity in the FeSe/SrTiO3 films. PMID:25248072

  7. Dichotomy of the electronic structure and superconductivity between single-layer and double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; He, Junfeng; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-09-01

    The latest discovery of possible high-temperature superconductivity in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate has generated much attention. Initial work found that, while the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits a clear signature of superconductivity, the double-layer film shows an insulating behaviour. Such a marked layer-dependent difference is surprising and the underlying origin remains unclear. Here we report a comparative angle-resolved photoemission study between the single-layer and double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films annealed in vacuum. We find that, different from the single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film, the double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film is hard to get doped and remains in the semiconducting/insulating state under an extensive annealing condition. Such a behaviour originates from the much reduced doping efficiency in the bottom FeSe layer of the double-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 film from the FeSe-SrTiO3 interface. These observations provide key insights in understanding the doping mechanism and the origin of superconductivity in the FeSe/SrTiO3 films.

  8. Solvent-free synthesis of new metal phosphites with double-layered, pillared-layered, and framework structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Zhonghua; Chen, Yaoqiang; Lin, Zhien

    2014-12-01

    Three new metal phosphites, formulated as (H3O)2Mn2(HPO3)3 (1), Co(bpy) (H2O) (HPO3) (2), and H2tmpdaZn3(HPO3)4 (3), have been synthesized under solvent-free conditions, where bpy = 4,4?-bipyridine, and tmpda = N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine. Compound 1 has a double-layered structure with a thickness of 5.68 . Compound 2 has an inorganic-organic hybrid framework with cobalt phosphite layers pillared by bpy ligands. Compound 3 has a three-dimensional open-framework structure containing 8-ring channels. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated.

  9. Origin of Degradation Phenomenon under Drain Bias Stress for Oxide Thin Film Transistors using IGZO and IGO Channel Layers

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kang, Youngho; Yang, Shinhyuk; Ryu, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Han, Seungwu; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Top-gate structured thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and In-Ga-O (IGO) channel compositions were investigated to reveal a feasible origin for degradation phenomenon under drain bias stress (DBS). DBS-driven instability in terms of VTH shift, deviation of the SS value, and increase in the on-state current were detected only for the IGZO-TFT, in contrast to the IGO-TFT, which did not demonstrate VTH shift. These behaviors were visually confirmed via nanoscale transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy observations. To understand the degradation mechanism, we performed ab initio molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid phases of IGZO and IGO. The diffusivities of Ga and In atoms were enhanced in IGZO, confirming the degradation mechanism to be increased atomic diffusion. PMID:25601183

  10. Origin of Degradation Phenomenon under Drain Bias Stress for Oxide Thin Film Transistors using IGZO and IGO Channel Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kang, Youngho; Yang, Shinhyuk; Ryu, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Han, Seungwu; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Top-gate structured thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and In-Ga-O (IGO) channel compositions were investigated to reveal a feasible origin for degradation phenomenon under drain bias stress (DBS). DBS-driven instability in terms of VTH shift, deviation of the SS value, and increase in the on-state current were detected only for the IGZO-TFT, in contrast to the IGO-TFT, which did not demonstrate VTH shift. These behaviors were visually confirmed via nanoscale transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy observations. To understand the degradation mechanism, we performed ab initio molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid phases of IGZO and IGO. The diffusivities of Ga and In atoms were enhanced in IGZO, confirming the degradation mechanism to be increased atomic diffusion.

  11. Origin of degradation phenomenon under drain bias stress for oxide thin film transistors using IGZO and IGO channel layers.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kang, Youngho; Yang, Shinhyuk; Ryu, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Han, Seungwu; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Top-gate structured thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and In-Ga-O (IGO) channel compositions were investigated to reveal a feasible origin for degradation phenomenon under drain bias stress (DBS). DBS-driven instability in terms of V(TH) shift, deviation of the SS value, and increase in the on-state current were detected only for the IGZO-TFT, in contrast to the IGO-TFT, which did not demonstrate V(TH) shift. These behaviors were visually confirmed via nanoscale transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy observations. To understand the degradation mechanism, we performed ab initio molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid phases of IGZO and IGO. The diffusivities of Ga and In atoms were enhanced in IGZO, confirming the degradation mechanism to be increased atomic diffusion. PMID:25601183

  12. Effect of Interlayer Interaction on the Structural, Electronic, and Thermal Properties of Layered MS2 (M=W, Mo) Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Park, Sora; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2012-02-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) supplemented with van der Waals interaction, we investigate the effect of interlayer interaction on the structural, electroinic, and thermal properties of transition-metal disulfides MS2, such as MoS2 and WS2. We calculate the relative stability of various layer-layer stacking configurations determined by considering relative positions and orientations between neighboring layers. We find that MS2 layers may slide over each other with a small sliding barrier. We explore the effect of layer stacking on the electronic structure, and find an intriguing coupling effect. We also calculate their thermal properties including thermal expansion behavior especially along the direction normal to the plane. Such thermal expansion behavior is considered for our study of Li-intercalation into layered MS2, which may become a fundamental understanding for future development of Li-ion battery. We evaluate thoroughly the diffusion paths and barriers in between layers and compare them with those on the surface. Interestingly we find that the diffusion barrier between layers is 100 meV smaller than that on a single layer, implying layered MS2 may be a good candidate for Li-ion battery electrodes.

  13. Electronic structure of a dual-layered organic charge transfer salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Harald; Altmeyer, Michaela; Valenti, Roser

    2015-03-01

    We examine the electronic properties of polymorphs of (BEDT-TTF)2Ag(CF3)4(TCE) (1,1,2-trichloroethane) within density functional theory (DFT). While a phase with low superconducting transition temperature Tc = 2 . 6 K exhibits a ? packing motif, two high Tc phases are layered structures consisting of ?' and ? packed layers. We determine the electronic structures and discuss the influence of the insulating ?' layer on the conducting ? layer. We find that the stripes of high and low charge in the ?' layer correspond to a stripe pattern of hopping parameters in the ? layer. This finding is the basis for studying the effect of the different underlying Hamiltonians on the superconducting properties. Research funded within DFG Transregio 49.

  14. Local Structure Analysis and Interface Layer Effect of Phase-Change Recording Material Using Actual Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Tsukasa; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Sumio

    2008-07-01

    The influences of the interface layer on crystal structure, the local atomic arrangement, and the electronic and chemical structure of a GeBiTe (GBT) phase-change recording material have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) methods using actual rewritable high-speed HD DVD media without special sample processing. XRD results showed that the crystal structure of laser-crystallized GBT alloy in the actual HD DVD media is the same as that of GeSbTe (GST) alloy, which has a NaCl-type structure. No differences between samples with and without interface layers were found. The lattice constant of GBT is larger than that of GST. Bi increases the lattice constant of GST with respect to the Bi substitution ratio of Sb. According to HX-PES, the DOS of in the recording film amorphous state with an interface layer is closer to that of the crystalline state than the recording film without an interface layer. From XAFS results, clear differences between amorphous (Amo.) and crystalline states (Cry.) were observed. The interatomic distance of amorphous recording material is independent of the existence of an interface layer. On the other hand, the coordination number varied slightly due to the presence of the interface layer. Therefore, the electronic state of the recording layer changes because of the interface layer, although the local structure changes only slightly except for the coordination number. Combining these results, we conclude that the interface layer changes the electronic state of the recording layer and promotes crystallization, but only affects the local structure of the atomic arrangement slightly.

  15. Influence of structural defects on carrier lifetime in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers: Optical lifetime mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, J.; Bergman, J. P.

    2009-06-01

    The influence of structural defects on carrier lifetime in 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied using high spatial resolution optically detected lifetime measurements. Full wafers mappings with 200 ?m spatial resolution revealed the carrier lifetime variations that can be associated with structural defects replicated from the substrate and variations in the epitaxial growth conditions due to the susceptor design. High resolution mappings over smaller regions with lateral step size down to 20 ?m, revealed local carrier lifetime reductions associated with different structural defects in the epitaxial layers. Identified defects that influence the carrier lifetime are the carrot defects and different types of in-grown stacking faults. Also clusters of threading screw dislocations in the epilayer probably originating from the dissociation of micropipe in the substrate are found to effectively reduce the carrier lifetime. Furthermore, optically detected lifetime mapping has been demonstrated as a nondestructive technique which allows nonvisible structural defects to be detected in as-grown epilayers.

  16. Hybrid structures and optical effects in Morpho scales with thin and thick coatings using an atomic layer deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Shi, Wangzhou; Hu, Xinhua; Dong, Biqin

    2013-03-01

    Thin and thick Al2O3 coatings are deposited onto the surfaces of the cover and ground scales in the butterfly Morpho menelaus by low-temperature atomic layer deposition method. By spectral measurements and electronic microscopy, it is revealed that the morphologies of the hybrid structures encapsulated with thin coatings and thick coatings behave in a different way and thus the distinguishing color changes in both cover and ground scales. Theoretical analyses show that the coloration change can be attributed to the correlations of the naturally occurring photonic structures and the coating thicknesses. The different structural origins of the coloration in cover scales and ground scales lead to different optical performances as the coating increases its thicknesses in succession. The study presented offers an alternating route to produce desirable nanostructures such as nanolines and artificial photonic devices such as solar absorbers, and also the intact biotemplates an indirect analysis of structural characterizations and their optical effects.

  17. Wet-chemical synthesis and applications of non-layer structured two-dimensional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Non-layer structured nanomaterials with single- or few-layer thickness have two-dimensional sheet-like structures and possess intriguing properties. Recent years have seen major advances in development of a host of non-layer structured ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials such as noble metals, metal oxides and metal chalcogenides. The wet-chemical synthesis has emerged as the most promising route towards high-yield and mass production of such nanomaterials. These nanomaterials are now finding increasing applications in a wide range of areas including catalysis, energy production and storage, sensor and nanotherapy, to name but a few.

  18. Wet-chemical synthesis and applications of non-layer structured two-dimensional nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Non-layer structured nanomaterials with single- or few-layer thickness have two-dimensional sheet-like structures and possess intriguing properties. Recent years have seen major advances in development of a host of non-layer structured ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials such as noble metals, metal oxides and metal chalcogenides. The wet-chemical synthesis has emerged as the most promising route towards high-yield and mass production of such nanomaterials. These nanomaterials are now finding increasing applications in a wide range of areas including catalysis, energy production and storage, sensor and nanotherapy, to name but a few. PMID:26303763

  19. Layered structure of bacterial aggregates produced in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed and filter reactor.

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, F A; Guiot, S R; Costerton, J W

    1990-01-01

    The ultrastructure of bacterial granules that were maintained in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed and filter reactor was examined. The reactor was fed a sucrose medium, and it was operated at 35 degrees C. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the granular aggregates were three-layered structures. The exterior layer of the granule contained a very heterogeneous population that included rods, cocci, and filaments of various sizes. The middle layer consisted of a slightly less heterogeneous population than the exterior layer. A more ordered arrangement, made up predominantly of bacterial rods, was evident in this second layer. The third layer formed the internal core of the granules. It consisted of large numbers of Methanothrix-like cells. Large cavities, indicative of vigorous gas production, were evident in the third layer. On the basis of these ultrastructural results, a model that presents a possible explanation of granule development is offered. Images PMID:2383005

  20. Theoretical Consideration of High-Sensitive Biosensor Using Shear Horizontal Acoustic Waves in Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Jun

    Realization of high sensitive biosensors is required. As an acoustic wave based biosensor can detect immunoreactions, it is expected for applying the biosensor. In this paper, a shear horizontal (SH) acoustic wave in layered structures, namely Love wave, is discussed on the basis of numerical calculations. For generating the Love wave, a 36YX-LiTaO3 is chosen as a piezoelectric substrate. Also, SiO2, polymer, and gold are chosen as guiding layer materials. First, phase velocity and propagation loss are calculated as a function of layer thickness. Then, an additional mass layer is loaded on the guiding layer for simulating bio-layer deposition. The simulated results indicate that high sensitive biosensor is realized by using gold guiding layer.

  1. Local structure of Fe in Fe-doped misfit-layered calcium cobaltite: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasoetsopha, Natkrita; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Bootchanont, Atipong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2013-08-01

    Polycrystalline Ca3Co4-xFexO9+? ceramics (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were fabricated using a simple thermal hydro-decomposition method and a spark plasma sintering technique. Thermoelectric property measurements showed that increasing Fe concentration resulted in a decrease in electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure-of-merit, >35% for x=0.05 at 1073 K. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the local structure of Fe ions in the Ca3Co4-xFexO9+? structure for the first time. By fitting data from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra and analyzing the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra incorporated with first principle simulation, it was shown that Fe was substituted for Co in the the Ca2CoO3 (rocksalt, RS) layer rather than in the CoO2 layer. Variation in the thermoelectric properties as a function of Fe concentration was attributed to charge transfer between the CoO2 and the RS layers. The origin of the preferential Fe substitution site was investigated considering the ionic radii of Co and Fe and the total energy of the system.

  2. Direct Structure Determination of Multilayered Membrane-Type Systems Which Contain Fluid Layers

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, C. R.; King, G. I.; McIntosh, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of direct methods of structure analysis in the case of multilayered membrane-type systems which contain fluid layers is described. Diffraction formulas for this kind of analysis are derived. Deconvolution methods are used when the centrosymmetrical unit cells contain wide fluid layers. When the membrane systems contain narrow fluid layers, other direct methods are used. These direct methods involve computing either the Fourier series representations or the sampling theorem expressions. PMID:4704487

  3. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mand, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

  4. Gust structure in the neutral surface boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Powell, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Measured characteristics of gust amplitudes and times in the neutral surface boundary layer are presented. The probability of gust amplitudes exceeding a prescribed level is shown to decrease exponentially with amplitude, provided the amplitude is scaled with the root-mean-square turbulent speed. The 25 and 75 percentile conditional probabilities of gust duration obey power laws in the scaled amplitudes if the durations are normalized by N/sub 0/, the frequency of occurance of all gusts. These relationships are nearly independent of mean wind speed and measurement height. The effects of digital filtering of the data also are discussed.

  5. A Long-Lived Tracer Perspective on the Origin of Air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer during ATTREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Nance, J. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Gao, R.; Rollins, D. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L.; Fahey, D. W.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Atlas, E. L.; Navarro, M. A.; Dessler, A. E.; Mahoney, M.

    2013-12-01

    The origin of air in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and the subsequent transport pathways of these air masses play a critical role in the delivery of trace gases, including ozone depleting substances and water vapor, to the stratosphere. The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) is designed to study this transport and processing in the TTL over the Pacific Ocean, including how dehydration occurs in this region and how trace gases involved in ozone depletion and climate reach the tropical lower stratosphere. For this mission, the NASA Global Hawk aircraft is carrying a suite of in situ and remote sensing instruments for trace gases, aerosols, radiation, and meteorology. Two deployments have occurred from NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center, with flights to the eastern and central tropical Pacific. Two more deployments, targeting the western equatorial Pacific, are planned for 2014 from Guam and one other location. Over 100 vertical profiles from about 14 to 18 km have now been obtained from the tropics to midlatitudes, as well as long sections at nearly constant altitude. Results are shown here from the UAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS) instrument and other sensors. UCATS was configured to measure the long-lived tracers N2O, SF6, H2, and CH4, as well as water vapor, CO, and ozone. Results thus far have shown a mix of midlatitude and tropical air in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere, particularly for flights in November 2011. Recent results from February 2013 indicate much more homogeneous air masses in the TTL during this period. This homogeneity may be related to fact that these flights occurred in the middle of (northern) winter rather than fall, or to the 'sudden stratospheric warming' in January 2013, with sinking motion in the Arctic polar region and a corresponding rising motion and cooling in the tropics. Data will be presented in the context of trajectory model calculations of the origin and fate of the air masses sampled. These findings are relevant for understanding the composition of air rising through the TTL and into the tropical stratosphere, one of the central goals of ATTREX.

  6. Modification in drag of turbulent boundary layers resulting from manipulation of large-scale structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corke, T. C.; Guezennec, Y.; Nagib, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of placing a parallel-plate turbulence manipulator in a boundary layer are documented through flow visualization and hot wire measurements. The boundary layer manipulator was designed to manage the large scale structures of turbulence leading to a reduction in surface drag. The differences in the turbulent structure of the boundary layer are summarized to demonstrate differences in various flow properties. The manipulator inhibited the intermittent large scale structure of the turbulent boundary layer for at least 70 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. With the removal of the large scale, the streamwise turbulence intensity levels near the wall were reduced. The downstream distribution of the skin friction was also altered by the introduction of the manipulator.

  7. Turbulent structure of scalars in the eddy surface layer over land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent structure of scalars in the 'eddy surface layer' over land and sea. In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Hgstrm, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer (eddy surface layer), especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and corresponding fluxes. However, the structure of temperature and humidity fluctuations in the eddy surface layer shows quite different behaviour. In particular the efficiency of turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat is observed to be more strongly enhanced than is consistent with standard similarity theory. Also the profiles of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuation variance are found to depend on the height of the eddy surface layer and not the height above the surface. All these features are found to be similar in measurements at a marine site, a flat land site and during hurricane conditions (hurricane Fabian and Isabel). Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694.. Hgstrm, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  8. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  9. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  10. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  11. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  12. The energy band structures of the warm dense plasmas with micro-structures inherited from original carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Q.-L.; Yang, J.; Jiang, Z.-T.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Zhang, J.

    2013-11-01

    The energy band structures of the warm dense plasmas with micro-structures inherited from single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied in detail by using the symmetry-adapted tight-binding model with the electron-ion core Coulomb interactions as the plasma effects. It is found that both the symmetry and the degeneracy of the calculated bands normal for the solid micro-structured targets may be destroyed by the electron-ion core Coulomb interactions. Moreover, the calculated Fermi levels of the micro-structured warm dense plasmas are about 1 eV higher than those of the original carbon nanotubes, while the transition energies of the warm dense plasmas are almost always smaller than those for the original carbon nanotubes.

  13. Origin and tectonic significance of a Mesozoic multi-layer over-thrust system within the Yangtze Block (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dan-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Song, Hong-Lin; Wang, Xin-Wen; Malpas, John

    2003-01-01

    In the Yangtze Block (South China), a well-developed Mesozoic thrust system extends through the Xuefeng and Wuling mountains in the southeast to the Sichuan basin in the northwest. The system comprises both thin- and thick-skinned thrust units separated by a boundary detachment fault, the Dayin fault. To the northwest, the thin-skinned belt is characterized by either chevron anticlines and box synclines to the northwest or chevron synclines to the southeast. The former structural style displays narrow exposures for the cores of anticlines and wider exposures for the cores of synclines. Thrust detachments occur along Silurian (Fs) and Lower Cambrian (Fc) strata and are dominantly associated with the anticlines. To the southeast, this style of deformation passes gradually into one characterized by chevron synclines with associated principal detachment faults along Silurian (Fs), Cambrian (Fc) and Lower Sinian (Fz) strata. There are, however, numerous secondary back thrusts. Therefore, the thin-skinned belt is like the Valley and Ridge Province of the North American Applachian Mountains. The thick-skinned belt structurally overlies the thin-skinned belt and is characterized by a number of klippen including the Xuefeng and Wuling nappes. It is thus comparable to the Blue Ridge Province of Appalachia. The structural pattern of this thrust system in South China can be explained by a model involving detachment faulting along various stratigraphic layers at different stages of its evolution. The system was developed through a northwest stepwise progression of deformation with the earliest delamination along Lower Sinian strata (Fz). Analyses of balanced geological cross-sections yield about 18.1-21% (total 88 km) shortening for the thin-skinned unit and at least this amount of shortening for the thick-skinned unit. The compressional deformation from southeast to northwest during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous time occurred after the westward progressive collision of the Yangtze Block with the North China Block and suggests that the orogenic event was intracontinental in nature.

