Sample records for ornamental fish trade

  1. The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    FA124 The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Introduction Aquarium keeping is amongst-2005). Pet industry surveys have estimated the aquarium industry worth over $1,000 million USD (e.g., Cato

  2. Fish Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

  3. Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.

    PubMed

    Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2012-12-21

    Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

  4. Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort

  5. Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2005-06-22

    Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort and the future expression of a sexually selected ornament, we manipulated the parental effort of males by changing their brood sizes. We found that parents provisioned experimentally enlarged broods more often than reduced broods. As predicted by life-history theory, the change in parental effort had a significant effect on the relative plumage ornamentation of males in the subsequent year: males with reduced broods significantly increased in plumage brightness. Moreover, this change in plumage coloration had a direct effect on the timing of breeding in the following season: males that displayed brighter plumage in the year following the manipulation mated with females that initiated egg laying earlier in the season. These data indicate that male bluebirds must trade-off conserving energy for production of future ornamentation versus expending energy for current reproduction. PMID:17148168

  6. Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. L. Ng; H. H. Tan

    1997-01-01

    SoutheastAsia is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree ofendemism in both flora and fauna. Many freshwater fish specieshave been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. As thepopulation in South East Asia increases, vast tracts of forestsare cleared for agricultural, industrial and urbanizationpurposes. To conserve and sustainably exploit the wild fishpopulation, measures should be adopted to protect this

  7. The Horticultural Trade and Ornamental Plant Invasions in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHARINA DEHNEN-SCHMUTZ; JULIA TOUZA; CHARLES PERRINGS; MARK WILLIAMSON

    2007-01-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been recognized as the main pathway for plant invasions worldwide. We examined the link between propagule pressure created by the presence of ornamental plants in the market and their ability to escape from cultivation and establish in the wild. A random sample of 534 non-native ornamental species on sale in nineteenth century Britain showed that 27% of

  8. MFR PAPER 1299 Ornamental Fish: Diseases and Problems

    E-print Network

    streaked on blood agar and Ordall's I Reference to trade names or commerical firms does not imply to enhance possible iso- lations. The media used and justifica- tion are: A) Blood agar was used as a general organ (kidney) for culture. In small fish a mixture of blood and/or kidney was cultured. An additional

  9. Detection and identification of globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens in some ornamental fish in India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shubhra; Sharma, Rolee; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a progressive disease of a wide range of wild and captive, marine and freshwater fish species. Conventional detection of fish Mycobacteria is based on histopathology, culture, and biochemical characteristics. The present study analyzed the occurrence of Mycobacteria in clinically ill ornamental fish of different species, from different places of India. In first group, 60 fish were examined for presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria. Thirty-eight (63.34 %) fish were positive for granulomatous inflammations. Presences of acid-fast bacteria were detected in 27 (45 %) fish having granulomatous inflammation and in two (3.33 %) fish without granulomatous inflammation. In total, AFB were found in 29 (48.34 %) of the 60 fish examined. In second group, 20 fish having granulomatous inflammation, 12 (60 %) samples were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining and 11 (55 %) of them were culture positive. Eight (40 %) samples were Z-N negative but two (10 %) of them were culture positive. In total, 13 (65 %) of the 20 examined fish were culture positive. On the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing, 13 isolates were identified: five as Mycobacterium fortuitum, five as Mycobacterium gordonae, and three as Mycobacterium chelonae. In comparison of two decontamination methods, 2 % HCl treatment was better than 4 % NaOH treatment. Mycobacteria recovery from decontaminated samples was significantly high on Lowenstein-Jensen medium compared to Middlebrook 7H11 agar and Stonebrink (SB) media. The disease is transmissible from fish to fish and also from fish to human, so the significance of Mycobacteria in ornamental fish should not be overlooked. PMID:23358914

  10. Prospects for the use of ornamental fishes for mosquito control: a laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Tilak, R; Dutta, J; Gupta, K K Dutta

    2007-01-01

    Use of larvivorous fishes Gambusia and Poecilia for mosquito control has been a well established option. The study evaluated the larvivorous potential of some ornamental fish vis-a-vis Gambusia and Poecilia in the laboratory settings using standard testing protocol. Gold fish and Blue Gourami were found to be as effective larvivores as Gambusia affinis, the mosquito fish. The study recommends introduction of Goldfish and Blue Gourami in ornamental tanks for control of mosquito breeding as well as providing aesthetic beauty. PMID:18232145

  11. THE IDENTITY OF THE AFRICAN FIREBUSH (HAMELIA) IN THE ORNAMENTAL NURSERY TRADE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. In recent years, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flow...

  12. The Fish Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2000-12-06

    The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to examine the interdependence of global trade in the context of the economic and social aspects of fisheries and aquaculture. When studying global interdependence within a science literacy context the purpose is not to promote any particular view of how nations should work together or to suggest what the balance between national interests and global ones should be for the United States or any other nation. Rather, students need to become aware of the growing number of ways in which each nation is part of a larger political, economic, military, environmental, biological, and technological system.

  13. Systems engineering for ornamental fish production in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilan Halachmi

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to develop a simulation model for determining the optimal layout and management regime for ornamental fish recirculating aquaculture system (ORAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth rates, the nature of the products, and the management practices; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model of the ORAS, taking into account all factors that directly

  14. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  15. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  16. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which ornamental fish and their carriage water harbour antibiotic resistant bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Methods: 129 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm water and coldwater ornamental fish species were screened for r...

  17. Investigating Vietnam's ornamental bird trade: implications for transmission of zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly; Roberton, Scott I; Few, Roger; Mahood, Simon; Bui, Phuong L; Hunter, Paul R; Bell, Diana J

    2011-03-01

    Global wildlife trade is financially lucrative, frequently illegal and increases the risk for zoonotic disease transmission. This paper presents the first interdisciplinary study of Vietnam's illegal wild bird trade focussing on those aspects which may contribute to the transmission of diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Comparing January 2009 data with that of May 2007, we found a five-fold increase to 9,117 birds on sale in Hanoi. Ninety-five percent of Hanoian bird vendors appear unaware of trade regulations and across Vietnam vendors buy birds sourced outside of their province. Approximately 25% of the species common to Vietnam's bird trade are known to be HPAI H5N1 susceptible. The anthropogenic movement of birds within the trade chain and the range of HPAI-susceptible species, often traded alongside poultry, increase the risk Vietnam's bird trade presents for the transmission of pathogens such as HPAI H5N1. These results will assist in the control and monitoring of emerging zoonotic diseases and conservation of Southeast Asia's avifauna. PMID:21809163

  18. Use of Antibiotics in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture1 Roy P. E. Yanong2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Cir 84 Use of Antibiotics in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture1 Roy P. E. Yanong2 1. This document and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension

  19. Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

  20. Characterization of Microbiota Composition and Presence of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Carriage Water of Ornamental Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1–2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25084116

  1. Megalocytivirus Infections in Fish, with Emphasis on Ornamental Species1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    , Gainesville, FL 32611; and Thomas B. Waltzek, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS of the world, especially Asia. Currently, nearly all isolates from diseased fish appear to be strains

  2. Arms races, ornaments and fragrant genes: the dilemma of mate choice in fishes.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    Female preference for secondary sexual male ornaments that are handicapping survival has been an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis assumes that costly ornaments can be produced only by those males that carry the genes for resistance against the current infectious disease. I review studies in fishes that indeed bright colors can only be displayed by males in good health and females prefer healthy males by choosing the brighter ones. On the other hand, female vertebrates from fish to humans smell out partners that provide the complementary genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them producing offspring with the optimal number of different MHC alleles. In sticklebacks females have a two-step choice. Using smell they approach a male that offers the optimally complementary number of MHC alleles. When they can see the male, they accept it only when it is bright and thus offers in its complementary set of alleles the specific MHC allele providing resistance against the current disease as revealed by the male's sexual ornamentation. PMID:25152201

  3. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius) exposed to formalin.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rudã F B; Dias, Henrique M; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius). A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40%) (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg.L(-1)) with four replicates and five fish per container (3L) in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (%) were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC(50-96h (I))) estimated was 50.76 mg.L(-1) with regression of y = 0.51x, and r(2) = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects. PMID:23207704

  4. On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish 1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    FA-119 On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish 1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez and transport of fish will affect survival and overall quality of the fish (see UF IFAS Circular 919 Stress-It's Role in Fish Disease). Fish should be moved quickly and efficiently to minimize stress, the risk

  5. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  6. Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata. PMID:19485122

  7. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

  8. Acid-fast bacterial infection and its control in guppies (Lebistes reticulatus) reared on an ornamental fish farm in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Conroy, G; Conroy, D A

    1999-02-13

    There was a spontaneous outbreak of mycobacteriosis in fancy veiltail guppies, Lebistes reticulatus, raised on an ornamental fish farm in Venezuela. The clinical signs included listlessness, emaciation, spinal curvature, sunken eyes and loss of colour. Numerous acid-fast bacteria, identified as Mycobacterium species, were detected in smears from the kidneys, liver, mesentery and spleen of the fish, from fresh faecal material, and from the unborn embryos of infected gravid females. The bacteria were eradicated by the addition of kanamycin sulphate to the water at a concentration of 50 ppm, the dose being repeated on four occasions with 48 hours between each dose. Fifteen days after the treatment, none of the clinical signs described were detected in any of the treated fish. The offspring born to treated females were healthy and normal, and did not harbour acid-fast bacteria. PMID:10097326

  9. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  10. Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451

  11. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

  12. Postharvest mortality in the marine aquarium trade: A case study of an Indonesian export facility1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Schmidt; Andreas Kunzmann

    2005-01-01

    Indonesia, a centre of global coral reef biodiversity, is a focus of the marine aquarium trade and the world's largest exporter of reef ornamentals. In order to provide information on the cause of post- harvest mortality, and to identify possible solutions to reduce mortality rates, post-harvest mortalities of marine ornamental fish were assessed in several deliveries made to and processed

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER The aquarium trade as a potential source of fish

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    ORIGINAL PAPER The aquarium trade as a potential source of fish introductions in southwestern+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract The aquarium trade has been identified as an important vector of aquatic and Portugal. As in previous studies, the diversity of fishes in the aquarium trade was vast, with a total

  14. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Thünken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Baldauf, Sebastian A.

    2012-01-01

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference. PMID:22513859

  15. The Introduction of Nonnative Fishes into Freshwater Systems of Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernán Ortega; Humberto Guerra; Rina Ramírez

    \\u000a Since the 1930s, alien fishes (fishes not native to Peru) have been introduced into the freshwater systems of Peru for different\\u000a purposes such as fish farming, the ornamental fish trade, public health applications, and sport fishing. The fish were introduced\\u000a either deliberately or casually into the three hydrographic systems of the country (Amazon, Pacific coastal rivers, and Lake\\u000a Titicaca). To

  16. Fiber optic spectrophotometry for monitoring dissolved oxygen in a tropical ornamental fish tank environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand K. Asundi; Jun Wei Chen; Duo Min He

    1999-01-01

    Using Fiber Optic Spectro-Photometry (FOSP) methodology, a set of high sensitivity fiber optic oxygen monitoring system performing NDT is developed for fish farming environment. The working principle of the sensor is based on the detection signal at a particular wavelength due to the fluorescence and quenching of coated dye (ruthenium complex) in response to oxygen concentration at the tip of

  17. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region. PMID:24252956

  18. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:21424528

  19. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

  20. The benefits and risks of aquacultural production for the aquarium trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Tlusty

    2002-01-01

    Production of animals for the aquarium hobbyist trade is a rapidly growing sector of the aquacultural industry, and it will continue to become more important as restrictions are placed on collecting animals for the wild. Currently, approximately 90% of freshwater fish traded in the hobbyist industry are captively cultured. However, for marine ornamentals, the reverse is true as only a

  1. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  2. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  3. 78 FR 46409 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISH ON; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...Docket No. MARAD-2013 0085] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISH ON; Invitation for Public Comments...U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...

  4. Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  5. Trimethylamine oxide, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and formaldehyde levels in main traded fish species in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. C. Chung; B. T. P. Chan

    2009-01-01

    Levels of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and formaldehyde (FA) were studied in 266 different fishes, including fresh\\/frozen raw whole fishes of 89 different species that traded in Hong Kong, China. Determination of TMAO can confirm the source of DMA and FA if present in the sample. These samples were purchased from different commercial outlets between April and

  6. Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

    2014-01-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

  7. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  8. Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

  9. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  10. Life history trade-offs and community dynamics of small fishes in a seasonally pulsed wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.

  11. Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Baska; V. N. Voronin; Linda Müller; Szilvia Marton; Kálmán Molnár

    2009-01-01

    Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments\\u000a from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia.\\u000a In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules

  12. Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Curtis E.

    1974-01-01

    Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

  13. Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill

  14. Propagation of Ornamental Plants. 

    E-print Network

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1955-01-01

    Propagation of Ornamental Plants I A. I?. DEWERTH, Head Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Texas A. & M. College System THE MULTIPLICATION of ornamental plants is After sterilizing, firm the soil to within 1; receiving more... larger see1 gardener to produce high-quality plants in a and add soil screened through fly screen until comparatively short time. the seed are barely hidden. Covering seed top deeply is a common error. Propagation by Seed For very fine seed, screen a...

