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Over 1 billion ornamentalfish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into Australia alone. Compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement in Australia. Ornamentalfish originate from about 100 countries and hazards are mostly unknown; since 2000 there have been 16-fold fewer scientific publications on ornamentalfish disease compared to farmed fish disease, and 470 fewer compared to disease in terrestrial species (cattle). The import quarantine policies of a range of countries were reviewed and classified as stringent or non-stringent based on the levels of pre-border and border controls. Australia has a stringent policy which includes pre-border health certification and a mandatory quarantine period at border of 1-3 weeks in registered quarantine premises supervised by government quarantine staff. Despite these measures there have been many disease incursions as well as establishment of significant exotic viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and metazoan pathogens from ornamentalfish in farmed native Australian fish and free-living introduced species. Recent examples include Megalocytivirus and Aeromonas salmonicida atypical strain. In 2006, there were 22 species of alien ornamentalfish with established breeding populations in waterways in Australia and freshwater plants and molluscs have also been introduced, proving a direct transmission pathway for establishment of pathogens in native fish species. Australia's stringent quarantine policies for imported ornamentalfish are based on import risk analysis under the SPS agreement but have not provided an acceptable level of protection (ALOP) consistent with government objectives to prevent introduction of pests and diseases, promote development of future aquaculture industries or maintain biodiversity. It is concluded that the risk analysis process described by the Office International des Epizooties under the SPS agreement cannot be used in a meaningful way for current patterns of ornamentalfishtrade. Transboundary disease incursions will continue and exotic pathogens will become established in new regions as a result of the ornamentalfishtrade, and this will be an international phenomenon. Ornamentalfish represent a special case in live animal trade where OIE guidelines for risk analysis need to be revised. Alternatively, for countries such as Australia with implied very high ALOP, the number of species traded and the number of sources permitted need to be dramatically reduced to facilitate hazard identification, risk assessment and import quarantine controls. PMID:17485126
Over 1billion ornamentalfish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8–10million imported into Australia alone. Compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis
Ornamentalfishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamentalfishtrade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamentalfishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamentalfish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112
Smith, Katherine F; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E; Amaral-Zettler, Linda
This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.
Protracted diarrhea in a 2-month-old Belgian infant was associated with Edwardsiella tarda as the only potential pathogen. The same organism was isolated from a tropical aquarium fish in the home of the patient. The enteropathogenic role of E. tarda and the role of fish as a reservoir of infection are reviewed. Additional observations, volunteer studies, and careful prospective surveys in tropical countries will be needed to produce firm evidence of the enteropathogenic potential of E. tarda.
Ornamental horticulture has been recognized as the main pathway for plant invasions worldwide. We examined the link between propagule pressure created by the presence of ornamental plants in the market and their ability to escape from cultivation and establish in the wild. A random sample of 534 non-native ornamental species on sale in nineteenth century Britain showed that 27% of
KATHARINA DEHNEN-SCHMUTZ; JULIA TOUZA; CHARLES PERRINGS; MARK WILLIAMSON
Growing ornamentalfish industry is associated with public health concerns including extensive antibiotic use accompanied by increasing antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze Aeromonas isolates from imported tropical ornamentalfish and coldwater koi carps bred in the Czech Republic to assess the potential risk of ornamentalfish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) and antibiotic resistance plasmids. A collection of Aeromonas spp. with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC?0.05mg/L) was selected for the detection of PMQR genes. Isolates harbouring PMQR genes were further analyzed for the additional antibiotic resistance, integron content, clonality, biofilm production and transferability of PMQR genes by conjugation and transformation. Comparative analysis of plasmids carrying PMQR genes was performed. Fifteen (19%, n=80) isolates from koi carps and 18 (24%, n=76) isolates from imported ornamentalfish were positive for qnrS2, aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrB17 genes. PMQR-positive isolates from imported ornamentalfish showed higher MIC levels to quinolones, multiresistance and diverse content of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons compared to the isolates from the carps. Related IncU plasmids harbouring qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were found in Aeromonas spp. from imported ornamentalfish and koi carps from various geographical areas. Ornamentalfish may represent a potential source of multiresistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements for the environment and for humans. PMID:24629900
This Summary addresses market, industry and trade conditions for the cured fish industry (excluding shellfish) for the period 1996-2000. The cured fish industry produces three groups of products: salted fish, dried fish, and smoked fish. These products ar...
Global wildlife trade is financially lucrative, frequently illegal and increases the risk for zoonotic disease transmission. This paper presents the first interdisciplinary study of Vietnam's illegal wild bird trade focussing on those aspects which may contribute to the transmission of diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Comparing January 2009 data with that of May 2007, we found a five-fold increase to 9,117 birds on sale in Hanoi. Ninety-five percent of Hanoian bird vendors appear unaware of trade regulations and across Vietnam vendors buy birds sourced outside of their province. Approximately 25% of the species common to Vietnam's bird trade are known to be HPAI H5N1 susceptible. The anthropogenic movement of birds within the trade chain and the range of HPAI-susceptible species, often traded alongside poultry, increase the risk Vietnam's bird trade presents for the transmission of pathogens such as HPAI H5N1. These results will assist in the control and monitoring of emerging zoonotic diseases and conservation of Southeast Asia's avifauna. PMID:21809163
Edmunds, Kelly; Roberton, Scott I; Few, Roger; Mahood, Simon; Bui, Phuong L; Hunter, Paul R; Bell, Diana J
The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to examine the interdependence of global trade in the context of the economic and social aspects of fisheries and aquaculture. When studying global interdependence within a science literacy context the purpose is not to promote any particular view of how nations should work together or to suggest what the balance between national interests and global ones should be for the United States or any other nation. Rather, students need to become aware of the growing number of ways in which each nation is part of a larger political, economic, military, environmental, biological, and technological system.
The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm “type” whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm “types”. Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site-specific with financial and educational support from NGOs, local governments and industry members.
Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G.
This study attempted to characterize three major classes of digestive enzymes in arowana fish, a popular and highly valuable ornamentalfish species using specific substrates and inhibitors in biochemical and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis methods. Acidic pepsin-like enzymes were detected in stomach region at optimum pH of 1.5–2.0 and its importance is shown by a 96.1% inhibition by pepstatin. Trypsin and chymotrypsin
Yetty Natalia; Roshada Hashim; Ahyaudin Ali; Alexander Chong
Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamentalfishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamentalfishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade.
Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin
Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamentalfish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried
BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin
Sebastian A Baldauf; Theo CM Bakker; Fabian Herder; Harald Kullmann; Timo Thünken
Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamentalfish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamentalfish and their carriage water were tolerant to ?15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM?1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamentalfish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.
Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig
Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamentalfish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold. PMID:24650892
Sharon, G; Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Chettri, J Kumar; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D
The present study was conducted to assess the establishment and effect of probiotic bacteria such as Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus mesentericus, and Bifidobacterium infantis in the gut of freshwater ornamentalfish Puntius conchonius. Postlarvae of 60 days old Puntius conchonius divided in four experimental groups each with three replicates. T1, T2 and T3 groups were fed with Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus mesentericus and Bifidobacterium infantis enriched copepod Thermocyclops decipiens respectively. T0 was the control group (without probiotic treated T. decipiens). The experiment was conducted for 45 days. The initial gut analysis of fish showed significant level of pathogenic bacteria in the gut of fish (p < 0.05). Total plate count of initial gut analysis of fish larvae were enumerated as 1.2 x 10(4)CFU ml(-1). The bacteriological study indicated thatfinal gut microflora of post-larvae have decreased level of pathogens. Total plate count of T1, T2 T3 and T0 were reported to be as 1.0 8 x 10(4), 1.06 x 10(4), 1.27 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1), respectively. Three experimental groups (T1, T2 and T3) were significantly different from control group (T0) (p < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, establishment of probiotics were examined. One week after probiotics administration, gut analysis of fish larvae showed, poor spore formation of Bacillus coagulans (2.3 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1)), when compared to B. mesentericus (3.2 +/- 0.03 x10(3) CFU ml(-1)) and Bifidobacterium infantis(3.1 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1)). The results from the study suggest that the probiotic bacteria significantly established in gut of P. conchonius and significant effects on the pathogenic gut inhabitants of the fish. PMID:23029902
Divya, K R; Isamma, A; Ramasubramanian, V; Sureshkumar, S; Arunjith, T S
Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg?¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ? 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ? 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ? 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the treated groups and the present work concluded that, the Phthalate derivatives from I. coccinea helps to stimulate the immune system against A. hydrophila challenge in C. auratus. PMID:24380832
We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamentalfish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and diversity. We found high species richness but no dominant phylotypes were detected. Only few of the phylotypes were found in more than one time point per treatment and always with low relative abundance. The majority of the common phylotypes belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum and were closely related to Acinetobacter junii, Pseudomonas sp., Nevskia ramosa, Vogesella perlucida, Chitinomonas taiwanensis, Acidovorax sp., Pelomonas saccharophila and the rest belonged to the ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, candidate division OP11 and one unaffiliated group. Several of these phylotypes were closely related to known taxa including Sphingopyxis chilensis, Flexibacter aurantiacus subsp. excathedrus and Mycobacterium sp. Despite the high phylogenetic diversity most of the inferred ecophysiological roles of the found phylotypes are related to nitrogen metabolism, a key process for fish aquaria. PMID:23519098
Vlahos, Nikolaos; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Meziti, Alexandra; Hotos, George N; Mente, Eleni
'Gold standard' OIE reference PCR assay was utilized to detect the presence of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in freshwater ornamentalfish from Malaysia. From total of 210 ornamentalfish samples representing 14 species, ISKNV was detected in 36 samples representing 5 fish species. All positive cases did not show any clinical signs of ISKNV. Three restriction enzymes analyses showed that the fish were infected by identical strains of the same virus species within Megalocytivirus genus. Major capsid protein (MCP) genes of 10 ISKNV strains were sequenced and compared with 9 other reference nucleotide sequences acquired from GenBank. Sequence analysis of MCP gene showed that all strains detected in this study were closely related to the reference ISKNV with nucleotide sequence identity that was ranging from 99.8% to 100%. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene revealed that viruses from genus Megalocytivirus can be divided into three genotypes: genotype 1 include reference ISKNV and all other strains that were detected in this study, genotype 2 include viruses closely related to red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), and genotype 3 include viruses closely related turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV). PMID:23952914
Subramaniam, K; Shariff, M; Omar, A R; Hair-Bejo, M; Ong, B L
There was a spontaneous outbreak of mycobacteriosis in fancy veiltail guppies, Lebistes reticulatus, raised on an ornamentalfish farm in Venezuela. The clinical signs included listlessness, emaciation, spinal curvature, sunken eyes and loss of colour. Numerous acid-fast bacteria, identified as Mycobacterium species, were detected in smears from the kidneys, liver, mesentery and spleen of the fish, from fresh faecal material, and from the unborn embryos of infected gravid females. The bacteria were eradicated by the addition of kanamycin sulphate to the water at a concentration of 50 ppm, the dose being repeated on four occasions with 48 hours between each dose. Fifteen days after the treatment, none of the clinical signs described were detected in any of the treated fish. The offspring born to treated females were healthy and normal, and did not harbour acid-fast bacteria. PMID:10097326
The spatial distribution of 50 ornamentalfish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11-29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3-8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger's wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamentalfish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamentalfish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577
In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamentalfishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451
Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright
Ornamentalfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099
Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt
Populations of tropical and subtropical marine fish are being depleted worldwide to supply increasing demands of the aquarium industry and fresh seafood market. Overfishing and destructive harvest techniques have left some marine fish populations virtually extirpated in a number of primarily underdeveloped countries. In situations where only small remnant populations and significantly degraded habitat remain, population recovery even under the
Today fish is the most traded food commodity in the World. This situation is not without generating potential issues. On the one hand, fishtrade is said to support economic growth processes in developing countries by providing an important source of cash revenue. On the other hand, fishtrade is also said to lead to a decline in food security
The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The rise of trepang fishing in the 17(th) century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20(th) century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1) a strong influence of international markets, (2) the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3) the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions. PMID:20613871
This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154
Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana
The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:21424528
Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamentalfish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamentalfish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887
Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright
Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.
The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.
Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.
Many species of fish produced in aquaculture or for the ornamentalfishtrade exhibit sexual dimorphism in growth, age at maturity, secondary sexual characters, or other traits of interest. This has led to a desire to produce populations of only one sex for commercial ongrowing. Although direct sex reversal via manipulation of sex differentiation is used commercially (e.g., in tilapia
The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.
Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.
The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001
Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A
We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.
Morphological diversification does not proceed evenly across the organism. Some body parts tend to evolve at higher rates than others, and these rate biases are often attributed to sexual and natural selection or to genetic constraints. We hypothesized that variation in the rates of morphological evolution among body parts could also be related to the performance consequences of the functional systems that make up the body. Specifically, we tested the widely held expectation that the rate of evolution for a trait is negatively correlated with the strength of biomechanical trade-offs to which it is exposed. We quantified the magnitude of trade-offs acting on the morphological components of three feeding-related functional systems in four radiations of teleost fishes. After accounting for differences in the rates of morphological evolution between radiations, we found that traits that contribute more to performance trade-offs tend to evolve more rapidly, contrary to the prediction. While ecological and genetic factors are known to have strong effects on rates of phenotypic evolution, this study highlights the role of the biomechanical architecture of functional systems in biasing the rates and direction of trait evolution.
Holzman, Roi; Collar, David C.; Price, Samantha A.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Thomson, Robert C.; Wainwright, Peter C.
Morphological diversification does not proceed evenly across the organism. Some body parts tend to evolve at higher rates than others, and these rate biases are often attributed to sexual and natural selection or to genetic constraints. We hypothesized that variation in the rates of morphological evolution among body parts could also be related to the performance consequences of the functional systems that make up the body. Specifically, we tested the widely held expectation that the rate of evolution for a trait is negatively correlated with the strength of biomechanical trade-offs to which it is exposed. We quantified the magnitude of trade-offs acting on the morphological components of three feeding-related functional systems in four radiations of teleost fishes. After accounting for differences in the rates of morphological evolution between radiations, we found that traits that contribute more to performance trade-offs tend to evolve more rapidly, contrary to the prediction. While ecological and genetic factors are known to have strong effects on rates of phenotypic evolution, this study highlights the role of the biomechanical architecture of functional systems in biasing the rates and direction of trait evolution. PMID:21993506
Holzman, Roi; Collar, David C; Price, Samantha A; Hulsey, C Darrin; Thomson, Robert C; Wainwright, Peter C
Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.
Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman
Differences among males in immunocompetence can affect resistance to parasites and diseases, and sexual ornaments have been suggested to function as indicators of additive genetic variation in disease resistance, health and condition in the good gene models of sexual selection. In this paper the role of genetic variation in the immune system is dis- cussed as an alternative route to
Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and the large diet behavior range can be explained by a tendency toward an opportunistic behavior of the sympatric specimens. Indeed, the similar response of the two species and their hybrids implied an adaptation that could be defined as an alternative trade-off that underline the importance of epigenetics mechanisms for potential success in a novel environment.
In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...
In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...
As the world’s largest importer of marine ornamental species for the aquaria, curio, home décor, and jewelry industries, the United States has an opportunity to leverage its considerable market power to promote more sustainable trade and reduce the effects of ornamentaltrade stress on coral reefs worldwide. Evidence indicates that collection of some coral reef animals for these trades has
Brian N. Tissot; Barbara A. Best; Eric H. Borneman; Andrew W. Bruckner; Cara H. Cooper; Heather D’Agnes; Timothy P. Fitzgerald; Amanda Leland; Susan Lieberman; Amy Mathews Amos; Rashid Sumaila; Teresa M. Telecky; Frazer McGilvray; Brian J. Plankis; Andrew L. Rhyne; Glynnis G. Roberts; Benjamin Starkhouse; Todd C. Stevenson
...containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled...must be placed in the ornamental nursery facility and...medium, fertilization, irrigation, insect and disease...facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value...
...containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled...must be placed in the ornamental nursery facility and...medium, fertilization, irrigation, insect and disease...facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value...
In ephemeral habitats, the same genotypes cope with unpredictable environmental conditions, favouring the evolution of developmental plasticity and alternative life-history strategies (ALHS). We tested the existence of intrapopulation ALHS in an annual killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, inhabiting temporary pools. The pools are either primary (persisting throughout the whole rainy season) or secondary (refilled after desiccation of the initial pool), representing alternative niches. The unpredictable conditions led to the evolution of reproductive bet-hedging with asynchronous embryonic development. We used a common garden experiment to test whether the duration of embryonic period is associated with post-embryonic life-history traits. Fish with rapid embryonic development (secondary pool strategy, high risk of desiccation) produced phenotypes with more rapid life-history traits than fish with slow embryonic development (primary pool strategy). The fast fish were smaller at hatching but had larger yolk sac reserves. Their post-hatching growth was more rapid, and they matured earlier. Further, fast fish grew to a smaller body size and died earlier than slow fish. No differences in fecundity, propensity to mate or physiological ageing were found, demonstrating a combination of plastic responses and constraints. Such developmentally related within-population plasticity in life history is exceptional among vertebrates. PMID:24666645
Pola?ik, M; Blažek, R; Režucha, R; Vrtílek, M; Terzibasi Tozzini, E; Reichard, M
Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.
This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…
International trade is an important mechanism for global non-indigenous species introductions, which have had profound impacts on the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems including the Laurentian Great Lakes. The best-documented vector by which non-indigenous species have entered the Great Lakes is ballast water discharged by transoceanic ships. A variety of potential alternative vectors exist, including the intentional release of aquarium or
Ian C. Duggan; Nathalie M. N. Bergeron; Anthony Ricciardi; Hugh J. Macisaac
For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population.
Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G
Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.
Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamentalfishtrade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the needs and opportunities for future research and application of cryopreservation in aquarium fish. First, we summarize the basic biological characteristics regarding natural habitat, testis structure, spermatogenesis, sperm morphology, and sperm physiology. Second, we compare protocol development of sperm cryopreservation. Third, we emphasize the importance of artificial fertilization in sperm cryopreservation to evaluate the viability of thawed sperm. We conclude with a look to future research directions for sperm cryopreservation and the application of this technique in aquarium species.