  14. On the period of the coherent structure in boundary layers at large Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, M. A. B.; Marvin, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The period of the large coherent structure in a subsonic, compressible, turbulent boundary layer was determined using the autocorrelation of the velocity and pressure fluctuations for Reynolds numbers between 5,000 and 35,000. In low Reynolds number flows the overall correlation period scaled with the outer variables - namely, the free stream velocity and the boundary layer thickness.

  15. Role of metallic substrate on the plasmon modes in double-layer graphene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. Gonzalez de la

    2015-07-01

    Novel heterostructures combining different layered materials offer new opportunities for applications and fundamental studies of collective excitations driven by interlayer Coulomb interactions. In this work, we have investigated the influence of the metallic-like substrate on the plasmon spectrum of a double layer graphene system and a structure consisting of conventional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) immersed in a semiconductor quantum well and a graphene sheet with an interlayer separation of d. Long-range Coulomb interactions between substrate and graphene layered systems lead a new set of spectrum plasmons. At long wavelengths (q?0) the acoustic modes (?~q) depend, besides on the carrier density in each layer, on the distance between the first carrier layer and the substrate in both structures. Furthermore, in the relativistic/nonrelativistic layered structure an undamped acoustic mode emerges for a certain interlayer critical distance dc. On the other hand, the optical plasmon modes emerging from the coupling of the double-layer systems and the substrate, both start at finite frequency at q=0 in contrast to the collective excitation spectrum ?~q1/2 reported in the literature for double-layer graphene structures.

  16. Structure-phase state of the surface layers in rails subjected to differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, V. E.; Glezer, A. M.; Morozov, K. V.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Volkov, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    A layer-by-layer analysis of the structures, the phase compositions, and the defect substructures of differentially hardened rails has been carried by optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the material volume of the rail head fillet is cooled faster than the volume located along the central axis.

  17. Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2302, as built, Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, reinforcing details. Drawing No. H2-302, as built, Original drawing by Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington, D.C. dated October 1, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Structure A, steel shelving. Drawing no. H3300. Original drawing by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure A, steel shelving. Drawing no. H3-300. Original drawing by Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, prepared for the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of Engineers, Military Construction Division, Washington D.C. dated November 5, 1951. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. Complex Adaptive Systems and the Origins of Adaptive Structure: What Experiments Can Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Hannah; Tamariz, Monica; Kirby, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Language is a product of both biological and cultural evolution. Clues to the origins of key structural properties of language can be found in the process of cultural transmission between learners. Recent experiments have shown that iterated learning by human participants in the laboratory transforms an initially unstructured artificial language

  20. The isolation and structure elucidation of minor isoflavonoids from licorice of Glycyrrhiza glabra origin.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Mizutani, Kenji

    2005-07-01

    Two new isoflavanone and one new 3-arylcoumarin derivatives, along with a known compound 3,4-didehydroglabridin, were isolated from commercially available licorice of Glycyrrhiza glabra origin, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of both the chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:15997151

  1. Protein folding, protein structure and the origin of life: Theoretical methods and solutions of dynamical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical methods and solutions of the dynamics of protein folding, protein aggregation, protein structure, and the origin of life are discussed. The elements of a dynamic model representing the initial stages of protein folding are presented. The calculation and experimental determination of the model parameters are discussed. The use of computer simulation for modeling protein folding is considered.

  2. 11. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' drawn at 1 1/2'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208401). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Metallic layered composite materials produced by explosion welding: Structure, properties, and structure of the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'tseva, L. A.; Tyushlyaeva, D. S.; Mal'tseva, T. V.; Pastukhov, M. V.; Lozhkin, N. N.; Inyakin, D. V.; Marshuk, L. A.

    2014-10-01

    The structure, morphology, and microhardness of the transition zone in multilayer metallic composite joints are studied, and the cohesion strength of the plates to be joined, the mechanical properties of the formed composite materials, and fracture surfaces are analyzed. The materials to be joined are plates (0.1-1 mm thick) made of D16 aluminum alloy, high-strength maraging ZI90-VI (03Kh12N9K4M2YuT) steel, BrB2 beryllium bronze, and OT4-1 titanium alloy. Composite materials made of different materials are shown to be produced by explosion welding. The dependence of the interface shape (smooth or wavelike) on the physicomechanical properties of the materials to be joined is found. The formation of a wavelike interface is shown to result in the formation of intense-mixing regions in transition zones. Possible mechanisms of layer adhesion are discussed.

  4. Effects of physical processes on structure and transport of thin zooplankton layers in the coastal ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, M.A.; Cheriton, O.M.; Drake, P.J.; Holliday, D.V.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Donaghay, P.L.; Greenlaw, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin layers of plankton are recurrent features in a variety of coastal systems. These layers range in thickness from a few centimeters to a few meters. They can extend horizontally for kilometers and have been observed to persist for days. Densities of organisms found within thin layers are far greater than those above or below the layer, and as a result, thin layers may play an important role in the marine ecosystem. The paramount objective of this study was to understand the physical processes that govern the dynamics of thin layers of zooplankton in the coastal ocean. We deployed instruments to measure physical processes and zooplankton distribution in northern Monterey Bay; during an 11 d period of persistent upwelling-favorable winds, 7 thin zooplankton layers were observed. These zooplankton layers persisted throughout daylight hours, but were observed to dissipate during evening hours. These layers had an average vertical thickness of 1.01 m. No layers were found in regions where the Richardson number was <0.25. In general, when the Richardson number is <0.25 the water column is unstable, and incapable of supporting thin layers. Thin zooplankton layers were also located in regions of reduced flow. In addition, our observations show that the vertical depth distribution of thin zooplankton layers is modulated by high-frequency internal waves, with periods of 18 to 20 min. Results from this study clearly show an association between physical structure, physical processes and the presence of thin zooplankton layers in Monterey Bay. With this new understanding we may identify other coastal regions that have a high probability of supporting thin layers. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  5. Deriving Lifetime Maps in the Time/Frequency Domain of Coherent Structures in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The lifetimes of coherent structures are derived from data correlated over a 3 sensor array sampling streamwise sidewall pressure at high Reynolds number (> 10(exp 8)). The data were acquired at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds aboard a Tupolev Tu-144. The lifetimes are computed from a variant of the correlation length termed the lifelength. Characteristic lifelengths are estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution to the sensors cross spectra and are shown to compare favorably with Efimtsov s prediction of correlation space scales. Lifelength distributions are computed in the time/frequency domain using an interval correlation technique on the continuous wavelet transform of the original time data. The median values of the lifelength distributions are found to be very close to the frequency averaged result. The interval correlation technique is shown to allow the retrieval and inspection of the original time data of each event in the lifelength distributions, thus providing a means to locate and study the nature of the coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer. The lifelength data are converted to lifetimes using the convection velocity. The lifetime of events in the time/frequency domain are displayed in Lifetime Maps. The primary purpose of the paper is to validate these new analysis techniques so that they can be used with confidence to further characterize the behavior of coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer.

  6. Structural vs electronic origin of renormalized band widths in TTF-TCNQ: An angular dependent NEXAFS study

    SciTech Connect

    Sing, M.; Meyer, J.; Glawion, S.; Claessen, R.; Hoinkis, M.; Blaha, P.; Gavrila, G.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2007-12-15

    We have performed angle-dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the Auger electron yield mode on the correlated quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) in order to determine the orientation of the molecules in the topmost surface layer. We find that the tilt angles of the molecules with respect to the one-dimensional axis are essentially the same as in the bulk. Thus, we can rule out surface relaxation as the origin of the renormalized band widths which were inferred from the analysis of photoemission data within the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Thereby, recent theoretical results are corroborated which invoke long-range Coulomb repulsion as alternative explanation to understand the spectral dispersions of TTF-TCNQ quantitatively within an extended Hubbard model.

  7. Evaluation of reflection and transmission coefficients for multi-layered chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamirisa, P.; Uslenghi, P. L. E.; Yu, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines a structure consisting of an arbitrary number of layers of different chiral materials, backed by either a perfect conductor or a penetrable half-space. A plane electromagnetic wave of arbitrary polarization is obliquely incident on the structure. The reflection and transmission coefficients of the structure can be determined by a chain-matrix algorithm.

  8. Fabrication and properties of silicene and silicene-graphene layered structures on Ir (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lei; Wang, Ye-Liang; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Du, Shi-Xuan; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Silicene, a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structure similar to graphene, has been successfully fabricated on various substrates. This work will mainly review the syntheses and the corresponding properties of silicene and silicene-graphene layered structures on Ir (111) substrates. For silicene on Ir (111), the buckled silicene/ Ir (111) configuration and its electronic structure are fully discussed. For silicene-graphene layered structures, silicene layer can be constructed underneath graphene layer by an intercalation method. These results indicate the possibility of integrating silicene with graphene and may link up with potential applications in nanoelectronics and related areas. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CBA01600 and 2011CB932700), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61222112, 61390501, 51325204, 11334006, and 61306114), the Science Fund from Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. 1731300500015 and XDB07030100), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China.

  9. Controllable synthesis of layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    A facile solvothermal method is developed for synthesizing layered Co-Ni hydroxide hierarchical structures by using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as alkaline reagent. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the specific capacitances of layered bimetallic (Co-Ni) hydroxides are generally superior to those of layered monometallic (Co, Ni) hydroxides. The as-prepared Co0.5Ni0.5 hydroxide hierarchical structures possesses the highest specific capacitance of 1767 F g-1 at a galvanic current density of 1 A g-1 and an outstanding specific capacitance retention of 87% after 1000 cycles. In comparison with the dispersed nanosheets of Co-Ni hydroxide, layered hydroxide hierarchical structures show much superior electrochemical performance. This study provides a promising method to construct hierarchical structures with controllable transition-metal compositions for enhancing the electrochemical performance in hybrid supercapacitors.

  10. Photovoltaic structures having a light scattering interface layer and methods of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiangxin; Compaan, Alvin D.; Paudel, Naba Raj

    2015-10-13

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell structures having an integral light scattering interface layer configured to diffuse or scatter light prior to entering a semiconductor material and methods of making the same are described.

  11. Structures of D2 layers on LiF(001).

    PubMed

    Dawoud, J N; Fasfous, I I; Hamzeh, S M; Jack, D B

    2010-03-01

    Classical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of D(2) molecules physisorbed on LiF(001) surfaces are reported and show a series of interesting commensurate structure forms, viz., p(2x2) -->p(8x2) -->p(4x2), with coverages Theta=0.5, 0.625, and 0.75, respectively, and are stable up to 8 K. These structures are consistent with recent helium atom scattering (HAS) results (the p(4x2) is not observed) in terms of coverage and stability, but disagree in terms of symmetry. The p(2x2) structure contains two D(2) molecules per unit cell, with each molecule lying parallel to the plane of the surface directly above every other cationic site. For the p(4x2) structure, there are two kinds of adsorption sites: a parallel site, as in the case of p(2x2), and a tilted site, where the D(2) molecules sit between cationic and anionic sites with the molecular axis directed toward the anionic site, with a tilt angle of theta approximately 63 degrees. Perturbation theory calculations show that the adsorbed D(2) molecules are azimuthally delocalized and hence the structures are indeed c-type. Our calculations also indicate that o-D(2) and helicoptering p-D(2) species prefer cationic sites, compared to cartwheeling p-D(2) species. PMID:20044097

  12. Fabrication of multi-layered absorption structure for high quantum efficiency photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Go; Fukuda, Daiji; Numata, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Zama, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-12-16

    We report on some efforts to improve a quantum efficiency of titanium-based optical superconducting transition edge sensors using the multi-layered absorption structure for maximizing photon absorption in the Ti layer. Using complex refractive index values of each film measured by a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, we designed and optimized by a simulation code. An absorption measurement of fabricated structure was in good agreement with the design and was higher than 99% at optimized wavelength of 1550 nm.

  13. Fuselage Structure Response to Boundary Layer, Tonal Sound, and Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the response of curved aluminum and graphite-epoxy fuselage structures to flow and sound loads from turbulent boundary layer, tonal sound, and jet noise. Both structures were the same size. The aluminum structure was reinforced with tear stoppers, while the graphite-epoxy structure was not. The graphite-epoxy structure weighed half as much as the aluminum structure. Spatiotemporal intermittence and chaotic behavior of the structural response was observed, as jet noise and tonal sound interacted with the turbulent boundary layer. The fundamental tone distributed energy to other components via wave interaction with the turbulent boundary layer. The added broadband sound from the jet, with or without a shock, influenced the responses over a wider range of frequencies. Instantaneous spatial correlation indicates small localized spatiotemporal regions of convected waves, while uncorrelated patterns dominate the larger portion of the space. By modifying the geometry of the tear stoppers between panels and frame, the transmitted and reflected waves of the aluminum panels were significantly reduced. The response level of the graphite-epoxy structure was higher, but the noise transmitted was nearly equal to that of the aluminum structure. The fundamental shock mode is between 80 deg and 150 deg and the first harmonic is between 20 deg and 80 deg for the underexpanded supersonic jet impinging on the turbulent boundary layer influencing the structural response. The response of the graphite-epoxy structure due to the fundamental mode of the shock impingement was stabilized by an externally fixed oscillator.

  14. Cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in studying multiplex networks where individuals are structured in multiple network layers. Previous agent-based simulations of games on multiplex networks reveal rich dynamics arising from interdependency of interactions along each network layer, yet there is little known about analytical conditions for cooperation to evolve thereof. Here we aim to tackle this issue by calculating the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions. In our model, an individual is engaged in two layers of group interactions simultaneously and uses unrelated strategies across layers. Evolutionary competition of individuals is determined by the total payoffs accrued from two layers of interactions. We also consider migration which allows individuals to move to a new group within each layer. An approach combining the coalescence theory with the theory of random walks is established to overcome the analytical difficulty upon local migration. We obtain the exact results for all “isotropic” migration patterns, particularly for migration tuned with varying ranges. When the two layers use one game, the optimal migration ranges are proved identical across layers and become smaller as the migration probability grows. PMID:26632251

  15. Cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in studying multiplex networks where individuals are structured in multiple network layers. Previous agent-based simulations of games on multiplex networks reveal rich dynamics arising from interdependency of interactions along each network layer, yet there is little known about analytical conditions for cooperation to evolve thereof. Here we aim to tackle this issue by calculating the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions. In our model, an individual is engaged in two layers of group interactions simultaneously and uses unrelated strategies across layers. Evolutionary competition of individuals is determined by the total payoffs accrued from two layers of interactions. We also consider migration which allows individuals to move to a new group within each layer. An approach combining the coalescence theory with the theory of random walks is established to overcome the analytical difficulty upon local migration. We obtain the exact results for all "isotropic" migration patterns, particularly for migration tuned with varying ranges. When the two layers use one game, the optimal migration ranges are proved identical across layers and become smaller as the migration probability grows. PMID:26632251

  16. A perspective on coherent structures and conceptual models for turbulent boundary layer physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers have been analyzed to develop a unified conceptual model for the kinematics of coherent motions in low Reynolds number canonical turbulent boundary layers. All classes of coherent motions are considered in the model, including low-speed streaks, ejections and sweeps, vortical structures, near-wall and outer-region shear layers, sublayer pockets, and large-scale outer-region eddies. The model reflects the conclusions from the study of the simulated boundary layer that vortical structures are directly associated with the production of turbulent shear stresses, entrainment, dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, and the fluctuating pressure field. These results, when viewed from the perspective of the large body of published work on the subject of coherent motions, confirm that vortical structures may be considered the central dynamic element in the maintenance of turbulence in the canonical boundary layer. Vortical structures serve as a framework on which to construct a unified picture of boundary layer structure, providing a means to relate the many known structural elements in a consistent way.

  17. Layers: A molecular surface peeling algorithm and its applications to analyze protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2015-11-01

    We present an algorithm Layers to peel the atoms of proteins as layers. Using Layers we show an efficient way to transform protein structures into 2D pattern, named residue transition pattern (RTP), which is independent of molecular orientations. RTP explains the folding patterns of proteins and hence identification of similarity between proteins is simple and reliable using RTP than with the standard sequence or structure based methods. Moreover, Layers generates a fine-tunable coarse model for the molecular surface by using non-random sampling. The coarse model can be used for shape comparison, protein recognition and ligand design. Additionally, Layers can be used to develop biased initial configuration of molecules for protein folding simulations. We have developed a random forest classifier to predict the RTP of a given polypeptide sequence. Layers is a standalone application; however, it can be merged with other applications to reduce the computational load when working with large datasets of protein structures. Layers is available freely at http://www.csb.iitkgp.ernet.in/applications/mol_layers/main.

  18. Multi-layer woven preforms for composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Herszberg, I.; Bannister, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manufacture of composite structures from textile preforms impregnated using a liquid moulding process, has the potential to produce low-cost high-quality components with improved resistance to delamination. A program is under way at the Cooperative Research Centre for Aerospace Structures (CRC-AS) to develop the capability to design and manufacture such structures. This paper will concentrate on the manufacture and analysis of multilayer, integrally woven preforms made from polyester, glass and carbon fibres. The structural performance of composites made from such preforms depends upon the fibre architecture, which in turn is a function of the weave parameters and the compaction during the consolidation process. The effect of weaving design and compaction parameters on the resulting architecture for multilayer woven preforms has been examined and will be discussed in this paper. The mechanical performance of composite panels manufactured with a variety of multilayer woven preforms is currently under investigation and preliminary results will be presented in this paper. A procedure will also be briefly described for using images of preform cross sections to produce a geometric model, which may be used to visualise the architecture and to quantify geometric characteristics for use in further analysis.

  19. Effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer in normal and inverted structure polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, A.; Liu, X.; Sun, Y. C.; Djurišić, A. B.; Ng, A. M. C.; Chan, W. K.

    2013-12-04

    We performed a systematic study of the effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer on the performance of P3HT: PCBM solar cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) buffer layers were prepared by either e-beam evaporation or solution processing method. We also compared the photovoltaic performance of inserting the buffer layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and the polymer layer for the inverted structure (ITO/ ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/P3HT:PCBM/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Au) as well as inserting the buffers layers between the polymer and the aluminum electrode for the conventional structure (ITO/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/P3HT:PCBM/ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/Al). The results are shown in detail.