  15. Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán

    2009-10-01

    Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied. PMID:19629523

  16. Do You Know Where Your Aquarium Fish Come From?1 Tracking the species caught for the unevenly regulated aquarium trade is a complicated task.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Do You Know Where Your Aquarium Fish Come From?1 Tracking the species caught for the unevenly regulated aquarium trade is a complicated task.2 by Jane J. Lee National Geographic3 4 Watching flamboyantly colored fish flit about a saltwater aquarium can be relaxing. Figuring out where they came from

  17. WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN

    E-print Network

    WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

  18. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where the fiber ornamentation exceeds five per centum, it shall be included in the statement of...

  19. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  20. Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

    2001-01-01

    The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

  1. NOAA/NMFS Developments Developing Fish Resources Can Offset U.S. Trade Deficits

    E-print Network

    trade deficit currently runs $2.5 billion yearly. The subcommittee was hearing testimo- ny on amending subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environ- ment in early June that the fisheries come across two oceans each year to do so. He noted to the subcommittee that the Magnuson Fishery

  2. Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian C. Duggan; Nathalie M. N. Bergeron; Anthony Ricciardi; Hugh J. Macisaac

    2005-01-01

    International trade is an important mechanism for global non-indigenous species introductions, which have had profound impacts on the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems including the Laurentian Great Lakes. The best-documented vector by which non-indigenous species have entered the Great Lakes is ballast water discharged by transoceanic ships. A variety of potential alternative vectors exist, including the intentional release of aquarium or

  3. Expression of sexual ornaments in a polymorphic species: phenotypic variation in response to environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Winandy, L; Denoël, M

    2015-05-01

    Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are differently expressed in alternative phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such phenotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity of seasonal ornamentations in response to environmental pressures such as in the presence of fish (predation risk). This is an important question to understand the evolution of polyphenisms. We used facultative paedomorphosis in newts as a model system because it involves the coexistence of paedomorphs that retain gills in the adult stage with metamorphs that have undergone metamorphosis, but also because newts exhibit seasonal sexual traits. Our aim was therefore to determine the influence of fish on the development of seasonal ornamentation in the two phenotypes of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus). During the entire newt breeding period, we assessed the importance of phenotype and fish presence with an information-theoretic approach. Our results showed that paedomorphs presented much less developed ornamentation than metamorphs and those ornamentations varied over time. Fish inhibited the development of sexual traits but differently between phenotypes: in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs lack the phenotypic plasticity of sexual traits to environmental risk. This study points out that internal and external parameters act in complex ways in the expression of seasonal sexual ornamentations and that similar environmental pressure can induce a contrasted evolution in alternative phenotypes. PMID:25847588

  4. Viability selection against highly-ornamented males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber J. Keyser; Lynn M. Siefferman

    2005-01-01

    Hypothesis: Variation in ornamental traits, such as plumage coloration, is maintained by the opposing forces of sexual selection (increased ornamentation) and natural selection (decreased ornamentation). Organisms: A wild population of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) in northwestern Oregon which has been the subject of longitudinal population studies since 1988. Methods: We necropsied 47 adult birds recovered dead in 2002. We measured

  5. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  6. Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

  7. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  8. Physiological Trade-Offs Along a Fast-Slow Lifestyle Continuum in Fishes: What Do They Tell Us about Resistance and Resilience to Hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Rick J.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that general rules of change in ecological communities might be found through the development of functional relationships between species traits and performance. The physiological, behavioural and life-history traits of fishes are often organised along a fast-slow lifestyle continuum (FSLC). With respect to resistance (capacity for population to resist change) and resilience (capacity for population to recover from change) to environmental hypoxia, the literature suggests that traits enhancing resilience may come at the expense of traits promoting resistance to hypoxia; a trade-off may exist. Here I test whether three fishes occupying different positions along the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to environmental hypoxia. Static respirometry experiments were used to determine resistance, as measured by critical oxygen tension (Pcrit), and capacity for (RC) and magnitude of metabolic reduction (RM). Swimming respirometry experiments were used to determine aspects of resilience: critical (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), and optimal cost of transport (COTopt). Results pertaining to metabolic reduction suggest a resistance gradient across species described by the inequality Melanotaenia fluviatilis (fast lifestyle) < Hypseleotris sp. (intermediate lifestyle) < Mogurnda adspersa (slow lifestyle). The Ucrit and COTopt data suggest a resilience gradient described by the reverse inequality, and so the experiments generally indicate that three fishes occupying different positions on the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to hypoxia. However, the scope of inferences that can be drawn from an individual study is narrow, and so steps towards general, trait-based rules of fish community change along environmental gradients are discussed. PMID:26070078

  9. Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?

    PubMed Central

    Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

  10. Opportunities for public aquariums to increase the sustainability of the aquatic animal trade.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Michael F; Rhyne, Andrew L; Kaufman, Les; Hutchins, Michael; Reid, Gordon McGregor; Andrews, Chris; Boyle, Paul; Hemdal, Jay; McGilvray, Frazer; Dowd, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The global aquatic pet trade encompasses a wide diversity of freshwater and marine organisms. While relying on a continual supply of healthy, vibrant aquatic animals, few sustainability initiatives exist within this sector. Public aquariums overlap this industry by acquiring many of the same species through the same sources. End users are also similar, as many aquarium visitors are home aquarists. Here we posit that this overlap with the pet trade gives aquariums significant opportunity to increase the sustainability of the trade in aquarium fishes and invertebrates. Improving the sustainability ethos and practices of the aquatic pet trade can carry a conservation benefit in terms of less waste, and protection of intact functioning ecosystems, at the same time as maintaining its economic and educational benefits and impacts. The relationship would also move forward the goal of public aquariums to advance aquatic conservation in a broad sense. For example, many public aquariums in North America have been instrumental in working with the seafood industry to enact positive change toward increased sustainability. The actions include being good consumers themselves, providing technical knowledge, and providing educational and outreach opportunities. These same opportunities exist for public aquariums to partner with the ornamental fish trade, which will serve to improve business, create new, more ethical and more dependable sources of aquatic animals for public aquariums, and perhaps most important, possibly transform the home aquarium industry from a threat, into a positive force for aquatic conservation. PMID:22549966

  11. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds 4-89

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds 4-89 Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds Jeffrey F. Derr, Extension Weed Scientist, Hampton Roads AREC Overview Weed management is necessary in flower beds and for shrub and tree plantings. Weeds reduce

  12. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

  13. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

  14. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

  15. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF DIVERSE PHYTOPLASMAS OF SUBGROUPS 16SRI-A, 16SRI-B, 16SRI-L, AND 16SRI-M INFECTING ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN LITHUANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trade in ornamental plant species comprises a significant segment in the economies of countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Since the quality of ornamental plants is adversely affected by diseases attributed to phytoplasmas, we surveyed plant collections in botanical gardens and floricultur...

  16. Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007 Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences of Montenegro is promotion of the their greenhouse flower production industry. At the time when the program and Montenegro. #12;Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007 Radionica za proizvodnju

  17. Owen Jones and the Conventionalization of Ornament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kresten Jespersen

    2010-01-01

    Owen Jones (1809-1874) was a Victorian architect, antiquarian and ornamentor of house-hold fame. He was Superintendant of the Works for the Royal Society of Arts sponsored Crystal Palace of 1851. He published his monumental chromolithographed The Grammar of Ornament in 1856, an encyclopediac compendium of nineteen styles of world ornament and a final twentieth chapter on nature. One of the

  18. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  19. Ornamental Horticulture. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Bruce; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary ornamental horticulture education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in ornamental horticulture in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills.…

  20. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  1. Simple ecological trade-offs give rise to emergent cross-ecosystem distributions of a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Grol, Monique G. G.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Layman, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24–47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77–100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change. PMID:21072542

  2. A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brice X. Semmens; Eric R. Buhle; Anne K. Salomon; Christy V. Pattengill-Semmens

    2004-01-01

    Invasions of non-native species in marine ecosystems can be ecologically damaging and economically costly. Identifying 'hot-spots' of non-native species and their sources of introduction is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of invasion quarantine programs. We use a large spatially explicit marine fish database to show that there are a surprising number of non-native fishes on the reefs of southeast Florida,

  3. Quantitative genetic evidence that males trade attractiveness for ejaculate quality in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Polyandry, where females mate with multiple males, means that a male's reproductive success will depend both on his ability to acquire mates and the ability of his sperm to compete effectively for fertilizations. But, how do males partition their reproductive investment between these two episodes of selection? Theory predicts that increases in ejaculate investment will come at a cost to investment in other reproductive traits. Although evidence revealing such trade-offs is accumulating, we know little about their genetic basis. Here, I report patterns of genetic (co)variation for a range of traits subject to pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a promiscuous livebearing fish in which males alternate between courtship and sneak matings to obtain copulations. The analyses of genetic variation and covariation for these behaviours revealed a strong genetic predisposition for one tactic over the other. Both mating tactics were also strongly genetically integrated with the level of sexual ornamentation and ejaculate quality. Males that predominantly performed sneak matings were less ornamented but had faster swimming sperm than those that predominantly used courtship. These patterns of genetic variation and covariation reveal potential evolutionary constraints on the direction of selection of pre- and post-copulatory traits, and support sperm competition theory by revealing a trade-off between sexual attractiveness and investment in ejaculates. PMID:20504807

  4. Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West.--The nonindigenous Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus is established in west-central Florida, where it invades tropical. Although introduced Asian swamp eels have been described as voracious predators of fish, to date there have

  5. Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-06-01

    The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P?>?0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants. PMID:23532544

  6. Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Solange; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow. PMID:25853888

  7. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

    2009-12-22

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive. PMID:19776075

  8. Advances in Ornamental Horticulture Clear Advances in Uncertain Times

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Advances in Ornamental Horticulture Clear Advances in Uncertain Times 2011 Year End Summary of specialty crops. The IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program -- was involved with 11 registrations which Ornamental Horticulture $1.0 billion impact on U.S. GDP Biopesticide & Organic Support $155 million impact

  9. Female choice and annual reproductive success favour less-ornamented male house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, S. C.; Owens, I. P. F.; Burke, T.

    1999-01-01

    Theories of sexual selection usually assume that female preferences for male ornamental traits are fixed and always likely to favour the largest or most extravagant sexual ornaments. This is not, however, always necessary or likely, particularly in resource-based monogamous systems. Here we show that in a closed population of house sparrows, small-badged males were preferred by females as both social and genetic mates and produced a higher number of viable offspring. Previous studies of other house sparrow populations have shown females to prefer large-badged males. Given the likely trade-offs operating between different male behavioural and morphological traits, we propose that female choice is a flexible adaptive strategy through which females can select those males likely to supply the male-acquired benefits that are locally most important.

  10. Trade booms, trade busts, and trade costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Dennis Novy

    2011-01-01

    What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We employ a micro-founded measure of trade frictions consistent with leading trade theories to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania

  11. Trade Booms, Trade Busts and Trade Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2010-01-01

    What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We derive a micro-founded measure of trade frictions from leading trade theories and use it to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe,

  12. Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Dennis Novy

    2009-01-01

    What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We derive a micro-founded measure of trade frictions from leading trade theories and use it to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe,

  13. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  14. Preparing Your Own Fish Feeds1 Juli-Anne B. Royes and Frank Chapman2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Cir 97 Preparing Your Own Fish Feeds1 Juli-Anne B. Royes and Frank Chapman2 1. This document is Cir Commissioners Cooperating. Thomas A. Obreza, Interim Dean Introduction Most fish farmers and ornamental fish feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to- maintain aquarium fishes, larval

  15. Ornamental Horticulture: Program Planning Guide: Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roger R.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The program planning guide for ornamental horticulture was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of arboriculture, floriculture, greenhouse operation and management,…

  16. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations-occurrence and inheritance.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, C R; Nordeide, J T; Gjøen, H M; Larsen, B; Egeland, E S

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species' behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females' spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  17. How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations. PMID:24884492

  18. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiaan M. Beindorff; Nicolaas Jan Zuidam

    \\u000a For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade\\u000a in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas\\u000a of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to

  19. Female swallow preference for symmetrical male sexual ornaments.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P

    1992-05-21

    Many secondary sexual characters are supposed to have evolved as a response to female choice of the most extravagantly ornamented males, a hypothesis supported by studies demonstrating female preferences for the most ornamented males. Comparative studies of elaborate feather ornaments in birds have shown that (1) ornaments have larger degrees of fluctuating asymmetry (small, random deviations from bilateral symmetry caused by an inability of individuals to cope with environmental and genetic stress during development of a character) than other morphological traits, and (2) the degree of fluctuating asymmetry is often negatively related to the size of the ornament. The negative relationship between ornament asymmetry and size suggests that ornament size reliably reflects male quality because the largest secondary sex traits demonstrate the least degree of fluctuating asymmetry. I manipulated tail length and tail asymmetry independently in male swallows (Hirundo rustica) to determine whether ornament size or asymmetry were used as cues in mate choice. Male swallows with elongated, symmetric tails mated earlier, and enjoyed larger annual reproductive success than did males with shortened tails and increased asymmetry. Females therefore prefer large as well as symmetric ornaments, which suggests that females in their mate choice use ornament asymmetry and size as reliable indicators of male quality. PMID:1589021

  20. Origin and maintenance of mechanosensory feather ornaments Sampath S. Seneviratne*, Ian L. Jones 1

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Origin and maintenance of mechanosensory feather ornaments Sampath S. Seneviratne*, Ian L. Jones 1: Aethia auklet feather ornament mechanosensory trait natural selection pairwise comparison sexual selection Mechanosensory use is a seldom-mentioned function for feather ornaments, yet recent experimental

  1. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  2. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  3. Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008 The Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of a new hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivar 'Red Dragon' for the ornamental market with red leaves, contorted growth habit, and complete resistance to eastern filbert blight

  4. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for Florida ornamental production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project is a cooperative effort among USDA, ARS and University of Florida researchers, Florida in-ground ornamental producers, and fumigant industry representatives. Funding is provided through the USDA-ARS Area-wide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide. The ornamental i...