Research in fish immune system and parasite invasion mechanisms has advanced the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby parasites evade or cope with fish immune response. The main mechanisms of immune evasion employed by fish parasites are reviewed and considered under ten headings. 1) Parasite isolation: parasites develop in immuno-privileged host tissues, such as brain, gonads, or eyes, where host barriers prevent or limit the immune response. 2) Host isolation: the host cellular immune response isolates and encapsulates the parasites in a dormant stage without killing them. 3) Intracellular disguise: typical of intracellular microsporidians, coccidians and some myxosporeans. 4) Parasite migration, behavioural and environmental strategies: parasites migrate to host sites the immune response has not yet reached or where it is not strong enough to kill them, or they accommodate their life cycles to the season or the age in which the host immune system is down-regulated. 5) Antigen-based strategies such as mimicry or masking, variation and sharing of parasite antigens. 6) Anti-immune mechanisms: these allow parasites to resist innate humoral factors, to neutralize host antibodies or to scavenge reactive oxygen species within macrophages. 7) Immunodepression: parasites either suppress the fish immune systems by reducing the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes or the phagocytic activity of macrophages, or they induce apoptosis of host leucocytes. 8) Immunomodulation: parasites secrete or excrete substances which modulate the secretion of host immune factors, such as cytokines, to their own benefit. 9) Fast development: parasites proliferate faster than the ability of the host to mount a defence response. 10) Exploitation of the host immune reaction. Knowledge of the evasion strategies adopted by parasites will help us to understand host-parasite interactions and may therefore help in the discovery of novel immunotherapeutic agents or targeted vaccines, and permit the selection of host-resistant strains. PMID:18722790
Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.
Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the
Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.
Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael
Summary Males of many animals have more than a single exaggerated secondary sexual character, but inter-specific variability in the number of ornaments has never been explained. We examine three hypotheses that may account for the presence of multiple ornaments. First, the multiple message hypothesis proposes that each display reflects a single property of the overall quality of an animal. This
Increasing demand for ferns means that more knowledge of propagation techniques be developed to guarantee the continuous supply of these plants from commercial ornamental companies. In vitro tissue culture techniques show a certain promise with respect to a future increase in production. This review summarises all the research that has been conducted with ornamental ferns using in vitro techniques at
This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…
Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.
1.?Maternal reproductive investment is thought to reflect a trade-off between offspring size and fecundity, and models generally predict that mothers inhabiting adverse environments will produce fewer, larger offspring. More recently, the importance of environmental unpredictability in influencing maternal investment has been considered, with some models predicting that mothers should adopt a diversified bet-hedging strategy whilst others a conservative bet-hedging strategy. 2.?We explore spatial egg size and fecundity patterns in the freshwater fish southern pygmy perch (Nannoperca australis) that inhabits a diversity of streams along gradients of environmental quality, variability and predictability. 3.?Contrary to some predictions, N. australis populations inhabiting increasingly harsh streams produced more numerous and smaller eggs. Furthermore, within-female egg size variability increased as environments became more unpredictable. 4.?We argue that in harsh environments or those prone to physical disturbance, sources of mortality are size independent with offspring size having only a minor influence on offspring fitness. Instead, maternal fitness is maximized by producing many small eggs, increasing the likelihood that some offspring will disperse to permanent water. We also provide empirical support for diversified bet-hedging as an adaptive strategy when future environmental quality is uncertain and suggest egg size may be a more appropriate fitness measure in stable environments characterized by size-dependent fitness. These results likely reflect spatial patterns of adaptive plasticity and bet-hedging in response to both predictable and unpredictable environmental variance and highlight the importance of considering both trait averages and variance. 5.?Reproductive life-history traits can vary predictably along environmental gradients. Human activity, such as the hydrological modification of natural flow regimes, alters the form and magnitude of these gradients, and this can have both ecological and evolutionary implications for biota adapted to now non-existent natural environmental heterogeneity. PMID:22309288
Morrongiello, John R; Bond, Nicholas R; Crook, David A; Wong, Bob B M
Contents: Problems encountered in controlling pests with chemical toxicants; Benefits of an integrated pest management approach to turfgrass and ornamentals; Current research towards understanding the pest and the site; State of the art research on contro...
Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24-47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77-100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change. PMID:21072542
Grol, Monique G G; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rypel, Andrew L; Layman, Craig A
Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24–47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77–100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change.
Grol, Monique G. G.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Layman, Craig A.
This lesson introduces the concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.
Otolith is a typical natural biomineral as functional deposit existing in teleost's ears, which is mainly composed of calcium carbonate and organic matter. There is a pair of lapillus, sagitta and asteriscus in fish's inner ear, respectively. The authors compare the asteriscus and lapillus in cultured ornamental carp using FTIR and Raman. The result shows that the mineral phase in lapillus is aragonite, while the mineral phase in asteriscus is vaterite. The pure aragonite and vaterite existing respectively in otolith are of importance as being used as sample to study aragonite/vaterite biomineralization mechanism. Compared with inorganic induced aragonite and vaterite using FTIR and Raman, the authors found that the spectra of aragonite in lapillus are between those of inorganic induced aragonite and other bio induced aragonite; while the spectra of vaterite in asteriscus are similar to those of other bio induced vaterite. It is possible that unstable vaterite was stabilized through the organic effects in biomineralization process. PMID:20038039
The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P?>?0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants. PMID:23532544
Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C
Polyandry, where females mate with multiple males, means that a male's reproductive success will depend both on his ability to acquire mates and the ability of his sperm to compete effectively for fertilizations. But, how do males partition their reproductive investment between these two episodes of selection? Theory predicts that increases in ejaculate investment will come at a cost to investment in other reproductive traits. Although evidence revealing such trade-offs is accumulating, we know little about their genetic basis. Here, I report patterns of genetic (co)variation for a range of traits subject to pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a promiscuous livebearing fish in which males alternate between courtship and sneak matings to obtain copulations. The analyses of genetic variation and covariation for these behaviours revealed a strong genetic predisposition for one tactic over the other. Both mating tactics were also strongly genetically integrated with the level of sexual ornamentation and ejaculate quality. Males that predominantly performed sneak matings were less ornamented but had faster swimming sperm than those that predominantly used courtship. These patterns of genetic variation and covariation reveal potential evolutionary constraints on the direction of selection of pre- and post-copulatory traits, and support sperm competition theory by revealing a trade-off between sexual attractiveness and investment in ejaculates.
MANY secondary sexual characters are supposed to have evolved as a response to female choice of the most extravagantly ornamented males1, a hypothesis supported by studies demonstrating female preferences for the most ornamented males2-5. Comparative studies of elaborate feather ornaments in birds have shown that (1) ornaments have larger degrees of fluctuating asymmetry6 (small, random deviations from bilateral symmetry caused
Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…
Summary In the monogamous least auklet (Aethia pusilla, Alcidae) both males and females have three highly variable ornamental traits (facial plumes, a colourful bill and a knob-like bill ornament) and both sexes perform courtship displays. To assess whether mating preferences could be related to the expression of these ornaments, we performed model presentation experiments in which we varied the bill
Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia,
Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential\\u000a to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the\\u000a movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds)\\u000a to areas preferred by adults. It
Monique G. G. Grol; Ivan Nagelkerken; Andrew L. Rypel; Craig A. Layman
The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…
As riparian governments advoate freer trade and develop physical infrastructure, trade networks, including for aquatic living animals, trade will likely become more efficient through largers investment by fewer traders. Whether this trade efficiency and economic growth are accompanied with a progressive distributional change, among farmers and fishers, is currently under debate. Without a clearer policy agenda that reflects the diversity
As riparian governments advoate freer trade and develop physical infrastructure, trade networks, including for aquatic living animals, trade will likely become more efficient through largers investment by fewer traders. Whether this trade efficiency and economic growth are accompanied with a progressive distributional change, among farmers and fishers, is currently under debate. Without a clearer policy agenda that reflects the diversity
This review deals with the question: what is the relationship between the properties of a neuron and the role that the neuron plays within a given neural circuit? Answering this kind of question requires collecting evidence from multiple neuron phenotypes and comparing the role of each type in circuits that perform well-defined computational tasks. The focus here is on the spherical neurons in the electrosensory lobe of the electric fish Gymnotus omarorum. They belong to the one-spike-onset phenotype expressed at the early stages of signal processing in various sensory modalities and diverse taxa. First, we refer to the one-spike neuron intrinsic properties, their foundation on a low-threshold K(+) conductance, and the potential roles of this phenotype in different circuits within a comparative framework. Second, we present a brief description of the active electric sense of weakly electric fish and the particularities of spherical one-spike-onset neurons in the electrosensory lobe of G. omarorum. Third, we introduce one of the specific tasks in which these neurons are involved: the trade-off between self- and allo-generated signals. Fourth, we discuss recent evidence indicating a still-undescribed role for the one-spike phenotype. This role deals with the blockage of the pathway after being activated by the self-generated electric organ discharge and how this blockage favors self-generated electrosensory information in the context of allo-generated interference. Based on comparative analysis we conclude that one-spike-onset neurons may play several functional roles in animal sensory behavior. There are specific adaptations of the neuron's 'response function' to the circuit and task. Conversely, the way in which a task is accomplished depends on the intrinsic properties of the neurons involved. In short, the role of a neuron within a circuit depends on the neuron and its functional context. PMID:23761463
The fitness consequences of female ornamentation remain little studied and the results are often contradictory. Female ornamentation may be an artefact of a genetic correlation with male ornamentation, but this possibility can be disregarded if the ornament only occurs in females. Female-specific white wing bars in eiders (Somateria mollissima) have been suggested to indicate individual quality, and we studied size variation in this trait in relation to key fitness components and quality attributes. We found that clutch size, body condition, female age, hatching date and success were unrelated to female ornament size; ornament size was explained by its size in the previous year. In contrast, good body condition was associated with hatching success. These results suggest that the breadth of the white wing bars does not indicate individual quality in our study population. PMID:19846446
These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…
\\u000a For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade\\u000a in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas\\u000a of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to
Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations.
The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864
Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A
Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328
Oxygen isotope analyses of Spondylus shells from neolithic sites suggest that the source for the shells used as ornaments in the Balkans and central Europe during the fourth millennium BC was the Aegean and not the Black Sea. The trade in Spondylus may have taken the form of an exchange of gifts. PMID:16058780
16. DETAIL, WEST PARAPET, FROM EAST, SHOWING SIMPLY ORNAMENTED SOLID PARAPET PANEL AT STIFF TOWER, SUPPORTING ORIGINAL METAL LIGHT STANDARD - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA
Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ
Detail of second-story bay with terra cotta ornament on east façade. Photograph taken April 1973 - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO
Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first story. Photograph taken 1973. - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO
A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.
Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.
In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination. PMID:22610632
Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195
Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael
Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species.
Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael
This report addresses trade and industry conditions for the animal feed industry for the period 1994-98. Animal feed products include (1) ingredients, derived from the processing of grains, oilseeds, meat, vegetable, and fish products; (2) roughages, such...
Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection
SUMMARY Ornaments could evolve as honest indicators of fighting ability, provided they have costs that make deceptive signalling unprofitable. I tested for such costs by manipulating the size of the intrasexually selected wing spots of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) and monitoring survival in the field. Males with enlarged spots had higher mortality rates than both unmanipulated and sham-manipulated controls.
The aim of this study was to apply biometric measurements and analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) in muscle tissue to reliably differentiate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Farmed (n = 20) and wild (n = 19) European sea bass were purchased between March and May 2008 and used as standard samples. In the same months, a survey was conducted to evaluate the truthfulness of the statements on the labels of European sea bass sold in retail markets (declared farmed n = 34 and declared wild n = 33). In addition, data from the literature (reference) were employed to build the profile type of wild and farmed European sea bass. Primarily, an exploration and comparison of the analytical data of the standard data set based on principal component analysis and permutation test were performed. Afterward, an inferential statistical approach based on nonparametric combination test methodology (NPC) was applied on standard samples to check its suitability in discriminating the production method. This multivariate statistical analysis selected 30 variables on a total of 36 available. The validation of standard fish data set was accomplished by a novel nonparametric rank-based method according to profile type (just 1 misclassification over 39 samples). Both the NPC test and nonparametric rank-based method were then applied to survey fishes using the selected variables with the aim to classify the individual European sea bass as "true farmed" or "true wild". The former test segregated 10 fishes over 33 declared wild, whereas the results obtained by the nonparametric rank-based method showed that 11 of 33 declared wild European sea bass samples could be unquestionably attributed to the wild cluster. Moreover, considering the comparative contribution of profile type, a few surveyed farmed samples were ascribed to the wild cluster. PMID:20857938
The handicap principle suggests that individuals of superior quality can more easily bear the cost of developing extravagant ornaments. Consequently, ornament size should provide reliable information about quality or condition. Previous models have largely ignored the process of ornament growth, focusing only on final ornament size. We model ornament growth schedules for individuals of different qualities, where higher quality individuals experience lower costs of carrying energy reserves of a given size, but where all individuals pay a net cost of carrying ornaments of a given size. If the costs of ornament production ensure that final ornament size reliably signals quality, the information conveyed by the signal can change dramatically during growth. Higher quality individuals should delay growth until closer to breeding. Taking a snapshot of partially developed ornaments prior to breeding would show them to be larger in poorer quality individuals. The claim that costly ornaments honestly signal quality thus needs to be understood in a dynamic context, and may only hold during some phases of growth.
Rands, Sean A.; Evans, Matthew R.; Johnstone, Rufus A.
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584
About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish ( ... medical alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the ...
After years of investigation into the function of sexually dimorphic ornamental traits, researchers are beginning to understand how bright plumage colour in birds acts as an intraspecific signal. This work has focused primarily on pigment-based ornaments because they are highly variable in patch size, hue and brightness for some species. In contrast, structurally based ornaments have been little studied, in part because they do not appear to be as variable as pigment-based ornaments. We investigated a structurally based plumage ornament in a wild population of blue grosbeaks (Guiraca caerulea), a sexually dimorphic passerine. We report plumage variation that extends into the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The pattern of covariation between four out of five elements of plumage variation suggests that structurally based ornamentation is pushed towards extreme expression of the trait as predicted by the sexual selection theory. The 'bluest' birds have the highest percentage of blue feathers on the body. These ornamental feathers reflect light maximally at the shortest wavelengths (ultraviolet), with the greatest intensity and the greatest contrast. Age may have some effect on expression of blueness. In addition, plumage variables are correlated with growth bars in tail feathers (a record of nutritional condition during moult in a non-ornamental trait). This suggests that the ornament is partially condition dependent. Thus, blue plumage in male grosbeaks may serve as an honest indicator of age and quality.
In the extremely species-rich haplochromine cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes, prezygotic isolation between closely related species is often maintained by color-assortative mating. In 1998, local fisherman working for the ornamentalfishtrade released different color morphs of the cichlid genus Tropheus into a small harbor basin in the southern part of Lake Tanganyika. This artificial amalgamation of color morphs provides a unique possibility to study mating patterns in cichlids in a natural environment over time. In a precursor study, we analyzed genotypes and phenotypes of almost 500 individuals sampled between 1999 and 2001 and uncovered a marked degree of color-assortative mating, which depended on the level of color pattern dissimilarity between morphs. Twelve years after introduction of nonindigenous morphs, we again sampled Tropheus individuals from the harbor basin and an adjacent, originally pure population and analyzed phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and 9 microsatellite loci) to assess the current status of the admixed population. Principal component analyses of color score data and population assignment tests demonstrate an increasing level of introgressive hybridization between morphs but also some ongoing color-assortative mating within morphs. The observed mating pattern might have been influenced by fluctuating environmental conditions such as periodic algal blooms or increased sedimentation causing turbid conditions in an otherwise clear lake. PMID:22563125
Egger, Bernd; Sefc, Kristina M; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter
Many parasites depress the expression of the carotenoid-based colour displays of their hosts, and it has been hypothesized that animals face a trade-off in carotenoid allocation between immune functions and 'degree of ornamentation'. While numerous correlative studies suggest that parasite infection decreases the intensity of carotenoid-based colour displays, the existence of this trade-off has never been demonstrated experimentally in a
R. Baeta; B. Faivre; S. Motreuil; M. Gaillard; J. Moreau
...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...
...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...
...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...
...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...
Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...
Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition.
Models of sexual selection suggest that mate-choice preferences are favored because differences between males in their degree of ornamental exaggeration convey useful information about the direct or indirect benefits they have to offer [1-5]. Such arguments assume that variation in male ornament size can be attributed to variation in the degree of sexually selected exaggeration. We provide the first test of this assumption by conducting tail-length experiments in male barn swallows. Over the last twenty years, a large amount of work has shown that female barn swallows are influenced by male tail length when choosing a mate [6-12]. Recent experiments have shown that a combination of natural and sexual selection results in the elongated tail streamer--a tail that is on average across the population about 12 mm (approximately 10%) longer than the aerodynamic optimum [13, 14]. We show that the aerodynamically optimal tail length varies significantly between males, whereas the extent of streamer elongation beyond the optimum does not. Similarly, the aerodynamically optimal tail length significantly predicts observed tail length and conveys information about flight performance, whereas the extent of sexually selected exaggeration of streamer length does not. Therefore, contrary to handicap models of sexual selection, the sexually selected exaggeration of this trait provides females with little information about any aspect of mate quality PMID:17412591
Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Johnstone, Rufus A; Evans, Matthew R
This paper describes the results of experimental activities carried out for verifying the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater originated from textile (70%) and domestic (30%) activities for the irrigation of container-grown ornamental shrubs. Aspects that concern the refinery treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the effect of irrigation on some ornamental plant species were investigated. An experimental site consisting of a refinery treatment pilot plant (filtration and disinfection) and an agronomic experimental area was set-up. The combined treatment of PAA and UV, used for the disinfection, showed to be very effective for inactivation of E. coli with most of PAA and UV dose combinations able to assure total inactivation. The plants (Buxus, Photinia, Pistacia and Viburnum), sprinkle and drip irrigated with well water (WW), reclaimed wastewater (RW) and a water mixed (MW) between reclaimed wastewater and well water (1:1 by vol), showed interesting results. A similar growth among different treatments was achieved for Buxus and Pistacia, while Viburnum and Photinia plants showed a higher sensibility to MW and RW. Photinia, in particular, turned out to be very sensitive to sprinkle irrigation with the reclaimed water, while the drip irrigation had no such bad effects, as reported in previous works. PMID:18413949
Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F P; Coppini, E
Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration.
Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew
Stillman and Hensley (1980) found that restaurant waitresses who wore a flower in their hair received higher tips. However, the question remains whether it was the ornamentation, per se, or the flower, which influenced tipping. In this experiment, restaurant waitresses wore three different ornaments (a barrette with a flower, a little bird, or a sprig of black currant). Results show
Stillman and Hensley (1980) found that restaurant waitresses who wore a flower in their hair received higher tips. However, the question remains whether it was the ornamentation per se or the flower which influenced tipping. In this experiment, restaurant waitresses wore three different ornaments (a barrette with a flower, a little bird or a sprig of blackcurrant). Results show that
The reasons for sex role reversal in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle are reviewed. In this species, females compete for males, which are choosier than females. Before mating, females display a sexual ornament, a cross-wise striped pattern along their body sides. This ornament is here shown to be an amplifier that facilitates for males to tell females of different sizes apart
This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…
Extravagant secondary sexual characters, i.e. sexual ornaments, are exaggerated, often bilaterally symmetrical traits of great intricacy of design. The full expression of such traits is likely to be very costly and close to the limits of production. Any kind of environmental stress is therefore more likely to affect the expression of ornaments than that of any other morphological trait not
Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody hosts. A range of woody ornamental plant species, including Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Acer
This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…
This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…
Human trafficking is an old, but increasingly complex, phenomenon. In an age of globalization and transnationalism, demand for cheap labour and services fuels a trade deeply rooted in different cultural and historical contexts. Human traffickers share those roots with their respective diasporas the world over. This paper examines the case for an empirical investigation, and gender-sensitive analysis, of the connections
A central statement of the theory of natural trading partners is that preferential trading with regional trading partners is less likely to be trade diverting and therefore geographically proximate partners are to be considered \\
Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to demonstrate increased phenotypic variation between and within individuals as compared to ordinary morphological traits. We tested whether this was the case by studying phenotypic variation, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), and developmental instability, measured as fluctuating asymmetry (FA), in ornamental and non-ornamental traits of 70 bird species with feather ornamentation while
This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)
A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical
Jing You; Rebecca A. Kelley; Curtis C. Crouse; Jesse T. Trushenski; Michael J. Lydy
Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.
Butterflies are among nature's most colorful animals, and provide a living showcase for how extremely bright, chromatic and iridescent coloration can be generated by complex optical mechanisms. The gross characteristics of male butterfly colour patterns are understood to function for species and/or sex recognition, but it is not known whether female mate choice promotes visual exaggeration of this coloration. Here I show that females of the sexually dichromatic species Hypolimnas bolina prefer conspecific males that possess bright iridescent blue/ultraviolet dorsal ornamentation. In separate field and enclosure experiments, using both dramatic and graded wing colour manipulations, I demonstrate that a moderate qualitative reduction in signal brightness and chromaticity has the same consequences as removing the signal entirely. These findings validate a long-held hypothesis, and argue for the importance of intra- versus interspecific selection as the driving force behind the exaggeration of bright, iridescent butterfly colour patterns. PMID:17284412
Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.
Several models predict that both market liquidity and trading volume generated by less informed traders do not increase when there is insider trading. Available empirical evidence is mixed and still relatively small, because of the inherent di¢ culty to identify insider trading events. Our econometric work, based on 19 suspect insider trading events drawn from the non-public ?file of the
Fabio C. Bagliano; Carlo A. Favero; Giovanna Nicodano
The aromatic profiles of five commercial thyme cultivars (T. vulgaris 'Silver Poise', T. vulgaris 'Erectus', T. vulgaris 'Faustini', T. x citriodorus 'Anderson's Gold', and T. x citriodorus 'Silver Queen'), cultivated in Italy, were defined both by their static headspaces (HS) and essential oils (EOs). In addition, a botanical garden sample of T. vulgaris was considered as reference material to evaluate the morphological and phytochemical differences from the selected market samples. Extractions of the volatile constituents of the different plant material were carried out by SPME (static headspace, HS) and hydrodistillation (HD) processes. GC-MS analysis provided the separation and identification of approximately 70 components in the HS samples and 50 in the hydrodistilled essential oils, accounting for more than 95% of the total. The typical main constituents of T. vulgaris were detected in all the EO samples, although qualitative and quantitative differences were found among the selected ornamental Thymus varieties. Thymol (50-55%) was the marker constituent for the three T. vulgaris cultivars, while geraniol (61-67%) characterized the essential oils of the two T. x citriodorus varieties. In all the analyzed essential oils, non-oxygenated (16-79%) and oxygenated (5-26%) monoterpenes were the typical volatile constituents. Specific target compounds (thymol, geraniol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) were selected to characterize the five thyme cultivars that are considered at present only as ornamental plants. A comparative evaluation of their EO quality was carried out in order to propose them as alternative sources of Italian raw plant material for industrial production. PMID:20334146
This invention is directed to the use of spinosyn or a physiologically acceptable derivative or salt thereof for improved production of fish; controlling ectoparasite infestations in aquaculture raised fish; and fish feed formulations.
Fish Allergy Finned fish can cause severe allergic reactions (such as anaphylaxis ). Therefore it is advised that ... necessarily mean that you must avoid both. Avoiding Fish The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...
Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)
The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol\\/l potassium phosphate
Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamentaltrade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback.
Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamentaltrade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128
Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, Üça??zl? Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (roughly 41,000–43,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels in Üça??zl? Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions.
Kuhn, Steven L.; Stiner, Mary C.; Reese, David S.; Gulec, Erksin
The primary purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of fertilizer nitrogen source on survival and growth of several woody ornamental species used in highway plantings. Even without nitrogen fertilization, very satisfactory growth occurred. ...
This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)
B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749
Global wildlife trade exacerbates the spread of nonindigenous species. Pathogens also move with hosts through trade and often are released into naïve populations with unpredictable outcomes. Amphibians are moved commercially for pets, food, bait, and biomedicine, and are an excellent model for studying how wildlife trade relates to pathogen pollution. Ranaviruses are amphibian pathogens associated with annual population die-offs; multiple strains of tiger salamander ranaviruses move through the bait trade in the western United States. Ranaviruses infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish and are of additional concern because they can switch hosts. Tiger salamanders are used as live bait for freshwater fishing and are a potential source for ranaviruses switching hosts from amphibians to fish. We experimentally injected largemouth bass with a bait trade tiger salamander ranavirus. Largemouth bass became infected but exhibited no signs of disease or mortality. Amphibian bait ranaviruses have the potential to switch hosts to infect fish, but fish may act as dead-end hosts or nonsymptomatic carriers, potentially spreading infection as a result of trade. PMID:20411298
Picco, Angela M; Karam, Abraham P; Collins, James P
Female mate preferences for extreme male ornaments may arise and be maintained because males signal their ability to raise\\u000a an immune defence against parasites by the size of their ornaments. The bursa of Fabricius is an organ involved in antibody\\u000a synthesis in young birds, but regresses before sexual maturity. The relationship between badge size, condition, and immune\\u000a defence was investigated
Three ornamental bromeliads, i.e. Aechmea ‘Maya’ (CAM), Aechmea fasciata ‘Primera’ (CAM) and Guzmania ‘Hilda’ (C3) were grown under greenhouse conditions at ambient (380ppm) and elevated (750ppm) CO2. The effects of long-term exposure (34 weeks) to elevated CO2 on growth and morphological traits constituting the ornamental value were assessed.Aechmea ‘Maya’ and A. fasciata ‘Primera’ showed a different growth response to elevated
S. Croonenborghs; J. Ceusters; E. Londers; M. P. De Proft
The Spotted Fish model attempts to track the trait change [spot size] of a population of spotted fish in a pond with ample food supply with a constant number of predators. The predators in the pond are attracted to the fishes spots, and the chance of a fish being spotted and eaten by a predator is proportional to it`s spot size squared.
Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.
The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization. PMID:20099108
Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco
Radial ornamentation patterns in brachiopods (eg. ribs, costellae) result from accretionary growth of a crenulated shell margin. The direction of rib growth represents the orientation of the crenulated fabric at the time of shell formation. Morphologic analysis reveals a close relationship between rib growth patterns and the position of adductor muscle attachment sites in the shell. In the brachial valves of most orthid brachiopods, the directions of rib growth, when projected backwards into the shell, converge on the anterior, or catch, adductor muscle scars. One explanation for the observed relationship is that the crenulated surface provides rigidity to the thin growing margin of the shell thereby resisting deformations caused by the adductor loadings. Alternatively, calcite secretion may be mediated by strain-induced growth mechanisms as observed in vertebrate bone growth patterns. Correspondence of muscle position with shell geometry indicates that muscle placement may be constrained by mechanical properties of the shell rather than by requirements of the hinge mechanism. Morphologic diversity among brachiopods is discussed in terms of structural and mechanical constraints on form.
Among downy mildews occurring on ornamentals in Poland the most dangerous are downy mildew of rose and downy mildew of German statice (Tartarian statice). Downy mildew of rose caused by Peronospora sparsa Berk. is a serious threat to commercial cultivation of cut roses, especially grown under plastic tunnels. Peronospora statices Lobik casual agent of German statice downy mildew can causes the total losses in the second year of statice cultivation more than 70%. Both pathogens are very difficult to control. Effectiveness of azoxystrobine, cymoxanil + famoxate, mancozeb, phosethyl aluminium, phosethyl aluminium + fenamidone, propamocarb in the control of P. sparsa and P. statices was presented. In the control of statice downy mildew none of tested compounds was able to control satisfactory the pathogen. Relatively the best results were obtained with mixture of fenamidone (88 microg/cm3) and phosethyl AL (1334 microg/cm3). In the control of rose downy mildew, the best results were obtained with phosethyl Al at concentration 1600 microg/cm3. PMID:17390852
The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2) pine bark with 15% of sewage sludge compost, (3) pine bark with 30% of sewage sludge compost, (4) coconut fibre, (5) coconut fibre with 15% of sewage sludge compost and (6) coconut fibre with 30% of sewage sludge compost. Substrates were physically and chemically well characterized, and 75-cm plants were grown on them for one year. Plant and substrate status were periodically tested along the experiment. As biosolid recycling is the main objective of the present work, the mixtures with 30% of composted sewage sludge will be the most convenient substrate to use. For C. sempervirens and C. arizonica, a mixture between pine bark or coconut fibre and 30% of biosolid compost in volume gave the best results, but the lower cost of the pine bark than the coconut fibre substrate indicated the use of the PB+30% CSS. For P. pinea the research of new combinations between waste products is recommended to attain better results. PMID:15364091
Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gascó, Antonio M; Gascó, José M; Guerrero, Francisca
Floral senescence involves an ordered set of events coordinated at the plant, flower, organ and cellular level. This review assesses our current understanding of the input signals, signal transduction and cellular processes that regulate petal senescence and cell death. In many species a visible sign of petal senescence is wilting. This is accompanied by remobilization of nutrients from the flower to the developing ovary or to other parts of the plant. In other species, petals abscise while still turgid. Coordinating signals for floral senescence also vary across species. In some species ethylene acts as a central regulator, in others floral senescence is ethylene insensitive and other growth regulators are implicated. Due to the variability in this coordination and sequence of events across species, identifying suitable models to study petal senescence has been challenging, and the best candidates are reviewed. Transcriptomic studies provide an overview of the MAP kinases and transcription factors that are activated during petal senescence in several species including Arabidopsis. Our understanding of downstream regulators such as autophagy genes and proteases is also improving. This gives us insights into possible signalling cascades that regulate initiation of senescence and coordination of cell death processes. It also identifies the gaps in our knowledge such as the role of microRNAs. Finally future prospects for using all this information from model to non-model species to extend vase life in ornamental species is reviewed. PMID:22983713
In this study, we use extreme bounds analysis to test the robustness of the hypothesis that regional trading arrangements (RTAs) are trade creating. Extreme bounds analysis provides a more rigorous test of specification uncertainty than traditional econometric theory by incorporating prior information and using a systematic approach to testing the fragility of coefficient estimates. The results show that the trade
The current paper addresses the relationship between trade and endogenous pollution levels, with a focus different from the previous literature. The mechanism linking pollution and trade here is that trade policy provides the home government with a credible threat that helps motivate domestic firms to adopt cleaner technologies. This credible threat comes from the fact that the government has a
This book provides a much needed quantitative response to the classic question of who gains and who loses in trade liberalization and shows how important the process is for the global economy. It contributes significantly to the debate concerning trade between developed and developing countries. John Whalley describes and uses a numerical general equilibrium model of world trade to explore
Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may not accelerate industrialization and growth. This is because there are
We examine insider trading activities of all companies traded on the NYSE, AMEX, and Nasdaq during the 1975-95 period. In general, very little market movement is observed when insiders trade and when they report their trades to the SEC. Insiders in aggregate are contrarian investors. However, they predict market movements better than simple contrarian strategies. Insiders also seem to be
Countries with better institutions and countries that trade more grow faster. Countries with better institutions also tend to trade more. These three stylized facts have been documented extensively. Here we investigate the partial effects of institutions and trade on growth. We argue that cross-country regressions of the log-level of per capita GDP on instrumented measures of trade and institutional quality
With the growing number of marketplaces and trading partners in the e- commerce environment, software tools designed to act on behalf of human traders are increasingly used to automate trading activities. This paper describes a model for constructing trading engines which are capable of concurrently participating in multiple interrelated negotiations with heterogeneous protocols. The behaviour of these trading engines is
Yain-Whar Si; David Edmond; Arthur H. M. Ter Hofstede; Marlon Dumas
Why are trade barriers often used to protect home producers, even at the cost of introducing deadweight losses from higher commodity prices? We add an informational friction to the standard textbook argument in favor of free trade, and show that trade restrictions may be a more ecient policy than a lump sum transfer to the displaced producers. Trade barriers, while
This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.
Trade liberalization is the reverse process of protectionism. After previous protectionist decisions, trade liberalization\\u000a occurs when governments decide to move back toward free trade. Trade liberalization may take place unilaterally. Extensive\\u000a trade liberalization that occurred among the richer countries in the second half of the twentieth century was however reciprocal\\u000a and multilateral. Many governments reciprocated each other’s liberalization decisions, and
This paper examines how national income and trading opportunities interact to determine the level and incidence of world pollution. The authors find that free trade raises world pollution if incomes differ substantially across countries; if trade equalizes factor prices, human-capital-abundant countries lose from trade, while human-capital-scarce countries gain; international trade in pollution permits can lower world pollution even when governments'
...INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [Docket No. FWS-R9-IA-2011-0087...of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade...Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. [[Page...as a Party to the Convention on International Trade...contacting the Division of Management Authority (see...
Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations.
The Cytisus-Genista complex includes species that have become invasive following introduction into new geographic ranges as ornamental shrubs. Despite their impacts, the evolutionary relationships among invasives, ornamentals, and native-range species have never been investigated. Our objective was to examine relationships within the Cytisus-Genista complex to determine (1) the taxonomic identity of invasive "French broom" and ornamental "sweet broom" and (2) whether "sweet broom" contributes to "French broom" populations directly or via hybridization. We used sequence data from chloroplast and nuclear regions to gain insight into evolutionary origins and to confirm taxonomic status. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest a complex evolutionary history that includes hybridization events. Placement of invasive and ornamental individuals within the Cytisus-Genista complex resolves taxonomic uncertainty in these groups, as our phylogenetic analyses recovered separate "French broom" and "sweet broom" clades within the G. monspessulana clade in the genus Genista. Extensive cloning and sequencing of the ITS region revealed that, although the majority of invasive "French broom" in California is Genista monspessulana, hybridization with individuals from the ornamental "sweet broom" clade likely occurs in populations throughout the state. PMID:21925614
Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods.
Both sexual selection and natural selection can influence the form of dimorphism in secondary sexual traits. Here, we used a comparative approach to examine the relative roles of sexual selection and natural selection in the evolution of sexually dimorphic coloration (dichromatism) and ornamentation in agamid lizards. Sexual dimorphism in head and body size were used as indirect indicators of sexual selection, and habitat type (openness) as an index of natural selection. We examined separately the dichromatism of body regions "exposed to" and "concealed from" visual predators, because these body regions are likely to be subject to different selection pressures. Dichromatism of "exposed" body regions was significantly associated with habitat type: males were typically more conspicuously coloured than females in closed habitats. By contrast, dichromatism of "concealed" body regions and ornament dimorphism were positively associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD). When we examined male and female ornamentation separately, however, both were positively associated with habitat openness in addition to snout-vent length and head SSD. These results suggest that natural selection constrains the evolution of elaborate ornamentation in both sexes as well as sexual dichromatism of body regions exposed to visual predators. By contrast, dichromatism of "concealed" body regions and degree of ornament dimorphism appear to be driven to a greater degree by sexual selection.
... 1 serving) per week. • Do not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating fish caught in local waters. State health departments have ...
Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)
... where humans eat uncooked or undercooked fish from rivers or lakes, including: African countries in which freshwater fish are eaten Eastern Europe North and South America Scandinavia Some Asian countries After a person ...
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada serves up market information on fish and seafood at this site. The site contains fact sheets on a few of the 120 species of fish and shellfish taken commercially from Canadian waters. Pitched at seafood-loving consumers/ buyers, the fact sheets include distribution information, identification tips, nutritional profiles, product forms, preparation techniques, markets, and suppliers. An interesting component of the site is the searchable Suppliers Directory, in which users may search for suppliers by product name. The site also offers statistics highlighting Canada's seafood trade performance (exports and imports) for the year 2000. An events calendar lists upcoming seafood shows. For anyone interested in the market forces driving marine resource extraction in Canada (or anywhere else, for that matter), this site will be an interesting eye-opener.
In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.
Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)
In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.