  20. Comparison of different structures of niobium oxide blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jong Sung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, four different types of Nb2O5 thin layers were prepared using sol-gel process to improve energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Nb2O5 layer was prepared on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer, TiO2 electrode layer, and inside of TiO2 layer, respectively. The Nb2O5 layer was used to reduce the recombination of photo induced electrons and holes. The DSSCs were assembled with platinum (Pt) coated counter electrode, ruthenium dye, and iodine based electrolyte. The photocurrent-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DSSCs with different types of Nb2O5 were studied. The efficiency depends not only on the structure of DSSCs but also on the initial compositions for the preparation of Nb2O5. PMID:25936092

  1. Plasmon resonance absorption in layered structures of silver with periodic corrugation

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T.; Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmon resonance absorption in periodically corrugated layered structures of silver was studied by the photoacoustic method. The layered structures were self-supporting and corrugated with a period of 1888 nm and amplitude varying from 6 to 12 nm, depending on the thickness. Experimental results of resonance absorption of 633-nm photons were analyzed in terms of the propagation and damping constants of coupled modes of surface plasmons. The coupling efficiency of incident photons to these modes was found to be strongly dependent on corrugation amplitude and layer thickness.

  2. On the structural origins of ferroelectricity in HfO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Xiahan; Grimley, Everett D.; LeBeau, James M.; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-04-20

    Here, we present a structural study on the origin of ferroelectricity in Gd doped HfO{sub 2} thin films. We apply aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy to directly determine the underlying lattice type using projected atom positions and measured lattice parameters. Furthermore, we apply nanoscale electron diffraction methods to visualize the crystal symmetry elements. Combined, the experimental results provide unambiguous evidence for the existence of a non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase that can support spontaneous polarization, resolving the origin of ferroelectricity in HfO{sub 2} thin films.

  3. Sliding Contact Fatigue Damage in Layered Ceramic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Thompson, Van P.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain veneered restorations often chip and fracture from repeated occlusal loading, making fatigue studies relevant. Most fatigue studies are limited to uniaxial loading without sliding motion. We hypothesize that biaxial loading (contact-load-slide-liftoff, simulating a masticatory cycle) as compared to uniaxial loading accelerates the fatigue of layered ceramics. Monolithic glass plates were epoxy joined to polycarbonate substrates as a transparent model for an all-ceramic crown on dentin. Uniaxial and biaxial cyclic contact was applied through a hard sphere in water with a mouth-motion machine. The uniaxial (contact-load-hold-liftoff) and traditional R-ratio fatigue (indenter never leaves the specimen surface) produced a similar lifespan, while biaxial fatigue was more severe. The accelerated crack growth rate in biaxial fatigue is attributed to enhanced tensile stresses at the trailing edges of a moving indenter. Fracture mechanics descriptions for damage evolution in brittle materials loaded repeatedly with a sliding sphere are provided. Clinical relevance is addressed. PMID:17959894

  4. An experimental study of combustion: The turbulent structure of a reacting shear layer formed at a rearward-facing step. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A premixed propane-air flame is stabilized in a turbulent free shear layer formed at a rearward-facing step. The mean and rms averages of the turbulent velocity flow field were determined by LDV for both reacting and non-reacting flows. The reaching flow was visualized by high speed schlieren photography. Large scale structures dominate the reacting shear layer. The growth of the large scale structures is tied to the propagation of the flame. The linear growth rate of the reacting shear layer defined by the mean velocity profiles is unchanged by combustion but the virtual origin is shifted downstream. The reacting shear layer based on the mean velocity profiles is shifted toward the recirculation zone and the reattachments lengths are shortened by 30%.

  5. Unattended automatic monitoring of boundary layer structures with cost effective lidar ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnkel, Christoph; Roininen, Reijo

    2010-05-01

    The vertical temperature and moisture distribution affect the layering of the atmospheric boundary layer and the existence of inversions within this layer or on the top of it. These layers have a strong influence on the development of episodes of high concentrations of air pollutants which might be harmful to people and ecosystems. The height of the mixing layer is defined as the height up to which due to the thermal structure of the boundary layer vertical dispersion by turbulent mixing of air pollutants takes place. Most of the aerosol particles in an atmospheric column are usually confined to atmospheric layers below this height, the knowledge on the mixing layer height can thus be employed to convert column-mean optical depths measured from satellites into near-surface air quality information. Eye-safe lidar ceilometers are reliable tools for unattended boundary layer structure monitoring around the clock up to heights exceeding 2500 m. Comparison to temperature, humidity, and wind profiles reported by RASS, sodar, radio soundings, and weather mast in-situ sensors has confirmed their ability to detect convective or residual layers. In addition, ceilometers with a single lens optical design enable precise assessment of inversion layers and nocturnal stable layers below 200 m. This design has been chosen for the Vaisala Ceilometer CL31, the standard cloud height indicator for the Automated Surface Observing System of the US National Weather Service (NWS). During a two years evaluation period, the NWS permanently collected backscatter profiles from at least three ceilometers at its test site in Sterling, VA. Based on these and on data from units running at the Vaisala test sites in Vantaa, Finland, and Hamburg, Germany, an automatic algorithm for online retrieval of aerosol layer heights within the boundary layer has been developed that covers not only ideal boundary layer diurnal evolution, but all situations involving clouds, fog, and precipitation. This algorithm is part of the Vaisala boundary layer reporting and analysis tool BL-VIEW. The algorithm is based on the gradient method looking for gradient minima of the backscatter intensity to mark upper edges of aerosol layers. Main additional features of the novel automatic algorithm are a cloud, fog and precipitation filter designed to avoid false hits, a noise and range dependant averaging scheme, and a variable detection threshold. Examples covering a variety of meteorological situations in all seasons will be presented that demonstrate the quality of the algorithm and its application in the field of air quality forecasting.

  6. A review of quasi-coherent structures in a numerically simulated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, S. K.; Kline, S. J.; Spalart, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of a comprehensive study of the structural aspects of a numerically simulated number turbulent boundary layer are presented. A direct Navier-Stokes simulation of a flat-plate, zero pressure gradient boundary layer at Re0 = 670 was used. Most of the known nonrandom, coherent features of turbulent boundary layers are confirmed in the simulation, and several new aspects of their spatial character are reported. The spatial relationships between many of the various structures are described, forming the basis for a more complete kinematical picture of boundary layer physics than has been previously known. In particular, the importance of vortex structures of various forms to the generation of Reynolds shear stress is investigated.

  7. Unequal density effect on static structure factor of coupled electron layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, L. K.; Nayak, Mukesh G.

    2014-04-01

    In order to understand the ordered phase, if any, in a real coupled electron layers (CEL), there is a need to take into account the effect of unequal layer density. Such phase is confirmed by a strong peak in a static structure factor. With the aid of quantum/dynamical version of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (so-called qSTLS) approximation, we have calculated the intra- and interlayer static structure factors, Sll(q) and S12(q), over a wide range of density parameter rsl and interlayer spacing d. In our present study, the sharp peak in S22(q) has been found at critical density with sufficiently lower interlayer spacing. Further, to find the resultant effect of unequal density on intra- and interlayer static structure factors, we have compared our results with that of the recent CEL system with equal layer density and isolated single electron layer.

  8. Scaling structure of the velocity statistics in atmospheric boundary layers

    PubMed

    Kurien; L'vov; Procaccia; Sreenivasan

    2000-01-01

    The statistical objects characterizing turbulence in real turbulent flows differ from those of the ideal homogeneous isotropic model. They contain contributions from various two- and three-dimensional aspects, and from the superposition of inhomogeneous and anisotropic contributions. We employ the recently introduced decomposition of statistical tensor objects into irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group (characterized by j and m indices, where j=0ellipsisinfinity,-jlayer. Time series data from single probes and from pairs of probes are analyzed to compute the amplitudes and exponents of different contributions to the second order statistical objects characterized by j=0, 1, and 2. The analysis shows the need to make a careful distinction between long-lived quasi-two-dimensional turbulent motions (close to the ground) and relatively short-lived three-dimensional motions. We demonstrate that the leading scaling exponents in the three leading sectors (j=0, 1, and 2) appear to be different but universal, independent of the positions of the probe, the tensorial component considered, and the large scale properties. The measured values of the scaling exponent are zeta((j=0))(2)=0.68+/-0.01, zeta((j=1))(2)=1.0+/-0.15, and zeta((j=2))(2)=1.38+/-0.10. We present theoretical arguments for the values of these exponents using the Clebsch representation of the Euler equations; neglecting anomalous corrections, the values obtained are 2/3, 1, and 4/3, respectively. Some enigmas and questions for the future are sketched. PMID:11046280

  9. Paleocene and Early Eocene volcanic ash layers in the Schlieren Flysch, Switzerland: U-Pb dating and Hf-isotopes of zircons, pumice geochemistry and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Simone; Winkler, Wilfried; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Ulmer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Thin mm to cm thick bentonite layers of Paleocene to Early Eocene age in the Tonsteinschichten of the Schlieren Flysch represent volcanic ash layers. Heavy mineral analysis of the layers indicates basic to acidic volcanic sources. U/Pb dating of single zircon crystals of a Paleocene layer (WW1948) by LA-ICP-MS points to an eruption at 59.87 ± 0.41 Ma, whereas ID-TIMS shows an eruption age of 60.96 ± 0.07 Ma. Taking into account the external precision of LA-ICP-MS analyses of 1-2% both ages are overlapping and indicate an apparent minimal durations of zircon crystallization of 350 ka. Hf-isotope analysis of the same zircon crystals reveals the hybrid character of the source magma. The geochemical composition of the pumice grains of all bentonite layers is strongly affected by alteration. Nevertheless, the original character of the volcanic source can be evaluated. The Paleocene ashes (Lower Tonsteinschichten, LT) show a more fractionated multi-element pattern than the ashes of Early Eocene (Upper Tonsteinschichten, UT). The LT ash series are of rhyodacite to dacite character whereas the UT ashes fall in the field of alkali basalts. Both ash series seem to originate from a within-plate volcanic setting according to their trace element concentrations. Geochemical and temporary counterparts can be found in ash layers from Anthering (Austria) and the Danish Basin. As proposed for those ashes, volcanism connected to the opening of the North Atlantic might be the source as well for the ashes in the Schlieren Flysch. By comparison of the composition of rocks from the British Paleogene Igneous Province BPIP and the Schlieren Flysch ashes many correlations can be drawn which supports the suggestion of a North Atlantic origin of the Alpine ashes.

  10. Experiments on near-wall structure of three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flack, Karen A.; Johnston, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers have shown basic differences between two- and three-dimensional flows. These differences can significantly impact the modeling of three-dimensional flows since many flow models are based on results from two-dimensional boundary layers. In many cases the shear stress vector direction has been shown to lag relative to the direction of the mean velocity gradient as the cross flow grows downstream. Coincidence of these vectors is necessary for a scalar eddy viscosity modeling assumption. A second effect is a reduction in magnitude of the shear stress and/or the shear stress to turbulence energy ratio, a(sub 1). This reduction has been observed in several experiments. Recent numerical simulations also indicate wall-layer structural differences between two- and three-dimensional boundary layers. The differences in structure between two- and three-dimensional boundary layers was also addressed in the experiment of Littell & Eaton. The experiment used two-point correlations to investigate the vortical structures in a three dimensional boundary layer on a spinning disk. It was found that each sign of longitudinal vortex is equally likely to exist, but one sign of vorticity is associated with a structure which is better at producing ejections. The goal of the current investigation is to study the structure of the inner layers. Among other questions, the differences between the effects deduced from the three-dimensional flow simulations and the effects seen in experiments can be examined. The research concentrates on the structure of the wall-layer through flow visualization and direct turbulence measurements down to y(+) = 5.

  11. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  12. Spatiotemporal structure of wind farm-atmospheric boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervarich, Matthew; Baidya Roy, Somnath; Zhou, Liming

    2013-04-01

    Wind power is currently one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world. Most of the growth is in the utility sector consisting of large wind farms with numerous industrial-scale wind turbines. Wind turbines act as a sink of mean kinetic energy and a source of turbulent kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In doing so, they modify the ABL profiles and land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, momentum, mass and moisture. This project explores theses interactions using remote sensing data and numerical model simulations. The domain is central Texas where 4 of the world's largest wind farms are located. A companion study of seasonally-averaged Land Surface Temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on TERRA and AQUA satellites shows a warming signal at night and a mixed cooling/warming signal during the daytime within the wind farms. In the present study, wind farm-ABL interactions are simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations show that the model is capable of replicating the observed signal in land surface temperature. Moreover, similar warming/cooling effect, up to 1C, was observed in seasonal mean 2m air temperature as well. Further analysis show that enhanced turbulent mixing in the rotor wakes is responsible for the impacts on 2m and surface air temperatures. The mixing is due to 2 reasons: (i) turbulent momentum transport to compensate the momentum deficit in the wakes of the turbines and (ii) turbulence generated due to motion of turbine rotors. Turbulent mixing also alters vertical profiles of moisture. Changes in land-atmosphere temperature and moisture gradient and increase in turbulent mixing leads to more than 10% change in seasonal mean surface sensible and latent heat flux. Given the current installed capacity and the projected installation across the world, wind farms are likely becoming a major driver of anthropogenic land use change on Earth. Hence, understanding WF-ABL interactions and its effects is of significant scientific and societal importance.

  13. Instantaneous Wavenumber Estimation for Damage Quantification in Layered Plate Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesnil, Olivier; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of instantaneous and local wavenumber damage quantification techniques for high frequency guided wave interrogation. The proposed methodologies can be considered as first steps towards a hybrid structural health monitoring/ nondestructive evaluation (SHM/NDE) approach for damage assessment in composites. The challenges and opportunities related to the considered type of interrogation and signal processing are explored through the analysis of numerical data obtained via EFIT simulations of damage in CRFP plates. Realistic damage configurations are modeled from x-ray CT scan data of plates subjected to actual impacts, in order to accurately predict wave-damage interactions in terms of scattering and mode conversions. Simulation data is utilized to enhance the information provided by instantaneous and local wavenumbers and mitigate the complexity related to the multi-modal content of the plate response. Signal processing strategies considered for this purpose include modal decoupling through filtering in the frequency/wavenumber domain, the combination of displacement components, and the exploitation of polarization information for the various modes as evaluated through the dispersion analysis of the considered laminate lay-up sequence. The results presented assess the effectiveness of the proposed wavefield processing techniques as a hybrid SHM/NDE technique for damage detection and quantification in composite, plate-like structures.

  14. Vesicle layering in solidified intrusive magma bodies: a newly recognized type of igneous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toramaru, Atsushi; Ishiwatari, Akira; Matsuzawa, Maki; Nakamura, Masaru; Arai, Shoji

    1996-12-01

    We report a novel type of layering structure in igneous rocks. The layering structure in the Ogi picrite sill in Sado Island, Japan, is spatially periodic, and appears to be caused by the variation in vesicle volume fraction. The gas phase forming the vesicles apparently exsolved from the interstitial melt at the final stage of solidification of the magma body. We call this type of layering caused by periodic vesiculation in the solidifying magma body "vesicle layering." The presence of vesicle layering in other basic igneous bodies (pillow lava at Ogi and dolerite sill at Atsumi, Japan) implies that it may be a fairly common igneous feature. The width of individual layers slightly, but regularly, increases with distance from the upper contact. The layering plane is perpendicular to the long axes of columnar joints, regardless of gravitational direction, suggesting that the formation of vesicles is mainly controlled by the temperature distribution in the cooling magma body. We propose a model of formation of vesicle layering which is basically the same as that for Liesegang rings. The interplay between the diffusion of heat and magmatic volatiles in melt, and the sudden vesiculation upon supersaturation, both play important roles.

  15. Structure and friction-reducing property of the sulfide layer produced by ion sulfuration

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Z.; Da-Ming, Z.; Yan-Hua, W.; Jia-Jun, L.; Xiao-Dong, F.; Ming-Xi, G.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfide layers with a certain thickness were made on the surface of 1045 and 52100 steels by means of the low-temperature ion sulfuration technique. Metallography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) + energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to analyze the structure of sulfide layers; the tribological properties of the layers lubricated by paraffin oil were also investigated on a reciprocating tester. The results showed that sulfide layer is porous, and its structure is mainly composed of FeS, FeS{sub 2}, and substrate phases. The sulfide layer possessed a remarkable friction-reducing effect; its friction coefficient was lower on average, by about 50%, than that of the surface without layer. With the increase of layer thickness, its friction coefficient was unchanged, and under low load conditions, its operational period was prolonged. Under the same experimental conditions, the operational period of sulfide layer on 52100 steel was longer than that on 1045 steel, and its friction coefficient was lower as well.

  16. The ancient history of the structure of ribonuclease P and the early origins of Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonuclease P is an ancient endonuclease that cleaves precursor tRNA and generally consists of a catalytic RNA subunit (RPR) and one or more proteins (RPPs). It represents an important macromolecular complex and model system that is universally distributed in life. Its putative origins have inspired fundamental hypotheses, including the proposal of an ancient RNA world. Results To study the evolution of this complex, we constructed rooted phylogenetic trees of RPR molecules and substructures and estimated RPP age using a cladistic method that embeds structure directly into phylogenetic analysis. The general approach was used previously to study the evolution of tRNA, SINE RNA and 5S rRNA, the origins of metabolism, and the evolution and complexity of the protein world, and revealed here remarkable evolutionary patterns. Trees of molecules uncovered the tripartite nature of life and the early origin of archaeal RPRs. Trees of substructures showed molecules originated in stem P12 and were accessorized with a catalytic P1-P4 core structure before the first substructure was lost in Archaea. This core currently interacts with RPPs and ancient segments of the tRNA molecule. Finally, a census of protein domain structure in hundreds of genomes established RPPs appeared after the rise of metabolic enzymes at the onset of the protein world. Conclusions The study provides a detailed account of the history and early diversification of a fundamental ribonucleoprotein and offers further evidence in support of the existence of a tripartite organismal world that originated by the segregation of archaeal lineages from an ancient community of primordial organisms. PMID:20334683

  17. Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash flood deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuna-Schwartz, D.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.; Khokiattiwong, S.; Stattegger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami, storm and flash event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore from Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea), are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. They are characterized by (1) the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris, (2) cross lamination and (3) the appearance of rip-up clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to individual storm events by using 210Pb dating in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms and could thus be securely differentiated from tsunami deposits. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize the storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents flash floods, which is characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between the storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of rip-up clasts, mud, and terrigenous material within the storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between offshore storm and tsunami deposits.