  5. Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

  6. Fishing in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interesting magazine from the European Commission covers diverse topics related to (but not exclusive of) the fishing industry (in .pdf format). The current issue of the magazine includes a piece from the Trade Union of Fish Merchants; the story of an expanding fishing village; the discovery of the Patagonian toothfish, a potentially threatened species; and a discussion of Total Allowable Catches for the year 2000.

  7. Gene expression profiling of a fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis: insights into development and senescence-associated avirulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ciliate parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) infects many freshwater fish, causing white spot disease that leads to heavy economic losses to aquaculture and ornamental industries. Despite its economic importance, molecular studies examining fundamental processes such as life stage regulat...

  8. THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

  9. 40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of General Stilwell and associated personnel, evenly spaced across the entire face of the mantlepiece. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  10. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Ornament is dangerous : a wildfire hazard center for Los Angeles

    E-print Network

    Trimble, Matthew Alexander

    2008-01-01

    There is no such thing as an unadorned building. While the the role and relevance of ornament in architecture has been criticized for centuries, its position has been, for the most part, supported as essential to architecture. ...

  12. Screening ornamentals for their potential as As Accumulator Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic-based pesticides, herbicides and insecticides are used in horticultural operations resulting in soil contamination around greenhouse structures. Phytoremediation and phytostabilization are two techniques for treating arsenic (As) contaminated soil. Several ornamental plant species, Iris (Ir...

  13. 21 CFR 109.16 - Ornamental and decorative ceramicware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.16 Ornamental and...

  14. Environmental Horticulture Department Ornamental Plant Identification and Use

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    . 2003. Ornamental Tropical Shrubs. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, FL. Meerow, A.W. 1992. Betrock's Guide. .Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, Fla. Nelson, G. 1994. The Trees of Florida. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota

  15. SOUTH AND EAST SIDES; HENSCHIEN APPLIED HIS ORNAMENTAL MOTIF EVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH AND EAST SIDES; HENSCHIEN APPLIED HIS ORNAMENTAL MOTIF EVEN TO THIS TINY STRUCTURE; NOTE PRAIRIE-STYLE CAPITALS ON PILASTERS - Rath Packing Company, Salt Bunker, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. 11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  17. Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Barta, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

  18. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

    2013-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  19. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Michael J.; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Neupane, Kabi R.; Hu, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3? termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92% identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  20. Trade Policy

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

  1. Introduction Tropical fish-keeping is the second

    E-print Network

    growth has been especially prevalent for the estab- lishment of "artificial reef" aquariums, which and breakthroughs in the care of such species. Marine aquariums in particular rely primarily on live specimens (fish, and also live rock, and live sand) for commercial use, primarily as ornamentals for the aquarium market

  2. Trade Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

  3. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration. PMID:24946976

  4. South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices 1

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    ABE 369 South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management.... 2 water quantity and quality historically experienced periods of extended droughts which threaten production capabilities thus making water

  5. Do trade missions increase trade?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Head; John Ries

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries

  6. Do trade missions increase trade?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Head; John Ries

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries

  7. Variable sexual ornaments in scarlet-tufted malachite sunbirds ( Nectarinia johnstoni) on Mount Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Evans; Phoebe Barnard

    1995-01-01

    In order to be elaborated by sexual selection, sexual ornaments must vary perceptibly and genetically among individuals in natural populations. Rather little is known about ornament variation in monogamous species, in which sexual selection should act more weakly than in polygynous species. We report phenotypic variation in feather ornament size (elongated tails and pectoral tufts) and body size in the

  8. SYSTEMIC ACTIVITY OF NEONICOTINOIDS INFLUENCES FEEDING BY ADULT BLACK VINE WEEVILS ON VARIOUS SPECIES OF ORNAMENTALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW) is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. The larval stage feeds on the roots of ornamental plants and small fruits often stunting or killing the plants. The adults feed on the foliage of ornamental plants. A standard management technique is to apply foliar treatm...

  9. Carotenoid ornamentation of adult male Common Redpolls predicts probability of dying in a salmonellosis outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. VAN OORT; R. D. DAWSON

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1. Conditional handicap models of sexual selection predict that ornamentation should be positively associated with an individual's ability to withstand challenges to their health. 2. We assessed whether levels of carotenoid ornamentation were related to the pro- bability of adult male Common Redpolls, Carduelis flammea , dying in a salmonellosis epidemic by comparing the ornamentation of surviving adult male

  10. Survival Cost of an Intrasexually Selected Ornament in a Damselfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Grether

    1997-01-01

    Ornaments could evolve as honest indicators of fighting ability, provided they have costs that make deceptive signalling unprofitable. I tested for such costs by manipulating the size of the intrasexually selected wing spots of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) and monitoring survival in the field. Males with enlarged spots had higher mortality rates than both unmanipulated and sham-manipulated controls. Natural

  11. Survival cost of an intrasexually selected ornament in a damselfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Grether

    1997-01-01

    SUMMARY Ornaments could evolve as honest indicators of fighting ability, provided they have costs that make deceptive signalling unprofitable. I tested for such costs by manipulating the size of the intrasexually selected wing spots of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) and monitoring survival in the field. Males with enlarged spots had higher mortality rates than both unmanipulated and sham-manipulated controls.

  12. Design criteria for recirculating, marine ornamental production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Watson; Jeffrey E. Hill

    2006-01-01

    While recirculating aquaculture systems for food animals are well defined in the literature, little information is available for the emerging production of high value marine ornamental species. These organisms typically require systems which operate within a narrow range of parameters compared to most food animals, and in addition to growth and survival issues, individual appearance of animals is critical to

  13. Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

  14. 2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, AND THE EXAGGERATED TRIGLYTHS ABOVE THE DOOR, LOOKING WEST. NOTE THE PERSONNEL DOOR COMPRISED OF THE BOTTOM THREE PANELS IN THE LEFT BIFOLD DOOR. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  15. Spray technologies for insect and disease control in ornamental nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite stringent market requirements for blemish-free ornamentals, applications of pesticides and other pest or disease control strategies have helped to achieve this goal. However, proficient applications of pesticide are often complicated by many factors. Pesticide applications in nursery crops i...

  16. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET CONSERVE* SC TURF AND ORNAMENTAL

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    to use. CANCER INFORMATION: Spinosad did not cause cancer in laboratory animals. TERATOLOGY (BIRTH DEFECTS): Spinosad did not cause birth defects in laboratory animals. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS: In animalMATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET CONSERVE* SC TURF AND ORNAMENTAL INSECT CONTROL Emergency Phone: 800

  17. Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland

    2004-01-01

    Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

  18. Ornamental Annual Plants and Their Uses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with ornamental annual plants and their uses. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 254 slides illustrating 97 different plants. At least two slides are provided for each plant: one shows the growth habits of the…

  19. An Analysis of Tasks Performed in the Ornamental Horticulture Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

    This publication is the result of a detailed task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. Nine types of horticulture businesses identified were: (1) retail florists, (2) farm and garden supply store, (3) landscape services, (4) greenhouse production, (5) nursery production, (6) turf production, (7) arborist…

  20. Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

  1. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  2. Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza; Antonio M. Gascó; José M. Gascó; Francisca Guerrero

    2005-01-01

    The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2)

  3. Pairs trading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Elliott; John Van Der Hoek; William P. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    ‘Pairs Trading’ is an investment strategy used by many Hedge Funds. Consider two similar stocks which trade at some spread. If the spread widens short the high stock and buy the low stock. As the spread narrows again to some equilibrium value, a profit results. This paper provides an analytical framework for such an investment strategy. We propose a mean-reverting

  4. Introgressive hybridization between color morphs in a population of cichlid fishes twelve years after human-induced secondary admixis.

    PubMed

    Egger, Bernd; Sefc, Kristina M; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter

    2012-07-01

    In the extremely species-rich haplochromine cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes, prezygotic isolation between closely related species is often maintained by color-assortative mating. In 1998, local fisherman working for the ornamental fish trade released different color morphs of the cichlid genus Tropheus into a small harbor basin in the southern part of Lake Tanganyika. This artificial amalgamation of color morphs provides a unique possibility to study mating patterns in cichlids in a natural environment over time. In a precursor study, we analyzed genotypes and phenotypes of almost 500 individuals sampled between 1999 and 2001 and uncovered a marked degree of color-assortative mating, which depended on the level of color pattern dissimilarity between morphs. Twelve years after introduction of nonindigenous morphs, we again sampled Tropheus individuals from the harbor basin and an adjacent, originally pure population and analyzed phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and 9 microsatellite loci) to assess the current status of the admixed population. Principal component analyses of color score data and population assignment tests demonstrate an increasing level of introgressive hybridization between morphs but also some ongoing color-assortative mating within morphs. The observed mating pattern might have been influenced by fluctuating environmental conditions such as periodic algal blooms or increased sedimentation causing turbid conditions in an otherwise clear lake. PMID:22563125

  5. Trading offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, J.

    1995-08-01

    Types of NO{sub x} trading programs are outlined. These programs consist of (1) emission reduction credits (ERCs). These trades are typically based on reductions from baseline emission rates, (2) cap/allowance programs where each source is allocated a mass quantity of emissions per period, e.g., tons/yr or lbs/day, and (3) {open_quotes}open market{close_quotes} trading systems where the source makes reductions and sells discrete tonnage reductions without state certification. The buyer takes the risk that reductions will be certifiable. Reductions may be carried over from one year to the next.

  6. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  7. Response of Perennial Herbaceous Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla

    PubMed Central

    LaMondia, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals in 56 genera were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Plants were rated susceptible or resistant based on the number of galls present on the root system. Thirty-six percent had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. Thirty percent of the plants tested did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated resistant. The remaining 34 percent were intermediate in response. Variation in response to M. hapla was observed within plant genera and species. The identification of M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in management of this nematode in landscapes and production fields. PMID:19277335

  8. Survival cost of an intrasexually selected ornament in a damselfly

    PubMed Central

    Grether, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Ornaments could evolve as honest indicators of fighting ability, provided they have costs that make deceptive signalling unprofitable. I tested for such costs by manipulating the size of the intrasexually selected wing spots of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) and monitoring survival in the field. Males with enlarged spots had higher mortality rates than both unmanipulated and sham-manipulated controls. Natural wing spot size correlated positively with longevity, which suggests that higher quality males develop larger spots.

  9. Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

  10. Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

  11. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the distribution system, or in restaurants or homes. The key to keeping bacterial numbers and histamine levels low is the rapid cooling of fish after catching and the maintenance of adequate refrigeration during handling and storage. Despite the huge expansion in trade in recent years, great progress has been made in ensuring the quality and safety of fish products. This is largely the result of the introduction of international standards of food hygiene and the application of risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:10898459

  12. Fish FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

  13. The Political Trade-offs of Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, William

    1996-01-01

    Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

  14. The state of research on chondrichthyan fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence I. Walker; Lead Essay

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) first alerted the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the urgent need to establish programs for collecting biological and trade data and for managing the impacts of fishing on shark populations. By 2000, FAO had developed the International Plan of Action for the

  15. Trading up

    SciTech Connect

    Peplin, R.

    1997-07-01

    Far-sighted regulators, cost-conscious company owners and environmental consultants combined forces earlier this year to create a pioneering water pollution trading program in Minnesota. The landmark program allows Rahr Malting Co. of Shakopee, Minn., to trade limits on the wastewater it discharges into the Minnesota River in exchange for helping control non-point source pollution upstream. An integrated resource management approach--looking at the inputs to the river and managing water quality from each source--is the philosophy behind this point/non-point permit. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Effluent Trading in Watersheds Policy Statement (February 1996) and Framework (June 1996) was the impetus that got the permit process in motion.

  16. FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS

    E-print Network

    List of FISHERMEN'S AND FISH SHORE WORKERS' UNIONS in the United States UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT WORKERS' UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES By Branch of Foreign Trade and Economic Services Bureau of Commercial;PREFACE This list includes fishermen ' s and fish shore wor ker s ' unions only . The list was originally

  17. Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    348 Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in Amer- ican goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which

  18. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  19. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  20. The Sun and solar eclipses in traditional Romanian ornamental patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Dimitrie; Olenici, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Various ornamental shapes, such as the wheel, the rhombus, the broken cross, and the radiant triangle, which can be seen on popular costumes, domestic objects as well as in architecture, represent solar symbols with a clear apotropaic function whose origins may be detected on the Neolithic clay plates from Jevdet Nasr (Iraq), Knosos (Greece) and Tartaria (Romania). In the North-East of Romania the occurrence of such motifs is extremely frequent especially in traditional architecture. The Triple-Rayed Sun intersected by two lateral arcs is a remarkable adornment of this kind that seems to suggest the representation of an eclipse.