The grunting toadfish, Allenbatrachus grunniens, is an ornamentalfish in freshwater aquariums, and it has the ability to produce sounds. The sonic muscle of the toadfish is the fastest vertebrate muscle ever measured, and the rates of Ca(2+) transport and cross-bridge dissociation are also the fastest. Parvalbumins (PAs) are Ca(2+)-binding proteins that help in muscle relaxation in vertebrates. Several PA isoforms have been identified in variable ratios in different muscle types. Both male and female grunting toadfish have intrinsic sonic muscles attached to their swim bladders, but no significant difference in morphology between male and female sonic muscles has been observed. In this study, we used SDS-PAGE and western blotting to characterize the total PA expression and to identify the PAs from the sonic muscle and the white body muscle of A. grunniens. Although the total PA concentrations were similar in sonic and white muscles, there were differences in the isoform percentages. Two and four PA isoforms were identified from sonic muscle and white muscle, respectively. The estimated sizes of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the sonic muscle of the grunting toadfish were 10, 10.5, and 10.5 kDa, respectively, and the isoelectric points of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the grunting toadfish were 4.77, 4.58, and 4.42, respectively. In the sonic muscle, the primary PA isoform was PA1, which comprised more than 94 % of total PA, whereas PA2 comprised only 5 % of the total PA content. In contrast, in white muscle, the primary isoform was PA2, which comprised 58 % of the total PA. Both PA1 (with PA1a) and PA3 represented approximately 20 % of the total PA in white muscle. These results indicate that there is no positive correlation between a high PA content and the speed of muscle relaxation; however, PA1 might have the greatest effect on the relaxation of the grunting toadfish's sonic muscle. PMID:22744796
In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.
Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.
The large ornamental nursery industry in Dade County (FL) was devastated by hurricane Andrew in August, 1992. The storm damaged or destroyed approximately 1,300 acres of nursery shadehouses and greenhouses, and over 4,000 acres of woody ornamental nursery crops. The extent of damages to nurseries was surveyed shortly after the storm. A group of 11 nursery managers who suffered extensive
Ornaments displayed by females have often been denied evolutionary interest due to their frequently reduced expression relative to males, habitually attributed to a genetic correlation between the sexes. We estimated annual and lifetime reproductive success of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and applied capture-mark-recapture models to analyse annual survival rates in relation to the patterns of expression (absence/presence) of an ornament displayed by all males and a fraction of females. Overall, the likelihood of expressing the ornament increased nonlinearly with female age and was due to within-individual variation, not to the selective appearance or disappearance of ornament-related expression of phenotypes in the population. Accordingly, expressing the forehead patch in a given year did not influence survival probability. However, those females expressing the ornament at early ages (1-2 years old) enjoyed survival advantages throughout lifetime. Although ornamented females had higher lifetime fecundity and fledging success, their yearly reproductive performance, in terms of fledging productivity, decreased as they aged so that, late in life, ornamented females reared fewer offspring than nonexpressing females of the same age. In addition, both strategies (expressing vs. not expressing the trait) returned similar fitness payoffs in terms of recruited offspring. Our results support the hypothesis that fecundity and survival selection are involved in the displaying of this 'male' ornament by females. PMID:23638705
The nature of the costs maintaining honesty of sexual signalling in inter- and intrasexual interactions remains a contentious\\u000a issue. For carotenoid-based colour ornaments, it has been hypothesized that the honesty of the signal is enforced when carotenoid\\u000a allocation to colour expression is traded off against carotenoid availability for immunocompetence. In addition, honesty is\\u000a enforced if androgens required for colour expression
Peter D. Dijkstra; Renske Hekman; Rüdiger W. Schulz; Ton G. G. Groothuis
Our project addresses the following problem: no platform exists allowing investors the ability to trade on international markets from a single location. The twelve leading online investment programs (by trade volume) provide access to U.S. security exchanges only. A second, related problem is the lack of a fully automated investment portal availing itself of new technologies. Many of these technologies
Gunnar Cuevas; Matthew Dale; Asmaa Idrisu; Jonathan Lee; G. Donohue; A. Loerch; M. Parodi
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of a paratype specimen (gravid female) of the philometrid nematode Paraphilometroides nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, the type species of Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, made it possible to recognise the true structure of the cephalic end and the shape of cuticular ornamentations on the body. In contrast to other philometrid genera, the cephalic end is angular in lateral view and rounded in dorsoventral view; large external cephalic papillae are fused together to form a marked dorsal and a ventral ala, each bent into a curve; six minute internal papillae, including a pair of previously not reported lateral papillae, were found; amphids were indistinct. Cuticular ornamentations (inflations) were found to be transversely elongated. These features, especially the unique cephalic structure, clearly distinguish Paraphilometroides from other philometrids and confirm the validity of this genus. Moravec and Shaharom-Harrison (1989) erected the hitherto monotypic philometrid genus Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989 with the type species P. Nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, described from females found in the fins and operculum of the marine fish (notchedfin threadfin bream) Nemipterusperonii (Valenciennes) from off the South China Sea coast, Malaysia. The male of P. nemipteri remains unknown. The authors distinguished Paraphilometroides from the related genus Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 mainly by the unusual structure of the female cephalic end, which is unique within the family Philometridae (see Moravec 2006). However, P. nemipteri was studied only by light microscopy (LM), whereas some details of the cephalic structure, especially the cephalic papillae of gravid philometrid females are usually difficult to observe by LM due to a various degree of their reduction and atrophy (Moravec 2004); in the past, some philometrid species were even reported to have no cephalic papillae. Consequently, the only reliable method to study the cephalic structures in philometrids is the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, one of the ethanol-preserved paratype specimens (gravid female) of P. nemipteri, deposited in the Helminthologi-cal Collection of the Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre PMID:21344844
The report documents trade among 18 West African countries. Recorded trade data were collected from official sources, and a method was developed for estimating unrecorded trade. The role of trade in the economies of major exporters and importers is discus...
The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the marketâ€™s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a
This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…
EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.
The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students t
White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul
...administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MELE KAI...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel MELE KAI is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sport fishing...
...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...
...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...
The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.
Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…
Classic plant breeding has increased the beauty and utility of ornamental plants, but biotechnology can offer completely new traits for plants used in homes and gardens. The creation of blue petal color in carnations and roses are examples where biotechnology has created novelty that conventional hybridization cannot match. However, all innovations have benefits and risks, and future commercialization of transgenic
The brilliantly coloured throat patch in male bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, influences their social mating success and both within- and extra-pair paternity. Female bluethroats are highly variable in their extent of throat coloration, from entirely drab to almost male-like. The ornament in females could be due to a genetic correlation between the sexes. However, it has been shown that male
Hardy ornamental nursery stock (HONS) is container grown in systems employing frequent irrigation and considerable applications of nutrients and pesticides. These container systems are frequently isolated from the underlying soil by an impermeable membrane resulting in near-surface drainage from the beds. An experiment was established to examine the losses of nitrate, phosphorus and selected agrochemicals from a peat-based growing medium
G. L. Harris; R. A. Hodgkinson; M. Scott; D. J. Mason; T. J. Pepper
Summary 1. The development of biological control strategies for ornamental crops is challeng- ing due to the high diversity of crops grown and zero tolerance to pest presence. In an attempt to provide a biological basis for the development of biological control, an individual-based stochastic modelling approach was developed. 2. This approach has been used to examine the impact of
David J. Skirvin; Michael E. De Courcy Williams; John S. Fenlon; Keith D. Sunderland
This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…
The death of ornamental plants can sometimes be attributed to the effects of soil sterilants. These chemicals are often used under asphalt and paved areas adjacent to plantings of trees. Tree roots can and do grow under paved areas and come into contact with the chemicals. The symptoms of this sort of poisoning can often mimic other kinds of injury
The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…
The efficacy of copper hydroxide formulations in controlling land snails was tested on two plots of cut green ornamentals in shadehouses. One was a Ruscus hypoglossum plot that was infected and damaged by Monacha syriaca; the second was an Aspidistra elatior plot that was infected and damaged mainly by Theba pisana and M. syriaca. Two formulations of water dispersible granules
Studies of female mate choice in fowl typically invoke ornament size as the best predictor of male repro- ductive success. The strongest evidence comes from experiments in which a hen is presented with two unfamiliar and physically separated males that she can evaluate and mate with for up to 120 min. This design controls for prior experience and maleemale competition,
David R. Wilson; Karen L. Bayly; Ximena J. Nelson; Michael Gillings; Christopher S. Evans
Ethephon ((2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid) is registered for use in controlling dwarf and leafy mistletoe infestations in ornamental trees. Practical use of ethephon (as Florel® at label rate) is limited to suppression of dwarf and leafy mistletoe spread. Ethephon at label rates causes ab- scission of aerial dwarf mistletoe shoots and partial abscission of leafy mistletoe shoots, but in either application
The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a common ornamental tree that possesses numerous useful derivatives (escin, cholesterol-escin complex, glycolic, soft and dry extracts, esculin) in different parts of the plant, especially the seeds and trunk bark. These derivatives are widely used in dermatology and pharmacology, mainly for the treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, but also in the cosmetic
Sexual selection has been the prevalent explanation for the evolution of birds' elaborate feather ornaments. An overlooked possibility is that feather appendages arose due to a naturally selected sensory function involving sensitivity to pressure or touch to facilitate obstacle avoidance either in flight or on land. Here, we show experimentally that elongated facial feather adornments of whiskered auklets (Aethia pygmaea),
THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. SUGGESTIONS FOR…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
During surveys carried out in 2008 in the nurseries of some ornamental and medical plants, about 90 plant samples belonging to six plant species were collected. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was detected by routinely double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) in most tested plants. In Vinca rosea, Ocimum basilicum and Pelargonium sp., which reacted positively for CMV, 100% of
The striking diversity of sexual dimorphisms in nature begs the question: Why are there so many signal types? One possibility is that ornamental traits convey different sets of information about the quality of the sender to the receiver. The colourful, pigmented feathers of male birds seem to meet the predictions of this hypothesis. Evidence suggests that carotenoid pigmentation reflects the nutritional condition of males during moult, whereas in many instances melanin pigmentation is a reliable indicator of social status. However, as of yet there have been no experimental tests to determine how these two ornament types respond to the same form of environmental stress. In this study, we tested the effect of endoparasitic infection by intestinal coccidians (Isospora sp.) on the expression of both carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration in captive male American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). We found that the carotenoid-based plumage and bill coloration of parasitized males was less saturated than that developed by unparasitized males, but that the brightness and size of melanin-based black caps did not differ between the groups. These findings provide the most robust empirical support to date for the notion that carotenoid and melanin ornaments reveal different information to conspecifics.
Several studies have shown female preference for conspecific males with the attached artificial ornaments of more elaborate heterospecifics. However, preference for heterospecifics under natural conditions is relatively rare. We tested what factors affect behavioural mechanisms of species isolation using three species of estrildid finch (genus Uraeginthus) that occur in both sympatry and allopatry. These finches differ in degree of sexual dimorphism; male ornamentation; behavioural and morphological similarity; and phylogenetic distance. Paired mate-choice trials were used in which females were presented with a conspecific and heterospecific male to test which of the above between-species differences best predicted the degree of premating isolation. The three species differed in the degree of species-specific mate preference shown. Females from the brighter two species discriminated against dull males, independently of sympatry-allopatry, similarity and phylogenetic distance. Females from the dull species reacted to conspecific males and brighter heterospecific males equally strongly, independently of similarity and phylogenetic distance. In contrast to previous studies, an equal preference for heterospecific and conspecific males was found under natural conditions. It is suggested that differences between closely related species in male ornamentation affect the likelihood that premating isolation will occur due to the fact that sexual selection tends to drive preferences for exaggerated ornamentation.
The evolution of male ornamentation often reflects compromises between sexual and natural selection, but it may also be influenced by phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the developmental plasticity of male colour ornamentation in Trinidadian guppies in response to two environmental variables that covary in nature: predation risk and food availability. We found that exposure to chemical predator cues delayed the development of pigment-based colour elements, which are conspicuous to visual-oriented predators. Predator cues also reduced the size of colour elements at the time of maturity and caused adult males to be less colourful. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first example of a plastic reduction in the development of a sexually selected male ornament in response to predator cues. The influence of predator cues on ornamentation probably affects individual fitness by reducing conspicuousness to predators, but could reduce attractiveness to females. Reduced food availability during development caused males to delay the development of colour elements and mature later, probably reflecting a physiological constraint, but their coloration at maturity and later in adulthood was largely unaffected, suggesting that variation in food quantity without variation in quality does not contribute to condition dependence of the trait.
Ruell, E. W.; Handelsman, C. A.; Hawkins, C. L.; Sofaer, H. R.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Angeloni, L.
Introducing a futures market for fishing rights would increase utility for risk averse fishermen. We use the EV model to analyze possible reductions in (expected) profits for futures trading that would make fishermen indifferent between the situation with and without futures markets. It is found that a futures market for fishing rights enables policy makers to pursue substantial cuts in
The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound. They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation. The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....
Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.
While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.
In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…
This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.
A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892
Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki
World fish resources, fishing methods, and processing operations in the seafood industry are described. The fishery situation in developing countries (LDCs) is discussed, with particular reference to artisanal and other local fisheries, and examples are cited to illustrate the structure of the industry. Technology transfer from developed countries to LDCs is discussed and recommendations are presented for future technology transfer
Using a sample of 2189 firms from 21 countries we find that, on average, stricter insider trading regulations reduce private information trading. However, for firms with high agency costs, insider trading restrictions are less effective in deterring private information trading. We suggest that controlling shareholders who are banned from trading may resort to covert expropriation of firm resources thereby reducing
British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.
The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…
White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul
Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...
Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...
Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissues of ornamental plants showing symptoms of leaf spot, crown and root rot. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., C. pseudomexicana sp. nov. and C. tunisiana sp. nov., were recognised. Calonectria mexicana and C. polizzii are newly reported for the African continent. Pathogenicity tests with all four Calonectria spp. showed that they are able to cause disease on seedlings of Callistemon spp., Dodonaea viscosa, Metrosideros spp. and Myrtus communis. PMID:22403477
Lombard, L; Polizzi, G; Guarnaccia, V; Vitale, A; Crous, P W
We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels.
... and lower the need for medications in some children with asthma. However, fish oil treatment doesn’t seem to provide the same benefit for adults.Chest pain (angina). Gum infection (gingivitis). Liver disease. Leg pain ...
The efficacy of phosphonic acid (phosphorous acid) (Foli-R-Fos 200, 20% wlv potassium phosphonate) to control root rots of\\u000a subterranean clover and ornamental plant species caused by Phytophthora spp. was evaluated. The fungicide effectively protected subterranean clover plants (cv. Woogenellup) from severe tap-root\\u000a rot caused by P. clandestina in irrigated pastures and also protected several ornamental species grown in pasteurised potting
Melanin-based ornaments are often involved in signaling aggression and dominance, and their role in sexual selection is increasingly\\u000a recognized. We investigated the functions of a melanin-based plumage ornament (facial ‘mask’) in male Eurasian penduline tits\\u000a Remiz pendulinus in the contexts of male–male aggression, mating success, and parental care. The penduline tit is a passerine bird with a\\u000a unique mating system
Sjouke A. Kingma; István Szentirmai; Tamás Székely; Veronika Bókony; Maarten Bleeker; András Liker; Jan Komdeur
Genetic theories of sexual selection predict that most ornamental secondary sexual traits provide reliable indication of the\\u000a genetic quality of their bearers. Accordingly, also the offspring of mates with elaborate mating display should perform better\\u000a than those of less conspicuous counterparts. In this study, we used Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) as a model species to investigate whether the variation in
Matti Janhunen; Nina Peuhkuri; Craig R. Primmer; Irma Kolari; Jorma Piironen
Molt sovint, les patologies que pateixen la vegetació ornamental no es deuen a la casuística i a la mala sort. En un elevat percentatge, l'adopció d'una gestió inadequada i la pràctica d'activitats incorrectes, bé des d'un principi, com al llarg del temps, són la causa i l'inici del problema. Llavors, tant la vegetació arbrada, com l'arbustiva, palmeres, gespes i planta
The colonisation of ornamental marble statues in theBoboli Gardens of Florence (Italy) by photosyntheticmicro-organisms was investigated. The greenmicroalga Coccomyxa was the first colonizer ofnewly restored marble surfaces, appearing one yearafter the periodic cleaning and restoration of thestatues. Two years after restoration this alga gaverise to very thin green biofilms, with densitiesreaching about 3 × 102 cells cm-2. Later,the biofilms were
Phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants were characterized based on their diversity and activity towards the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major air pollutants in urban area. The amounts of PAH-degrading bacteria were about 1-10% of the total heterotrophic phyllosphere populations and consisted of diverse bacterial species such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Mycobacterium, and uncultured bacteria. Bacterial community structures analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis from each plant species showed distinct band patterns. The uniqueness of these phyllosphere bacterial communities was partly due to the variation in leaf morphology and chemical properties of ornamental plants. The PAH degradation activity of these bacteria was monitored in gas-tight systems containing sterilized or unsterilized leaves. The results indicated that phyllosphere bacteria on unsterilized leaves were able to enhance the activity of leaves for phenanthrene removal. When compared between plant species, phenanthrene removal efficiency corresponded to the size of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. In addition, phyllosphere bacteria on Wrightia religiosa were able to reduce other PAHs such as acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and fluorine in 60-ml glass vials and in a 14-l glass chamber. Thus, phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants may play an important role in natural attenuation of airborne PAHs in urban areas. PMID:20107780
Soon after the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations came to a standstill in July 2006, the European Union (EU) announced its intention to enter into more bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs). While the EU historically has been a le...
Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)
National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.
The Trade Action Monitoring System (TAMS) is a tool to track the various petition on the 1974 Trade Act, such as, Escape Clause (Section 201), Antidumping, countervailing duties (Section 301) and unfair trading practices (Section 337). This report illustr...
This paper discussed two measures of value added flows between countries ‘Trade in value added’ accounts for value added of one country directly and indirectly embodied in final consumption of another country. ‘Value added in trade’ measures the value added embodied in gross trade flows. The paper shows that both measures result in the same overall net trade of a
The gravity model is used extensively to investigate the trade flow effects of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). A notable feature common to previous research is the use of aggregate trade data. These studies typically report conflicting, and even negative results of the effect of RTAs on members' trade. Using recent developments in the gravity equation suggested by Baier and Bergstrand
The 2006 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-first in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Trade Act), as ame...
Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...
Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)
This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…
Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts
Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)
The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054
A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode. PMID:19262861
Khan, Mujeebur Rahman; Khan, Shahana M; Mohide, Faya
Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.
Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher
The price discovery roles of a set of related markets or securities have been investigated in many different settings where\\u000a trading costs effect is often commingled with other trading arrangement factors. In Hong Kong, regular futures and mini futures\\u000a contracts as well as their underlying spot asset are all traded on a same electronic trading platform. The trading arrangements\\u000a thus
This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343
Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. PMID:20691955
This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associating with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae--Represented by one species only The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell) = (Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae--Represented by the seven species Florida wax scale. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale. Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale. Caccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale. Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) Family: Diaspididae--Represented by the ten species: Oleander scale. Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale. Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale. Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale. Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale. Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale. Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale. Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Family: Eriococcidae--Represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators), were also noticed to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects. PMID:12425080
Mourad, A K; Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K S; Abdel-Razak, S I
Many manufactured good products present different market characteristics according to their pictorial aspects. Such aspects usually depends from many factors: in some cases they are related to the adopted production process, in other cases they are intrinsically linked to the handled material characteristics. Ornamental stone represent a typical example, where both the two previous mentioned factors have to be considered. Both the aspects, in fact, are of primarily importance to certify, in pictorial terms, the aesthetic attributes of slabs, tiles and, in general, of ornamental and/or dimensional stone based products. The study was mainly addressed to investigate the possibility to develop a methodology and a technique to measure the quality of the polished stone samples, evaluating at the same time, the effect of polishing on the final detected stone surface pictorial attributes. To reach such a goal a specially designed probe holder, together with computer generated spectrum analysis techniques, has been developed and measurements were made on various rock samples to quantify, independently from stone surface pictorial attributes, as color and texture, stone surface degree of polishing. The obtained results allowed to quantify the correlation existing between stone characteristics (constituting minerals, texture, structure) and surface status after different polishing actions.
Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value.
Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. PMID:23448043
Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N
Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.
A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection. PMID:17323085
Ornamentals plants and flowers Brazilian market has been presenting increase perspectives and consequent increment for the main segments of productive system: production, distribution and commercialization. This optimist prevision has been attracting new undertakes occasioning an increase of competition and the search necessity for new products and services. To understand the ornamental plants and flower new tendency and to analyze the
Marina Ceratti; Patrícia Duarte; Oliveira Paiva; Magno de Sousa; Thaísa Silva Tavares
Hybridization has played a dominant and decisive role in the origin of ornamental cannas. This has been made possible by the ecospecific differentiation of the parental species, which implies lack of barriers and a good deal of recombination associated with reasonably high fertility.Colour differences between species are controlled by a number of genes and their intensifiers, inhibitors, lethals, etc. From recombination in interspecific hybrids of such a wide range of genes, segregating simultaneously and involving complex segregation, arises a wide array of heterozygous genotypes with new colours and colour combinations, releasing much genetic diversity.Hybridization has also been responsible for transgressive segregation, particularly in length and breadth of staminodia and luxuriance, affecting not only plant height but also flower size. Perhaps the most important single factor responsible for the evolution of ornamental cannas has been the repeated cycles of hybridization which have led to the breakage of size and other barriers; this seems to have been exploited continuously until very large flower size was built up and combined with other useful vegetative and floral characters such as colour and number of flowers per inflorescence, extended blooming period, cold resistance, etc. The efficient vegetative propagation made fixing of the useful genotypes no problem, although they may contain a high degree of heterozygosity and sexual sterility.Along these lines, Année (hybrids between C. indica and C. glauca) and Ehemann (hybrids between C. iridiflora and C. warscwiczii) cannas came into being in 1848 and 1863 respectively. Although both were a distinct improvement over the original species, they were still relatively small-flowered and major improvements came roundabout 1868, when Crozy, Gladiolus or French Dwarf cannas (C. X generalis Bailey) were released. This group arose from hybrids and back crosses of the first two groups and contains diploids, interchange heterozygotes and autotriploids. When further intercrossing, inbreeding and selection yielded no significant improvement, "new blood" in the form of C. flaccida was introduced. The result was the release of Italian, Iris, Orchid or Giant flowered cannas (C. X orchiodes Bailey) in 1872. These are asynaptic seedless diploids and allo- or segmental allotriploids. By and large, Crozy cannas are the result of exploiting new genetic diversity and transgression, while Italian cannas owe their excellence to the luxuriance accompanying the introduction of C. flaccida.Next to hybridization, triploidy (14%) has been an important mechanism in the origin of cultivars with thicker, more durable and larger flower parts. The two types of triploids, autotriploids and segmental allotriploids, are distinguishable by their morphological and cytogenetical properties.It is evident that during the 44 years 1848-1892 the speed of evolution was rapid and its direction governed by the following principles of selection: increase in hardiness, reduction in height, spikes well above foliage, free flowering, erect flowers, increase in flower size, colour diversity, circular form of flowers, increase in thickness of flower parts and durability of flower, self shedding flowers, etc. The result has been the transformation of cannas from simple foliage plants to attractive ornamental flowers.It is noteworthy that selection for the two principal uses of canna not only involved different organs, but also took place in very different environments. While selection in ornamental canna was for floral parts under a temperate European climate new to Canna, that for starch involved the rhizome in its native habitat. It is interesting that the two different purposes of selection under different habitats have both ended in triploidy: in the ornamentals this has considerably enlarged the flowers, while in the starch-yielding C. edulis it has enlarged the fleshy rhizome but had a very limited effect on the flower. PMID:24435803
Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation.
Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.
Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean Ã¢ÂÂ a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)
Technical barriers strongly affect US|European agricultural and food trade. A 1996 USDA survey identifies 57 questionable European regulations affecting US agricultural exports with an estimated trade impact of $899.55 million. This article identifies European and US technical regulations that impede bilateral trade. The article provides a background for case studies and draws conclusions regarding the future role of technical barriers.
The 2011 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-sixth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published i...
The 2013 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the 28th in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published in March....
This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.
This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.
Spacecraft design is generally an exercise in design trade-offs: fuel vs. weight, power vs. solar cell area, radiation exposure vs. shield weight, etc. Proper analysis of these trades is critical in the development of lightweight, efficient, 'lean' satell...
Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668
Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando
This paper constructs a simple model of the steel sector in Europe distinguishing eight western and two eastern European regions. It models the production of steel and also the various trade restrictions extant in 1992. It uses this model first to calculate the output and welfare effects of rationalizing the sector to remove the excess capacity experienced in 1992 and
This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…
This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…
There is a broad consensus among US opinion leaders that our economic problem is largely one of failures of international competition -- that trade deficits have eroded our manufacturing base, that inability to sell on world markets has been a major drag on economic growth, and that imports from low-wage countries have caused a widening of income inequality. This paper
In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…
The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...
A survey of trade elasticities published for Latin American economies is conducted. Articles surveyed were published between 1975 and 1997. They include data from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Imports are found to be highly income elastic as well as very price inelastic. Relatively fewer export function estimates are reported for Latin America than for other regions of the world.
Thomas M Fullerton Jr; W Charles Sawyer; Richard L Sprinkle
The use of video playback, digitally-modified video images, and animations is a potentially powerful tool for exploring the interactions between morphological and behavioral components of complex sexually selected traits. The utility of digitally-modified video was evaluated by the responses of females to male images in which either the behavioral components of display or the colors of ornamentation were manipulated. Females
Females often possess ornaments that appear smaller and duller than homologous traits in males. These ornaments may arise as nonfunctional by-products of sexual selection in males and cause negative viability or fecundity selection in females in proportion to the cost of their production and maintenance. Alternatively, female ornaments may function as signals of quality that are maintained by sexual or social selection. In a 4-year study of 83 female common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) and their 222 young, we found strong viability and fecundity selection on the yellow bib, a carotenoid-based plumage ornament that is a target of sexual selection in males. Females with larger bibs were older, larger and more fecund than females with smaller bibs. However, bib size positively covaried with bib total brightness and carotenoid chroma, aspects of bib coloration that were under negative viability and fecundity selection. Females with more colourful bibs laid fewer eggs in their first clutch, were more likely to suffer total brood loss due to predation and were less likely to return to the study area. Selection against bib coloration limits the value of bib size as a quality indicator in females and may constrain the elaboration of bib attributes in males. PMID:24731149
Freeman-Gallant, C R; Schneider, R L; Taff, C C; Dunn, P O; Whittingham, L A
Several mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed for how carotenoid pigmentation of integumentary structures can serve as an honest signal of individual quality. These hypotheses are founded on proposed links between carotenoids, immuno responsiveness, and oxidative stress, but an absence of biochemical information on the oxidative pathways of carotenoids has limited the sophistication of such hypotheses. Based on published evidence, we propose that the oxidation of carotenoids for the purpose of ornamentation in birds and reptiles is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane. We predict that several carotenoid oxidation reactions yielding ornamental pigments occur on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Three of these reactions are proposed to occur within the ubiquinone biosynthesis cluster known as the Coq cluster consisting of approximately a dozen Coq members, tightly integrated and intimately associated with Complex I and III of the electron transport system. Ubiquinone and highly oxidized ornamental carotenoids share a stereochemically-conserved binding region suggesting that these two molecules may have shared similar pathways in the past. Carotenoids and ubiquinones may cooperate as redox participants in anti-radical reactions or independently in helping to maintain membrane or supra-complex stabilization during times of high-energy demand. Under this hypothesis, oxidation of carotenoids is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane potential such that ornamental coloration reflects the efficiency of cellular respiration. PMID:23131590
ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE, CARE FOR, AND MAINTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
This study examines the profitability of insider trading in the Thai stock market. The result shows that there is significant information content in insider trade in the Thai stock market. Thai corporate insiders can earn abnormal profits by trading on their own stocks for purchase transactions though they cannot gain from the superior information for sales transactions. Moreover, the result
U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and
The view that recent changes in the distribution of income primarily reflect technology rather than trade may be the majority opinion, but has been harshly criticized by some trade economists. This paper will argue that the critique in fact misses the point, essentially because the critics undertake the wrong thought experiments. Trade volumes are not irrelevant: if one poses the
A survey was carried out on occurrence of Mycobacterium marinum in fish kept in aquaria and those living in their natural environment. Species-specific qPCR targeting the erp and IS2404 genes together with the conventional culture method were used. The analysis of 72 ornamentalfish (n = 216 samples: gills, muscle and intestine) collected from aquaria revealed the presence of M. marinum in 30 individuals (41.7%) of whom 17 (23.6%) were later culture positive. Culture-independent detection revealed the presence of M. marinum in 16 of 83 environmental samples (19.3%) collected in aquaria. The presence of viable M. marinum cells was later confirmed in 5 samples (6.0%). No qPCR or culture positivity was observed when 123 groundwater fish and their corresponding environmental samples (n = 142) were analysed. PMID:23952681
Slany, M; Makovcova, J; Jezek, P; Bodnarova, M; Pavlik, I
Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a generalist predator used for biological control of insects attacking ornamental plants. Molecular identification of this species using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA was conducted for the first time. The complete sequence of ITS1 and fragments of its flanking 18S and 5.8S rDNA genes are reported herein. The estimated length of ITS1 of O. albidipennis was 305 bp. This spacer was nearly identical to its counterpart of Orius sp-Taif strain in spite of the difference in their length. The phylogentic relationships were determined using the maximum-likelihood method supported with strong bootstrap probabilities clustering of both taxa together. Further molecular markers could be useful to identify the Taif strain and support its sister relationship to the Egyptian O. albidipennis. PMID:23885782
Sayed, Samy M; Montaser, Metwally M; Elsayed, G; Amer, Sayed A M
Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh
Trade show management is a multi-faceted field, requiring a breadth of skills on the part of those engaged in the craft. Whether they go by the title of Show Manager, Director of Marketing, Vice President of Meetings\\/Conventions, or Director of Meetings\\/Conventions, these professionals work with exhibitors, attendees, and service providers to produce their events. The managers of the 200 largest
The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.
... of diseases found in fish. Below are some common diseases found in pet fish: Physical injury Parasites such ... in gray, pink or white wart-like growths (common in Koi fish) Velvet or coral fish disease: a parasitic disease that results in dusty and ...
Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)
Hook your students onto inquiry-based science by implementing this ooey, gooey fish guts activity into your science curriculum. The author developed this fish dissection lesson as an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative to the traditional and costly fish dissections on the "market." Students use inquiry, prediction, and teamwork to determine what fish eat and where they fit in the food web.
This activity is on page 8 of the pdf, part of the Sea Life Discovery Box. This is an activity exploring the characteristics of fish. Learners are asked if they have seen a fish and what elements they saw that let them know it was a fish. A song about fish may be sung, engaging young learners. Pictures and a book about fish are viewed and important elements that fish have are noted: "tail fin," "dorsal fin," "pectoral fins," "pelvic fins." A clownfish puppet is shown and learners identify its fish characteristics.
This paper empirically estimates the Service trade structure effects of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area based on endogenous treatment and differences-in-differences methods, The results prove that the likelihood of an new RTA membership is enhanced by similarity of endowment structure and compensation of expenditure pattern, and also RTA accelerates the inter-industry trade of service departments between partners. Overall, this indicates the
A wide variety of fish are known to induce allergic reactions following ingestion or inhalation of vapors by sensitized individuals.\\u000a Although the exact prevalence of fish sensitivity is not known, fish are among the most important food allergens; and as consumption\\u000a of fish increases, rates of sensitization are expected to increase. Diagnosis of fish allergy is aided by clinical history,
Carol O’Neil; Arthur A. Helbling; Samuel B. Lehrer
A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing\\u000athe benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of\\u000aBiomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:\\u000aSecuring Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in Trondheim, Norway in\\u000aApril 2006.\\u000aTrade in biomass fuels, electricity from renewable resources, renewable certificates\\u000aand CO2
H. M. Junginger; A. P. C. Faaij; K. Robertson; S. Woes-Gallasch; B. Schlamadinger
From the United States Trade Representative (USTR), this report "surveys significant foreign trade barriers to U.S. export." Created from information collected from government agencies including the USTR and the US Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, the report attempts to classify barriers in foreign trade into ten categories including import policies, government procedures, lack of intellectual property protection, and investment barriers. Reports on US trade relations with 55 countries, from the Arab League to Zimbabwe, are provided, giving succinct summaries of the outlined ten categories. Available in .pdf format only, the report may be downloaded by country or in its entirety.
Table of contents: Volume I; The report in brief; Developments in world merchandise trade; Trade trends in agriculture; Trade policy in an evolving global economy; Appendix tables; Volume II: World merchandise trade; Trade by product; Merchandise trade by...
In this report, we reviewed and analyzed wildlife import and export data collected by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for a seven-year period: 1997-2003. The report provides a broad overview of the U.S. role in wildlife trade. On a national level, we e...
Insider trading has received a bad name in recent decades. The popular press makes it sound like an evil practice where those\\u000a who engage in it are totally devoid of ethical principles. Yet not all insider trading is unethical and some studies have\\u000a concluded that certain kinds of insider trading are actually beneficial to the greater investment community. Some scholars
This report from Amnesty International has been issued as part of the organization's larger campaign against torture launched in October 2000. The report examines the ballooning international trade in both traditional tools of torture (e.g., leg irons and shackles) as well as newer electro-shock devices and other "non-lethal" weapons. The report reveals how torturers have been trained through the transfer of military and security training and makes a number of recommendations to governments and corporations on methods they can pursue to eradicate torture. Users may download the report by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format.
As part of the International DoubleClick Network, an affiliate of AltaVista, TradingCharts provides free financial charts on stock market prices, market indices, and money markets. Chart data are updated daily, and a written technical analysis of market movements is given with each chart output. NASDAQ, NYSE, CDN, NDX, and money market symbols may be entered in daily, weekly, or monthly terms at the homepage, and search and browse options are available for unknown symbols. In addition, a Personalized Chart Menu allows users to save charts for future reference while browsing.
The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.
The reports present basic authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, researchers, and those concerned with international trade and economic conditions. For individual reports, see below:
This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322...General Definitions Â§ 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade...
Africa has the potential for increasing livestock production and exports but faces several production and international trade constraints. To promote international trade, new rules and regulations have been established under the Agriculture Agreements of the World Trade Organization that African countries can take advantage of to expand their export trade. This paper reviews African trade in animal and animal products
The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings
The combination of substantial terms of trade variability and unstable correlation patterns of trade prices with output and trade volumes has led some to suggest a break in the link between trade volumes and prices. We find that oil accounts for much of the variation in the terms of trade over the last twenty five years and its quantitative role
The concept of fair trade is introduced as a way to address the issue of social responsibility in the production and marketing of agri-food products. Fair trade is defined as a trade relationship built on social justice and sustainable development that helps disadvantaged producers. Fair trade is introduced by a short description of the fair-trade movement, a description of the
. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties influencing the performance of Apulian calcarenites as past and\\u000a present building and ornamental stone. A comparison of qualitative fabric observations in petrographic thin sections and quantitative\\u000a measurements of physical properties, including porosity, pore size distribution and permeability, is discussed. The results\\u000a suggest that the mercury intrusion porosimetry data and
Hybridization between genetically distinct populations of a single species can serve as an important stimulus for the evolution\\u000a of invasiveness. Such intraspecific hybridization was examined in Pyrus calleryana, a Chinese tree species commonly planted as an ornamental in residential and commercial areas throughout the United States.\\u000a This self-incompatible species is now escaping cultivation and appearing in disturbed habitats, where it
In a reliable signalling system, individual quality is expected to mediate the costs associated with ornamental displays, with relatively lower costs being paid by individuals of higher quality. These relative costs should depend not only on individual quality, but also on levels of intra-sexual competition. We explored the current and delayed effects that testosterone implants have on bird ornamentation in populations with contrasted population densities, as a proxy for intra-sexual competition. In a replicated experiment, we manipulated testosterone in 196 yearling male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus in autumn in populations of high and low levels of intra-sexual competition. Males were assigned to one of three exogenous testosterone (T) treatments: empty implants (T0), small T implants (T1) or larger T implants (T2). We monitored subsequent changes in testosterone levels, ornament size and carotenoid-based colouration, carotenoid levels and body condition from autumn to spring. Testosterone implants increased testosterone levels, comb redness and comb size, and decreased body condition but these effects depended on levels of intra-sexual competition. Specifically, T2-implanted birds increased testosterone levels and comb size more, and reduced body condition more, in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. In the following spring, testosterone levels of T2-treated birds kept increasing in populations where intra-sexual competition was high but not in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. Our results highlight that levels of intra-sexual competition alter the relationship between testosterone levels and ornament expression, influencing their condition-dependence; they also indicate that the outcome of standard hormone manipulation conducted in free-living animals vary depending on the population context. PMID:24698833
Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S; Redpath, S M
The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide recognition as an extremely effective policy tool. The U.S. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Program has achieved an unprecedented level of environmental protection in a cost-effective manner. The successful results of the program have led domestic and foreign governments to consider the application of cap and trade to address other air quality issues. Certain analyses are particularly important in determining whether or not cap and trade is an appropriate policy tool. This paper offers a set of questions that can be used as criteria for determining whether or not cap and trade is the preferred policy approach to an environmental problem. PMID:12805840
This article seeks to provide a closer integration of the theory of optimum currency areas with the theory of international trade. A currency area is treated as a continuous variable ranging from zero to one: zero if there is no enlargement, and some positive value otherwise, corresponding exactly to the percentge of trade in the enlarged area. The benefits of
This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job as an electrician. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.