  18. Layers: A molecular surface peeling algorithm and its applications to analyze protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm ‘Layers’ to peel the atoms of proteins as layers. Using Layers we show an efficient way to transform protein structures into 2D pattern, named residue transition pattern (RTP), which is independent of molecular orientations. RTP explains the folding patterns of proteins and hence identification of similarity between proteins is simple and reliable using RTP than with the standard sequence or structure based methods. Moreover, Layers generates a fine-tunable coarse model for the molecular surface by using non-random sampling. The coarse model can be used for shape comparison, protein recognition and ligand design. Additionally, Layers can be used to develop biased initial configuration of molecules for protein folding simulations. We have developed a random forest classifier to predict the RTP of a given polypeptide sequence. Layers is a standalone application; however, it can be merged with other applications to reduce the computational load when working with large datasets of protein structures. Layers is available freely at http://www.csb.iitkgp.ernet.in/applications/mol_layers/main. PMID:26553411

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Co films on highly textured and randomly oriented C60 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Ok; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Dong Ryeol

    2016-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co/C60/pentacene and Co/C60 thin film structures were investigated. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity analysis show that the presence or absence of a pentacene buffer layer leads to a highly textured or randomly oriented C60 layer, respectively. A Co film deposited on a randomly oriented C60 layer penetrates into the C60 layer when it is deposited at a slow deposition rate. The Co penetration can be minimized, regardless of the Co deposition rate, by growth on a highly textured and nanostructured C60/pentacene layer. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show that the saturation magnetization of Co/C60/pentacene is significantly reduced compared to that of Co/C60. On the other hand, the Co penetration does not seem to have an effect on the magnetic properties, suggesting that the structural properties of the Co and C60 layer, rather than the Co penetration into the organic C60 layer, are critical to the magnetic properties of the Co/C60.

  20. Origin of the Siletz Terrane and its Implications for the 3D Structure of the Cascadia Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, P. A.; Wilson, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    By explicitly including the defunct Resurrection plate in our Paleogene reconstruction of the western North America plate boundary, we are able to account for the origin of the enigmatic Siletz-Crescent (Coast Range basalt) forearc terrane. This terrane is a remnant of the Farallon-Resurrection (Far-Res) spreading ridge system that docked against the North America subduction margin from about 53 to 42 Ma. The ridge system docked sequentially, first an intact Far block in the south, followed by an intact Res block to the north. Our reconstruction attributes subsequent volcanism near Tillamook and Yachats, Oregon, ca. 44-37 Ma, to the formation of a weak slab window resulting from continued divergence of the Far and Res plates beneath the continental margin. The older portions of the Siletz-Crescent terrane are thicker than typical oceanic lithosphere, owing perhaps to their close proximity to the Yellowstone hotspot during formation. The thinnest terrane is associated with the slab window, and underlies the location of the ancestral Columbia River. Accretion of the Far segment of the terrane and partial subduction of the northern Res segment complicates the 3D structure of the modern Cascadia forearc. We interpret the so-called E layer beneath Vancouver Island to be a partially subducted Res fragment with a seismic velocity structure that mimics the dipping structure of the actively subducting Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate in the subsurface. This results in a subsurface zone with apparently doubled oceanic plates, and confounds attempts to interpret the seismic structures in terms of a simple accretionary prism. For example, 3D p- and s-wave velocity models of the subduction margin diverge beneath Washington and Vancouver Island where underlain by the subducted Res segment. In particular, s-wave models (e.g., Audet et al., 2010, JGR) map the JdF plate 5-10 km shallower than p-wave models in this region. Perhaps the low velocity layer attributed to JdF crust is instead Res material stranded in the accretionary prism above. The E layer beneath Vancouver Island appears to contain free fluid (Hyndman, 1988, JGR) suggesting that its relatively shallow location may have served to slow crustal dehydration processes that typically occur when an oceanic slab descends to ~40 km depth. And the reflective zones mapped beneath the Siletz terrane in Oregon (Trehu et al., 2008, Geology) suggest that the accreted block may be impeding fluid migration above the subducting JdF slab. Our new kinematic model of mobile terranes within the Paleogene North American plate boundary allows re-interpretation of the 3D structure of the Cascadia forearc and its relationship to ongoing seismotectonic processes.

  1. Origin of the 'dike-like' structure and transitions in eruptive styles at Colton Crater, northern Arizona: San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. R.; Ort, M. H.; Leudemann, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Colton Crater, located within the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona, is one of over 600 scoria cones in the field. Unlike most other volcanoes in the SFVF, Colton Crater is characterized as a hybrid volcano that had Strombolian, Hawaiian, and Surtseyan explosions. Surtseyan explosions led to the excavation of the center of the volcano, creating a large 1.3-km-diameter crater with a 30-m post-phreatomagmatic scoria cone at its center. A vertical erosion-resistant feature along the northern rim of the crater, originally mapped as a dike, provides valuable information about the sequence and timing of the transition to phreatomagmatic eruptions because it disrupts the otherwise continuous spatter layers deposited just prior to that change. Stratigraphic sections and paleomagnetic analysis of Colton Crater reveal the origin and timing of emplacement of this vertical structure and its place in the transitional eruptive history. The prominent upper layers in the crater walls show some variation throughout the crater, but generally are composed of agglutinated spatter, welded scoria and bombs, and rootless lava flows. The uppermost portion of the outward-dipping spatter layers that lie between the two saddles on the northern rim closely match the layers observed in the vertical structure, revealing that the structure is a section of rotated spatter. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), identified using alternating field (AF) demagnetization, shows the timing of the displacement of sections of the agglutinated spatter and welded cinder. Sites along the vertical structure yield ChRMs statistically identical to non-rotated sites, which indicates that rotation of the vertical structure occurred before the ChRM had been set, i.e., the layers were above the Curie temperature during rotation. The eruption started as Strombolian and Hawaiian perhaps because the flux of magma overpowered the influx of water from local aquifer formations, creating a stable and sealed conduit. Lava flows associated with the Strombolian and Hawaiian activity breached the northern flank and destabilized the walls of the crater. Water may have been introduced to the magmatic system through conduit collapse beneath the water table or vent migration to a conduit location with greater water flux, leading to the Surtseyan explosions. As space was created on the northern rim, the destabilized spatter layers detached and rotated, creating the vertical structure. The eruption ended with a small Strombolian phase, forming the 30-m-high scoria cone in the bottom of the crater. The sequence of these events must have happened within a short time period because the rotated spatter layers of the vertical structure remained above 580 oC.

  2. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H.C.; Livingston, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F-region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionsonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time, these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantative measurements of TEC show increases of 10-15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  3. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson H.C. Jr.; Livingston, R.C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; McCready, M.; Moore, J.G.; Bishop, G.J.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionosonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantitative measurements of TEC show increases of 10--15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  4. Analysis of mixed-layer clay mineral structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, W.F.

    1953-01-01

    Among the enormously abundant natural occurrences of clay minerals, many examples are encountered in which no single specific crystallization scheme extends through a single ultimate grain. The characterization of such assemblages becomes an analysis of the distribution of matter within such grains, rather than the simple identification of mineral species. It having become established that the particular coordination complex typified by mica is a common component of many natural subcrystalline assemblages, the opportunity is afforded to analyze scattering from random associations of these complexes with other structural units. Successful analyses have been made of mixed hydration states of montmorillonite, of montmorillonite with mica, of vermiculite with mica, and of montmorillonite with chlorite, all of which are variants of the mica complex, and of halloysite with hydrated halloysite.

  5. The structure of nanoscale polaron correlations in the layered manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Branton

    2002-03-01

    Recent x-ray and neutron scattering experiments have uncovered nanoscale polaron correlations that play an essential role in the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) behavior of the perovskite manganites. Short-range polaronic order decreases the charge-carrier mobility of the high-temperature paramagnetic state, and subsequently becomes unstable at the ferromagnetic transition, contributing to a pronounced resistivity decrease at T_C. In the bilayered perovskite system La_2-2xSr_1+2xMn_2O7 (0.3 < x < 0.5), weak x-ray diffuse scattering maxima reveal a one-dimensional incommensurate structural modulation with wavevector q = (0.3, 0, 1) and a correlation length of 10 to 30 Angstroms. A crystallographic analysis of the diffuse satellite intensities yields a longitudinal Jahn-Teller stretch mode suggestive of charge-density-wave fluctuations. Within the correlated regions, polaronic eg electrons form a striped pattern of occupied d(3x^2-r^2) orbitals. Dynamic polaron correlations of the zig-zag orbital type are also observed above TC and exhibit distinctly glassy behavior. These structures provide unique insights into the nature of strongly correlated polaronic systems. Collaborators: R. Osborn, D.N. Argyriou, S. Rosenkranz, L. Vasiliu-Doloc, J.F. Mitchell, S.K. Sinha, J.W. Lynn, C.D. Ling, Z. Islam, U. Ruett, and A. Berger. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  6. Local structures surrounding Zr in nanostructurally stabilized cubic zirconia: Structural origin of phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, Y. L.; Chen, P. J.; Huang, S. H.; Shiu, T. J.; Tsai, T. Y.; Chow, Y. H.; Lin, Y. C.; Weng, S. C.; Chang, S. L.; Wang, G.; Cheung, C. L.; Sabirianov, R. F.; Mei, W. N.; Namavar, F.; Haider, H.; Garvin, K. L.; Lee, J. F.; Lee, H. Y.; Chu, P. P.

    2008-12-01

    Local environment surrounding Zr atoms in the thin films of nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) has been investigated by using the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. These films prepared by the ion beam assisted deposition exhibit long-range structural order of cubic phase and high hardness at room temperature without chemical stabilizers. The local structure around Zr probed by EXAFS indicates a cubic Zr sublattice with O atoms located on the nearest tetragonal sites with respect to the Zr central atoms, as well as highly disordered locations. Similar Zr local structure was also found in a ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystal sample prepared by a sol-gel method. Variations in local structures due to thermal annealing were observed and analyzed. Most importantly, our x-ray results provide direct experimental evidence for the existence of oxygen vacancies arising from local disorder and distortion of the oxygen sublattice in nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}. These oxygen vacancies are regarded as the essential stabilizing factor for the nanostructurally stabilized cubic zirconia.

  7. Layered structure and related magnetic properties for annealed Fe/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Pei-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Chen-Yuan; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-07

    After annealing treatments for fcc-Fe/Ir(111) below 600 K, the surface layers remain pseudomorphic. The Ir(111) substrate plays an important role on the expanded Fe lattice. At temperatures between 750 and 800 K, the surface composition shows a stable state and a c(2 × 4) structure is observed. We discover a layered structure composed of some Fe atoms on the top of a Fe{sub 0.5}Ir{sub 0.5} interfacial alloy supported on the Ir(111) substrate. The competition between the negative formation heat of Fe{sub 0.5}Ir{sub 0.5} and surface free energy of Fe causes the formation of layered structure. The existence of ferromagnetic dead layer coincides with the formation of fcc-Fe for ultrathin Fe on Fe{sub 0.5}Ir{sub 0.5}/Ir(111). For Fe films thicker than three monolayers, the linear increase of the Kerr intensity versus the Fe coverage is related to the growing of bcc-Fe on the surface where the Fe layer is incoherent to the underlying Fe{sub 0.5}Ir{sub 0.5}/Ir(111). These results emphasize the importance of the substrate induced strain and layered structure of Fe/Fe{sub 0.5}Ir{sub 0.5}/Ir(111) on the magnetic properties and provide valuable information for future applications.

  8. Layered structure and related magnetic properties for annealed Fe/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pei-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Chen-Yuan; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-01

    After annealing treatments for fcc-Fe/Ir(111) below 600 K, the surface layers remain pseudomorphic. The Ir(111) substrate plays an important role on the expanded Fe lattice. At temperatures between 750 and 800 K, the surface composition shows a stable state and a c(2 4) structure is observed. We discover a layered structure composed of some Fe atoms on the top of a Fe0.5Ir0.5 interfacial alloy supported on the Ir(111) substrate. The competition between the negative formation heat of Fe0.5Ir0.5 and surface free energy of Fe causes the formation of layered structure. The existence of ferromagnetic dead layer coincides with the formation of fcc-Fe for ultrathin Fe on Fe0.5Ir0.5/Ir(111). For Fe films thicker than three monolayers, the linear increase of the Kerr intensity versus the Fe coverage is related to the growing of bcc-Fe on the surface where the Fe layer is incoherent to the underlying Fe0.5Ir0.5/Ir(111). These results emphasize the importance of the substrate induced strain and layered structure of Fe/Fe0.5Ir0.5/Ir(111) on the magnetic properties and provide valuable information for future applications.

  9. Preparation and crystal structure of U3Fe2C5: An original uranium-iron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M. S.; Paixo, J. A.; Henriques, M. S. C.; Gonalves, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    The U3Fe2C5 compound was prepared from the elements by arc-melting, followed by an heat-treatment in an induction furnace, at 1250 C for 1 h and 1300 C for 2 h. The crystal structure of this phase was determined by direct methods from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. U3Fe2C5 crystallizes in an original tetragonal crystal structure, with space group I4/mmm, a = 3.4980(3) and c = 19.8380(15) as lattice constants and two formula units per cell. This new type structure is characterized by the simultaneous presence of isolated and pairs of carbon atoms, the interatomic distances in the pairs being similar to a typical carbon-carbon double bond length found in a molecule. U3Fe2C5 is closely related to UC and UFeC2, and can be seen as build from two (distorted) UFeC2 unit cells and a UC layer.

  10. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence

    PubMed Central

    Perras, Alexandra K.; Daum, Bertram; Ziegler, Christine; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wanner, Gerhard; Klingl, Andreas; Leitinger, Gerd; Kolb-Lenz, Dagmar; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Auerbach, Anna; Mora, Maximilian; Probst, Alexander J.; Bellack, Annett; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The uncultivated “Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum” (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon) carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks (“hami”) on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal domain at their N-terminal region (44–47% identity). Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins. PMID:26106369

  11. Structural Transition in Layered As(1-x)P(x) Compounds: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Guan, Jie; Tomnek, David

    2015-09-01

    As a way to further improve the electronic properties of group V layered semiconductors, we propose to form in-layer 2D heterostructures of black phosphorus and gray arsenic. We use ab initio density functional theory to optimize the geometry, determine the electronic structure, and identify the most stable allotropes as a function of composition. Because pure black phosphorus and pure gray arsenic monolayers differ in their equilibrium structure, we predict a structural transition and a change in frontier states, including a change from a direct-gap to an indirect-gap semiconductor, with changing composition. PMID:26295748

  12. Electronic Structure and the Properties of Phosphorene and Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Shuhei; Taen, Toshihiro; Osada, Toshihito

    2015-12-01

    A single atomic layer of black phosphorus, phosphorene, was experimentally realized in 2014. It has a puckered honeycomb lattice structure and a semiconducting electronic structure. In the first part of this paper, we use a simple LCAO model, and qualitatively discuss the electronic structure of phosphorene systems under electric and magnetic fields, especially noting their midgap edge states. The next part is devoted to the review of the progress in research on phosphorene over the past one year since its realization in 2014. Phosphorene has been a typical material to study the semiconductor physics in atomic layers.

  13. Three-dimensional structure of the tetragonal surface layer of Sporosarcina ureae.

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, H; Saxton, W O; Baumeister, W

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the regular surface layer of Sporosarcina ureae has been determined to a resolution of 1.7 nm by electron microscopy and image reconstruction. The S-layer has p4 symmetry, a lattice constant of 12.9 nm, and a minimum thickness of 6.6 nm. The reconstruction reveals a distinct domain structure: a massive core, arms connecting adjacent unit cells, and spurs which make contact at the subsidiary fourfold symmetry axes. In the z-direction the domains appear to be arranged in three planes, creating two entirely different surface reliefs. The S-layer has a complex pattern of pores and gaps that are 2 to 3 nm wide. In addition, the secondary-structure composition has been determined by infrared spectroscopy: about 35% of the polypeptide appears to have a beta-structure conformation. Images PMID:3759908

  14. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof is presented. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface-treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  15. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and the method and apparatus for its preparation are disclosed. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  16. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy in single-layer crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an applied electric field and the effect of charging are investigated on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of various stable two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as graphene, FeCl2, graphone, fluorographene, and MoTe2 using first-principles calculations. We found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems change linearly with electric field, opening the possibility of electric field tuning MA of these compounds. In addition, charging can rotate the easy-axis direction of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems from the out-of-plane (in-plane) to in-plane (out-of-plane) direction. The tunable MA of the studied materials is crucial for nanoscale electronic technologies such as data storage and spintronics devices. Our results show that controlling the MA of the mentioned 2D crystal structures can be realized in various ways, and this can lead to the emergence of a wide range of potential applications where the tuning and switching of magnetic functionalities are important.

  17. Preferential adsorption positions for an adsorbed Li atom on the layered black phosphorus structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming

    2015-03-01

    The preferential adsorption positions for an adsorbed Li atom on the layered black phosphorus were determined by mapping out the total energy as a function of its positions on the layered black phosphorus using the density functional theory based method (referred as VASP [Phys. Rev. B 48, 13115 (1993)]). Various possible adsorption positions including the top of the bridge, the valley, and the interstitial positions of the puckered layers have been studied. It is found that the adsorption energy strongly depends on these positions with different environment. In particular, the most preferential adsorption positions for an adsorbed Li atom are found at the valleys and the interstitials of the puckered layers. The analysis of structural and electronic properties of the black phosphorus layer with the adsorbed Li atom will be discussed.

  18. Structural-acoustic optimization of structures excited by turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Micah R.

    In order to reduce noise radiation of aircraft or marine panels, a general structural-acoustic optimization technique is presented. To compute the structural-acoustic response, a modal approach based on finite element / boundary element analysis is used which can easily incorporate fluid loading, added structures and static pre-loads. Simple deterministic or complex random forcing functions are included in the analysis by transforming their cross-spectral density matrices to modal space. Particular emphasis is placed in this dissertation on structures excited by the fluctuating pressures due to turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow. An efficient frequency-spacing is also used to minimize evaluation time but ensure accuracy. The response from the structural-acoustic analysis is coupled to an evolutionary strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES) to find the best design for low noise and weight. CMA-ES, a stochastic optimizer with robust search properties, samples candidate solutions from a multi-variate normal distribution and adapts the covariance matrix to favor good solutions. The optimization procedure is validated by minimizing the sound radiated by a point-driven ribbed panel and comparing the optimization results to an exhaustive search of the design space. Structural-acoustic optimization is then performed on a curved marine panel with heavy fluid loading excited by slow TBL flow. A weighted combination of noise radiation and mass are minimized by changing the thickness of strips and patches of elements. An uncorrelated pressure approximation is used to estimate the modal force due to TBL flow thus reducing the evaluation time required to compute the objective function. The results show that the best noise reduction is achieved by minimizing the modal acceptance of energy by the panel. This is equivalent to pushing the structural modes away from the peak frequency range of the forcing function. Additionally, the Pareto trade-off curve between total sound power and panel mass is estimated to show the best designs which will simultaneously reduce both noise and weight. As a final case, the sound power radiated is minimized for a ribbed aircraft panel excited by TBL flow at typical cruise conditions. A static pressure load is applied to the panel to simulate cabin pressurization during flight and the rib locations and cross-sectional area are used as the design variables during optimization. Nearly 10 dB of reduction is achieved by pushing the ribs to the edge of the panel, thus lowering the modal amplitudes excited by the forcing function. The optimal configuration is also found for a higher speed and a larger downstream distance. The design variables are then separated, and the optimization is repeated to determine the coupling between the design variables. Finally, a static constraint is included in the procedure using a very low-frequency dynamic calculation to approximate a static response. The constraint limits the amount of reduction that can be achieved by the optimizer. Guidance for designing quiet aircraft panels is then presented.