  1. Pathogenicity to Ornamental Plants of Some Existing Species and New Taxa of Phytophthora from Irrigation Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanxue Hong; Patricia A. Richardson; Ping Kong

    2008-01-01

    Hong, C., Richardson, P. A., and Kong, P. 2008. Pathogenicity to ornamental plants of some existing species and new taxa of Phytophthora from irrigation water. Plant Dis. 92:1201-1207. Eighteen isolates from 12 species of Phytophthora, including several new taxa, were tested for pathogenicity to six ornamental and four vegetable species. The following three inoculation methods were used depending on infection

  2. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  3. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-83

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-83 Organic Controls for Insects of Home Ornamentals Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Peter Insects Controlled Remarks Bacillus thuringiensis Most caterpillars, loopers, hornworms and bagworms

  4. Developing a High School Program in Ornamental Horticulture. Volume I, Nursery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Howard C.; And Others

    This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…

  5. Pathogenicity and Virulence of the Two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to Woody Ornamentals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Goud; A. J. Termorshuizen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody hosts. A range of woody ornamental plant species, including Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Acer

  6. Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill; F. Stephen Dobson

    2005-01-01

    Male eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis have striking ultraviolet (UV)-blue coloration on their heads, backs, rumps, wings, and tails and bold chestnut coloration on their breasts. These colored areas are ornaments that correlate with pairing date and reproductive effort, and thus probably influence the choice of mates by females. Such ornaments are expected to increase in color with age and body

  7. Moult speed constrains the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual ornament

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Moult speed constrains the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual ornament L. SERRA,* M. GRIGGIO Carotenoid pigmentation is one of the most frequent mechanisms for colouration of sexually selected orna preference for carotenoid ornaments seems to be wide- spread (e.g. Hill & McGraw, 2006), suggesting

  8. Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry in Avian Feather Ornaments: Implications for Models of Sexual Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Pape Moller; Jacob Hoglund

    1991-01-01

    Extravagant secondary sexual characters, i.e. sexual ornaments, are exaggerated, often bilaterally symmetrical traits of great intricacy of design. The full expression of such traits is likely to be very costly and close to the limits of production. Any kind of environmental stress is therefore more likely to affect the expression of ornaments than that of any other morphological trait not

  9. Developmental evolution of sexual ornamentation: model and a test of feather growth and pigmentation

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    Developmental evolution of sexual ornamentation: model and a test of feather growth. In particular, because feathers are colored during growth, the dynamics of feather growth play a deterministic of feather growth to the expression of carotenoid-based ornamentation. Here, we examine the developmental

  10. Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

  11. A compendium of ornamental germplasm cultivar releases from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We provide an overview of the past and current ornamental cultivar development at the National Germplasm Repository (NPGR) in Miami, FL. During the past six years several cultivars of ornamental plants have been released: Polygala ymirtifolia ‘Chapman Field’, D. iridioides ‘Amatola’, improved germp...

  12. Turf and Ornamental Research Manager Job Description 2013 Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    products and new concepts that are focused on the unmet needs and market opportunities. ResearchTurf and Ornamental Research Manager ­ Job Description 2013 Page 1 of 2 SePRO CORPORATION JOB DESCRIPTION Job Title: Turf and Ornamental Research Manager Department Name: Research

  13. Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; McGraw, Kevin J; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2011-10-23

    Bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. Thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. Additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. However, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimicrobials, and the putative importance of pathogens for the evolution of male ornamentation, tests of these hypotheses are lacking. We examined the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal capacity of semen was associated with bill coloration, a sexually selected trait. We show that mallard semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that males with more colourful bills have semen with superior bacterial-killing ability. These results suggest that females could use male phenotypic traits to avoid sexually transmitted pathogens and acquire partners whose sperm suffer less bacteria-induced damage. PMID:21490006

  14. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  15. Reuse of industrial wastewater for the irrigation of ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F P; Coppini, E

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experimental activities carried out for verifying the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater originated from textile (70%) and domestic (30%) activities for the irrigation of container-grown ornamental shrubs. Aspects that concern the refinery treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the effect of irrigation on some ornamental plant species were investigated. An experimental site consisting of a refinery treatment pilot plant (filtration and disinfection) and an agronomic experimental area was set-up. The combined treatment of PAA and UV, used for the disinfection, showed to be very effective for inactivation of E. coli with most of PAA and UV dose combinations able to assure total inactivation. The plants (Buxus, Photinia, Pistacia and Viburnum), sprinkle and drip irrigated with well water (WW), reclaimed wastewater (RW) and a water mixed (MW) between reclaimed wastewater and well water (1:1 by vol), showed interesting results. A similar growth among different treatments was achieved for Buxus and Pistacia, while Viburnum and Photinia plants showed a higher sensibility to MW and RW. Photinia, in particular, turned out to be very sensitive to sprinkle irrigation with the reclaimed water, while the drip irrigation had no such bad effects, as reported in previous works. PMID:18413949

  16. trade name

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Nahler

    \\u000a syn. proprietary name, brand name, invented name; name used together with a trade mark or the name of the manufacturer (opp.\\u000a international non-proprietary name, generic name); relates to a finished product and identifies the manufacturer; for a commercially available medicinal product; within the\\u000a EC it is recommended to use the same t.n. throughout the Community, unless a justification to do

  17. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

  18. The size of a melanin-based plumage ornament correlates with glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in the skin of that ornament

    PubMed Central

    Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT) play crucial roles in many physiological processes. CORT's actions are primarily mediated via binding to two receptors (glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs)) in different target tissues. CORT receptors can be independently regulated from circulating hormone titres, from tissue to tissue and even within different regions of the same tissue type. Increasing evidence has shown relationships between circulating CORT and melanin-based pigmentation in skin and feathers, yet to our knowledge, there have been no studies of CORT receptors in the skin of melanized ornaments. Male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) have a black, melanized bib, and evidence suggests that bib size is an important intraspecific signal. We examined the relationship between bib area and tissue sensitivity to CORT by quantifying GR and MR in bib skin and in adjacent paler-feathered belly skin (as a control tissue) at different life-history stages using radioligand binding assays. Males with larger bibs relative to their life-history stage had less GR in bib skin, but not belly skin, than males with smaller bibs. These results suggest a connection between the size of a melanin-based ornament and the underlying tissue's responsiveness to CORT. PMID:24026346

  19. Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations with Immune Function and Metabolic Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan J. Kelly; Troy G. Murphy; Keith A. Tarvin; Gary Burness

    2012-01-01

    Conspicuous ornamentation has been linked to immunological and physiological condition in males of many species. In species where both sexes are ornamented, it is unclear whether the signal content of ornaments differs between males and females. We examined the immunological and physiological correlates of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in American goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which bright orange

  20. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  1. Female butterflies prefer males bearing bright iridescent ornamentation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Darrell J

    2007-01-01

    Butterflies are among nature's most colourful animals, and provide a living showcase for how extremely bright, chromatic and iridescent coloration can be generated by complex optical mechanisms. The gross characteristics of male butterfly colour patterns are understood to function for species and/or sex recognition, but it is not known whether female mate choice promotes visual exaggeration of this coloration. Here I show that females of the sexually dichromatic species Hypolimnas bolina prefer conspecific males that possess bright iridescent blue/ultraviolet dorsal ornamentation. In separate field and enclosure experiments, using both dramatic and graded wing colour manipulations, I demonstrate that a moderate qualitative reduction in signal brightness and chromaticity has the same consequences as removing the signal entirely. These findings validate a long-held hypothesis, and argue for the importance of intra- versus interspecific selection as the driving force behind the exaggeration of bright, iridescent butterfly colour patterns. PMID:17284412

  2. TCC Trade Agreements Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by the Department of Commerce to aid US exporters, the Trade Compliance Center (TCC) provides access to more than 200 trade documents via the Trade Related Agreements Database (TARA). US Trade Agreements may be browsed by country signatory, issue, or agreement title, or searched by keyword with the benefit on an online thesaurus. In addition, the TCC provides a related database of Market Access Information with searchable country commercial guides, reports on economic policy and trade practices, and national trade estimate reports.

  3. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes. PMID:25091549

  4. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  5. Properties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish RP Hedrick TS McDowell

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), indicated the former species was susceptible although-chat (Ictalurus punctatus) et la truite arc- en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a indiqué que seule cette dernière y

  6. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kavitha; P. Subramanian

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol\\/l potassium phosphate

  7. Genomic resources for valuable woody ornamental landscape plants such as hydrangea macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New and improved ornamental landscape plants are typically produced by conventional breeding. Unfortunately, long generation times for woody plants can significantly slow progress. Incorporating genomic and biotechnology resources provides more information when designing breeding strategies and ac...

  8. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field t...

  9. Do trade missions increase trade&quest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Head; John Ries

    Abstract.?In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries

  10. Age before beauty? Relationships between fertilization success and age-dependent ornaments in barn swallows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan T. Lifjeld; Oddmund Kleven; Frode Jacobsen; Kevin J. McGraw; Rebecca J. Safran; Raleigh J. Robertson

    When males become more ornamented and reproduce more successfully as they grow older, phenotypic correlations between ornament\\u000a exaggeration and reproductive success can be confounded with age effects in cross-sectional studies, and thus say relatively\\u000a little about sexual selection on these traits. This is exemplified here in a correlative study of male fertilization success\\u000a in a large colony of American barn

  11. Effects of elevated CO 2 on growth and morphological characteristics of ornamental bromeliads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Croonenborghs; J. Ceusters; E. Londers; M. P. De Proft

    2009-01-01

    Three ornamental bromeliads, i.e. Aechmea ‘Maya’ (CAM), Aechmea fasciata ‘Primera’ (CAM) and Guzmania ‘Hilda’ (C3) were grown under greenhouse conditions at ambient (380ppm) and elevated (750ppm) CO2. The effects of long-term exposure (34 weeks) to elevated CO2 on growth and morphological traits constituting the ornamental value were assessed.Aechmea ‘Maya’ and A. fasciata ‘Primera’ showed a different growth response to elevated

  12. Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

  13. Female ornamentation, parental quality, and competitive ability in the rock sparrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Griggio; Valeria Zanollo; Herbert Hoi

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of female ornaments is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests not only that female ornaments may be genetic\\u000a correlates of selection on males but may also have evolved through male mate choice and\\/or through female–female aggressive\\u000a interactions. In the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, both sexes have a carotenoid-based yellow patch that is sexually selected by both sexes. The benefits

  14. Fish Prints

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Academy of Sciences

    2008-01-01

    In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

  15. Does Trade Cause Growth?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Frankel; David Romer

    1999-01-01

    Examining the correlation between trade and income cannot identify the direction of causation between the two. Countries' geographic characteristics, however, have important effects on trade and are plausibly uncorrelated with other determinants of income. This paper, therefore, constructs measures of the geographic component of countries' trade and uses those measures to obtain instrumental variables estimates of the effect of trade

  16. Informationally Ecient Trade Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew F. Mitchell; Andrea Moro

    Why are trade barriers often used to protect home producers, even at the cost of introducing deadweight losses from higher commodity prices? We add an informational friction to the standard textbook argument in favor of free trade, and show that trade restrictions may be a more ecient policy than a lump sum transfer to the displaced producers. Trade barriers, while

  17. Technology, Geography, and Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Eaton; Samuel Kortum

    2002-01-01

    We develop a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium. It delivers simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, to comparative advantage (promoting trade), and to geographic barriers (resisting it). We estimate the parameters with data on bilateral trade in manufactures, prices, and geography from 19 OECD countries in 1990. We

  18. TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

  19. Fish predation selects for reduced foraging activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Strobbe; Mark A. McPeek; Marjan De Block; Robby Stoks

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of foraging activity for the growth\\/predation risk trade-off, studies that demonstrated predator-induced\\u000a survival selection on foraging activity under semi-natural conditions are relatively rare. Here, we tested for fish-induced\\u000a selection for reduced foraging activity in two larval Enallagma damselflies using a field enclosure experiment. Fish imposed considerable mortality in both damselfly species and survival\\u000a selection on foraging activity

  20. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  1. NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS David S. Jacks Christopher M Nottingham GEP Trade Costs Conference. Finally, Jacks gratefully acknowledges the Social Sciences that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. #12;Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs

  2. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  3. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    PubMed Central

    Schilthuizen, Menno

    2003-01-01

    Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences. PMID:12791170

  4. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  5. Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

    2014-12-01

    Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

  6. Fish Face

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

  7. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  8. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  9. 78 FR 37659 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MISS ANDREA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MISS ANDREA; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel MISS ANDREA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Fishing...

  10. 78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...

  11. 77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...

  12. Do sexual ornaments demonstrate heightened condition-dependent expression as predicted by the handicap hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Samuel; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The handicap hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that sexual ornaments have evolved heightened condition-dependent expression. The prediction has only recently been subject to experimental investigation. Many of the experiments are of limited value as they: (i) fail to compare condition dependence in sexual ornaments with suitable non-sexual trait controls; (ii) do not adequately account for body size variation; and (iii) typically consider no stress and extreme stress manipulations rather than a range of stresses similar to those experienced in nature. There is also a dearth of experimental studies investigating the genetic basis of condition dependence. Despite the common claim that sexual ornaments are condition-dependent, the unexpected conclusion from our literature review is that there is little support from well-designed experiments. PMID:15255094

  13. Floriculture and Greenhouse Crops Utilization of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation on ornamental plants for disease

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    the effects of ultraviolet-C irradiation (UV-C) on commercially-valuable greenhouse ornamental plantsFloriculture and Greenhouse Crops Utilization of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation on ornamental sunlight for photosynthesis and are exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation that is present in sunlight

  14. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMP, PAUL E.