This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.
This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in plumbing. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.
A primer pair for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequences of the members of genus Pospiviroid was designed to yield a fragment of about 200 base pairs (bp). Since pospiviroids infect a large number of plants species and a few members of the genus Pospiviroid have been already detected in some ornamental plants, the primer pair was evaluated for its efficacy using ornamental plants. The method of return-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (R-PAGE) was used to determine the general presence of viroids in the test samples. Efficacy of the primer pair for members of genus Pospiviroid was demonstrated by the detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Iresine viroid in Verbena and Vinca species, and Citrus exocortis viroid in Impatiens species. Specificity of the primer pair became evident, where additional viroids were detected by R-PAGE in Coleus and Magilla species, but they were not amplified by the Pospiviroid primer. This primer pair would be of benefit in indexing ornamental plants in quarantine samples or in viroid-free certification schemes, irrespective of their actual identity. PMID:14738987
Free trade areas (FTAs) are arrangements among two or more countries under which they agree to eliminate tariffs and nontariff barriers on trade in goods among themselves. However, each country maintains its own policies, including tariffs, on trade outsi...
Recently redesigned, the Australian Museum Fish Site contains a host of resources for researchers, students, and interested visitors. The heart of the site is the Find a Fish section, a collection of hundreds of fact sheets on fish, sorted by common or scientific name. Each fact sheet includes a quick overview, one or more images, and suggestions for further reading. Visitors can also identify fish pictorially using the Identify a Fish section, which links back to the fact sheets. Other offerings include further information on the Museum's fish department, a student section, some short underwater movies, related links, a FAQ, and an internal search engine.
Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers. PMID:19508290
Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices. PMID:15347274
SUMMARY Precise spatiotemporal regulation of signaling activators and inhibitors can help limit developmental crosstalk between neighboring tissues during morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration. Here, we find that the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dkk1b is abundantly produced by dense regions of androgen-regulated epidermal tubercles (ET) on the surfaces of adult male zebrafish pectoral fins. High-speed videos and amputation experiments reveal that pectoral fins and their ET are employed for male spawning. Formation and vigorous turnover of ET involve Dkk1b induction and maintenance, whereas Dkk1b is typically restricted from the regeneration blastema after amputation injury. When amputation occurs through an ET-containing region, a Dkk1b-enriched wound epidermis forms and blastema formation is disrupted, compromising regeneration. Thus, homeostatic signaling by key breeding ornaments can interfere with injury-activated tissue regeneration. Our findings help explain sexually dimorphic fin regeneration in zebrafish, and have implications for how regenerative potential might decline as development progresses or during species evolution.
A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for early detection and identification of Aphelenchoides fragariae directly in host plant tissues using the species-specific primers AFragFl and AFragRl that amplify a 169-bp fragment in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. These species-specific primers did not amplify DNA from Aphelenchoides besseyi or Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. The PCR assay was sensitive, detecting a single nematode in a background of plant tissue extract. The assay accurately detected A. fragariae in more than 100 naturally infected, ornamental plant samples collected in North Carolina nurseries, garden centers and landscapes, including 50 plant species not previously reported as hosts of Aphelenchoides spp. The detection sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was higher for infected yet asymptomatic plants when compared to the traditional, water extraction method for Aphelenchoides spp. detection. The utility of using NaOH extraction for rapid preparation of total DNA from plant samples infected with A. fragariae was demonstrated. PMID:19259510
McCuiston, Jamie L; Hudson, Laura C; Subbotin, Sergei A; Davis, Eric L; Warfield, Colleen Y
A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for early detection and identification of Aphelenchoides fragariae directly in host plant tissues using the species-specific primers AFragFl and AFragRl that amplify a 169-bp fragment in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. These species-specific primers did not amplify DNA from Aphelenchoides besseyi or Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. The PCR assay was sensitive, detecting a single nematode in a background of plant tissue extract. The assay accurately detected A. fragariae in more than 100 naturally infected, ornamental plant samples collected in North Carolina nurseries, garden centers and landscapes, including 50 plant species not previously reported as hosts of Aphelenchoides spp. The detection sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was higher for infected yet asymptomatic plants when compared to the traditional, water extraction method for Aphelenchoides spp. detection. The utility of using NaOH extraction for rapid preparation of total DNA from plant samples infected with A. fragariae was demonstrated.
McCuiston, Jamie L.; Hudson, Laura C.; Subbotin, Sergei A.; Davis, Eric L.; Warfield, Colleen Y.
The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.
The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand. PMID:24159689
Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree prunings; and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a commercial substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilisers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physico-chemical properties such as total pore space and electrical conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive calceolaria hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. Adequate substrates for the development of calendula can be prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat or at up to 50% with CS, and C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS. For calceolaria, the substrate should have a lower proportion of compost, C1 at up to 50% and C2 at up to 25%, both mixed with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants. provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:12056495
The spread of viroids belonging to the genus Pospiviroid (family Pospiviroidae), recorded recently in ornamentals and vegetables in several European countries, calls for fast, efficient and sensitive detection methods. Based on bioinformatics analyses of sequence identity among all pospiviroids, a digoxigenin-labeled polyprobe (POSPIprobe) was developed that, when tested by dot-blot and Northern-blot hybridization, detected Potato spindle tuber viroid, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Pepper chat fruit viroid and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid. The end-point detection limits of the POSPIprobe ranged from 5(-2) to 5(-4), and from 5(-1) to 5(-3) for nucleic acid preparations obtained by phenol extraction and silica-capture, respectively, similar to those of single probes. Based on sequence identity, the POSPIprobe is expected to detect also the two pospiviroid species not tested in this study (Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid and Iresine viroid-1). Dot-blot assays with the POSPIprobe were validated by testing 68 samples from tomato, chrysanthemum and argyranthemum infected by different pospiviroids as revealed by RT-PCR, thus confirming the potential of this polyprobe for quarantine, certification and survey programs. PMID:22935607
Torchetti, Enza Maria; Navarro, Beatriz; Di Serio, Francesco
Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation of a Cupriavidus metallidurans isolate was investigated to develop an environmentally friendly method for restoration and preservation of ornamental stones. Biomineralization performance was carried out in a growth medium via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach using, as design factors, the temperature, growth medium concentration, and inoculum concentration. The optimum conditions were determined with the aid of consecutive experiments based on response surface methodology (RSM) and were successfully validated thereafter. Statistical analysis can be utilized as a tool for screening bacterial bioprecipitation as it considerably reduced the experimental time and effort needed for bacterial evaluation. Analytical methods provided an insight to the biomineral characteristics, and sonication tests proved that our isolate could create a solid new layer of vaterite on marble substrate withstanding sonication forces. C. metallidurans ACA-DC 4073 provided a compact vaterite layer on the marble substrate with morphological characteristics that assisted in its differentiation. The latter proved valuable during spraying minimum amount of inoculated media on marble substrate under conditions close to an in situ application. A sufficient and clearly distinguishable layer was identified. PMID:24764017
The Begomovirus genus of the family Geminiviridae comprises the largest group of geminiviruses. The list of begomoviruses is continuously increasing as a result of improvement in the methods for identification. Ornamental rose plants (Rosa chinensis) with highly stunted growth and leaf curling were found in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Plants were analyzed for begomovirus infection, through rolling circle amplification and PCR methods. Based on complete genome sequence homologies with other begomoviruses, a new begomovirus species infecting the rose plants was discovered. In this paper, we propose a new species name, Rose leaf curl virus (RoLCuV), for the virus. RoLCuV showed close identity (83 %) with Tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus, while associated betasatellite showed 96 % identity with Digera arvensis yellow vein betasatellite (DiAYVB), justifying a new isolate for the betasatellite. Recombination analysis of newly identified begomovirus revealed it as a recombinant of tomato leaf curl Pakistan virus from its coat protein region. The infectious molecules for virus/satellite were prepared and inoculated through Agrobacterium tumefaciens to N. benthamiana plants. RoLCuV alone was unable to induce any level of symptoms on N. benthamiana plants, but co-inoculation with cognate betasatellite produced infection symptoms. Further investigation to understand the trans-replication ability of betasatellites revealed their flexibility to interact with Rose leaf curl virus. PMID:24781196
Khatri, Sandeep; Nahid, Nazia; Fauquet, Claude M; Mubin, Muhammad; Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah
In this paper, I examine the effect of trade reform on regional employment in Mexico. Three factors condition regional labor demand: (1) transport costs, which encourage firms to locate in regions with good access to foreign markets; (2) backward–forward linkages, which encourage firms to locate near buyers and suppliers, and (3) agglomeration economies, which reinforce the pre-trade pattern of industry
The term insider trading refers to the legal stock transactions of the officers, directors, and large shareholders of a firm. Many investors believe that corporate insiders, informed about their firms' prospects, buy and sell their own firm's stock at favorable times, reaping significant profits. The key question for stock market investors is whether publicly available insider-trading information can help them
Insider trading in the credit derivatives market has become a significant concern for regulators and participants. This paper attempts to quantify the problem. Using news reflected in the stock market as a benchmark for public information, we report evidence of significant incremental information revelation in the credit default swap (CDS) market, consistent with the occurrence of insider trading. We show
In this paper we examine the real and financial effects of two insiders trading in a static Jain and Mirman model [Jain, N., & Mirman, L. J. (2000). Real and financial effects of insider trading with correlated signals. Economic Theory, 16, 333–353] (henceforth JM). The first insider is the manager of the firm. The second insider is the owner. First,
In this paper we examine the real and financial effects of two insiders trading in a static Jain-Mirman model (Henceforth JM). The first insider is the manager of the firm. The second insider is the owner. First, we study the change of the linear-equilibrium variables, in the presence of two insiders. Specifically, we show that the trading order and the
The authors analyze personal open market trades by managers around stock repurchases by tender offer. With the exception of Dutch auction offers, managers trade their firm's shares prior to repurchase announcements as though repurchases convey favorable inside information to outsiders. Prior to fixed price repurchase offers that do not follow takeover-related events, managers increase their buying and reduce their selling
Looks at the problems facing trade and industrial education and suggests ways to solve them: teaching foundation skills more, specific trade skills less; revamping programs; keeping up to date; coordinating with other groups; clarifying educational philosophy; and being honest with students about the job market. (JOW)
Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…
A number of recent studies appear to show that international trade is a secondary factor in the growing inequality of wages, with technology probably the main culprit. These studies have, however, been subjected to severe and in some cases harshly worded criticism by trade theorists, who argue that the authors of these studies have misspecified the impacts of both technology
Firms may be financed by their suppliers rather than by financial institutions. There are many theories of trade credit, but few comprehensive empirical tests. This article attempts to fill the gap. We focus on small firms whose access to capital markets may be limited and find evidence suggesting that firms use more trade credit when credit from financial institutions is
The paper examines the effect of introducing insider trading restrictions on daily stock price and trading volume behavior of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. From 1987 on, insiders are no longer allowed to trade two months before annual earnings announcemen...
The issue of agricultural protectionism and the distortions to patterns of resource use, incomes and trade flows arising from agricultural trade regimes have in recent years attracted growing attention. In the current Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade N...
Explains the importance of using well-chosen trade books for stimulating student interest and motivation in the natural world. Discusses how to assess and select trade books. Lists selected trade books on the life cycles of plants. (YDS)
Chile is one of the world's most important fishing countries; its fisheries catch has been the world's fourth or fifth most important since 1980. Chile's fishing industry is dominated by a massive fishmeal reduction fishery for small pelagic species. Redu...
This report presents results of 2009 annual post-project (i.e., stream renovation, native fish repatriation, and flow restoration) fish monitoring conducted by Marsh & Associates under contract to Bureau of Reclamation. The study was commissioned and impl...
Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...
UNIDO pub on sugar cane fish silage fermentation covers (1) attempts to ensile sugar cane for feed production; relevant research (2) the incorporation of fish in the fermentation with animal droppings as inoculum, redirecting the fermentation to produce h...
In this activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will study the adaptations different fish species have developed to survive in their habitats. Using basic craft supplies, learners will construct a 3D fish exhibiting these traits, or even design their own fish and detail how it has adapted to another world, then present their fish to the class. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Alligator Habitat.
In this game, students will become familiar with fish shapes, learn that fish within a given taxonomic family have similar body shapes, and discuss how different body shapes enable fish to survive in their environments. This activity enhances learners' abilities at making careful observations about each shape and supports an understanding that there are many different kinds of fish, each adapted to its own environment. This standards-based activity includes wrap-up suggestions and background for educators.
Students further their understanding of the salmon life cycle and the human structures and actions that aid in the migration of fish around hydroelectric dams by playing an animated PowerPoint game involving a fish that must climb a fish ladder to get over a dam. They first brainstorm their own ideas, and then learn about existing ways engineers have made dams "friendlier" to migrating fish, before being quizzed as part of the game.
Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.
This OLogy activity offers kids a fun way to get firsthand knowledge of how archaeologists find lost sites. In Tools of the Trade, kids are given six cartoon frames, each illustrating a problem the archaeology team faced in locating a lost mission on St. Catherines Island. When kids select a frame, they are given details about the problem; they are then asked to pick which tool they think helped the team solve the problem. Each time they correctly identify a tool, they are given additional details of the story and the cartoon frame is "colored in." After correctly identifying the tools for all six cartoon frames, they have the option of printing a PDF of the full-color cartoon.
Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis.
This is a simulated fish tank that requires Shockwave. You need to register to log in. Once you log in, you can create up to four unique fish. Then you can launch your fish into a Personal Tank on your own computer and see how they behave.
Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…
This paper gives a brief survey of research and developments concerning enzymes and bioactive peptides from fish waste or by-catch applied for fish silage, fish feed or fish sauce production. The fish silage processing technology developed in the late 1970s revealed the possibility of recovering pepsins and bioactive peptides from fish silage. Whereas the pepsins are used for gentle bioprocessing
The marine life fishing industry in Florida is defined by the state as the non-lethal harvest of marine plants, finfish, and invertebrates that are sold live for commercial purposes (primarily into the saltwater aquarium industry). Approximately 330 different species of finfish and invertebrates are harvested by marine life collectors in Florida, including 180 species of finfish and 150 species of
The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. To optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for X. crassiusculus and X. germanus in nurseries, we tested whether increasing the rate of commercial ethanol lures improved captures or early detection of these species. Experiments were conducted in Ohio (2008 and 2009) and Virginia (2008), two states that have experienced significant damage from X. crassiusculus, X. germanus, or both. There were four treatments: no-lure (unbaited control), 1-ethanol lure, 2-ethanol lures and 1 + 1-ethanol lures (one lure in the trap and one suspended 0.5 m above the trap). Captures of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus were higher in all ethanol treatments than unbaited controls, and were generally higher in treatments with two lures versus one. There was no difference in beetle captures between the 2-lure and 1 + 1-lure treatments. First detection of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus occurred more consistently in the treatments with two lures than one lure. Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg), Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Hypothenemus dissimilis Zimmermann, and Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood were also more attracted to traps baited with ethanol than unbaited controls. X. saxesenii was captured in higher numbers in the treatments with two lures than one in Virginia but not in Ohio. There was no difference in captures of the other species among ethanol treatments. The current research shows that ethanol release rates influence sensitivity of traps for detecting emergence of overwintered ambrosia beetles. PMID:22299365
Reding, Michael E; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Oliver, Jason B
Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779
Growth retardation is an important breeding aim and an essential part of horticultural plant production. Here, the potential of transferring the Arabidopsis short internode (shi) mutant phenotype was explored by expressing the AtSHI gene in the popular ornamental plant Kalanchoë. A 35S-AtSHI construct was produced and transferred into eight genetically different cultivars of Kalanchoë by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The resulting transgenic plants showed dwarfing phenotypes like reduced plant height and diameter, and also more compact inflorescences, as a result of increased vegetative height. The shi phenotype was stable over more than five vegetative subcultivations. Compared with Arabidopsis, the ectopic expression of AtSHI in Kalanchoë showed several differences. None of the Kalanchoë SHI-lines exhibited alterations in leaf colour or morphology, and most lines were not delayed in flowering. Moreover, continuous treatment of lines delayed in flowering with low concentrations of gibberellins completely restored the time of flowering. These features are very important as a delay in flowering would increase plant production costs significantly. The effect of expression controlled by the native Arabidopsis SHI promoter was also investigated in transgenic Kalanchoë and resulted in plants with a longer flowering period. Two AtSHI like genes were identified in Kalanchoë indicating a widespread presence of this transcription factor. These findings are important because they suggest that transformation with the AtSHI gene could be applied to several species as a tool for growth retardation, and that this approach could substitute the use of conventional chemical growth regulation in plant production. PMID:20051037
Lütken, Henrik; Jensen, Lilli Sander; Topp, Sine Hovbye; Mibus, Heiko; Müller, Renate; Rasmussen, Søren K
Background and Aims Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) is a popular commercial plant for its attractive and colourful flowers. However, the genetic mechanism of flowering time regulation in gloxinia is largely unknown. Recent studies on model plants have elucidated that miR159 acts as a negative regulator of floral transition in short-day photoperiods. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic modification of miR159 expression can offer an effective approach for regulation of flowering characteristics in gloxinia. Methods Transgenic gloxinia plants were generated that over-express or suppress miR159 by means an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in order to study the effect of miR159 on flowering time. In addition, the full-length cDNA of gloxinia GAMYB (SsGAMYB) was also cloned, and was verified to be a target of miR159 by modified RNA ligase-mediated 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Key Results Transgenic gloxinia plants that over-express or suppress miR159 exhibited significantly late or early flowering, respectively. During flower development, the expression level of miR159 was negatively correlated with SsGAMYB in gloxinia. MiR159-mediated SsGAMYB expression affected the expression levels of SsLEAFY (SsLFY) and three MADS-box genes (SsAP1, SsAP3 and SsAG), which regulated floral transition downstream of GAMYB. In addition, suppression of miR159 caused a conversion of petals and sepals in a few transgenic plants. Conclusions miR159-regulated GAMYB expression is an effective pathway of flowering time control in gloxinia. Transgenic manipulation of miR159 can be used as an applicable strategy to regulate flowering time in commercial ornamental plants.
Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721
Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653
Electrical power trade studies were initiated in September 1982 supporting the Space Station Systems Definition activity. Responsibility for performing the electrical power trade studies (Power Data Base) was divided between the NASA Centers. Center representatives and their respective subjects are identified in the accompanying chart. The data base material was used to conduct a general storage trade study. When the results appeared to favor the flywheel option, effort was focused on a comparative flywheel investigation wherein a range of flywheel performance and cost possibilities was compared with optimistic projections of competing options.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.
Regional trade agreements (RTA's) have become a fixture in the global trade arena. Their advocates contend that RTA's can serve as building blocks for multilayer trade liberalization. Their opponents argue that these trade packs will divert trade from mor...
Regional trade agreements (RTA's) have become a fixture in the global trade arena. Their advocates contend that RTA's can serve as building blocks for multilateral trade liberalization. Their opponents argue that these trade pacts will divert trade from m...
The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.
Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.
In an examination of the system of free trade between neighboring education authorities, it is suggested that a considerable amount of money paid out in recoupment fees in adult education could be saved. (AG)
This paper incorporates recent advances in gravity modeling, many made by Baier and Bergstrand (2006, 2007), and extends them to multiple sectors and multiple endogenous trade policy instruments. This study examines the effect of tariff reductions and fre...
Several of the recently negotiated regional trade agreements contain significantly fewer concessions by the large countries to smaller countries than vice versa. In this paper, we compute post-retaliation Nash tariffs by region under various regional trade arrangements using a calibrated numerical general equilibrium model of world trade. Regional agreements constrain strategic behaviour within each trading area, and (in the Customs
The 2011 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2010. The second part focuses on the special theme of preferential trade agreements. This year's World Trade Report takes an in-depth fresh lo...
This paper examines policies and procedures put in place by corporations to regulate trading in the stock by the firm's own insiders. Over 92% of our sample companies have their own policies restricting trading by insiders, and 78% have explicit blackout periods during which the company prohibits trading by its insiders. Our data indicate that blackout periods successfully suppress trading,
J. Carr Bettis; Jefirey L. Coles; Michael L. Lemmon
In this paper, the authors examine the profitability of insider trading in firms whose securities trade in the OTC\\/NASDAQ market. Although the evidence suggests timing and forecasting ability on the part of insiders, high transaction costs (especially bid-ask spreads) appear to eliminate the potential for positive abnormal returns from active trading. By implication, outside investors who mimic the trading of
An adult, hermaphroditic Tridacna crocea ornamental clam imported from Vietnam into the USA became terminally moribund with sloughed byssal tissue and incomplete extension of the poorly responsive mantle and was necropsied. Necropsy findings included emaciation, visceral mass edema, and rare multifocal, 1-mm diameter, off-white to light tan gill nodules. Histopathology revealed marked inflammation and necrosis within the visceral mass and gills, with interstitial edema and atrophy of glandular, gonadal, and muscular tissues. Inflamed tissues contained large numbers of 10-15 microm extracellular, spherical organisms with a signet-ring morphology consistent with Perkinsus spp. trophozoites. The organisms often formed clusters of two to four cells and were surrounded by a host reaction consisting of a 1-4 microm rim of amorphous eosinophilic material and two to four host hemocytes. Incubation of infected host tissues in alternative Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (ARFTM) confirmed the presence of Perkinsus sp. hypnospores that stained blue-black with Lugol's iodine. Polymerase chain reaction assays with sequencing of products revealed a high level of nucleotide similarity, but no exact match, to known P. olseni isolates. Perkinsus sp. organisms, including P. olseni and P. marinus, which are internationally reportable, are highly pathogenic destructive protozoa capable of disrupting ecosystems populated by naïve mollusks within the USA and negatively affecting both domestic and international shellfish industries. This is the first report of an exotic Perkinsus sp. pathogen in an imported ornamental clam maintained long term in a home aquarium. However, ongoing research indicates that T. crocea from Vietnam are commonly infected by such organisms. Veterinarians, aquarium facility mangers, and veterinary clients with hobby aquariums should use appropriate caution and responsible disposal practices for clam carcasses and for water in which imported ornamental clams have been housed. Such practices will reduce the possibility of dispersing viable, exotic Perkinsus sp. organisms into domestic waters. PMID:19368253
Up to now, there was no document on ornamental plants that had been applied to phytoremediation, which can remedy contaminated environment and beautify it at the same time. Thus, the growth responses and possible phytoremediation ability of three ornamental plants selected from the previous preliminary experiments were further examined under single Cd or combined Cd-Pb stress. The results showed that these tested plants had higher tolerance to Cd and Pb contamination and could effectively accumulate the metals, especially for Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea. For C. officinalis, it grew normally in soils containing 100 mg kg(-1) Cd without suffering phytotoxicity, and the Cd concentration in the roots was up to 1084 mg kg(-1) while the Cd concentration in the shoots was 284 mg kg(-1). For A. rosea, the Cd accumulation in the shoots was higher than that in the roots when the Cd concentration in soils was <100 mg kg(-1), and reached 100 mg kg(-1) as the criteria of a Cd hyperaccumulator when the Cd concentration in soils was 100 mg kg(-1). Their accumulation and tolerance to Cd and Pb were further demonstrated through the hydroponic-culture method. And A. rosea had a great potential as a possible Cd hyperaccumulator under favorable or induced conditions. Furthermore, the interactive effects of Cd and Pb in the three ornamentals were complicated, not only additive, antagonistic or synergistic, but also related to many factors including concentration combinations of heavy metals, plant species and various parts of plants. Thus, it can be forecasted that this work will provide a new way for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:17869419
Liu, Jia-nv; Zhou, Qi-xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song
We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding the ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii X N. sanderae) homolog of the antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) MYB305. This transcription factor was robustly expressed at Stage 12 of nectary development but was only weakly expressed in the earlier Stage 6 nectaries. The ornamental tobacco MYB305 contains a conserved R2R3 MYB DNA binding domain with 76 amino acids in the activation domain. A green fluorescent protein-MYB305 fusion localized to nucleus of tobacco protoplasts and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that it functions as a transcription activator. A conserved 23–amino acid C-terminal domain is required to activate gene expression. The coding region of the myb305 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and was purified to homogeneity. This protein shows binding to two consensus MYB binding sites on the ornamental tobacco Nectarin I (nec1) promoter as well as to the single site located on the Nectarin V (nec5) promoter. Deletions of either of the binding sites from the nec1 promoter significantly reduced expression in nectary tissues. Temporally, MYB305 expression precedes that of nec1 and nec5, as would be expected if the MYB305 factor regulates expression of the nec1 and nec5 genes. Ectopic expression of MYB305 in foliage was able to induce expression of both nec1 and nec5, as well as two flavonoid biosynthetic genes in the foliage. Finally, RNA interference knockdown of MYB305 resulted in reduced expression of both nectarins and flavonoid biosynthetic genes. We conclude that expression of MYB305 regulates expression of the major nectarin genes in the floral nectary.
Liu, Guangyu; Ren, Gang; Guirgis, Adel; Thornburg, Robert W.
We examine open market stock trades by registered insiders in about 3700 targets of takeovers announced during 1988â€“2006 and in a control sample of non-targets, both during an â€˜informedâ€™ and a control period. Using difference-in-differences regressions of several insider trading measures, we find no evidence that insiders increase their purchases before takeover announcements; instead, they decrease them. But while insiders
Jon Haveman, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, maintains this metasite of industry classification concordances and international data links for researchers pursuing empirical studies of international trade. Among Haveman's collection of Industry Concordances, ISIC, SITC, usSIC, HS, TSUSA, and NACE classifications are covered with detailed source and downloading information. Links to a variety of International Trade Data such as the Penn World Tables are also well-documented; recent additions to both resources are listed by month.
Since studies of North American trade flows tend to focus on the United States as the main trading partner, trade between Canada and Mexico has received relatively little attention. Here, we examine bilateral trade flows for 62 Canadian export industries to Mexico and 45 import industries from Mexico to assess the effects of currency fluctuations and trade integration on these
Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee; Marzieh Bolhassani; Scott W. Hegerty
The use of technical barriers to trade (TBT) is widespread and has increasing impact on international trade. In contrast to most other trade measures, TBT have both trade promotion and trade restriction effects. Due to their theoretical complexity and data scarcity, TBT have been considered as one of the most difficult non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to quantify. In this paper, we
Technical barriers to trade(TBT)are now widespread and have increasing impacts on international trade. Different from any other trade measures, TBT have both trade promotion and trade restriction effects. Due to their theoretical complexity and data scarcity, TBT have been considered as \\
A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.
Truebe, Jonathan (Mirror Lake, NH); Drooker, Michael S. (Sanbornville, NH)
Massive database offers descriptions, data and images for 28,800 fish species in more than 6 languages. Search by scientific name, common name, or for information by: fish family, ecosystem, biological topic, country or island, among others. Individual species entries provide classification, habitat and distribution, morphological description, biological information, human uses, population status, references and many more details. Also has a larval fish database and a guide to learning & teaching ichthyology using this online source.
A unique case is described of an ingested fish bone migrating into the common hepatic duct, without perforation. Most foreign bodies are known to pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. Sharper objects such as fish bones have been known to cause perforation. This is more common, in countries where fish consumption is considerably higher, such as, south east Asia. However, even in these regions there have been no reports of such a proximal migration.
In this online interactive game, learners design a fish with the right adaptations to survive in its habitat. Learners select different combinations of adaptations including fish body, mouth, and pattern (color) and then put their selections to the test as they use keyboard arrows to steer and "swim" their fish on the reef. Learners must eat to increase their energy level and avoid predators who will diminish their energy levels.
Aquarium, Shedd; Educational Web Adventures (Eduweb)
...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export...translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, ...Administrator of the Office of International Trade (OIT) that does...
...Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade...in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards...the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...
Exposure to enhanced levels of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) can have adverse effects on aquatic organisms including damage at the cellular and molecular level and impairment of development, fecundity and survival. Much research has been conducted on the role of the harmful UVB radiation. However, due to its greater penetration in water the more abundant UVA radiation can also act as an environmental stressor. Little is known about UVR effects on sperm characteristics although sperm cells should be especially prone to UV-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, UV-related changes in oxidative status may affect the phenotypic expression of energetically costly sexual ornaments. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to ecologically relevant levels of simulated UVA radiation on sperm quality and sexual ornamentation in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Males were assigned to three spectral exposure treatments differing in the UV spectral part so that they received either enhanced, moderate or no UVA radiation. The results reveal that exposure to enhanced ambient UVA levels had detrimental effects on both male breeding coloration and sperm velocity providing evidence that UVR affects traits targeted by pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. By highlighting the role of UVA as a factor influencing fitness-relevant traits, our findings may contribute to a better understanding of the consequences of current and future levels of solar UVR for mating systems and life history. PMID:24078080
Rick, Ingolf P; Mehlis, Marion; Eßer, Elisabeth; Bakker, Theo C M
The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632
We estimated genetic parameters through multivariate analysis of two species of Passiflora and their hybrids, considered of ornamental potential, based on the morphological characteristics: flower diameter, corona diameter, corona filament size, flower peduncle length, petal length and width, sepal length and width, internode length, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width (mm), and leaf area (cm(2)). Five specimens of Passiflora sublanceolata [ex P. palmeri var. sublanceolata], five of P. foetida var. foetida and 20 F(1) hybrids between the two were evaluated. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The data were submitted to variance analysis and multivariate procedures, principal components analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping. We found significant differences between genotypes for all these morphological parameters. The hybrid plants had the highest variability, making them the most indicated for future improvement programs. The various multivariate techniques gave similar results, allowing separation of the plants into three distinct groups, these being the two paternal species and the hybrids. The hybrids were closer to the male genitors, revealing a paternal effect on the inheritance of vegetative and floral characters. Based on estimates of genetic parameters, the floral characteristics are the most indicated for the selection of plants for ornamental purposes, since these characteristics displayed greatest variability, a variation index of more than one, and high genotypic determination coefficients. PMID:22009858
Santos, E A; Souza, M M; Viana, A P; Almeida, A A F; Freitas, J C O; Lawinscky, P R
A stronger focus on natural mortality may be required to better understand contemporary changes in fish life histories and behaviour and their responses to anthropogenic drivers. Firstly, natural mortality is the selection under which fish evolved in the first place, so a theoretical understanding of effects of natural mortality alone is needed. Secondly, due to trade-offs, most organismal functions can only be achieved at some cost in terms of survival. Several trade-offs might need to be analysed simultaneously with effects on natural mortality being a common currency. Thirdly, there is scattered evidence that natural mortality has been increasing, some would say dramatically, in some fished stocks, which begs explanations. Fourthly, natural mortality most often implies transfer of mass and energy from one species to another, and therefore has foodweb and ecosystem consequences. We therefore analyse a model for evolution of fish life histories and behaviour, where state-dependent energy-allocation and growth strategies are found by optimization. Natural mortality is split into five different components, each specified as the outcome of individual traits and ecological trade-offs: a fixed baseline mortality; size-dependent predation; risk-dependent growth strategy; a fixed mortality when sexually mature; and mortality increasing with reproductive investment. The analysis is repeated with and without fishing. Each component of natural mortality has consequences for optimal life history strategies. Beyond earlier models, we show i) how the two types of reproductive mortality sometimes have similar and sometimes contrasting effects on life history evolution, ii) how ecosystem properties such as food availability and predation levels have stronger effects on optimal strategies than changing other mortality components, and iii) how expected changes in risk-dependent growth strategies are highly variable depending on the type of mortality changed.
The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance.
This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the loss of the coping ability and, thus, to impaired health. In the first part of the review, the physiological processes through which stressful husbandry conditions modulate health of farmed fish are examined. If fish are subjected to unfavourable husbandry conditions, the resulting disruption of internal homeostasis necessitates energy-demanding physiological adjustments (allostasis/acclimation). The ensuing energy drain leads to trade-offs with other energy-demanding processes such as the functioning of the primary epithelial barriers (gut, skin, gills) and the immune system. Understanding of the relation between husbandry conditions, allostatic responses and fish health provides the basis for the second theme developed in this review, the potential use of biological function and health parameters as operational welfare indicators (OWIs). Advantages of function- and health-related parameters are that they are relatively straightforward to recognize and to measure and are routinely monitored in most aquaculture units, thereby providing feasible tools to assess fish welfare under practical farming conditions. As the efforts to improve fish welfare and environmental sustainability lead to increasingly diverse solutions, in particular integrated production, it is imperative that we have objective OWIs to compare with other production forms, such as high-density aquaculture. However, to receive the necessary acceptance for legislation, more robust scientific backing of the health- and function-related OWIs is urgently needed. PMID:21681416
The same fundamental principles for handling fresh fish in general aboard fishing vessels apply to whiting. Following a comprehensive study of the whiting fishing industry for the purpose of improving the quality of landed whiting, recommendations were ma...
The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.
In spite of a steadily decreasing inflation rate observed in France since 1982, the average retail price for fish has been following a reverse trend owing to higher transportation and storage costs. Average retail fish price per kilo increased by over 18%...
Species profiles of 10 common, and often less-publicized, Great Lakes fishes. Each profile describes the fish's length, weight, coloring, common names, and preferred habitat. Site also discusses its creator, Cliff Kraft, and why he selected these 10 particular species. Profiles include: the lake sturgeon, lake herring, brook stickleback, brook trout, longnose sucker, deepwater sculpin, spottail shiner, siscowet, logperch, and lean lake trout.
Aquaculture is the most recent addition to animal husbandry and it is the fastest growing food production industry. Its contribution to world food security in the 21st century is already significant and it is bound to continue to grow because demand for fish for human consumption is rapidly increasing whereas fish supplies from ocean fisheries are likely to decline. The
Stefan Güttler; Danica Lambrecht; Biniam S. Fitwi; Carsten Schulz; Rolf A. E. Müller
page 45 Abstract Alloparental care, care directed at non-descendant young, presents a potential challenge to evolutionary ecologists because investment in non-descendant eggs and young gives the appearance of maladaptive behaviour. Yet wherever there is parental care in fishes, there is usually alloparental care. As such, alloparental care is an integral part of care in fishes. Alloparental care appears to have
Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)
Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…
Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey
Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…
The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…
The FISH technique uses fluorescently labeled probes to target specific genes or a particular chromosomal region in order to detect abnormalities that cannot be identified by conventional banding methods. Some advantages of FISH include detection of microdeletions, chromosomal rearrangements, aneuploidy, and the ability to analyze non-dividing cells.
In this interactive activity from Shedd Aquarium, build a fish and then release it into the reef to search for food and evade predators. Try different combinations and observe how each kind of fish has unique adaptations that help it survive in its habitat.
Fishing helps campers develop problem-solving skills, apply biological and ecological concepts, become aware of environmental problems, realize environmental consequences of actions, discuss environmental ethics, consider spiritual values, and connect with the natural world. Describes two camps that successfully integrate fishing with…
Proposes engaging low achievers in science activities that appeal to their interests. Describes an example involving fishing that explores scientific concepts related to the search for bait, the fishing equipment, the use of solunar tables to determine the best time to go, processing the catch, and survival tips for the trip. (MDH)
The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…
Maintained by the Fisheries Statistics & Economics Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service, this spectacular foreign trade data base includes annual and monthly data since 1975 and is constantly updated as new information becomes available. For scientists interested in quantifying or tracking human impact on marine ecosystems, this site is a veritable gold mine. The database offers three types of data, all of which are searchable and may be downloaded: imports of fishery products, exports, and re-exports. Trade data exist for all countries with which the US conducts trade. A new feature increases the worth of this already valuable site: users can, with the help of explicit instructions, "build a database" (for download), organized by specified countries and time periods.
Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture.
A free service of the European Commission, the Sectoral and Trade Barriers offers reports on more than 50 countries worldwide, in 26 sectors, and 13 different divisions of measures. A detailed Help guide is also included, which provides term definitions and search tips for the database. After selecting one or more sectors, measures, and countries in a series of pull-down menus, the database creates a trade policies report. While this database is basically user-friendly, users may have to click through up to four screens in order to receive their reports.
One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the sheet metal trade as recommended by successful sheet metal workers. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student…
Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.
One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the roofing trade as recommended by successful roofers. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare students to adequately…
Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.
One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…
Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.
One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metal occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the machinist trade as recommended by the successful machinist. An instructional program based upon the implementation of this guide is expected to prepare a student to…
Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.
On March 8, 2012, we, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS or Service), published a proposed rule to revise the regulations that implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) by incorporating certain provisions adopted at the fourteenth and fifteenth meetings of the Conference of the Parties (CoP14 and CoP15) to CITES and clarifying and......
In recent decades it has been observed that for the induction of mutation in ornamental plants we can obtain better results when the plants are irradiated in vegetative state and even better 'in vitro' that when its are irradiated 'in vivo'. In this work ...
The World Market and Trade reports provide the latest analysis and data on a number of agricultural commodities, outlining the current supply, demand and trade estimates both for the United States and for many major foreign countries.
...2013-07-01 false Customary trade. 13.1006 Section 13... Â§ 13.1006 Customary trade. In the Gates of the Arctic...tributaries, âcustomary tradeâ shall includeâin addition to the exchange of furs for cashâthe selling...
This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on consumer goods and domestic trade in the USSR. Titles include: Oversupply of Unused Goods Causes Concern; Better Coordination Between Trade Sectors Advocated; Integrated USS...
The paper examines the growth center and polarization within the framework of international trade theory, particularly as it relates to factor movements and, in turn, to regional growth possibilities. International trade theory suggests that all countries...
The trade statistics in this publication are derived from computerized series of partner country data, which are continuously updated. The methodologies for these programs are described in appendix A of CIA, ER CIT 79-1001, China: International Trade Quar...
The trade statistics in this publication are derived from computerized series of partner country data, which are continuously updated. The methodologies for these programs are described in appendix A of CIA, ER CIT 79-1001, China: International Trade Quar...
Contents: Dairy: World Markets and Trade; Dairy Production in Selected Countries; Dairy Trade in Selected Countries; Selected Exporters; Selected Importers; Milk and Dairy Products Production, Supply, and Demand Tables; World Dairy Prices; FY 1994 GSM-102...
...Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218 Transportation...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 Â§ 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in...
...Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265 Shipping ...Special Requirements for Certain Materials Â§ 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not...
Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...
This report provides a summary of the U.S. sugar market, covering the basic factors affecting trends in consumption, production, and trade, as well as those bearing on the competitiveness of U.S. industry in domestic and foreign markets. Sugar and its pro...
This paper discusses the recent regional trade agreements that China has concluded rapidly following accession to the WTO in 2002. Agreements are in place with Hong Kong, Macao, ASEAN, Australia, and New Zealand, and are either in negotiation or under discussion with South Africa, Chile, India, and the Gulf Cooperation Council. These agreements differ sharply in form and substance, and
This paper discusses the recent regional trade agreements that China has concluded rapidly following accession to the WTO in 2002. Agreements are in place with Hong Kong, Macao, ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand, and are either in negotiation or under discussion with South Africa, Chile, India and the Gulf Cooperation Council. These agreements differ sharply in form and substance, and
Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…
Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.
A key issue today is the effect of globalisation on inequality and poverty. Well over half the developing world lives in globalising economies that have seen large increases in trade and significant declines in tariffs. They are catching up the rich countries while the rest of the developing world is falling farther behind. Second, we examine the effects on the
The US Federal Trade Commission provides this site, highlighted by the availability of its Privacy Online: A Report to Congress. In addition, the site offers tips on how to protect personal information, transcripts of relevant congressional testimony, useful information about protecting your privacy while you "travel" the Net, and FTC pamphlets on consumer protection and privacy information, among other features.
This paper analyzes the attitudes of three Swedish trade unions toward the press. Local representatives of the unions answered a questionnaire about their contact with the local press, the press's impact on public opinion, fairness of press reporting, the press's fulfillment of its duties in informing the public, and future control of mass media.…
Design management research usually deals with the processes within the professional design team and yet, in the UK, the volume of the total project information produced by the specialist trade contractors equals or exceeds that produced by the design team. There is a need to understand the scale of this production task and to plan and manage it accordingly. The
Professor Max Eddy, Head of Purdue University's Department of Industrial Education, with the assistance of J.P. Corcoran, Director of a trade union training department, describe the development of a programme of training for apprentice instructors run jointly by the union and the university. (Editor)
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was amended in 1974 in order to restrict government control and to facilitate the public's access to information. However, part of the FOIA bans federal officials from disclosing "trade secrets" and commercial or financial information obtained in confidential circumstances. This exemption has resulted in a…
Lord Bauer understood that the human freedom of movement plays a vital role in development. Today, internal and cross-border migration generates hard-currency remittances that raise living standards and capital investment in the country of origin, promotes greater trade and investment ties between destination and origin countries, and raises a country's stock of human and physical capital when migrants return with
This paper looks at the adoption of information technology in the Chinese stock exchanges and for online securities trading in China. Because these stock exchanges do not have any major pre- existing technology to consider when they automate their operations, they are able to adopt ad- vanced technology. However, the potential and advantages offer by this technology cannot be fully
With the growth of the Internet and e-commerce a drastic change has taken place in the way individuals invest in the stock market. The Internet has redefined two important steps in the investing process: the way people place their trades and the way they learn about investments. With the advent of online investing and the emerging companies to fill this
Trafficking in women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a shadow market valued at US $7 billion annually.Women are trafficked to, from, and through every region in the world. This highly profitable trade poses a relatively low risk compar...
Includes six articles that discuss research and statistics relating to the book trade. Topics include prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and books and other media reviewed. (LRW)
Financiers in the US are now considering steam coal as a product for commodities futures trading. There is concern as to the feasibility of this as most of the industry hinges on long-term contracts, and is therefore not as adaptable as other commodities may be.
A large fraction of China's greenhouse gas emissions are incurred in order to satisfy final demand of consumers in other countries; in effect, carbon emissions are embedded in China's exports. This paper explores the economic context and policy implications of carbon embedded in China's trade. China is a net exporter of embedded carbon because its entire economy is carbon-intensive; if
This paper develops a model of strategic outsourcing. With trade liberalization in the intermediate-product market, a domestic firm may choose to purchase a key intermediate good from a more efficient foreign producer, who also competes with the domestic firm for a final good. This has a strategic effect on competition. Unlike the outsourcing motivated by cost saving, the strategic outsourcing
A common trading maximum is to cut your losses and let your profits run. To implement this policy, traders often use what is called a trailing stop. Suppose a trader buys a security for $100 in hopes that it will appreciate in price. At the time of purcha...
These 15 papers originate from a conference that brought together researchers and trade unionists from a number of countries to examine the potential for a more democratic, active, and participative form of collaboration or "research as engagement." The first half contains chapters that explore, theoretically, the nature of research within a…
Prior research provides evidence that insiders generate significant abnormal returns by trading on private information. We use the cross sectional variations of insidersÆ ability to trade opportunistically to gauge managerial opportunism at the company level. Using U.S. top executivesÆ insider trades data; we develop a proxy for managerial opportunism, referred to as opportunistic insider trade (OIT). We first show companies
We develop a new model of multimarket trading to explain the differences in the foreign share of trading volume of internationally cross-listed stocks. The model predicts that the trading volume of a cross-listed stock is proportionally higher on the exchange in which the cross-listed asset returns have greater correlation with returns of other assets traded on that market. We find
SHMUEL BARUCH; G. ANDREW KAROLYI; MICHAEL L. LEMMON
This paper presents five theoretical openness-and-growth links that can account for trade-induced investment-led growth. The links are all demonstrated with neoclassical growth models developed in the context of trade models that allow for imperfect competition and scale economies. This sort of old-growth-theory-in-a-new-trade-model has not been thoroughly explored in the literature since the profession skipped from old-growth-old-trade models straight to new-growth-new-
Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives is presented. Written testimony, submittals for the record, and responses to written questions are included. Topics concerning the global trade in satellites and launch services include foreign competition, the China and Russia trade agreements, Commerce licensing on international sales and export, trade control, technology transfer, satellite communications and the economy, satellites and the global information infrastructure, commercial space revenues, and enforcement of trade policies.
Abstract This paper examines “intranight” patterns in quoted bid-ask spreadsand depth, price volatility and trading volume in the SPI200, 90 Day BAB, 3 Year Bond and 10 Year Bond futures contracts traded on the Sydney Futures Exchange,(SFE). Across all contracts, we document an elevation in both price volatility and trading volume at the open and close of overnight trading sessions,
...to identify and reduce or eliminate foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices to ensure that U.S. workers, businesses...identification and reduction or elimination of foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices. Sec....
The US Farm Bill of 2002 is the latest in a 7-decade history of farm subsidy laws that transfer funds to farmers and regulate and subsidize production of selected commodities. Fruit, tree nut, ornamental and vegetable crops, hay and meats remain outside scope of main subsidy programs. The new law continues many innovations of the 1996 Act, such as removal
Austria's accession to the European Community has created a new framework against which to evaluate Austria's foreign trade sector. The EU 15 is the world's largest exporter. In 1994, exports of the EU, including trade within the EU, accounted for two fifths of world trade, twice as much as the trade share of the USA (11.8 percent) and of Japan
It has generally been argued that regional trade agreements (RTAs) among developing countries may induce potential adverse effects on trade patterns among RTA members and between them and third countries. Using an expanded gravity model this paper estimates for a number of regional trade arrangements among developing countries the gross trade creation and diversion effects resulting from RTA formation. This
Global attempts to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may impact on agricultural trade and producer returns, particularly in countries such as New Zealand, where a relatively large proportion of GHG emissions originate from the agricultural sector. This study uses an extended partial equilibrium agricultural trade model to analyze the effects of trade policy liberalization on agricultural production and trade, as
Because China's economic structure is different from that in OECD countries, using conventional neo-classical competitive trade models to analyze the welfare and trade impacts of trade related policy change can be misleading. In particular, both the exchange rate regime and output and pricing policies of state owned enterprises (SOE's) will have effects on trade and welfare which differ from a
Mark Cooper, professor of Zoology at the University of Washington, maintains this site which features time-lapse recordings and confocal images of the development of fish. Visitors can view QuickTime and MPEG movies of: zebrafish developmental landmarks, neural crest and neural tube dynamics, and medaka embryo contraction waves fish epidermal cells. In addition, a still image gallery and material describing how the images were prepared is available. This site is intended for teachers, researchers, and students interested in the developmental biology of fish and other aquatic organisms.
Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478
Many of the students enrolled in Hawai'i Community College's (HCC's) Trade and Industry Division have poor reading skills, with Nelson-Denny comprehension scores averaging a 9th grade equivalent. Despite a lack of motivation and interest in reading, trades students must be able to understand trade-technical handbooks, manuals, references,…
Trade area analysis is widely used to help local decision makers assess commercial sector performance. Two trade area analysis tools, trade area capture and pull factors, have been used to judge a community's current and potential commercial sector activity. This paper demonstrates how the pull factor can be reduced to a location quotient formulation that is less complex and data
Thomas R. Harris; Gary W. Smith; Michael B. Mooney
This paper investigates why regional trade arrangements (RTAs) are proliferating extensively and how the effects of multiple RTAs, by interacting with each other, evolve over time. Our empirical analysis, based on an extended gravity model utilising a large panel dataset of 175 countries from 1948 to 1999, shows that RTAs on average increase global trade by raising intra-bloc trade without
This paper emphasizes the range of factors which enter country calculations to seek regional trading arrangements. These include conventional access benefits, but extend to safe haven concerns, the use of trade arrangements to underpin security arrangements, and tactical interplay between multilateral and regional trade negotiating positions. In a final section, results from an earlier modelling effort by Perroni and Whalley
Included in this report are the presentations made at a 4-day national conference regarding the role of trade and industrial education in meeting the nation's manpower needs. More than 175 leaders heard the following speeches: (1) "The Role of Trade and Industrial Education" by Michael Russo, (2) "Industry's Concepts of Trade and Industrial…
Abstract.?Trade within currency unions is much larger than outside of currency unions, even after factoring in many relevant variables. The existing empirical evidence is based on reduced form models of trade, and therefore indicates correlation between but neither causality nor mechanism. This paper argues that the causal relationship runs from currency unions to trade, and then considers two possible mechanisms
This paper studies the role of insider trading in explaining cross-country differences in stock market volatility. It introduces a new measure of insider trading. The central finding is that countries with more prevalent insider trading have more volatile stock markets, even after one controls for liquidity\\/maturity of the market, and the volatility of the underlying fundamentals (volatility of real output
Although there seems to be a broad consensus to prohibit insider trading among supervising authorities and market professionals, the debate on insider trading has not settled definitively. We introduce a distinction between insider trading and market manipulation on the one hand and corporate insiders versus misappropriators on the other hand. This gives rise to four types of alleged wrong transactions.
Whether insider trading affects stock prices is central to both the current debate over whether insider trading is harmful or pervasive, and to the broader public policy issue of how best to regulate securities markets. Using previously unexplored data on illegal insider trading from the Securities and Exchange Commission, this paper finds that the stock market detects the possibility of
This paper studies the role of insider trading in explaining cross-country differences in stock market volatility. It introduces a new measure of insider trading. The central finding is that countries with more prevalent insider trading have more volatile stock markets, even after one controls for liquidity\\/maturity of the market, and the volatility of the underlying fundamentals (volatility of real output
This paper studies the role of insider trading in explaining cross-country difference in stock market volatility. It introduces a new (albeit imperfect) measure of insider trading for 50 or so countries. The central finding is that countries with more prevalent insider trading do have more volatile stock markets, even after one controls for liquidity\\/maturity of the market, and the volatility
There have been very substantial reductions in the trade policy and other barriers inhibiting developing country participation in world trade. Associated with this has been a dramatic shift in the pattern of developing country trade, with a shift away from dependence on commodity exports to much greater reliance on manufactures and services, and greatly increased importance of exports to other
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the key issues on trade and environment in the forestry sector. The two main emerging issues in the international trade of forest products within Latin America and the Caribbean to be studied are: 1) implications of the removal of trade barriers for the economic contribution and sustainability of production of the
How does movement toward freer trade affect income disparity among countries? This paper attempts to shed some light on the issue by examining episodes of major postwar trade liberalization within specified groups of countries. The findings suggest a strong link between the timing of trade reform and income convergence among countries. Copyright 1993, the President and Fellows of Harvard College
We use trade data from an online game economy to test the 'dopaminergic reward prediction error' (DRPE) hypothesis: upon buying a game item at a price which is obviously too low, a player should become more active in the trading market. We find that players are more willing to buy goods in the in-game market after such an trade incident.
From World War I1 until about 1980, regional free trade agree- ments and global trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) could reasonably be seen as comple- ments rather than substitutes-as two aspects of a broad march toward increasingly open international markets. Since then, how- ever, the two have moved in opposite directions. The 1980s were
This paper examines the China-ASEAN bilateral trade relationship, using the Gravity model where the per capita income difference is included in the specification for testing the hypothesis. The empirical results based on Bounds test proposed by Pesaran et al . (2001) reveal that the transportation cost and real GDP are statistically significant determinants of bilateral trade. The trade distance remains
The use of trade books in science instruction, particularly in the elementary and middle school grades, invites scrutiny into the ways in which trade books represent science and its practitioners to learners. Forty-four trade books were examined for their explicit and implicit representations of science. The majority of the sample was comprised of…
A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599
Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal
Knowledge of the acoustic target strength of a fish (or of a shoal of fish) is required to enable the performance of present and future sonar equipments to be determined for fish targets. Also, it is hoped that measurement of the strengths and characters of the echoes received from fish will give a reliable guide to the size of the
...2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...theme for the Trade Symposium is ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast...
Increasing consumer demand for seafood, combined with concern over the health of our oceans, has led to many initiatives aimed at tackling destructive fishing practices and promoting the sustainability of fisheries. An important global threat to sustainable fisheries is Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, and there is now an increased emphasis on the use of trade measures to prevent IUU-sourced fish and fish products from entering the international market. Initiatives encompass new legislation in the European Union requiring the inclusion of species names on catch labels throughout the distribution chain. Such certification measures do not, however, guarantee accuracy of species designation. Using two DNA-based methods to compare species descriptions with molecular ID, we examined 386 samples of white fish, or products labelled as primarily containing white fish, from major UK supermarket chains. Species specific real-time PCR probes were used for cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to provide a highly sensitive and species-specific test for the major species of white fish sold in the UK. Additionally, fish-specific primers were used to sequence the forensically validated barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Overall levels of congruence between product label and genetic species identification were high, with 94.34% of samples correctly labelled, though a significant proportion in terms of potential volume, were mislabelled. Substitution was usually for a cheaper alternative and, in one case, extended to a tropical species. To our knowledge, this is the first published study encompassing a large-scale assessment of UK retailers, and if representative, indicates a potentially significant incidence of incorrect product designation.
Helyar, Sarah J.; Lloyd, Hywel ap D.; de Bruyn, Mark; Leake, Jonathan; Bennett, Niall; Carvalho, Gary R.
Gravity Equations are broadly used to estimate the impacts of trade impediments on trade flows. It is often stated that results are implausibly high. In theoretical foundations of the gravity equation, trade costs usually enter as icebergmelting-costs. This paper offers an alternative approach to model trade costs. From a microeconomic point of view, trade costs should depend on trade input