  19. The electronic structure of the metastable layer compound ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. M.; van Bruggen, C. F.; de Groot, R. A.; Wiegers, G. A.; Haas, C.

    1997-11-01

    The electronic structure of the metastable compound 0953-8984/9/46/015/img2 (a = 3.399 , c = 5.911 , space group 0953-8984/9/46/015/img3) was calculated with and without spin polarization using the LSW method. The energy is 0.29 eV/mol 0953-8984/9/46/015/img4 lower for the spin-polarized calculation. The total magnetic moment of 0953-8984/9/46/015/img5 on Cr consists of 0953-8984/9/46/015/img6 in spin-up and 0953-8984/9/46/015/img7 in spin-down states; the total number of 3d electrons on Cr is 4.12, much greater than expected for Cr(IV) 0953-8984/9/46/015/img8. The Cr 3d-based bands overlap the selenium 4p-based valence band which implies strong covalency of the Cr - Se bonding. At the Fermi level there are electrons and holes with Cr 3d character, and holes with Se 4p character. The results clearly indicate the reduction of the cations and the presence of holes in the Se 4p valence band. 0953-8984/9/46/015/img4 is a magnetic metal. Similar calculations for 0953-8984/9/46/015/img10 showed a very small energy difference between the magnetic and non-magnetic states, indicating that 0953-8984/9/46/015/img10 is a non-magnetic metal.

  20. Surface and structural studies of pillared layered materials designed for sorption applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.L.; Wade, K.L.; Morgan, D.M.; Odom, M.A.; Schroeder, N.C.

    1996-10-01

    Pillared Layered Materials (PLMs) are being studied for the sorption of radionuclides, such as strontium, from liquid nuclear wastes. Pillaring is a process by which the inter-layer spacing of a two-dimensional layered material is increased by the intercalation of nanostructures, such as Al{sub 13}(OH){sub 24}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}{sup 7+}, acting as pillars to create a porous structure. An important feature of these materials is their ability to be tailored by combining a broad range of layered materials and pillaring species. Information is needed to aid in the design of PLMs for sorption of specific species and to better understand the environment of sorption sites. We have employed a variety of techniques, including molecular modeling, SEM, sorption studies, and X-ray diffraction to investigate the structure, surface characteristics, and ion exchange properties of PLMs.

  1. Resonance cone structure in a warm inhomogeneous bounded plasma with lower-hybrid resonance layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical study of the problem of the wave fields excited by a gap source at the edge of an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma with a pair of lower-hybrid resonance layers present and bounded by conducting walls. The approach used is that of a solution as a sum of multiply reflected extraordinary mode and ion-thermal resonance cones as an alternative to the guided-wave mode approach. A diagrammatic scheme for writing the solution is given which can be used to determine in great detail the structure and properties of the resonance cones and the way they transform across the back-to-back hybrid layers. Evanescent resonance cones are shown to exist in the high-density region between the hybrid resonance layers and to tunnel through to the other side, maintaining this general structure if the layer is relatively thin.

  2. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of novel Li-Co-Mn-O epitaxial thin-film electrode using layer-by-layer deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaemin; Lee, Soyeon; Suzuki, Kota; Kim, KyungSu; Kim, Sangryun; Taminato, Sou; Hirayama, Masaaki; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Takayanagi, Kunio; Kanno, Ryoji

    2015-04-01

    A novel epitaxial thin-film electrode for lithium batteries, with a composition of Li0.92Co0.65Mn1.35O4 and a cubic spinel structure, is fabricated on a SrTiO3(111) single-crystal substrate. Fabrication is carried out by layer-by-layer pulsed laser deposition of LiCoO2 with a layered rock-salt structure and LiMn2O4 with a spinel structure. The electrode is found to exhibit unique disordering of the lithium (8a) and transition-metal (16d) sites, leading to a higher rate capability and cycle retention ratio than those for a thin-film electrode with the same composition prepared by a conventional single-step deposition process. The proposed layer-by-layer deposition method allows an expanded range of compositional and structural variations for lithium battery electrode materials.

  3. Synaptic deficits in layer 5 neurons precede overt structural decay in 5xFAD mice

    PubMed Central

    Buskila, Yossi; Crowe, Sarah E; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic decay and neurodegeneration are hallmarks of Alzheimers disease that are thought to precede dementia. Recently, we have reported that the first signs of neuritic dystrophy in a new transgenic mouse model of familial Alzheimers disease called the 5xFAD are axonal dystrophy followed by loss of spines on basal dendrites. The 5xFAD mouse has profound loss of layer 5 neurons by 12 months, and these initial structural insults appear between 4 to 6 months of age. Here, we test, for the first time, if synaptic failure of layer 5 neurons in the 5xFAD mouse precedes these structural changes. We used longitudinal, in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of bigenic 5xFAD/YFP mice to assess the overall structural stability of layer 5 neurons in young mice (age less than 14 weeks). We found these neurons to be structurally and morphologically sound. In parallel, we used in vitro, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of layer 5 pyramidal neurons, from mice aged 8-12 weeks, to reveal significant pre- and postsynaptic defects in these cells. Thus our data suggest that layer 5 neurons in the 5xFAD mouse model have synaptic deficits at an early time point, before any overt structural dystrophy, and that such synaptic failure, with co-temporal biochemical changes, may be an early step in neuronal loss. PMID:24055684

  4. The origin and evolution of tRNA inferred from phylogenetic analysis of structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Jie; Caetano-Anolls, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the two structural and functional domains of tRNA is controversial but harbors the secrets of early translation and the genetic code. To explore the origin and evolution of tRNA, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees directly from molecular structure. Forty-two structural characters describing the geometry of 571 tRNAs and three statistical parameters describing thermodynamic and mechanical features of molecules quantitatively were used to derive phylogenetic trees of molecules and molecular substructures. Trees of molecules failed to group tRNA according to amino acid specificity and did not reveal the tripartite nature of life, probably due to loss of phylogenetic signal or because tRNA diversification predated organismal diversification. Trees of substructures derived from both structural and statistical characters support the origin of tRNA in the acceptor arm and the hypothesis that the top half domain composed of acceptor and pseudouridine (TPsiC) arms is more ancient than the bottom half domain composed of dihydrouridine (DHU) and anticodon arms. This constitutes the cornerstone of the genomic tag hypothesis that postulates tRNAs were ancient telomeres in the RNA world. The trees of substructures suggest a model for the evolution of the major functional and structural components of tRNA. In this model, short RNA hairpins with stems homologous to the acceptor arm of present day tRNAs were extended with regions homologous to TPsiC and anticodon arms. The DHU arm was then incorporated into the resulting three-stemmed structure to form a proto-cloverleaf structure. The variable region was the last structural addition to the molecular repertoire of evolving tRNA substructures. PMID:18058157

  5. Vortical and turbulent structure of planar and lobed mixer free-shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Duane Clark

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of the free-shear layer vortical and turbulent structure downstream of a lobed mixer has been conducted. Pulsed-laser flow visualization with smoke and three-dimensional velocity measurements with triple-sensor hot film anemometry were obtained for two lobed mixer configurations (symmetric and unsymmetric waveforms) and a baseline, planar configuration. Both laminar and turbulent initial boundary layer conditions were documented for each of the three configurations. The main result of this investigation is that a new vortex structure was found to exist for the lobed mixers in addition to the well-known streamwise vortex array. The normal vortex (due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) sheds periodically from the convoluted trailing edge of the lobed mixer and plays a major part in the enhanced mixing process in combination with the streamwise vorticity. The streamwise vorticity deforms the normal vortex into a pinched-off structure that creates intense turbulence and mixing. The scale of the normal vortex was approximately one fourth that of the planar case, thereby introducing a small-scale turbulence over a large cross-stream area of the flow that dominates the near-field Reynolds shear stress distribution. Thus, the lobed mixer free-shear layer provides enhanced mixing down to the molecular scale. The shear layer growth rate for the first 5-6 lobe heights was substantially greater than the planar free-shear layer due to the normal and streamwise vortex interaction. Downstream of six lobe heights, the growth rate slowed considerably to a rate below that of the planar configuration due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy of a double-layered shear layer structure. The streamwise and normal vorticity were completely dissipated by 5-6 lobe heights. Also, the lobe mixer development was found to be surprisingly insensitive to initial laminar and turbulent boundary layer conditions (unlike the planar case).

  6. Vortical and Turbulent Structure of Planar and Lobed Mixer Free-Shear Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Duane Clark

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of the free-shear layer vortical and turbulent structure downstream of a lobed mixer has been conducted. Pulsed-laser flow visualization with smoke and three-dimensional velocity measurements with triple-sensor hot film anemometry were obtained for two lobed mixer configurations (symmetric and unsymmetric waveforms) and a baseline, planar configuration. Both laminar and turbulent initial boundary layer conditions were documented for each of the three configurations. The main result of this investigation is that a new vortex structure was found to exist for the lobed mixers in addition to the well-known streamwise vortex array. The normal vortex (due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) sheds periodically from the convoluted trailing edge of the lobed mixer and plays a major part in the enhanced mixing process in combination with the streamwise vorticity. The streamwise vorticity deforms the normal vortex into a pinched -off structure that creates intense turbulence and mixing. The scale of the normal vortex was approximately one fourth that of the planar case, thereby introducing a small-scale turbulence over a large cross-stream area of the flow that dominates the near-field Reynolds shear stress distribution. Thus, the lobed mixer free-shear layer provides enhanced mixing down to the molecular scale. The shear layer growth rate for the first 5-6 lobe heights was substantially greater than the planar free-shear layer due to the normal and streamwise vortex interaction. Downstream of six lobe heights, the growth rate slowed considerably to a rate below that of the planar configuration due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy of a double-layered shear layer structure. The streamwise and normal vorticity were completely dissipated by 5-6 lobe heights. Also, the lobed mixer development was found to be surprisingly insensitive to initial laminar and turbulent boundary layer conditions (unlike the planar case).

  7. Structure of Protein Layers in Polyelectrolyte Matrices Studied by Neutron Reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Ankner, John Francis; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Zhang, Qiu; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by localized incorporation of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) within electrostatically assembled matrices of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH) via spin-assisted layer-by-layer growth were discovered to be highly structured, with closely packed monomolecular layers of the protein within the bio-hybrid films. The structure of the films was evaluated in both vertical and lateral directions with neutron reflectometry, using deuterated GFP as a marker for neutron scattering contrast. Importantly, the GFP preserves its structural stability upon assembly as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Atomic force microscopy was complimented with X-ray reflectometry to characterize the external roughness of the biohybrid films. Remarkably, films assembled with a single GFP layer confined at various distances from the substrate exhibit a strong localization of the GFP layer without intermixing into the LbL matrix. However, partial intermixing of the GFP layers with polymeric material is evidenced in multiple-GFP layer films with alternating protein-rich and protein-deficient regions. We hypothesize that the polymer-protein exchange observed in the multiple-GFP layer films suggests the existence of a critical protein concentration which can be accommodated by the multilayer matrix. Our results yield new insights into the mechanism of GFP interaction with a polyelectrolyte matrix and open opportunities for fabrication of bio-hybrid films with well-organized structure and controllable function, a crucial requirement for advanced sensing applications.

  8. Structural correlations: Design levers for performance and durability of catalyst layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Dutta, Monica; Wessel, Silvia; Colbow, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the catalyst layer (CL) is of vital importance in the large-scale deployment of PEMFCs. It is necessary to determine parameters that represent properties of catalysts layer and other cathode components for optimization of fuel cell performance and durability. The structure, morphology and surface chemistry of the catalyst powder affects the ionomer and catalyst interaction, ionomer dispersion in the catalyst layer and, for this reason, its morphology and chemistry. These, in turn, affect the catalyst layer effective properties such as thickness, porosity, tortuosity, diffusivity, conductivity and others, directly influencing electrode performance and durability. In this study, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and SEM are used to quantify surface species and morphology of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) tested under different accelerated stress test (AST) conditions. Correlations between composition, structure and morphological properties of cathode components and the catalyst layer have been developed and linked to catalyst layer performance losses. The key relationships between the catalyst layer effective properties and performance and durability provide design and optimization levers for making MEAs for different operating regimes.

  9. Bi-layered calcium phosphate cement-based composite scaffold mimicking natural bone structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a core/shell bi-layered calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-based composite scaffold with adjustable compressive strength, which mimicked the structure of natural cortical/cancellous bone, was fabricated. The dense tubular CPC shell was prepared by isostatic pressing CPC powder with a specially designed mould. A porous CPC core with unidirectional lamellar pore structure was fabricated inside the cavity of dense tubular CPC shell by unidirectional freeze casting, followed by infiltration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immobilization of collagen. The compressive strength of bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold can be controlled by varying thickness ratio of dense layer to porous layer. Compared to the scaffold without dense shell, the pore interconnection of bi-layered scaffold was not obviously compromised because of its high unidirectional interconnectivity but poor three dimensional interconnectivity. The in vitro results showed that the rat bone marrow stromal cells attached and proliferated well on the bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold. This novel bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold is promising for bone repair.

  10. Structure and field emission of graphene layers on top of silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Chan, Hui-Wen; Jou, Shyankay; Chen, Guan-Yu; Kuo, Hsiu-An; Song, Wan-Jhen

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer graphene was grown on copper foils and then transferred on planar silicon substrates and on top of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays to form single- to quadruple-layer graphene films. The morphology, structure, and electron field emission (FE) of these graphene films were investigated. The graphene films on the planar silicon substrates were continuous. The single- to triple-layer graphene films on the SiNW arrays were discontinuous and while the quadruple-layer graphene film featured a mostly continuous area. The Raman spectra of the graphene films on the SiNW arrays showed G and G? bands with a singular-Lorentzian shape together with a weak D band. The D band intensity decreased as the number of graphene layers increased. The FE efficiency of the graphene films on the planar silicon substrates and the SiNW arrays varied with the number of graphene layers. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on planar silicon substrates were 4.3, 3.7, 3.5 and 3.4 V/?m, respectively. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on SiNW arrays decreased to 3.9, 3.3, 3.0 and 3.3 V/?m, respectively. Correlation of the FE with structure and morphology of the graphene films is discussed.

  11. Spin Reorientation and Structural Relaxation of Atomic Layers: Pushing the Limits of Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerheim, H. L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.

    2004-10-01

    The correlation between an ad-layer-induced spin reorientation transition (SRT) and the ad-layer-induced structural relaxation is investigated by combined insitu surface x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr-effect experiments on Ni/Fe/Ni(111) layers on W(110). The Fe-induced SRT from in-plane to out-of-plane, and the SRT back to in-plane upon subsequent coverage by Ni, are each accompanied by a small lattice relaxation of at most 0.002. Such a small strain variation excludes a magnetoelasticity driven SRT, and we suggest the interface anisotropy as a possible driving force.

  12. Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez Velasco, J.; Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens ; Kelaidis, N.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Tsoutsou, D.; Tsipas, P.; Speliotis, Th.; Pilatos, G.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Dimoulas, A.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2013-11-18

    Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu ?{sup }K{sup } direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ?4 twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG.

  13. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-21

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation. PMID:26406729

  14. Fine Seismic Velocity Structure of the Lowermost Outer Core (F-layer) Beneath the Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, T.; Kaneshima, S.

    2014-12-01

    Solidification or melting at the inner core boundary, the phenomena that have been suggested to occur reflecting the dynamical processes either of the inner core or of the outer core, might cause a Fe-rich or Fe-poor layer in the lowermost outer core (F-layer). Such a compositional anomaly might be detectable by investigating fine seismic structure of the F-layer. In our previous study we determined the overall Vp structure near the inner core boundary beneath Antarctica using differential traveltimes between PKIKP and PKPbc, waveform modeling of PKIKP and PKiKP, and amplitude ratios between PKIKP and PKPbc. But the fine structure of the F-layer remained poorly constrained.In this presentation, we examined the Vp structure of the F-layer beneath the eastern Pacific using differential traveltimes between PKiKP and PKPbc as well as frequency dependence of differential traveltimes between PKIKP and PKPbc, because these two analyses are particularly sensitive to the F-layer structure. We analyzed broadband seismograms of South American earthquakes observed at HI-NET in Japan. The differential traveltime residuals (observed minus calculated) between PKiKP and PKPbc are sensitive to the Vp excess relative to the reference model that is summed over the F-layer below the turning depth of PKPbc. For between 147 and 150 degrees the observed differential residuals show larger negative values and no noticeable dependence on distance compared to that for AK135. PREM that has larger Vp values in the F-layer than AK135 gives smaller differentials than the observations. On the other hand frequency dependence of differential traveltimes between PKIKP and PKPbc has unique sensitivity to the Vp slope in the F-layer, and low sensitivity to the Vp value on the ICB. We measured differential traveltimes for two different frequency bands for between 150 and 157 degrees, and then calculated the difference of the differentials between the two frequency bands. The observed differences show the dependence on epicentral distance. Calculated dependence of the difference for AK135 is gentler than the observation, suggesting that the Vp slope in the F-layer is steeper than that of AK135. These two results suggest that Vp in the F-layer beneath the eastern Pacific lies between those of AK135 and PREM, and that the Vp slope is steeper than that of AK135.

  15. Highly reducing conditions during core formation on Mercury: Implications for internal structure and the origin of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavergne, Valérie; Toplis, Michael J.; Berthet, Sophie; Jones, John

    2010-03-01

    The high average density and low surface FeO content of the planet Mercury are shown to be consistent with very low oxygen fugacity during core segregation, in the range 3-6 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer. These low oxygen fugacities, and associated high metal content, are characteristic of high-iron enstatite (EH) and Bencubbinite (CB) chondrites, raising the possibility that such materials may have been important building blocks for this planet. With this idea in mind we have explored the internal structure of a Mercury sized planet of EH or CB bulk composition. Phase equilibria in the silicate mantle have been modeled using the thermodynamic calculator p-MELTS, and these simulations suggest that orthopyroxene will be the dominant mantle phase for both EH and CB compositions, with crystalline SiO 2 being an important minor phase at all pressures. Simulations for both compositions predict a plagioclase-bearing "crust" at low pressure, significant clinopyroxene also being calculated for the CB bulk composition. Concerning the core, comparison with recent high pressure and high temperature experiments relevant to the formation of enstatite meteorites, suggest that the core of Mercury may contain several wt.% silicon, in addition to sulfur. In light of the pressure of the core-mantle boundary on Mercury (˜7 GPa) and the pressure at which the immiscibility gap in the system Fe-S-Si closes (˜15 GPa) we suggest that Mercury's core may have a complex shell structure comprising: (i) an outer layer of Fe-S liquid, poor in Si; (ii) a middle layer of Fe-Si liquid, poor in S; and (iii) an inner core of solid metal. The distribution of heat-producing elements between mantle and core, and within a layered core have been quantified. Available data for Th and K suggest that these elements will not enter the core in significant amounts. On the other hand, for the case of U both recently published metal/silicate partitioning data, as well as observations of U distribution in enstatite chondrites, suggest that this element behaves as a chalcophile element at low oxygen fugacity. Using these new data we predict that U will be concentrated in the outer layer of the mercurian core. Heat from the decay of U could thus act to maintain this part of Mercury's core molten, potentially contributing to the origin of Mercury's magnetic field. This result contrasts with the Earth where the radioactive decay of U represents a negligible contribution to core heating.