    A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

  15. Moult speed affects structural feather ornaments in the blue tit M. GRIGGIO,* L. SERRA, D. LICHERI, C. CAMPOMORI & A. PILASTRO

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Moult speed affects structural feather ornaments in the blue tit M. GRIGGIO,* L. SERRA, D. LICHERI, Italy àDipartimento di Biologia, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Introduction Coloured feathers are among the commonest sexually selected ornaments in birds (Hausmann et al., 2003; Senar, 2006). Feather

  16. Parvalbumin characteristics in the sonic muscle of a freshwater ornamental grunting toadfish (Allenbatrachus grunniens).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Hsieh, Fu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Shiea, Jentaie; Mok, Hin-Kiu

    2013-04-01

    The grunting toadfish, Allenbatrachus grunniens, is an ornamental fish in freshwater aquariums, and it has the ability to produce sounds. The sonic muscle of the toadfish is the fastest vertebrate muscle ever measured, and the rates of Ca(2+) transport and cross-bridge dissociation are also the fastest. Parvalbumins (PAs) are Ca(2+)-binding proteins that help in muscle relaxation in vertebrates. Several PA isoforms have been identified in variable ratios in different muscle types. Both male and female grunting toadfish have intrinsic sonic muscles attached to their swim bladders, but no significant difference in morphology between male and female sonic muscles has been observed. In this study, we used SDS-PAGE and western blotting to characterize the total PA expression and to identify the PAs from the sonic muscle and the white body muscle of A. grunniens. Although the total PA concentrations were similar in sonic and white muscles, there were differences in the isoform percentages. Two and four PA isoforms were identified from sonic muscle and white muscle, respectively. The estimated sizes of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the sonic muscle of the grunting toadfish were 10, 10.5, and 10.5 kDa, respectively, and the isoelectric points of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the grunting toadfish were 4.77, 4.58, and 4.42, respectively. In the sonic muscle, the primary PA isoform was PA1, which comprised more than 94 % of total PA, whereas PA2 comprised only 5 % of the total PA content. In contrast, in white muscle, the primary isoform was PA2, which comprised 58 % of the total PA. Both PA1 (with PA1a) and PA3 represented approximately 20 % of the total PA in white muscle. These results indicate that there is no positive correlation between a high PA content and the speed of muscle relaxation; however, PA1 might have the greatest effect on the relaxation of the grunting toadfish's sonic muscle. PMID:22744796

  17. The Ecology of Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan Moyle

    2000-01-01

    Trading behavior occurs in many species but has a particularly elaborate form in humans. Trade is defined as the mutually\\u000a beneficial, adaptive transfer of goods and services between organisms. Trade has a competitive element and responds to changes\\u000a in relative scarcity. Trade is demonstrated to be a biological phenomenon rather than an artefact of human civilisation. Species’\\u000a characteristics that increase

  18. Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.

  19. Optimal execution of portfolio trades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Rickard; W. A. Lupien; G. A. Wallace

    1997-01-01

    Many trading strategies in current markets involve simultaneous purchases and\\/or sales of multiple securities, where the combined transaction must satisfy a prescribed price objective. We refer to such trades as portfolio trades. Examples include pairs trading, buy-writes, basket trades, index trades, equity-currency trades, and swaps. More general extensions involve an arbitrary set of linked trades across multiple securities types. Current

  20. Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

  1. The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV.

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Saskia Mc; Heck, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade. Good health among fisherfolk is a basic mainstay of productive and sustainable fisheries, providing food and income to fishing communities and the nation at large. However, these benefits are severely at risk as per-capita fish supplies in several African countries are declining, and fisherfolk are among the populations most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Under the regional programme 'Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in sustainable solutions,' the WorldFish Center conducted a socioeconomic assessment in the Kafue Flats fishery in Zambia to identify factors related to HIV/AIDS vulnerability among people in the fishing communities, particularly female fish traders. The study identified a variety of factors, hence the 'Fish Trader+' model of intervention was developed to reduce female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV by building on their economic rationale through the formation of savings groups. This article outlines the implementation of the Fish Trader+ model in Zambia and examines its potential to empower female fish traders so as to reduce poverty and vulnerability to HIV in fishing communities. PMID:25870894

  2. Assessment of the Artisanal Shark Fishery and Local Shark Fin Trade on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Schaeffer

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the current state of the directed artisanal shark fishery off Unguja Island, Zanzibar, with a focus on the East Asian shark fin trade and its impact on the utilization of this valuable marine resource. The study concentrates on the two fish markets in Stone Town: Malindi and Darajani. Large fish are brought to these markets both from

  3. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11 Diseases prior to the application of fertilizer in order to provide the correct amount for the tree and to avoid unnecessary runoff. Applying a 10-10-10 NPK fertilizer at the rate of 2 to 4 pounds per inch of tree diameter

  4. Ohio State University Extension Bulletin Insect and Mite Control on Woody Ornamentals and Herbaceous Perennials

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Ohio State University Extension Bulletin Insect and Mite Control on Woody Ornamentals The Ohio State University/OARDC 1680 Madison Avenue Wooster, Ohio Contents * Introduction * Making mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The authors and The Ohio State University

  5. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nu...

  6. Biological Controls Putting it all Together for Success For Greenhouse Ornamentals and Greenhouse Vegetables

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Biological Controls ­ Putting it all Together for Success For Greenhouse Ornamentals and Greenhouse:00 - 10:00 Growing Greenhouse Plants with Water-soluble Organic Fertilizers Douglas Cox, University. 10:00- 11:00 Greenhouse Pest Control: A Systems Approach Rose Buitenhuis, Vineland Research

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  8. Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants (3.0 credits-requisites and other registration restrictions: General Plant Pathology 11:776:302 and/or Insect Biology 11 is to familiarize students with the common insect and disease problems that occur during the production

  9. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27 Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Peter and long-established trees and shrubs. More than 2,000 species of insects and mites may be encountered

  10. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  11. Ornaments in Practice Thomas Williams Pierre-variste Dagand Didier Rmy

    E-print Network

    Rémy, Didier

    these notions in an ML-like programming language. We propose a concrete syntax for defining ornaments is permitted. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior the programmer. Could this process be automated? Another tension arises from the recent adoption of indexed types

  12. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  13. Area-Wide Demonstration of Chemical Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Florida Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The studies reported here are part of the USDA-ARS Areawide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide South Atlantic Area and involve a cooperative effort between Florida in-ground ornamental producers, fumigant industry representatives, and researchers from the USDA, ARS and Univer...

  14. Dietary mineral content influences the expression of melanin-based ornamental

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    . McGraw School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA Many animals of nutrition (i.e., total food intake) or health have generally found melanin-based plumage ornaments, such as calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), may serve to increase melanin pigment production and maintain

  15. EVALUATION OF MIDAS™ FOR PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL COCKSCOMB (Celosia argentea) IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50) for production of ornamental cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata) in Martin County, Florida in spring 2006. Treatments included an untreated check, Midas™ applied at 224 kg/ha (200 lb/A), and methyl bromide:chloro...

  16. EXPLORING OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. SUGGESTIONS FOR…

  17. Rare naturalization of an ornamental Tillandsia, Tillandsia ionantha, in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the naturalization of a Mesonamerican bromeliad Tillandsia ionantha in Broward County, in southern Florida. This species is a popular ornamental bromeliad. A total of 63 clusters of plants were found on 31 Australia pine trees adjacent to a Mangrove forest at Anne Kobe Nature Center i...

  18. Female ornaments hinder escape from spider webs in a role-reversed swarming dance fly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl T. Gwynne; Luc F. Bussière; Tracie M. Ivy

    2007-01-01

    Long-tailed dance flies, Rhamphomyia longicauda (Diptera: Empididae), show a striking reversal in the typical pattern of animal sexual dimorphism. Whereas male R. longicauda are mosquito-like in appearance, females sport rows of scales on their legs and have elaborate eversible pleural (abdominal) sacs that are inflated just prior to entry into a female competitive mating swarm. Both sets of ornaments appear

  19. Female ornaments hinder escape from spider webs in a role-reversed swarming dance fly

    E-print Network

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    Female ornaments hinder escape from spider webs in a role-reversed swarming dance fly DARRYL T. longicauda caught in spider webs near swarm sites, we hypothesized that females either encounter spider webs-biased mortality; sex-role reversal; sexual selection; spider web There is abundant evidence in support

  20. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

  1. Horse Chestnut: Cultivation for Ornamental Purposes and Non-Food Crop Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bellini; S. Nin

    2005-01-01

    The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a common ornamental tree that possesses numerous useful derivatives (escin, cholesterol-escin complex, glycolic, soft and dry extracts, esculin) in different parts of the plant, especially the seeds and trunk bark. These derivatives are widely used in dermatology and pharmacology, mainly for the treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, but also in the cosmetic

  2. Induced polyploidy and mutagenesis of embryogenic cultures of ornamental giner (Hedychium J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium J. Koenig is among the largest genera of Zingiberaceae. These plants are increasingly being used as ornamentals worldwide because of their diverse and showy, scented flowers. Hedychium plants are mainly planted in the landscape because they are generally too tall to be grown as potted plan...

  3. Degree of male ornamentation affects female preference for conspecific versus heterospecific males.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sarah A; Luddem, S T

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown female preference for conspecific males with the attached artificial ornaments of more elaborate heterospecifics. However, preference for heterospecifics under natural conditions is relatively rare. We tested what factors affect behavioural mechanisms of species isolation using three species of estrildid finch (genus Uraeginthus) that occur in both sympatry and allopatry. These finches differ in degree of sexual dimorphism; male ornamentation; behavioural and morphological similarity; and phylogenetic distance. Paired mate-choice trials were used in which females were presented with a conspecific and heterospecific male to test which of the above between-species differences best predicted the degree of premating isolation. The three species differed in the degree of species-specific mate preference shown. Females from the brighter two species discriminated against dull males, independently of sympatry-allopatry, similarity and phylogenetic distance. Females from the dull species reacted to conspecific males and brighter heterospecific males equally strongly, independently of similarity and phylogenetic distance. In contrast to previous studies, an equal preference for heterospecific and conspecific males was found under natural conditions. It is suggested that differences between closely related species in male ornamentation affect the likelihood that premating isolation will occur due to the fact that sexual selection tends to drive preferences for exaggerated ornamentation. PMID:11798425

  4. Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

  5. Response of ornamental sunflower cultivars ‘Sunbeam’ and ‘Moonbright’ to irrigation with saline wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the possibility that saline wastewaters may be used to grow commercially acceptable floriculture crops, a study was initiated to determine the effects of salinity on two pollen-free cultivars of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). ‘Moonbright’ and ‘Sunbeam’ were grown in greenho...

  6. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  7. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. W.; And Others

    The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

  8. Career Preparation in Ornamental Horticulture: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Max B.

    This curriculum guide in ornamental horticulture is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes five occupational subgroups: arboriculture, floriculture, landscape maintenance and establishment, nursery production, and turfgrass…

  9. Ecological Risk Assessment and Regulation for Genetically-Modified Ornamental Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Auer

    2008-01-01

    Classic plant breeding has increased the beauty and utility of ornamental plants, but biotechnology can offer completely new traits for plants used in homes and gardens. The creation of blue petal color in carnations and roses are examples where biotechnology has created novelty that conventional hybridization cannot match. However, all innovations have benefits and risks, and future commercialization of transgenic

  10. Potential of entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea to protect potted ornamental plants against Bemisia tabaci during shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroesa has been evaluated under abiotic conditions similar to those typical for shipping of ornamental plants. When applied to a synchronized population of B. tabaci L4 nymphs on poinsettias, I. fumosorosea induced mortality even in regime of low t...

  11. Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Lim; Y. K. Fong

    2005-01-01

    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these

  12. Why Are There Seeds In My Banana? A Look at Ornamental Bananas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esendugue Greg Fonsah; Richard Wallace; Gerard Krewer

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of the world bananas are a staple food, while in other regions they are a highly valued ornamental plant. Bananas are the fourth most important food crop in the world, and they are also used in many other ways—every part of the plant has value. In addition to the standard dessert bananas, there is another group of

  13. Effect of different ornamental pepper pollen on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...

  14. Effect of different ornamental pepper pollens on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, a newly introduced pest in the United States, is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still considered a primary mode for its control. The ration...

  15. The Importance of Reporting New Host-Fungus Records for Ornamental and Regional Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "First reports" document pathogenic organisms on novel hosts or in novel geographic locales. Oidium ericinum on Leucothoe, Leveillula taurica on Gaillarida x grandiflora, and Erysiphe knautiae on Scabiosa columbaria are examples of recent and novel disease outbreaks costly to ornamental nurseries, a...

  16. Evaluation of inhaled and cutaneous doses of imidacloprid during stapling ornamental plants in tunnels or greenhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Aprea; Liana Lunghini; Bruno Banchi; Antonio Peruzzi; Letizia Centi; Luana Coppi; Mirella Bogi; Enrico Marianelli; Mariella Fantacci; Pietro Catalano; Alessandra Benvenuti; Lucia Miligi; Gianfranco Sciarra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to imidacloprid during manual operations with ornamental plants previously treated in greenhouses or tunnels. A total of 10 female workers, 5 in greenhouses and 5 in tunnels, were monitored for 3 or 5 consecutive days. Actual skin contamination, excluding hands, was evaluated using nine filter paper

  17. 74 Fisheries vol 36 no 2 february 2011 www.fisheries.org ABSTRACT: The aquarium trade moves thousands of species around the

    E-print Network

    Olden, Julian D.

    74 Fisheries · vol 36 no 2 · february 2011 · www.fisheries.org ABSTRACT: The aquarium trade moves human population present ample opportunities for the introduction and establishment of aquarium trade=124) species currently in the aquarium trade is vast. Pet stores import thousands of fish every month

  18. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-03-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

  19. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds

    PubMed Central

    Ligon, Russell A.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

  20. Trade Liberalisation and Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

  1. Trade and Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Bernier

    Although the relationship between trade and culture has been described as one of those new issues that pose “serious practical\\u000a and theoretical challenges ... to present understanding of the trade regime,”1 trade conflicts concerning cultural goods and services are not in fact a new phenomenon. Such conflicts go back to the 1920’s\\u000a when European countries, following the First World War,

  2. British Trade International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.

  3. SICE: Foreign Trade Information System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SICE (Foreign Trade Information System) is the "information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS)." It provides information and trade documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. The available documents are divided into categories such as Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) process, Trade Agreements, Investment Treaties, and Dispute Settlement. The Dispute Settlement section contains all of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel reports from 1948 to 1994. The site also contains a quantitative trade data section with links to data on tariffs, trade flows and national statistical agencies. Spanish, Portuguese and French versions of the site are available.

  4. The Trade Card Place

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Author and collector Ben Crane maintains The Trade Card Place for "all who are interested in Victorian Trade Cards used to advertise American goods and services during the late 1800s." Although the site is geared toward collectors, hosting dealer, collector, and organization directories for the potential Victorian Trade Card buyer, advertising students may also be interested, as Crane includes articles on trade card history and, in his Victorian Scrapbook archive, has posted thumbnail images of cards on subjects ranging from beverages and clothing to toys and tobacco.

  5. Fish Ears

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-08-23

    Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

  6. MONITORING THE AMBROSIA BEETLE COMPLEX IN ORNAMENTAL NURSERIES IN OHIO, TENNESSEE, AND VIRGINIA: INFLUENCE OF TRAP HEIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Scolytinae) are becoming increasing problems in ornamental tree nurseries. Xylosandrus crassiusculus has become especially worrisome to southeastern and Atlantic states. This species tends to attack healthy trees often killing their host. Management of ...

  7. JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 119127. Copenhagen 2000 Patterns of variation in ornaments of Crested Auklets Aethia

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    (correspondence), Department of Biology, Memorial Uni6ersity of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9 of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Many bird species display elaborate ornaments includ

  8. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups. PMID:11193639

  9. Asymmetric trade and agglomeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian BEHRENS

    2003-01-01

    We extend the quadratic utility approach by Ottaviano et al. [19] and by Behrens [1] to the range of intermediate values of transport costs in or- der to investigate how asymmetric trade affects the regional distribution of economic activities. Asymmetry in trade is an endogenous result of price competition and transport costs: depending on both the spatial distribution of firms

  10. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  11. Trust-Based Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Araujo; Emanuel Ornelas

    2007-01-01

    Weak enforcement of international contracts can substantially reduce international trade. We develop a model where agents build reputations to overcome the difficulties that this institutional failure causes in a context of incomplete information. The model describes the interplay between institutional quality, reputations and the dynamics of international trade. We find that the conditional probability that a firm will stop exporting

  12. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  13. National Trade Data Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

  14. Teaching With Trade Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project provides the why as well as tips and techniques for incorporating trade books in the middle school math and science classroom. In addition, lessons ideas and descriptions of specific trade books are provided.

  15. Theory of International Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

    1980-01-01

    This book expounds trade theory emphasizing that a trading equilibrium is general rather than partial, and is often best modelled using dual or envelope functions. This yields a compact treatment of standard theory, clarifies some errors and confusions, and produces some new departures. In particular, the book (i) gives unified treatments of comparative statics and welfare, (ii) sheds new light

  16. Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csongor I. Vágási; Péter L. Pap; Zoltán Barta

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMany animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and\\/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer

  17. An experimental test of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in a teleost fish: 11-ketotestosterone suppresses innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin; Langefors, Asa; Mayer, Ian; Milinski, Manfred; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) provides a functional explanation for how sexual ornaments can provide honest signals of male quality. A key aspect of this hypothesis is that testosterone (T) has a bimodal effect: a higher T level enhances the expression of ornaments (increasing mating success and, ultimately, fitness); however, at the same time, it suppresses immune function. Tests of the latter assumption, which have focused mainly on aspects of adaptive immunity in birds, led to equivocal results. We performed a hormone-implant experiment in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to test the key assumptions of the ICHH in a fish, where the dominant circulating androgen is 11-ketotestosterone (11kT) rather than T. Males were implanted with 11-ketoandrostenedione, which is a natural precursor of 11kT. Each individual's circulating 11kT level, ornamentation, and immunocompetence were measured 2 weeks later. In addition, we quantified oxidative tissue damage because the ICHH has been hypothesized to work via oxidative stress. We found that the males' 11kT levels correlated positively with ornamentation but negatively with immunocompetence, in particular, measures of innate immunity. Moreover, there was a trend for fish with high 11kT levels to suffer more from oxidative stress. Thus, our data provide support for the ICHH. PMID:17891730

  18. Ornamental plants and thrips populations associated with tomato spotted wilt virus in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Chatzivassiliou; I. Livieratos; G. Jenser; N. I. Katis

    2000-01-01

    A survey was conducted in order to record the ornamental plants that are hosts of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and impatiens\\u000a necrotic spot virus (INSV) in Greece. Polyclonal antibodies prepared against the N protein of a Greek isolate of TSWV fromGerbera jamesonii (GR-34) were used. Leaf samples were taken from plants showing typical symptoms of tospovirus infection such as

  19. Carotenoid-based ornamentation as a dynamic but consistent individual trait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoid-based ornaments act as signals of quality in many animal species. In contrast to feathers, which are relatively\\u000a stable structures, carotenoid-pigmented integuments (e.g. bills, lores, tarsi) can change colour rapidly and may better reflect\\u000a changes in physiological condition. I studied the seasonal variations in plasma carotenoids in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) kept on a constant diet and free of intestinal

  20. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. PMID:20691955

  1. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of renewal...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy. The Committee will be chartered...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy consults with and makes...

  2. 17 CFR 37.400 - Core Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing. 37.400 Section 37...FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.400 Core Principle 4—Monitoring of trading and trade processing. The swap execution...

  3. Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a new hybrid from irrigation reservoirs at ornamental plant nurseries in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-01-01

    A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

  4. Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a New Hybrid from Irrigation Reservoirs at Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-01-01

    A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

  5. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

  6. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

  7. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

  8. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

  9. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

  10. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  11. Chemotherapy of fish parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giinter Schmahl; Horst Taraschewski; Heinz Mehlhorn

    1989-01-01

    There are few agents on the market that control fish parasites. These are substances that are mainly used in other hosts; due to the different metabolism of fish, they often have only moderate effects on fish parasites. Therefore, the research and development of fish-specific antiparasitic compounds is needed to avoid the high losses suffered by commercial fish hatcheries. Drugs similar

  12. Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

  13. Trade Liberalization vs Institutional Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Cheptea

    2003-01-01

    Empirical studies find that Central and East European (CEE) countries trade much dierently than West countries. Using a border eects procedure we find a home bias (preference for trading domestically) much higher for CEE countries than for EU members. The low level of East-West trade can thus be partially explained by the fact that a lot of CEE countries' trade

  14. Essays on International Trade

    E-print Network

    Lugovskyy, Oleksandr

    2013-12-31

    As the world progresses and countries continue to compete for dominance, economic development has become the key criterion in assessing of a country's strength. International trade is a catalyst of growth and the study of international economics...

  15. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  16. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  17. Liquidity and Trading Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Guerrieri, Veronica

    In this paper, we build a model where the presence of liquidity constraints tends to magnify the economy's response to aggregate shocks. We consider a decentralized model of trade, where agents may use money or credit to ...

  18. Federal Trade Commission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Adjudicative Proceedings Site Information Privacy Policy Website Policy No FEAR Act USA.gov Accessibility Digital Government Strategy Open Government Federal Trade Commission Headquarters: 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC ...

  19. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  20. CONTRACT REPORT A-77-2 FATE OF 2.4-0 I FISH

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . The results of this study demonstrated that the herbicide did not bioaccumulate in fish and did not exceed, OR PROMOTIONAL PURPOSES. CITATION OF TRADE NAMES DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFICIAL EN DORSEMENT OR APPROVAL of the degree of accumulation of this herbicide by fish is important if they are to be used for human

  1. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

  2. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  3. Spawning Behavior, Egg Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology of Hyphessobrycon eques (Pisces: Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194

  4. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela C. M. Vaz; Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos; Rui J. M. Rocha; Isabel Lopes; Ruth Pereira; Armando C. Duarte; Peter J. Rubec; Ricardo Calado

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the

  5. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone Gram; Hans Henrik Huss

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh

  6. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  7. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping...Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...the Department'') and the International Trade Commission automatically...

  8. AUTOMATIC WEIGHT AND QUALITY GRADING OF WHOLE PELAGIC FISH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. MATHIASSEN; E. VELIYULIN; T. NJAA; M. LØNSETH

    2006-01-01

    Despite good availability of pelagic fish, the Norwegian pelagic enterprises are suffering from both overcapacity and low margins. The reasons for this situation are diverse, e.g. high labor costs, trade barriers and long distances to the markets. In order to cope with competition from other countries, the most important issue is to lower labor costs while maintaining quality. In ...

  9. Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish. PMID:24028334

  10. Root-knot Nematode Problem of Some Winter Ornamental Plants and Its Biomanagement.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeebur Rahman; Khan, Shahana M; Mohide, Faya

    2005-06-01

    A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode. PMID:19262861

  11. Different ornaments signal male health and MHC variation in two populations of a warbler.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, Linda A; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Dunn, Peter O

    2015-04-01

    Male traits that signal health and vigour are used by females to choose better quality mates, but in some cases the male trait selected by females differs among populations. Multiple male traits can be maintained through female mate choice if both traits are equally honest indicators of male quality, but tests of this prediction are rare. By choosing males based on such traits, females could gain direct benefits from males (assistance with parental care), but when females choose extra-pair mates based on these traits, females gain only male sperm, and potentially indirect genetic benefits for their offspring. In common yellowthroats (Geothylpis trichas), female choice of extra-pair mates targets two different plumage ornaments: the black mask in a Wisconsin population and the yellow bib in a New York population. Previously, we found that the black mask in Wisconsin is related to greater major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II variation, which in turn signals better survival and disease resistance. In this study, we examined the signalling function of the yellow bib in New York to test whether it signals the same aspects of male quality as the black mask in Wisconsin. As predicted, we found that the yellow bib in New York is most closely associated with MHC variation, which also signals survival and resistance to blood parasites. Thus, the ornament preferred by females differs between the two populations, but the different ornaments signal similar aspects of male health and genetic quality, specifically information regarding MHC variation and potential indirect genetic benefits to females. PMID:25728470

  12. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  13. Le trading algorithmique

    E-print Network

    Victor Lebreton

    2009-03-19

    The algorithmic trading comes from digitalisation of the processing of trading assets on financial markets. Since 1980 the computerization of the stock market offers real time processing of financial information. This technological revolution has offered processes and mathematic methods to identify best return on transactions. Current research relates to autonomous transaction systems programmed in certain periods and some algorithms. This offers return opportunities where traders can not intervene. There are about thirty algorithms to assist the traders, the best known are the VWAP, the TWAP, TVOL. The algorithms offer the latest strategies and decision-making are the subject of much research. These advances in modeling decision-making autonomous agent can envisage a rich future for these technologies, the players already in use for more than 30% of their trading.

  14. A fossil peronosporomycete oogonium with an unusual surface ornament from the Carboniferous of France.

    PubMed

    Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Galtier, Jean; Dotzler, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A new fossil peronosporomycete from the upper Visean (Mississippian) of France occurs as a globose oogonium at the tip of a thin-walled hypha. The oogonium surface is prominently ornamented by densely spaced, long and subtle, straight or once to several times furcated thread-like extensions; many possess an opaque, bulb-like swelling at base. Antheridia adpressed to the oogonium are clavate and paragynous. This fossil represents only the third record of an unequivocal peronosporomycete from the Carboniferous, and thus provides important details about the evolutionary history of this group of organisms. PMID:20943155

  15. Ornamental pepper as banker plants for establishment of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of multiple pests in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selectivity factors and host preference of Amblyseius swirskii were determined on ornamental pepper banker plant candidates for control of insect pests in floriculture and landscapes. Cultivar selectivity and preference by the gravid female Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) between ornamental pep...

  16. Trading to stops

    E-print Network

    Imkeller, Nora; Rogers, L. C. G.

    2014-12-16

    Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 5, pp. 753–781 Trading to Stops? Nora Imkeller† and L. C. G. Rogers‡ Abstract. The use of trading stops is a common practice in financial markets for a variety of reasons: it reduces the frequency... differential equations techniques, which we can think of as an application of Itoˆ calculus. Similar techniques may also be used to solve the other examples, but as the state variable is no longer one dimensional, the construction of the correct functions...