  16. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Jeon, Heeyoung; Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  17. Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Jeon, Heeyoung; Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-02-01

    Al2O3 films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al2O3 layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O2 plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 10-5 gm-2 day-1, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al2O3 layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O2 and H2O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H2O and O2 between the two layers.

  18. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

  19. Optimum designs for multi-layered film structures based on the knowledge on residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. C.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wu, Y. X.

    2007-04-01

    Residual stresses are inevitably generated within the multi-layered film structures due to the mismatches of material properties between the adjacent layers. Using the force and moment equilibrium conditions and beam bending theory, the residual stresses in each layer can be predicted and expressed as σi( z) = Ei[ ɛ' + K( z + δ)], where Ei is the elastic modulus of the layer, ɛ' the strain due to the in-plane force resulting from the misfit strain, K( z + δ) characterizes the bending contribution. For a bilayer system, the expression of the residual stress in the film is relatively simple. If the each layer thickness is much less than the substrate thickness, Stoney's equation will be derived. The assumption of a constant elastic modulus throughout the system is only applicable when the film and the substrate thickness ratio is less than 0.1. Specific analyses are performed for the thermal stresses in ZrO 2/NiCoCrAlY thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to illustrate the implementation of the analytical model. Moreover, the effects of single interlayer and graded interlayer inserted between the metallic layer and the ceramic layer on the residual stress distributions in TBCs are investigated. Additionally, the zero-deflection design is also discussed for typically duplex-layer TBC system.

  20. The adenovirus terminal protein influences binding of replication proteins and changes the origin structure.

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, R; van der Vliet, P C

    1993-01-01

    The adenovirus terminal protein (TP) is covalently linked to the 5' ends of the adenovirus genome and enhances DNA replication in vitro by increasing template activity. To study the effect of TP in more detail we isolated short origin fragments containing functional TP using anion exchange chromatography. These fragments were highly active as templates for DNA replication in a reconstituted system. Employing band-shift assays we found that the affinity of the precursor terminal protein-DNA polymerase complex for the TP-containing origin was increased 2 to 3-fold. Binding affinities of two other replication stimulating proteins, NFI and Oct-1, were not influenced by the terminal protein. Upon DNaseI footprinting we observed, unexpectedly, that the breakdown pattern had changed at various positions in the origin, notably in the area 3-6 and 41-51 by the presence of TP. Some differences in the footprint pattern of NFI and Oct-1 were also found. Our results indicate that TP induces subtle changes in the origin structure that influence the interaction of other replication proteins. Images PMID:8506126

  1. Carbonaceous structures in the Tissint Martian Meteorite: evidence of a biogenetic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2015-09-01

    We report for the first time in situ observations of 5-50?m spherical carbonaceous structures in the Tissint Martian meteorite comprising of pyrite (FeS2) cores and carbonaceous outer coatings. The structures are characterized as smooth immiscible spheres with curved boundaries occasionally following the contours of the pyrite inclusion. The structures bear striking resemblance to similar-sized immiscible carbonaceous spheres found in hydrothermal calcite vein deposits in the Mullaghwornia Quarry in central Ireland. Similar structures have been reported in Proterozoic and Ordovician sandstones from Canada as well as in a variety of astronomical sources including carbonaceous chondrites, chondritic IDPs and primitive chondritic meteorites. SEM and X-Ray elemental mapping confirmed the presence of organic carbon filling the crack and cleavage space in the pyroxene substrate, with further evidence of pyrite acting as an attractive substrate for the collection of organic matter. The detection of precipitated carbon collecting around pyrite grains is at variance with an igneous origin as proposed for the reduced organic component in Tissint, and is more consistent with a biogenetic origin.

  2. Structural origin of the nonlinear optical properties of lead niobium germanate film glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Martin, D.; Ruiz de La Cruz, A.; Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.; Solis, J.; Gonzalo, J.; Domingo, C.

    2011-07-15

    The structural origin of the nonlinear optical susceptibility (/{chi}{sup (3)}/) of lead-niobium-germanate film glasses with large Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents has been investigated. /{chi}{sup (3)}/ shows a strong enhancement with the Nb content in the films with /{chi}{sup (3)}/ values close to 2 x 10{sup -11} esu at 800 nm for a Nb content as high as 0.71. Boling-Glass-Owyoung and Lines' semiempirical models predict accurately the values of /{chi}{sup (3)}/ for transparent bulk glasses but not for film glasses. This discrepancy is related to the remarkable structural differences between them. Raman spectroscopy suggests the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) structure of [NbO{sub 6}] octahedra in the case of film glasses having large Nb contents, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that a significant fraction of these units contain Nb{sup 4+} ions. The combination of a 3D structure of [NbO{sub 6}] with the presence of Nb{sup 4+} polarons and their migration through electron intervalence transfer is proposed as the origin of the observed enhancement of /{chi}{sup (3)}/ in the film glasses.

  3. Measuring the atomic-scale structure of a Helmholtz `double layer'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, T. M.; Lurio, L. B.; Pant, J.; Wang, L.; Furtak, T. E.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a powerful new technique to measure the structure of the Helmholtz `double layer' formed in an aqueous electrolyte in contact with a metal electrode. The critical innovation is to couple a structural probe which is specific to the environment of a particular atom species with a `tag' layer of metal atoms electrodeposited in underpotential conditions on an unlike-metal electrode. The efficacy of our approach is illustrated through a measurement of the double layer in a dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte in contact with a Pt electrode decorated with Cu atoms, the surface structure of which we have studied extensively.( T E Furtak, L Wang, J Pant, K Pansewicz, and T M Hayes, J Electrochem Soc 141) 2369 (1994); L B Lurio, J Pant, T M Hayes, L Wang, and T E Furtak, Physica B 208 413 (1995)

  4. Layer selective magnetometry in ultrathin magnetic structures by polarised neutron reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Lee, J.; Hope, S.; Lauhoff, G.; Penfold, J.; Bucknall, D.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the application of polarised neutron reflection to layer selective vector magnetometry measurements in thin magnetic films. To illustrate the application of PNR, we review recent measurements of the absolute moment in X/Fe/Ag(001) structures with X = Pd, Ag, Au and Cu and compare the results with the predictions based on theoretical calculations which take into account the measured interface roughness. For the case of strained fct Ni/Cu(001) structures we illustrate the use of PNR as a self-calibrating magnetometric technique in determining both the magnetic layer thickness and total sample moment for which a reduced moment per Ni atom is observed. Finally we present measurements of the layer dependent moments in FeNi/Cu/Co spin valve structures. We show that by comparing the PNR measurements with SQUID magnetometry measurements of the total sample moment we are able to determine the interface moments on an atomic scale.

  5. Layer selective magnetometry in ultrathin magnetic structures by polarised neutron reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, J. A. C.; Lee, J.; Hope, S.; Lauhoff, G.; Penfold, J.; Bucknall, D.

    1997-06-01

    We discuss the application of polarised neutron reflection to layer selective vector magnetometry measurements in thin magnetic films. To illustrate the application of PNR, we review recent measurements of the absolute moment in X/Fe/Ag(001) structures with X = Pd, Ag, Au and Cu and compare the results with the predictions based on theoretical calculations which take into account the measured interface roughness. For the case of strained fct Ni/Cu(001) structures we illustrate the use of PNR as a self-calibrating magnetometric technique in determining both the magnetic layer thickness and total sample moment for which a reduced moment per Ni atom is observed. Finally we present measurements of the layer dependent moments in FeNi/Cu/Co spin valve structures. We show that by comparing the PNR measurements with SQUID magnetometry measurements of the total sample moment we are able to determine the interface moments on an atomic scale.

  6. Control of the crystalline structure of inkjet-printed semiconductor layers using overlap condition and surface wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the effects of overlap condition and surface wettability of dielectric layers on the drying process and crystalline structure of inkjet-printed semiconductor layers. 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) was utilized to inkjet-print the semiconductor layer. Using various overlap conditions, semiconductor layers were inkjet-printed on dielectric layers with different surface wettabilities. It is observed that crystal growth and the resulting crystalline structures in inkjet-printed semiconductor layers are primarily determined by evaporation behavior, particularly the contact line movement of the drying semiconductor layers, which can be controlled via the overlap condition. With inappropriate overlap conditions, randomly oriented TIPS pentacene crystalline structures are generated in the semiconductor layer through irregular contact line recession. One-dimensionally oriented TIPS pentacene crystal structures can be obtained using the optimized overlap condition of 50% as a result of the uniform contact line movement. Relatively hydrophobic dielectric layers help to generate good crystallinity in the semiconductor layer. All-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with well-oriented TIPS pentacene crystalline structures in the semiconductor layer show a high field effect mobility of ~0.1?cm2?V-1s-1, suggesting that, when printing inkjet semiconductor layers, the overlap condition and surface wettability of the dielectric layer are important factors for generating a well-oriented crystalline structure and thereby fabricating high-performance all-inkjet-printed OTFTs.

  7. Structural design of a double-layered porous hydrogel for effective mass transport

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Huh, Hyung Kyu; Hwang, Hyung Ju; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mass transport in porous materials is universal in nature, and its worth attracts great attention in many engineering applications. Plant leaves, which work as natural hydraulic pumps for water uptake, have evolved to have the morphological structure for fast water transport to compensate large water loss by leaf transpiration. In this study, we tried to deduce the advantageous structural features of plant leaves for practical applications. Inspired by the tissue organization of the hydraulic pathways in plant leaves, analogous double-layered porous models were fabricated using agarose hydrogel. Solute transport through the hydrogel models with different thickness ratios of the two layers was experimentally observed. In addition, numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were carried out with varying porosity and thickness ratio to investigate the effect of structural factors on mass transport ability. A simple parametric study was also conducted to examine unveiled relations between structural factors. As a result, the porosity and thickness ratio of the two layers are found to govern the mass transport ability in double-layered porous materials. The hydrogel models with widely dispersed pores at a fixed porosity, i.e., close to a homogeneously porous structure, are mostly turned out to exhibit fast mass transport. The present results would provide a new framework for fundamental design of various porous structures for effective mass transport. PMID:25825619

  8. Electromagnetic forces on the dielectric layers of the planar optical Bragg acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mizrahi, Amit; Schaechter, Levi

    2006-09-15

    Optical Bragg acceleration structures are waveguides with a vacuum core and dielectric layers as a cladding, designed to guide laser light at the speed-of-light TM mode and accelerate charged particles. In this study, we analyze the electromagnetic forces exerted on the dielectric layers of a planar structure by both the guided laser light and the wake-field of moving charges. The distribution of the volume force densities, as well as the surface force densities, in the interfaces between the layers as a result of the laser propagation is given, and analytic scaling laws for the maximal values are obtained. Separation of the wake-field into the structure's eigenmodes is essential in order to determine the different contributions of the wake-field to the total impulse that acts on the structure. It is shown that the impact of the wake-field on the structure results almost entirely from the fundamental TM mode. While the total force on the dielectric layers may be significantly stronger than the gravitational force, we show that for typical structures, the pressures that develop are orders of magnitude below the damage threshold.

  9. Morphology and atomic-scale structure of single-layer WS2 nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Fchtbauer, Henrik G; Tuxen, Anders K; Moses, Poul G; Topse, Henrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jeppe V

    2013-10-14

    Two-dimensional sheets of transition metal (Mo and W) sulfides are attracting strong attention due to the unique electronic and optical properties associated with the material in its single-layer form. The single-layer MoS2 and WS2 are already in widespread commercial use in catalytic applications as both hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts. Consequently, characterization of the morphology and atomic structure of such particles is of utmost importance for the understanding of the catalytic active phase. However, in comparison with the related MoS2 system only little is known about the fundamental properties of single-layer WS2 (tungstenite). Here, we use an interplay of atom-resolved Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies of Au(111)-supported WS2 nanoparticles and calculated edge structures using Density Functional Theory (DFT) to reveal the equilibrium morphology and prevalent edge structures of single-layer WS2. The STM results reveal that the single layer S-W-S sheets adopt a triangular equilibrium shape under the sulfiding conditions of the synthesis, with fully sulfided edges. The predominant edge structures are determined to be the (101[combining macron]0) W-edge, but for the smallest nanoclusters also the (1[combining macron]010) S-edges become important. DFT calculations are used to construct phase diagrams of the WS2 edges, and describe their sulfur and hydrogen coordination under different conditions, and in this way shed light on the catalytic role of WS2 edges. PMID:23959329

  10. Chemical and structural composition of organic carbonaceous structures in Tissint: evidence for a biogenetic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2015-09-01

    Earlier studies of the Tissint Martian meteorite identified the presence of a number of 5-50μm carbonaceous spherical structures. SEM and EDS elemental spectra for 11 selected structures confirmed that they comprise of a carbonaceous outer coating with a inner core of FeS2 (pyrite) and are characterised as immiscible globules with curved boundaries. Here we report on the results of Raman spectroscopic studies that unambiguously confirm the mantle as comprising of `disordered carbonaceous material'. R1 = ID/IG against ΓD (cm-1) band parameter plots of the carbonaceous coatings imply a complex precursor carbon inventory comparable to the precursor carbon component of materials of known biotic source (plants, algae, fungi, crustaceans, prokaryotes). Correlation between peak metamorphic temperatures and Raman D-band (ΓD) parameters further indicate the carbonaceous component was subjected to a peak temperature of ~250 OC suggesting a possible link with the hydrothermal precipitation processes responsible for the formation of similar globules observed in hydrothermal calcite veins in central Ireland. Ω G (cm-1), ΓG (cm-1), Ω D (cm-1) and ΓD (cm-1) parameters further imply a level of crystallinity and disorder of the carbon component consistent with carbonaceous material recovered from a variety of non-terrestrial sources. Cl, N, O and S to C elemental ratios are typical of high volatility bituminous coals and distinctly higher than equivalent graphite standards.

  11. A Comparison of Aerosol-Layer and Convective Boundary-Layer Structure over a Mountain Range during STAAARTE '97

    SciTech Connect

    De Wekker, Stephan; Steyn, D. G.; Nyeki, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps was investigated with a three dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behavior of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behavior and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs t o be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrain.

  12. Grid cells correlation structure suggests organized feedforward projections into superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tocker, Gilad; Barak, Omri; Derdikman, Dori

    2015-12-01

    Navigation requires integration of external and internal inputs to form a representation of location. Part of this integration is considered to be carried out by the grid cells network in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). However, the structure of this neural network is unknown. To shed light on this structure, we measured noise correlations between 508 pairs of simultaneous previously recorded grid cells. We differentiated between pure grid and conjunctive cells (pure grid in Layers II, III, and VI vs. conjunctive in Layers III and V-only Layer III was bi-modal), and devised a new method to classify cell pairs as belonging/not-belonging to the same module. We found that pairs from the same module show significantly more correlations than pairs from different modules. The correlations between pure grid cells decreased in strength as their relative spatial phase increased. However, correlations were mostly at 0 time-lag, suggesting that the source of correlations was not only synaptic, but rather resulted mostly from common input. Given our measured correlations, the two functional groups of grid cells (pure vs. conjunctive), and the known disorganized recurrent connections within Layer II, we propose the following model: conjunctive cells in deep layers form an attractor network whose activity is governed by velocity-controlled signals. A second manifold in Layer II receives organized feedforward projections from the deep layers, giving rise to pure grid cells. Numerical simulations indicate that organized projections induce such correlations as we measure in superficial layers. Our results provide new evidence for the functional anatomy of the entorhinal circuit-suggesting that strong phase-organized feedforward projections support grid fields in the superficial layers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26105192

  13. Engineering meniscus structure and function via multi-layered mesenchymal stem cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew B; Henning, Elizabeth A; Segaard, Nicole; Bostrom, Marc; Esterhai, John L; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in tissue engineering for the knee meniscus, it remains a challenge to match the complex macroscopic and microscopic structural features of native tissue, including the circumferentially and radially aligned collagen bundles essential for mechanical function. To mimic this structural hierarchy, this study developed multi-lamellar mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded nanofibrous constructs. Bovine MSCs were seeded onto nanofibrous scaffolds comprised of poly(?-caprolactone) with fibers aligned in a single direction (0 or 90 to the scaffold long axis) or circumferentially aligned (C). Multi-layer groups (0/0/0, 90/90/90, 0/90/0, 90/0/90, and C/C/C) were created and cultured for a total of 6 weeks under conditions favoring fibrocartilaginous tissue formation. Tensile testing showed that 0 and C single layer constructs had stiffness values several fold higher than 90 constructs. For multi-layer groups, the stiffness of 0/0/0 constructs was higher than all other groups, while 90/90/90 constructs had the lowest values. Data for collagen content showed a general positive interactive effect for multi-layers relative to single layer constructs, while a positive interaction for stiffness was found only for the C/C/C group. Collagen content and cell infiltration occurred independent of scaffold alignment, and newly formed collagenous matrix followed the scaffold fiber direction. Structural hierarchies within multi-lamellar constructs dictated biomechanical properties, and only the C/C/C constructs with non-orthogonal alignment within layers featured positive mechanical reinforcement as a consequence of the layered construction. These multi-layer constructs may serve as functional substitutes for the meniscus as well as test beds to understand the complex mechanical principles that enable meniscus function. PMID:25817333

  14. Very-large-scale coherent structures in the wall pressure field beneath a supersonic turbulent boundary layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John Francis; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Previous wind tunnel experiments up to Mach 3 have provided fluctuating wall-pressure spectra beneath a supersonic turbulent boundary layer, which essentially are flat at low frequency and do not exhibit the theorized {psi}{sup 2} dependence. The flat portion of the spectrum extends over two orders of magnitude and represents structures reaching at least 100 {delta} in scale, raising questions about their physical origin. The spatial coherence required over these long lengths may arise from very-large-scale structures that have been detected in turbulent boundary layers due to groupings of hairpin vortices. To address this hypothesis, data have been acquired from a dense spanwise array of fluctuating wall pressure sensors, then invoking Taylor's Hypothesis and low-pass filtering the data allows the temporal signals to be converted into a spatial map of the wall pressure field. This reveals streaks of instantaneously correlated pressure fluctuations elongated in the streamwise direction and exhibiting spanwise alternation of positive and negative events that meander somewhat in tandem. As the low-pass filter cutoff is lowered, the fluctuating pressure magnitude of the coherent structures diminishes while their length increases.