  17. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  18. 76 FR 71378 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  19. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  20. 77 FR 65581 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  1. 78 FR 72929 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: December...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  2. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  3. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice...Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  4. Ooey, Gooey, FISH GUTS!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryellen Timmons

    2004-04-01

    Hook your students onto inquiry-based science by implementing this ooey, gooey fish guts activity into your science curriculum. The author developed this fish dissection lesson as an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative to the traditional and costly fish dissections on the "market." Students use inquiry, prediction, and teamwork to determine what fish eat and where they fit in the food web.

  5. Stealth-trading: Which traders’ trades move stock prices?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sugato Chakravarty

    2001-01-01

    Using audit trail data for a sample of NYSE firms we show that medium-size trades are associated with a disproportionately large cumulative stock price change relative to their proportion of all trades and volume. This result is consistent with the predictions of Barclay and Warner's (1993) stealth-trading hypothesis. We find that the source of this disproportionately large cumulative price impact

  6. Simulated Trading-An Analysis of Pairs Trading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikesh Agarwal; Vikash Madhogaria; Supreena Narayanan

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we explain and analyze a trading strategy, popularly known as Pairs trading. We begin by explaining what a pair trading strategy entails. Since there are various ways of implementing the strategy, we describe the methodology selected by us in section 3. Thereafter, we look at the returns from the strategy and benchmark it to the S&P 500

  7. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  8. Lessons about Effluent Trading from a Single Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Woodward

    2003-01-01

    Despite many years of existence, programs that allow transferable discharge permits to control water pollution have had quite limited success. This paper discusses a single trade that recently took place in the Lake Dillon drainage basin between point and nonpoint pollution sources. This trade demonstrates many of the challenges that are faced in effluent trading but also highlights the potential

  9. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  10. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  11. Responsible Trade Campaign Action Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Sierra Club, an environmental group, argues that expansion of free trade "imperils our health and natural heritage." Recently, the debate over free trade has intensified in light of the failure of President Clinton to obtain fast-track authority from Congress. On September 17, 1997, President Clinton went against the liberals in his own party to request fast-track authority from Congress to negotiate new trade accords. The Senate approved the President's request for fast track on November 5, 1997 but the vote in the House was shelved when it appeared likely that fast-track would be defeated. The opponents of free-trade consist mainly of trade unions who are worried about the loss of jobs to countries with cheap labor, and environmentalists concerned about the effect of free trade on environmental standards. The supporters of free-trade are mainly businesses who see business potential in the larger market that would be created by expanding free trade.

  12. Mutual fund trading and liquidity

    E-print Network

    Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

  13. Corporate governance and insider trading

    E-print Network

    Rozanov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    I investigate the relation between corporate governance and insider trading by corporate executives. Despite the general view that trade on non-public information adversely affects capital market participants, the impact ...

  14. Essays on trade, CO?, and the environment

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Joseph S

    2013-01-01

    The first chapter of this thesis uses a general equilibrium model of trade and the environment to investigate two questions. First, how do the gains from trade compare against the environmental costs of trade? Trade can ...

  15. Monetizing Trade: A Tatonnement Example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross M. Starr

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a class of examples where a barter economy develops through agents' optimizing decisions into a monetary economy. A barter economy with m commodities is characterized by m(m-1)\\/2 commodity pair trading posts for active trade of each good for every other. Monetary equilibrium is characterized by active trade concentrated on m-1 posts, those trading in 'money' versus the

  16. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  17. Construction Trades Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

  18. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  19. Autonomous Forex Trading Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Barbosa; Orlando Belo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe an infrastructure for implementing hybrid intelligent agents with the ability to trade in the Forex Market without requiring human supervision. This infrastructure is composed of three modules. The “Intuition Module”, implemented using an Ensemble Model, is responsible for performing pattern recognition and predicting the direction of the exchange rate. The “A Posteriori Knowledge Module”, implemented

  20. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  1. Chicago Board of Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chicago Board of Trade offers a visitors center with an overview and history of CBOT, as well as a glossary of futures terminology. It also contains financial and agricultural market information and commentaries, agricultural contract information, a media page with news about upcoming contracts, and an education page that discusses course offerings at CBOT.

  2. Slave Trade Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    Documenting the history of the slave trade during the past centuries is a monumental task, but the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is most certainly qualified for such an endeavor. Launched in 1999, the Slave Trade Archive Project was created in order to improve access to original documents related to the transatlantic slave trade and slavery across both hemispheres. Visitors to the project website will want to read some of the organizational documents, then proceed to the parts of the site where they can learn more about what is being done on a region-by-region basis to fulfill this mission. The site itself serves as a fine clearinghouse for information about the slave trade more generally, and includes sections that contain lists of external websites and multimedia archives available from other institutions. Some of these sites include the African Studies Collection at Indiana University and the Amistad Research Center at Tulane University. Overall, this is a great place to learn about the myriad of organizations that are working in tandem to preserve the documents related to this highly complex set of historical (and contemporary) processes and experiences.

  3. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  4. Evidence to Suggest That Teeth Act as Human Ornament Displays Signalling Mate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Colin A.; Brewer, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value. PMID:22860076

  5. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Rundle, Howard D.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  6. Stealth Trading in Options Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber Anand; Sugato Chakravarty

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how price discovery occurs in the options markets through traders' trade size choice. By employing transactions data on all options traded on a sample of 100 firms, we show that informed traders fragment their orders into small (medium) trades for low (high) volume contracts. We also find that almost 60% of the price discovery occurs in the exchange

  7. Electronic Trading in Stock Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans R. Stoll

    2006-01-01

    Modern trading technology clashes with the traditional organization of a stock exchange, where transactions were consummated via face-to-face negotiation. The modern trading facility is no longer a place. Rather, it is a computer system over which transactions are entered, routed, executed and cleared electronically with little or no human intervention. In this article, I examine how electronic trading has altered

  8. Institutional trading and stock returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Cai; Lu Zheng

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we explore the dynamics of the relation between institutional trading and stock returns. We find that stock returns Granger-cause institutional trading (especially purchases) on a quarterly basis. The robust and significant causality from equity returns to institutional trading can be largely explained by the time-series variation of market returns, that is, institutions buy more popular stocks after

  9. Trade liberalization growth and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Kehoe; Mark J. Gibson; Kim J. Ruhl; Claustre Bajona

    2008-01-01

    There is a lively debate about the impact of trade liberalization on economic growth measured as growth in real gross domestic product (GDP). Most of this literature focuses on the empirical relation between trade and growth. This paper investigates the theoretical relation between trade and growth. We show that standard models — including Ricardian models, Heckscher-Ohlin models, monopolistic competition models

  10. Trade Union Users of Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Colin

    A number of important consequences have resulted from the generally increased sensitivity of trade unions to questions of communication and representation, particularly the trade union's uses of videos. Primarily developed by union leadership as a response to general political problems they have faced in the last decade, trade union videos…

  11. WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    E-print Network

    Thomborson, Clark

    WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE Qiang Dong Supervised by Professor Clark Thomborson's competitive world. International trade has received some academic attention as an application of Business Process Reengineering. A major issue in international trade is due to problems pertaining to mutual

  12. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: a model of the evolution of cancer defences.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Amy M; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Aktipis, C Athena

    2015-07-19

    The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. PMID:26056364

  13. Taking Stock of Trade Protectionism Since 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohini Datt; Bernard Hoekman; Mariem Malouche

    2011-01-01

    Following the onset of the financial crisis in September 2008 and the subsequent “Great Trade Collapse” (Baldwin 2009), many countries actively used trade policy instruments as part of their response to the global recession. Governments pursued a mix of trade liberalization, trade promotion, and trade restrictions. The choice of trade policy has varied, with limited use of tariff hikes or

  14. To Trade or Not to Trade: The Strategic Trading of Insiders around News Announcements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Korczak; Piotr Korczak; Meziane Lasfer

    2009-01-01

    We argue that insiders' decisions to trade in short windows before news announcements are likely to result from a trade-off between the incentives to capitalize on the foreknowledge of the disclosure and the risk of regulatory scrutiny and lost reputation. We provide evidence that insider buying is driven by the trade-off, while selling is primarily influenced by the deterring effect

  15. Should gas distributors trade futures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, J.A. (EnerPro, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-05-01

    On April 3, 1990, the New York Mercantile Exchange began trading futures contracts on natural gas. Is this market something that regulated gas utilities should be involved in Do the potential benefits outweigh the possible costs and risks And if gas utilities are allowed to engage in futures trading, should state utility regulators place controls on how these markets are used This article reviews the economic rationale for futures trading and examines the options available to state regulators for dealing with futures trading by companies under their jurisdiction. It also looks at some of the precedents for restricting the futures trading activities of regulated companies.

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID:20838643

  18. NCDC216: A New Multistate Group for Water Management and Quality for Ornamental Crop Production and Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have established a USDA multistate development committee (NCDC216) to create a project focused on water management and quality for ornamental crop production and health. The nursery and greenhouse industry ranks 5th (>$14.6 billion) among all US agriculture commodities and within the top 5 commod...

  19. The size of the red wing spot of the American rubyspot as a heightened condition-dependent ornament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Contreras-Garduño; Bruno A. Buzatto; Martín A. Serrano-Meneses; Karla Nájera-Cordero; Alejandro Córdoba-Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    We investigated an ornamental trait known to reflect male fighting ability and tested whether it shows heightened condition dependence compared with nonornamental traits in the American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana). Adult males bear red wing spots, the size of which is sexually selected: large-spotted and fatter males are more successful in territorial competition and obtain more matings than are nonterritorial males.

  20. The size of the red wing spot of the American rubyspot as a heightened condition-dependent ornament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Contreras-Garduno; Bruno A. Buzatto; Martõ ´ n; A. Serrano-Meneses; Alejandro Cordoba-Aguilara

    We investigated an ornamental trait known to reflect male fighting ability and tested whether it shows heightened condition dependence compared with nonornamental traits in the American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana). Adult males bear red wing spots, the size of which is sexually selected: large-spotted and fatter males are more successful in territorial competition and obtain more matings than are nonterritorial males.

  1. A COARSE-TO-FINE CURVED APPROACH TO 3D SURVEYING OF ORNAMENTAL ASPECTS AND SCULPTURES IN FAADES

    E-print Network

    Llanos, Diego R.

    A COARSE-TO-FINE CURVED APPROACH TO 3D SURVEYING OF ORNAMENTAL ASPECTS AND SCULPTURES IN FAÇADES J a coarse-to-fine management of sculptures contained in a small pilot zone of the façade, which such as sculptures, high- or bas-reliefs, capitals or richly decorated entablatures. This difficulty is increased

  2. Pesticides for Ornamentals: Commercial Recommendations for 1977 Nurseries, Garden Centers, Parks, Roadsides. Extension Bulletin E-944. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, George W.; And Others

    This pamphlet outlines control measures for disease and insect infestation of ornamentals and turfgrass. Hosts are identified with comments on rates and times of pesticide application for greatest effect. Other sections of the document deal with aquatic and terrestrial weed control in a similar manner. (CS)

  3. Increasing Adoption of Reduced Risk Practices In the Production of Woody Ornamentals Final Report for the Environmental Protection Agency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman C. Leppla; Thomas A. Green; Daniel J. Sonke; Barbra C. Larson

    A. Summary Our two-year project achieved the goal of significantly increasing the number of woody ornamental plant producers who can use an integrated pest management (IPM) assessment program to encourage reduced risk practices and products. A diverse workgroup comprised of producers, buyers, researchers, extension specialists and agents, and other stakeholders have created a reduced-risk practice assessment. This assessment will be

  4. ISOLATION OF AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTER FROM CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS FOR EXPRESSION OF DISEASE RESISTANT GENES IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial diseases caused by Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. often result in significant loses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, and are very difficult to control. The use of genetically engineered crops offers a novel, cost effective and environ...

  5. Is carotenoid ornamentation linked to the inner mitochondria membrane potential? A hypothesis for the maintenance of signal honesty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James D; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-02-01

    Several mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed for how carotenoid pigmentation of integumentary structures can serve as an honest signal of individual quality. These hypotheses are founded on proposed links between carotenoids, immuno responsiveness, and oxidative stress, but an absence of biochemical information on the oxidative pathways of carotenoids has limited the sophistication of such hypotheses. Based on published evidence, we propose that the oxidation of carotenoids for the purpose of ornamentation in birds and reptiles is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane. We predict that several carotenoid oxidation reactions yielding ornamental pigments occur on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Three of these reactions are proposed to occur within the ubiquinone biosynthesis cluster known as the Coq cluster consisting of approximately a dozen Coq members, tightly integrated and intimately associated with Complex I and III of the electron transport system. Ubiquinone and highly oxidized ornamental carotenoids share a stereochemically-conserved binding region suggesting that these two molecules may have shared similar pathways in the past. Carotenoids and ubiquinones may cooperate as redox participants in anti-radical reactions or independently in helping to maintain membrane or supra-complex stabilization during times of high-energy demand. Under this hypothesis, oxidation of carotenoids is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane potential such that ornamental coloration reflects the efficiency of cellular respiration. PMID:23131590

  6. How Profitable is Day-trading?: A Study on Day-trading in Korean Stock Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunjung Lee; Kyung Suh Park; Hasung Jang

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the profitability of day-trading in Korean stock market. Day- trading is defined as a trading strategy where an investor both buys and sells a stock re- petitively on a trading day and finishes the trading day without any inventory of the stock. Day-trading by definition would incur relatively large trading costs and therefore, day- traders are more

  7. Methods of gadoid fish species identification in food and their economic impact in the Czech Republic: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hubalkova; P. Kralik; B. Tremlova; E. Rencova

    The purpose of the present study was to give an overview of imported and traded gadoid fish spe - cies (Gadiformes) in the Czech Republic and to describe available methods for their authentication. Due to the increasing interest of customers in the purchase of buy fish meat and other seafood animals, it is necessary to have available analytical methods with

  8. Year-round resource defence and the evolution of male and female song in suboscine birds: social armaments are mutual ornaments.