  15. Void statistics, scaling, and the origins of large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J. N.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Melott, Adrian L.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The probability that a volume of the universe of given size and shape spaced at random will be void of galaxies is used here to study various models of the origin of cosmological structures. Numerical simulations are conducted on hot-particle and cold-particle-modulated inflationary models with and without biasing, on isothermal or initially Poisson models, and on models where structure is seeded by loops of cosmic string. For the Pisces-Perseus redshift compilation of Giovanelli and Haynes (1985), it is found that hierarchical scaling is obeyed for subsamples constructed with different limiting magnitudes and subsamples taken at random. This result confirms that the hierarchical ansatz holds valid to high order and supports the idea that structure in the observed universe evolves by a regular process from an almost Gaussian primordial state. Neutrino models without biasing show the effect of a strong feature in the initial power spectrum. Cosmic string models do not agree well with the galaxy data.

  16. Origin of First-Order-Type Electronic and Structural Transitions in IrTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoo; Kim, Sooran; Ko, K.-T.; Lee, Hwangho; Park, J.-H.; Yang, J. J.; Cheong, S.-W.; Min, B. I.

    2015-04-01

    We have explored the origin of unusual first-order-type electronic and structural transitions in IrTe2, based on the first-principles total energy density functional theory analysis. We have clarified that the structural transition occurs through the interplay among the charge density wavelike lattice modulation with q1 /5=(1 /5 ,0 ,1 /5 ), in-plane dimer ordering, and the uniform lattice deformation. The Ir-Ir dimer formation via a molecular-orbital version of the Jahn-Teller distortion in the Ir-Ir zigzag stripe is found to play the most important role in producing the charge disproportionation state. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals the characteristic features of structural transition, which are in good agreement with the density functional theory bands obtained by the band-unfolding technique.

  17. Function and evolutionary origin of unicellular camera-type eye structure.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Shiho; Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Horiguchi, Takeo; Suga, Hiroshi; Gehring, Walter; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ocelloid is an extraordinary eyespot organelle found only in the dinoflagellate family Warnowiaceae. It contains retina- and lens-like structures called the retinal body and the hyalosome. The ocelloid has been an evolutionary enigma because of its remarkable resemblance to the multicellular camera-type eye. To determine if the ocelloid is functionally photoreceptive, we investigated the warnowiid dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium. Here, we show that the morphology of the retinal body changed depending on different illumination conditions and the hyalosome manifests the refractile nature. Identifying a rhodopsin gene fragment in Erythropsidinium ESTs that is expressed in the retinal body by in situ hybridization, we also show that ocelloids are actually light sensitive photoreceptors. The rhodopsin gene identified is most closely related to bacterial rhodopsins. Taken together, we suggest that the ocelloid is an intracellular camera-type eye, which might be originated from endosymbiotic origin. PMID:25734540

  18. Function and Evolutionary Origin of Unicellular Camera-Type Eye Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Shiho; Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Horiguchi, Takeo; Suga, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ocelloid is an extraordinary eyespot organelle found only in the dinoflagellate family Warnowiaceae. It contains retina- and lens-like structures called the retinal body and the hyalosome. The ocelloid has been an evolutionary enigma because of its remarkable resemblance to the multicellular camera-type eye. To determine if the ocelloid is functionally photoreceptive, we investigated the warnowiid dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium. Here, we show that the morphology of the retinal body changed depending on different illumination conditions and the hyalosome manifests the refractile nature. Identifying a rhodopsin gene fragment in Erythropsidinium ESTs that is expressed in the retinal body by in situ hybridization, we also show that ocelloids are actually light sensitive photoreceptors. The rhodopsin gene identified is most closely related to bacterial rhodopsins. Taken together, we suggest that the ocelloid is an intracellular camera-type eye, which might be originated from endosymbiotic origin. PMID:25734540

  19. Study of the structural quality of GaN epitaxial layers obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using a low-temperature buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogorohov, I. A.; Donskov, A. A.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Pavlov, V. F.; Yugova, T. G.

    2015-11-01

    The structural quality and surface morphology of low-temperature (LT) buffer layers after deposition and high-temperature (HT) annealing and HT GaN layers grown on LT buffer layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy have been investigated. The HCl flow rate through the Ga source varied from 0.3 to 2 L/h, and the carrier gas N2 flow rate was either 18 or 60 L/h. It is established that the structural quality of LT GaN buffer is determined to a great extent by the HCl and N2 flow rates; the best results are obtained at HCl and N2 flow rates of 0.3 and 18 L/h, respectively. These GaN layers are characterized by a mirror surface and a rocking curve half-width of 360". It is suggested that the layer structure is improved due to the increase in the lateral growth rate.

  20. A bismuth based layer structured organic-inorganic hybrid material with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guanzhi; Dong, Juncai; An, Yang; Huang, Baibiao; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Ying

    2016-05-01

    A bismuth-based organic-inorganic hybrid material with layered structure (BiO-BTCIE) was synthesized by taking advantage of an ion exchange reaction. The structure of BiO-BTCIE was examined by XRD, EXAFS, FT-IR, TG/DTA, etc. By replacing the HCOO(-) with BTC anions in the Bi2O2(2+) interlayer, the Bi2O2(2+) layer is distorted as revealed by the EXAFS, which lead to a longer life time of the photogenerated charge carriers and a higher photocatalytic activity of BiO-BTCIE (more than 10 times). PMID:26894872

  1. The inviscid secondary instability of fully nonlinear longitudinal vortex structures in growing boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Horseman, Nicola J.

    1990-01-01

    The inviscid instability of a longitudinal vortex structure within a steady boundary layer is investigated. The instability has a wavelength comparable with the boundary layer thickness so that a quasi-parallel approach to the instability problem can be justified. The generalization of the Rayleigh equation to such a flow is obtained and solved for the case when the vortex structure is induced by curvature. Two distinct modes of instability are found; these modes correspond with experimental observations on the breakdown process for Goertler vortices.

  2. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Monteiro, Danielle S; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

  3. Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

  4. Analysis of lattice-translocation disorder in the layered hexagonal structure of carboxysome shell protein CsoS1C.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yingssu; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O

    2009-09-01

    Lattice-translocation or crystal order-disorder phenomena occur when some layers or groups of molecules in a crystal are randomly displaced relative to other groups of molecules by a discrete set of vectors. In previous work, the effects of lattice translocation on diffraction intensities have been corrected by considering that the observed intensities are the product of the intensities from an ideal crystal (lacking disorder) multiplied by the squared magnitude of the Fourier transform of the set of translocation vectors. Here, the structure determination is presented of carboxysome protein CsoS1C from Halothiobacillius neapolitanus in a crystal exhibiting a lattice translocation with unique features. The diffraction data are fully accounted for by a crystal unit cell composed of two layers of cyclic protein hexamers. The first layer is fully ordered (i.e. has one fixed position), while the second layer randomly takes one of three alternative positions whose displacements are related to each other by threefold symmetry. Remarkably, the highest symmetry present in the crystal is P3, yet the intensity data (and the Patterson map) obey 6/m instead of \\overline 3 symmetry; the intensities exceed the symmetry expected from combining the crystal space group with an inversion center. The origin of this rare phenomenon, known as symmetry enhancement, is discussed and shown to be possible even for a perfectly ordered crystal. The lattice-translocation treatment described here may be useful in analyzing other cases of disorder in which layers or groups of molecules are shifted in multiple symmetry-related directions. PMID:19690376

  5. Strong, macroporous, and in situ-setting calcium phosphate cement-layered structures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H.K.; Burguera, Elena F.; Carey, Lisa E.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for clinical uses due to its in situ-setting ability, excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability. However, the low strength limits its use to non-load-bearing applications. The objectives of this study were to develop a layered CPC structure by combining a macroporous CPC layer with a strong CPC layer, and to investigate the effects of porosity and layer thickness ratios. The rationale was for the macroporous layer to accept tissue ingrowth, while the fiber-reinforced strong layer would provide the needed early-strength. A biopolymer chitosan was incorporated to strengthen both layers. Flexural strength, S (meansd; n = 6) of CPC-scaffold decreased from (9.71.2) to (1.80.3) MPa (p<0.05), when the porosity increased from 44.6% to 66.2%. However, with a strong-layer reinforcement, S increased to (25.26.7) and (10.01.4) MPa, respectively, at these two porosities. These strengths matched/exceeded the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone. Relationships were established between S and the ratio of strong layer thickness/specimen thickness, a/h:S = (17.6 a/h+3.2) MPa. The scaffold contained macropores with a macropore length (meansd; n = 147) of (18373) ?m, suitable for cell infiltration and tissue ingrowth. Nano-sized hydroxyapatite crystals were observed to form the scaffold matrix of CPC with chitosan. In summary, a layered CPC implant, combining a macroporous CPC with a strong CPC, was developed. Mechanical strength and macroporosity are conflicting requirements. However, the novel functionally graded CPC enabled a relatively high strength and macroporosity to be simultaneously achieved. Such an in situ-hardening nano-apatite may be useful in moderate stress-bearing applications, with macroporosity to enhance tissue ingrowth and implant resorption. PMID:17574665

  6. The structure and chemical layering of Proterozoic stromatolites in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Susanne; Perry, Meredith E.; Abbey, William J.; Tanaka, Zuki; Chen, Bin; McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-07-01

    The Proterozoic carbonate stromatolites of the Pahrump Group from the Crystal Spring formation exhibit interesting layering patterns. In continuous vertical formations, there are sections of chevron-shaped stromatolites alternating with sections of simple horizontal layering. This apparent cycle of stromatolite formation and lack of formation repeats several times over a vertical distance of at least 30 m at the locality investigated. Small representative samples from each layer were taken and analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), environmental scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and were optically analysed in thin section. Optical and spectroscopic analyses of stromatolite and of non-stromatolite samples were undertaken with the objective of determining the differences between them. Elemental analysis of samples from within each of the four stromatolite layers and the four intervening layers shows that the two types of layers are chemically and mineralogically distinct. In the layers that contain stromatolites the Ca/Si ratio is high; in layers without stromatolites the Ca/Si ratio is low. In the high Si layers, both K and Al are positively correlated with the presence and levels of Si. This, together with XRD analysis, suggested a high K-feldspar (microcline) content in the non-stromatolitic layers. This variation between these two types of rocks could be due to changes in biological growth rates in an otherwise uniform environment or variations in detrital influx and the resultant impact on biology. The current analysis does not allow us to choose between these two alternatives. A Mars rover would have adequate resolution to image these structures and instrumentation capable of conducting a similar elemental analysis.

  7. Vertical structure of boundary layer convection during cold-air outbreaks at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Geerts, Bart; Chen, Yaosheng

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer convection (BLC) is common over high-latitude oceans and adjacent coastal regions when a cold airmass becomes exposed to a sufficient fetch of open water. The vertical structure of mixed-phase BLC clouds and precipitation is examined using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program data set collected at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow, Alaska. BLC may occur at this location in autumn, when cold air masses originating at higher latitudes advect southward over the still ice-free coastal waters north of Alaska. This study identifies such BLC and documents its occurrence and characteristics. Instruments used for this study include profiling Ka band radars, a depolarization backscatter profiling lidar, a scanning X band radar, a microwave radiometer, a ceilometer, surface meteorological probes, and radiosondes. Six criteria are applied to objectively identify the BLC events, using data collected between 2004 and 2013. BLC episodes are relatively common at the NSA site, but almost exclusively in the month of October, and most episodes are relatively short, less than 10 h in duration. Liquid water is commonly found in these mixed-phase BLC clouds, with a typical liquid water path of 150 g/m2, and snowfall rates average ~3 mm h-1 (water equivalent), in some cases over 10 mm h-1, notwithstanding the low cloud echo tops (~1.0-1.5 km). In one rather weak but persistent episode fall speed estimates derived from the profiling Ka band radar indicates the presence of rimed particles, confirming the convective nature of this precipitation.

  8. Turbulence structure and polymer drag reduction in adverse pressure gradient boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskie, John Edward

    1991-05-01

    One zero pressure gradient Newtonian boundary layer and two adverse pressure gradient equilibrium boundary layers in a water channel were examined. The momentum thickness Reynolds numbers, Re(sub theta), were in the range 1360 to 4980. The adverse pressure gradient boundary layers were characterized by equilibrium parameters, beta of 1.8 and 2.4. These boundary layers were modified by injecting a drag reducing polymer solution at 2.6 and 5.1 times the flow rate of the undisturbed flows inside of y(+) = 5. The sum of the viscous and Reynolds shear stresses was sometimes less than the total shear stress in the drag reduced boundary layer and in these cases the production of Reynolds shear and normal stresses was virtually eliminated. The mean streamwise velocity measurements in the drag reduced boundary layers showed that both parameters, kappa and B, of the logarithmic velocity profile changed. The slope parameter, kappa, varied directly with the percent drag reduction. The peak in the root-mean-square streamwise velocities remained essentially unchanged in the presence of polymer but its location moved away from the wall. The root-mean-square normal velocities and the Reynolds shear stress were reduced in the inner region of the boundary layer during drag reduction. The adverse pressure gradient boundary layers did not separate during drag reduction even when large amounts of polymer were injected. The influence of the polymer on the turbulent boundary layer structure was greatly reduced, but the effects of polymer were consistent with those in the zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The hypothesis that the extensional motions in the flow must be strong enough to stretch the polymer molecules so that stretched molecules will form an anisotropic viscosity that damps the small scales of the turbulence (Hinch, 1977) was supported by the present data. Walker's (1985) modified mixing length model correctly predicted the wall shear stress coefficient, c(sub f), in all the drag reduced boundary layers as long as the measured polymer concentration in the linear sublayer was within the range of concentrations for which the model was derived and the non-Newtonian shear stresses in the boundary layer were small. Mixed scaling of the average time between bursts best scaled the present zero and adverse pressure gradient Newtonian boundary layer data. The data was consistent with the hypothesis that the method of tripping the boundary layer affects the average burst period at very low Reynolds numbers.

  9. The azimuthally averaged boundary layer structure of a numerically simulated major hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, Sergio F.; Montgomery, Michael T.; McWilliams, James C.

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the azimuthally averaged boundary layer structure of a numerically simulated hurricane. We nominally define the hurricane boundary layer as the layer in which the effects of surface friction are associated with significant departures from gradient wind balance. The boundary layer in the intensifying primary and forming secondary eyewalls is found to be nonlinear. At large radii, exterior to the eyewalls, Ekman-like balance as traditionally defined, is found to hold true. Where significant departures from Ekman-like balance are found, the departures are characterized by large vertical advection of horizontal velocity through the depth of the boundary layer. Shock-like structures are not found to be prominent in the azimuthally averaged view of the vortex boundary layer, with the largest azimuthally averaged radial gradients of the radial and tangential velocities being on the order of only a few meters per second per kilometer. Also, in the radial regions of the eyewalls, at the height where the averaged tangential wind is a maximum, the radial advection of radial velocity is an order of magnitude smaller than the agradient force per unit mass. Some physical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, O.B.; Lear, K.L.

    1998-03-10

    The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g., Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3--1.6 {mu}m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation. 10 figs.

  11. Electronic structure of realistically extended atomistically resolved disordered Si:P δ-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunhee; Ryu, Hoon; Campbell, Huw; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) lithography and low temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) opens the possibility of creating scalable donor based quantum computing architectures. In particular, atomically precise Si:P monolayer structures (δ-doped layers) serve as crucial contact regions and in-plane gates in single impurity devices. In this paper we study highly confined δ-doped layers to explain the disorder in the P dopant placements in realistically extended systems. The band structure is computed using the tight-binding formalism and charge-potential self-consistency. The exchange-correlation corrected impurity potential pulls down subbands below the silicon valley minima to create impurity bands. Our methodology is benchmarked and validated against other theoretical methods for small ordered systems. The doping density is shown to linearly control the impurity bands. Disorder within the Si:P δ-doped layer is examined using an extended domain to describe the effects of experimentally unavoidable randomness through explicitly disordered dopant placement. Disorder in the δ-doped layer breaks the symmetry in the supercell and creates band splitting in every subband. Vertical segregation of dopants is shown to dramatically reduce valley splitting (VS). Such VS can be used as a measure of ideality of the fabricated Si:P δ-doped layer. Although the resulting disorder induces density of states fluctuations, this theoretical analysis shows that δ-doped layers can serve as quasimetallic 2D electron sources even in the presence of strong nonidealities.

  12. Influence of temperature and molecular structure on ionic liquid solvation layers.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Deborah; Hayes, Robert; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2009-04-30

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force profiling is used to investigate the structure of adsorbed and solvation layers formed on a mica surface by various room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EtAN), ethylammonium formate (EAF), propylammonium formate (PAF), ethylmethylammonium formate (EMAF), and dimethylethylammonium formate (DMEAF). At least seven layers are observed for EAN at 14 degrees C (melting point 13 degrees C), decreasing as the temperature is increased to 30 degrees C due to thermal energy disrupting solvophobic forces that lead to segregation of cation alkyl tails from the charged ammonium and nitrate moieties. The number and properties of the solvation layers can also be controlled by introducing an alcohol moiety to the cation's alkyl tail (EtAN), or by replacing the nitrate anion with formate (EAF and PAF), even leading to the detection of distinct cation and anion sublayers. Substitution of primary by secondary or tertiary ammonium cations reduces the number of solvation layers formed, and also weakens the cation layer adsorbed onto mica. The observed solvation and adsorbed layer structures are discussed in terms of the intermolecular cohesive forces within the ILs. PMID:19351167

  13. Inner Structure of Atmospheric Inversion Layers over Haifa Bay in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haikin, N.; Galanti, E.; Reisin, T. G.; Mahrer, Y.; Alpert, P.

    2015-09-01

    Capping inversions act as barriers to the vertical diffusion of pollutants, occasionally leading to significant low-level air pollution episodes in the lower troposphere. Here, we conducted two summer campaigns where global positioning system radiosondes were operated in Haifa Bay on the eastern Mediterranean coast, a region of steep terrain with significant pollution. The campaigns provided unique high resolution measurements related to capping inversions. It was found that the classical definition of a capping inversion was insufficient for an explicit identification of a layer; hence additional criteria are required for a complete spatial analysis of inversion evolution. Based on the vertical temperature derivative, an inner fine structure of inversion layers was explored, and was then used to track inversion layers spatially and to investigate their evolution. The exploration of the inner structure of inversion layers revealed five major patterns: symmetric peak, asymmetric peak, double peak, flat peak, and the zig-zag pattern. We found that the symmetric peak is related to the strongest inversions, double peak inversions tended to break apart into two layers, and the zig-zag pattern was related to the weakest inversions. Employing this classification is suggested for assistance in following the evolution of inversion layers.

  14. The peri-albumen layer: a novel structure in the envelopes of an avian egg

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, F; Yokoe, A; Ito, Y; Mao, KM; Yoshizaki, N

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes a novel structure, termed the peri-albumen layer, in the egg-envelopes of the quail Coturnix japonica. It reacts with Alcian blue and exists between the egg white and the shell membrane. Ultrastructurally, it is of fine granular structure and forms a fenestrate sheet, the width of which is 190 nm or less. Isolated materials of the peri-albumen layer include an Alcian-blue-positive polysaccharide of 260 kDa, and three glycoproteins of 160, 108 and 52 kDa. The layer is supplied to an egg when it passes through the magnum–isthmus junction, the normalized length of which is 0.62–0.63 of the oviduct. The mucosa of the junction consists exclusively of a luminal epithelium. It is apparently distinct from the mucosa of the magnum and the isthmus, which consist of a luminal epithelium and tubular glands. The luminal epithelium of the magnum–isthmus junction stains prominently with Alcian blue and consists of alternately distributed ciliated cells and granular cells. Immunohistochemistry with an antiserum raised against the materials of the peri-albumen layer revealed the staining of the peri-albumen layer of the egg, and secretory cells of the luminal epithelium at the magnum–isthmus junction. It was concluded that the materials of the peri-albumen layer are produced by secretory cells at the magnum–isthmus junction of the oviduct. PMID:12892410

  15. Origin of Electrochemical, Structural, and Transport Properties in Nonaqueous Zinc Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Don; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Qu, Xiaohui; Pan, Baofei; He, Meinan; Ferrandon, Magali S; Liao, Chen; Persson, Kristin A; Burrell, Anthony K

    2016-02-10

    Through coupled experimental analysis and computational techniques, we uncover the origin of anodic stability for a range of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. By examination of electrochemical, structural, and transport properties of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes with varying concentrations, it is demonstrated that the acetonitrile-Zn(TFSI)2, acetonitrile-Zn(CF3SO3)2, and propylene carbonate-Zn(TFSI)2 electrolytes can not only support highly reversible Zn deposition behavior on a Zn metal anode (?99% of Coulombic efficiency) but also provide high anodic stability (up to ?3.8 V vs Zn/Zn(2+)). The predicted anodic stability from DFT calculations is well in accordance with experimental results, and elucidates that the solvents play an important role in anodic stability of most electrolytes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to understand the solvation structure (e.g., ion solvation and ionic association) and its effect on dynamics and transport properties (e.g., diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity) of the electrolytes. The combination of these techniques provides unprecedented insight into the origin of the electrochemical, structural, and transport properties in nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. PMID:26765789

  16. Effect of compositional gradient on mechanical properties in aluminum/duralumin multi-layered clad structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Hideaki; Komiya, Yoshiki; Sato, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of compositional gradient on nano-, micro- and macro-mechanical properties in aluminum (A1050)/ duralumin (A2017) multi-layered clad structures fabricated by hot rolling. Such multilayered clad structures are possibly adopted to a new type of automobile crash boxes to effectively absorb the impact forces generated when automobiles having collisions. 2- and 6-layered clad structures with asymmetric lay-ups from one side of aluminum to another side of duralumin have been fabricated, which have been suffering three different heattreatments such as (1) as-rolled (no heat-treatment), (2) annealed at 400°C and (3) homogenized at 500°C followed by water quenching and aging (T4 heat treatment). For nano- and micro-scale mechanical properties proved by nanoindentation, higher hardness and elastic modulus correspond to higher Cu content at the interface in annealed and aged samples. For macro-scale mechanical properties, internal friction of 2-layered clad structures is higher than that of 6-layered clad structures in any heat-treatment samples. Deep drawing formability of annealed samples is considerably high compared to as-rolled and aged ones.

  17. Development of a dual-layered dielectric-loaded accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chunguang; Kanareykin, Alexei; Kazakov, Sergey; Liu, Wanming; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Schoessow, Paul; Gai, Wei

    2008-09-01

    rf Power attenuation is a critical problem in the development of dielectric-loaded structures for particle acceleration. In a previous paper [C. Jing, W. Liu, W. Gai, J. Power, T. Wong, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 539 (2005) 445] we suggested the use of a Multilayer Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structure (MDLA) as a possible approach for reducing the rf losses in a single layer device. The MDLA is based on the principle of Bragg reflection familiar from optics that is used to partially confine the fields inside the dielectric layers and reduce the wall current losses at the outer boundary. We report here on the design, construction and testing of a prototype X-band double-layer structure (2DLA). The measurements show an rf power attenuation for the 2DLA more than ten times smaller than that of a comparable single-layer structure, in good agreement with the analytic results. Testing and operation of MDLAs also requires efficient power coupling from test equipment or rf power systems to the device. We describe the design and construction of two novel structures: a TM 03 mode launcher for cold testing and a power coupler for planned high-gradient experiments.

  18. Electronic structure of the ferroelectric layered perovskite SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Chen, C.W.; Warren, W.L.; Gutleben, C.D.

    1996-09-01

    The band structure of the layered perovskite SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) was calculated by tight binding and the valence band density of states was measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We find both the valence and conduction band edges to consist of states primarily derived from the Bi{endash}O layer rather than the perovskite Sr{endash}Ta{endash}O blocks. The valence band maximum arises from O {ital p} and some Bi {ital s} states, while the conduction band minimum consists of Bi {ital p} states, with a wide band gap of 5.1 eV. It is argued that the Bi{endash}O layers largely control the electronic response whereas the ferroelectric response originates mainly from the perovskite Sr{endash}Ta{endash}O block. Bi and Ta centered traps are calculated to be shallow, which may account in part for its excellent fatigue properties. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Surface structure of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon: origin of run-in behavior prior to superlubricious interfacial shear.

    PubMed

    Al-Azizi, Ala' A; Eryilmaz, Osman; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H

    2015-02-10

    The oxidized layers at the surface of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, and Raman spectroscopy. The structure of these layers was correlated with the friction and wear behavior observed on H-DLC. H-DLC is well-known for its ultralow friction in inert environments, but the steady superlubricious state is always preceded by a run-in period with a high friction. It was hypothesized that the run-in period is related to the surface oxide layer formed naturally upon exposure of the sample to air. To test this hypothesis, thermal oxide layers were grown, and their structures were analyzed and compared with the native oxide layer on a pristine sample. It was found that the Raman spectra of the surface oxide layers of H-DLC have higher D/G band ratio than the bulk, indicating a larger amount of aromatic clusters compared to the bulk film. Thick oxide layers grown at 300 C showed a run-in friction behavior that resembled the friction of graphite. The run-in periods were found to become longer when the thickness of the oxide layers increased, indicating that the run-in behavior of H-DLC is attributed to the removal of the surface oxide layers. PMID:25583366

  20. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-09-21

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs. PMID:25099663

  1. Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.

  2. Controlled gentamicin release from multi-layered electrospun nanofibrous structures of various thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Sirc, Jakub; Kubinova, Sarka; Hobzova, Radka; Stranska, Denisa; Kozlik, Petr; Bosakova, Zuzana; Marekova, Dana; Holan, Vladimir; Sykova, Eva; Michalek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers incorporating the wide spectrum antibiotic gentamicin were prepared by Nanospider needleless technology. A polyvinyl alcohol layer, serving as a drug reservoir, was covered from both sides by polyurethane layers of various thicknesses. The multilayered structure of the nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy, the porosity was characterized by mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to determine specific surface areas. The stability of the gentamicin released from the electrospun layers was proved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inhibition of bacterial growth. Drug release was investigated using in vitro experiments with HPLC/MS quantification, while the antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated on Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both experiments proved that the released gentamicin retained its activity and showed that the retention of the drug in the nanofibers was prolonged with the increasing thickness of the covering layers. PMID:23071393

  3. Controlled gentamicin release from multi-layered electrospun nanofibrous structures of various thicknesses

    PubMed Central

    Sirc, Jakub; Kubinova, Sarka; Hobzova, Radka; Stranska, Denisa; Kozlik, Petr; Bosakova, Zuzana; Marekova, Dana; Holan, Vladimir; Sykova, Eva; Michalek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers incorporating the wide spectrum antibiotic gentamicin were prepared by Nanospider needleless technology. A polyvinyl alcohol layer, serving as a drug reservoir, was covered from both sides by polyurethane layers of various thicknesses. The multilayered structure of the nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy, the porosity was characterized by mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to determine specific surface areas. The stability of the gentamicin released from the electrospun layers was proved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inhibition of bacterial growth. Drug release was investigated using in vitro experiments with HPLC/MS quantification, while the antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated on Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both experiments proved that the released gentamicin retained its activity and showed that the retention of the drug in the nanofibers was prolonged with the increasing thickness of the covering layers. PMID:23071393

  4. A review of vortex structures and associated coherent motions in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental and computational evidence for the existence and role of vortices in turbulent boundary layers is briefly reviewed. Quasi-streamwise and transverse vortices are considered, and various published conceptual models for horseshoe-like vortical structures are compared. The causes for upright and inverted horseshoe-shaped vorticity lines are discussed, and the distinction between vorticity lines and vortices is demonsrated. Finally, results from a numerically-simulated turbulent boundary layer are used to compute distributions of diameter, height, and strength for quasi-streamwise and spanwise vortices. These results confirm that quasi-streamwise vortices are clustered near the wall, while spanwise vortices are distributed throughout the layer. The variation of spanwise vortex core diameter with distance from the wall is found to be consistent with the mixing-length distribution for a boundary layer.

  5. Magnetization reversal and anisotropy in CoO/permalloy/Cu/permalloy/NiO layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, C.; Pina, E.; Crespo, P.; Alonso-Saudo, M.; Cebollada, F.; Gonzlez, J. M.; Hernando, A.

    2001-05-01

    This work presents results on the temperature dependence of the hysteretic processes of glass /CoO/permalloy/Cu/permalloy/NiO layered structures. The antiferromagnetic behavior of both oxides below their different blocking temperatures leads to the apparition of unidirectional anisotropy and enhancement of coercivity in the permalloy layers. The magnetization reversal is influenced by the exchange coupling between the permalloy layers, which is controlled by the Cu thickness. Both ferromagnetic layers remain uncoupled for 7.5 nm Cu thickness and are coupled for 1.5 nm. The hysteresis loops measured along different directions of the samples at room temperature point out the different features in the magnetization processes of systems with uniaxial and/or unidirectional anisotropies.

  6. Synthetic magnetic field effects on neutral bosonic condensates in quasi-three-dimensional anisotropic layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, T. A.; Polak, T. P.

    2011-02-15

    We discuss a system of dilute Bose gas confined in a layered structure of stacked square lattices (slab geometry). A derived phase diagram reveals a nonmonotonic dependence of the ratio of tunneling to on-site repulsion on the artificial magnetic field applied to the system. The effect is reduced when more layers are added, which mimics a two- to quasi-three-dimensional geometry crossover. Furthermore, we establish a correspondence between anisotropic infinite (quasi-three-dimensional) and isotropic finite (slab geometry) systems that share exactly the same critical values, which can be an important clue for choosing experimental setups that are less demanding, but still leading to the identical results. Finally, we show that the properties of the ideal Bose gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be closely mimicked by finite (slab) systems when the number of two-dimensional layers is larger than 10 for isotropic interactions, or even less when the layers are weakly coupled.

  7. Layered and molecular-structural control in polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals by surfactant chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takeru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Kobayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Takashi; Otobe, Saki; Naruke, Haruo

    2016-02-01

    Polyoxomolybdate-surfactant hybrid layered crystals were synthesized by using single-tailed alkyltrimethylammonium ([CnH2n+1N(CH3)3]+ (Cn), n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) cations. The crystal structures consisted of alternate stacking of octamolybdate ([Mo8O26]4-, Mo8) anionic layers and surfactant cationic layers. The layered distance of the hybrid crystals became longer from 18.5 Å to 26.5 Å with an increase in alkyl chain length. Interestingly, the molecular structures of Mo8, which has several isomers, depended on the alkyl chain length of the employed surfactants. Shorter surfactant (C8 and C10) formed hybrid crystals containing β-type Mo8 isomer, while surfactant with longer alkyl chain (C12, C14, C16, and C18) gave crystals containing δ-type Mo8 isomer. This structural controllability will lead to the precise functional control in the polyoxomolybdate-surfactant hybrid layered crystals.

  8. The structure of protostellar accretion disks and the origin of bipolar flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardle, Mark; Koenigl, Arieh

    1993-01-01

    Equations are obtained which govern the disk-wind structure and identify the physical parameters relevant to circumstellar disks. The system of equations is analyzed in the thin-disk approximation, and it is shown that the system can be consistently reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations in z. Representative solutions are presented, and it is shown that the apparent paradox discussed by Shu (1991) is resolved when the finite thickness of the disk is taken into account. Implications of the results for the origin of bipolar flows in young stellar objects and possible application to active galactic nuclei are discussed.

  9. Coherent structures in direct numerical simulation of turbulent boundary layers at Mach 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringuette, Matthew J.; Wu, Minwei; Mart?N, M. Pino

    We demonstrate that data from direct numerical simulation of turbulent boundary layers at Mach 3 exhibit the same large-scale coherent structures that are found in supersonic and subsonic experiments, namely elongated, low-speed features in the logarithmic region and hairpin vortex packets. Contour plots of the streamwise mass flux show very long low-momentum structures in the logarithmic layer. These low-momentum features carry about one-third of the turbulent kinetic energy. Using Taylor's hypothesis, we find that these structures prevail and meander for very long streamwise distances. Structure lengths on the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses are observed. Length scales obtained from correlations of the streamwise mass flux severely underpredict the extent of these structures, most likely because of their significant meandering in the spanwise direction. A hairpin-packet-finding algorithm is employed to determine the average packet properties, and we find that the Mach 3 packets are similar to those observed at subsonic conditions. A connection between the wall shear stress and hairpin packets is observed. Visualization of the instantaneous turbulence structure shows that groups of hairpin packets are frequently located above the long low-momentum structures. This finding is consistent with the very large-scale motion model of Kim & Adrian (1999).

  10. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-08-01

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs.A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation results of total (bottom and top) radiance of TOLEDs with the RSL depending on HTL and ETL thicknesses. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01520g

  11. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  12. The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. )

    1993-03-15

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Anomalous elastic buckling of layered crystalline materials in the absence of structure slenderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Manrui; Liu, Yilun; Zhe Liu, Jefferson; Wang, Lifeng; Zheng, Quanshui

    2016-03-01

    Layered crystalline materials, such as graphene, boron nitride, tungsten sulfate, phosphorene, etc., have attracted enormous attentions, due to their unique crystal structures and superior mechanical, thermal, and physical properties. Making use of mechanical buckling is a promising route to control their structural morphology and thus tune their physical properties, giving rise to many novel applications. In this paper, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical modeling to study the compressive buckling of a column made of layered crystalline materials with the crystal layers parallel to the compressive direction. We find that the mechanical buckling of the layered crystalline materials exhibits two anomalous and counter-intuitive features as approaching the zero slenderness ratio. First, the critical buckling strain εcr has a finite value that is much lower than the material's elastic limit strain. A continuum mechanics model (by homogenizing the layered materials) is proposed for the εcr, which agrees well with the results of MD simulations. We find that the εcr solely depends on elastic constants without any structural dimension, which appears to be an intrinsic material property and thus is defined as intrinsic buckling strain (IBS), εcrIBS , in this paper. Second, below a certain nanoscale length, l0, in the compressive direction (e.g., about 20 nm for graphite), the critical buckling strain εcr shows a size effect, i.e., increasing as the column length L decreases. To account for the size effect, inspired by our recently developed multi-beam shear model (Liu et al., 2011), a bending energy term of individual crystal layer is introduced in our continuum model. The theoretical model of εcr agrees well with the size effects observed in MD simulations. This study could lay a ground for engineering layered crystalline materials in various nano-materials and nano-devices via mechanical buckling.

  14. Mg intercalation in layered and spinel host crystal structures for Mg batteries.

    PubMed

    Emly, Alexandra; Van der Ven, Anton

    2015-05-01

    We investigate electrochemical properties of Mg in layered and spinel intercalation compounds from first-principles using TiS2 as a model system. Our calculations predict that Mg(x)TiS2 in both the layered and spinel crystal structures exhibits sloping voltage profiles with steps at stoichiometric compositions due to Mg-vacancy ordering. Mg ions are predicted to occupy the octahedral sites in both layered and spinel TiS2 with diffusion mediated by hops between octahedral sites that pass through adjacent tetrahedral sites. Predicted migration barriers are substantially higher than typical Li-migration barriers in intercalation compounds. The migration barriers are shown to be very sensitive to lattice parameters of the host crystal structure. We also discuss the possible role of rehybridization between the transition metal and the anion in affecting migration barriers. PMID:25905428

  15. Strained-layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM); Gin, Aaron (Albuquerque, NM); Marsh, Phillip F. (Lowell, MA); Young, Erik W. (Albuquerque, NM); Cich, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-07-13

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  16. Formation of Structured Dayside Boundary Layers under Different Solar Wind Conditions: THEMIS Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanov, L. A.; Chandler, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    We have begun an investigation of the formation of the dayside low latitude boundary layer under different solar wind conditions using data from the THEMIS spacecraft. We present two cases of magnetopause/LLBL interface crossings made by the five spacecraft; one under long lasting northward IMF and a second for a period of southward IMF. All spacecraft during these observations traversed the day side magnetosphere in a string-of-pearls configuration with the farthest distance between spacecraft less than ~2 RE. The sequence of observations from spacecraft, as they crossed the magnetopause, shows the development of a highly structured boundary layer regardless of the polarity of the IMF. We discuss possible scenarios for the development of such structured boundary layers, including low latitude reconnection under northward IMF as well as double reconnection in opposite hemispheres.

  17. The second-harmonic generation in a dissipative and dispersion layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmohammadi, Jamshid; Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Arghand-Hesar, Afshin; Lotfi, Erik S.; Masalehdan, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    Conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a multicrystal structure arrangement, under linearly absorption of interacting waves was analytically investigated. Different linear absorption and nonlinear interaction coefficients were considered for both of the fundamental and the second harmonic waves in cascade layers. The intensity-constant approximation on fundamental wave radiation was applied in calculations. Behavior of conversion efficiency with interaction coherence length of fundamental wave, phase miss-matching and ratio of linear absorption coefficients were graphically illustrated. The results are shown that in multicrystal structure scheme, the conversion efficiency can be tuned by the interaction coherent length and it is possible to compensate the phase differences induced in the previous layers. The phase compensation between the layers is the physical reason of efficiency improvement. Contribution to the topical issue "Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium (AES 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  18. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S; Maria Cal, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G; Gaieski, Jill B; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G; Owings, Amanda C; Gmez, Roco; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrcio R; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans' place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000-130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of