    PubMed

    Tobias, J A; Gamarra-Toledo, V; García-Olaechea, D; Pulgarín, P C; Seddon, N

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of sexually monomorphic (i.e. mutual) ornamentation has attracted growing attention as a 'blind-spot' in evolutionary biology. The popular consensus is that female ornaments are subject to the same modes of sexual selection as males: intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it remains unclear how these forces interact within and between sexes, or whether they fully capture selection on female traits. One possibility is that the 'armament-ornament' model - which proposes that traits used primarily in male-male contests are also co-opted by females as indicators of male quality - can be extended to explain signal evolution in both sexes. We examine this idea by testing the function of acoustic signals in two species of duetting antbirds. Behavioural observations and playback experiments suggest that male and female songs function primarily as armaments in competitive interactions. Removal experiments reveal that song is also a classic ornament used by unpaired males and females to advertise for mates. These results indicate that 'armament-ornament' processes may operate in reciprocal format, potentially explaining widespread mutual ornamentation in species with elevated intrasexual competition for resources. In addition, given that songs mediate competition between species outside the breeding season, our findings suggest that processes shaping monomorphic ornaments extend beyond the traditional definitions of sexual selection and are best understood in the broader framework of social selection. PMID:21707816

  9. The development of a plant risk evaluation (PRE) tool for assessing the invasive potential of ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool for ornamental plants. The 19 questions in the final PRE tool were narrowed down from 56 original questions from existing WRA tools. We evaluated the 56 WRA questions by screening 21 known invasive and 14 known non-invasive ornamental plants. After statistically comparing the predictability of each question and the frequency the question could be answered for both invasive and non-invasive species, we eliminated questions that provided no predictive power, were irrelevant in our current model, or could not be answered reliably at a high enough percentage. We also combined many similar questions. The final 19 remaining PRE questions were further tested for accuracy using 56 additional known invasive plants and 36 known non-invasive ornamental species. The resulting evaluation demonstrated that when "needs further evaluation" classifications were not included, the accuracy of the model was 100% for both predicting invasiveness and non-invasiveness. When "needs further evaluation" classifications were included as either false positive or false negative, the model was still 93% accurate in predicting invasiveness and 97% accurate in predicting non-invasiveness, with an overall accuracy of 95%. We conclude that the PRE tool should not only provide growers with a method to accurately screen their current stock and potential new introductions, but also increase the probability of the tool being accepted for use by the industry as the basis for a nursery certification program. PMID:25803830

  10. Trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming underlies predator-driven divergence in Gambusia affinis

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    mosquito- fish (Gambusia affinis) exhibit larger caudal regions and higher burst-swimming capabilities whenTrade-off between steady and unsteady swimming underlies predator-driven divergence in Gambusia affinis R. B. LANGERHANS Museum of Comparative Zoology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary

  11. Fish Consumption Advisories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... document entitled “What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish.” The proposed update makes ... answers about the draft advice FDA Table of Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish General Advisory ...

  12. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING Marine Biological I · ·' iw« L I B R >*· ** Y JUL 3 -1350 WOODS POISONING By William Arcisz, Bacteriologist, Formerly with the Fishery Research Laboratory Branch in which Fish Poisoning is Prevalento........... 3 Symptoms of Ciguatera ...... 00

  13. Variation in preference for a male ornament is positively associated with female eyespan in the stalk-eyed fly Diasemopsis meigenii.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Samuel; Rogers, David W; Small, Jennifer; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Fowler, Kevin

    2006-05-22

    There is currently much interest in mate preferences for sexual ornaments. However, few studies have focused on individual variation in mate preference despite its importance for the rate and direction of sexual selection. Females of the sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis meigenii, exhibit an unambiguous rejection response towards unattractive males bearing small ornaments. We investigated individual mate preferences using repeated sequential sampling of female rejection or acceptance responses to a wide range of male ornament phenotypes. We found significant variation in the strength of individual preference. In addition, preference was positively associated with female eyespan, a condition-dependent trait putatively linked to visual acuity. PMID:16720404

  14. Tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamental plants, vegetables and weeds in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mertelík, J; Mokrá, V

    1998-11-01

    The occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in horticulture crops and weeds in the Czech Republic has been studied in 1992-1997. During this period TSWV was established in 91 plant species. Virus identity was based on the host range, serology and electron microscopy. Natural TSWV infection was detected in glasshouses where the main vector Frankliniella occidentalis was present too. The most frequently TSWV-infected plant species were Chrysanthemum morifolium and Zantedeschia sp. Among vegetable crops, the TSWV infection was very frequently detected in tomatoes and peppers. In all cases these plants were nursed or grown in glasshouses together with different species of ornamental plants, many of which were TSWV-infected. Among weeds, the TSWV infection occurred very often in Stellaria media and Galinsoga parviflora. These two plant species were prevalent in glasshouses and were also good hosts of F. occidentalis. PMID:10358737

  15. Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Lim, H P; Fong, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection. PMID:15750750

  16. Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M.; Plath, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish ( Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect ( Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands.

  17. Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M; Plath, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish (Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect (Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands. PMID:18437336

  18. Endogenous trade protection under regional trade agreements: the Andean case

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Bizot, Gustavo

    2006-08-16

    Activities (ISIC) ??????????????????????.. 123 20 Conversion Table for the ISIC (Revision 2) and NALADISA Classifications ?????????????????......................... 126 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The number of regional trade...

  19. 2000 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the United States Trade Representative (USTR), this report "surveys significant foreign trade barriers to U.S. export." Created from information collected from government agencies including the USTR and the US Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, the report attempts to classify barriers in foreign trade into ten categories including import policies, government procedures, lack of intellectual property protection, and investment barriers. Reports on US trade relations with 55 countries, from the Arab League to Zimbabwe, are provided, giving succinct summaries of the outlined ten categories. Available in .pdf format only, the report may be downloaded by country or in its entirety.

  20. Deterioration of the ornamental stones from Apulia (SE Italy) caused by thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, G. F.; Germinario, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mesozoic carbonate rocks cropping out in Apulia, SE Italy, represent today, as in the past, a fundamental artistic and communicative mean for the local culture. For their physico-mechanical and aesthetic properties, these sedimentary rocks have always found a large application both as ornamental stones and as simple construction materials, particurarly in military architecture and worship buildings during the Middle Ages. The Apulian "marbles" are characterised by high strength and durability, nevertheless outdoors exposure often involves significant changes in their technical properties and state of conservation caused by weathering. The effects of thermal stresses on the material performances, due to diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations, constitute a topic of particular interest in the assessment of durability problems associated to long-term exposure. In this work, a study about changes in technical properties of the Apulian ornamental limestones and dolostones induced by thermal stresses is presented. Direct and indirect evaluations concerning index properties, mechanical strength, deformability, textural characteristics and chromatic features, on samples subjected to thermal cycles, were used for providing a comprehensive perspective about deterioration, from the mesoscopic scale to the microscopic one. In a muffle fornace, the samples were subjected to thermal cycles ranging from 100 to 700°C. At the end of each cycle, mass and volume determinations, mercury porosimetry measurements, sclerometric tests, ultrasonic tests, thin section observations and chromatic evaluations through image analysis and Munsell charts were performed. The proposed methodology took into account only non-destructive or semi-destructive tests, in order to highlight the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of decay related to thermal stresses exclusively. In this way a constant comparison among the results of different experimental tests was carried out.

  1. A New Horned Dinosaur Reveals Convergent Evolution in Cranial Ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. PMID:26051892

  2. Fish Health Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  3. A review of mycobacteriosis in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J M; Stine, C B; Baya, A M; Kent, M L

    2009-02-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a serious and often lethal disease of fish, affecting a wide range of species globally both in culture and wild settings. Caused by several species of the genus Mycobacterium, the disease has received considerable attention in recent years because of the discovery of new species in piscine hosts, epizootics in wild fisheries, and the ability of a few species to infect humans. The impact of this disease in aquaculture and the aquaria trade has been well reported and there is currently no widely accepted cure other than depopulation and facility disinfection. However, the impact on wild fisheries is poorly understood and may relate to species-specific interactions (host-pathogen) and possibly environmental stressors. In this review, much of what is known about mycobacteriosis in marine fish is summarized with particular attention to an epizootic in striped bass, Morone saxatilis, (Walbaum), in Chesapeake Bay, USA. PMID:19261041

  4. Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis. PMID:18226212

  5. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  6. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  7. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

  8. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

  9. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  10. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  11. U.S. Agricultural Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

  12. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  13. Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement@bu.edu #12;Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement SerieBrief # 66 | Abril 2011 Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia

  14. Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. C. Lee; Mark J. Ready

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative methods for classifying individual trades as market buy or market sell orders using intraday trade and quote data. The authors document two potential problems with quote-based methods of trade classification: quotes may be recorded ahead of trades that triggered them, and trades inside the spread are not readily classifiable. These problems are analyzed in the context

  15. TradingCharts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the International DoubleClick Network, an affiliate of AltaVista, TradingCharts provides free financial charts on stock market prices, market indices, and money markets. Chart data are updated daily, and a written technical analysis of market movements is given with each chart output. NASDAQ, NYSE, CDN, NDX, and money market symbols may be entered in daily, weekly, or monthly terms at the homepage, and search and browse options are available for unknown symbols. In addition, a Personalized Chart Menu allows users to save charts for future reference while browsing.

  16. Stopping the Torture Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This report from Amnesty International has been issued as part of the organization's larger campaign against torture launched in October 2000. The report examines the ballooning international trade in both traditional tools of torture (e.g., leg irons and shackles) as well as newer electro-shock devices and other "non-lethal" weapons. The report reveals how torturers have been trained through the transfer of military and security training and makes a number of recommendations to governments and corporations on methods they can pursue to eradicate torture. Users may download the report by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format.

  17. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  18. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

  19. Negotiating Repair and Authenticity in the Conservation of Ornamental Architectural Stone: Managing Decay and Past Interventions on the Facades of Rosslyn Chapel and Mission San José 

    E-print Network

    Nau, Anna

    This study examines how material and historical authenticity are balanced with artistic unity and aesthetic legibility in the conservation of ornamental stone in Great Britain and North America through a case study analysis ...

  20. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  1. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade

  2. Chile: Trade Performance,Trade Liberalization, and Competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brieuc Monfort

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of Chile's trade between 1990 and 2007, studying in particular the impact of trade liberalization in addition to traditional price and demand determinants. The results show that export and import flows are mainly responsive to external and domestic demand, and less so to relative prices, although there is a small impact on imports. In addition,

  3. Eating fish for two

    PubMed Central

    Strain, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation’s Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9–12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804

  4. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2014-05-19

    Abstract Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this. PMID:24841434

  5. WORKING PAPER N 2008 -52 Trade in services and trade in goods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 52 Trade in services and trade in goods: Differences and complementarities Carolina Lennon JEL Codes: F12, F15, L8 Keywords: International trade in services, trade in goods, gravity ­ ÉCOLE NORMALE SUPÉRIEURE halshs-00586223,version1-15Apr2011 #12;Trade in Services and Trade in Goods

  6. Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room Daniel Beunza at the Santa Fe Institute. #12;2 Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading of trading in the era of quantitative finance. To do so, we conduct an ethnography of arbitrage, the trading

  7. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206 Protection...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a) A marine SI engine manufacturer...

  8. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206 Protection...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines...

  9. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206 Protection...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines...

  10. The new era of petroleum trading

    SciTech Connect

    Razavi, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book aims to explain the workings and issues involved in the new era of petroleum trading. It summarizes present trading practices, and describes petroleum spot markets, futures and options trading, and their relation to contract sales.

  11. Trading indicators with information-gap uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Guttman, Tony

    1 Trading indicators with information-gap uncertainty Colin J. Thompson ARC Centre of Excellence. Practical implications ­ An additional technical trading tool for applying Information ­ Gap theory trading indicators, Information gaps, Uncertainty, Robustness, Financial modelling Paper type Research

  12. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206 Protection...SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a) A marine SI engine manufacturer...

  13. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206 Protection...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines...

  14. Momentum Trading and Limits to Arbitrage 

    E-print Network

    Armstrong, William

    2012-07-16

    is unobservable. This dissertation studies the endogenous relationship between momentum trading and mispricing. The basic idea is that momentum trades can impede arbitrage when they are in the opposite direction of arbitrage trades and reinforce arbitrage when...

  15. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...averaging, banking, or further trading transactions. (d) Unless...in-use credits must wait 30 days after it has both...

  16. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...averaging, banking, or further trading transactions. (d) Unless...in-use credits must wait 30 days after it has both...

  17. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...averaging, banking, or further trading transactions. (d) Unless...in-use credits must wait 30 days after it has both...

  18. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...averaging, banking, or further trading transactions. (d) Unless...in-use credits must wait 30 days after it has both...

  19. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...averaging, banking, or further trading transactions. (d) Unless...in-use credits must wait 30 days after it has both...

  20. Managers' Trading around Stock Repurchases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Scott Lee; Wayne H Mikkelson; M Megan Partch

    1992-01-01

    The authors analyze personal open market trades by managers around stock repurchases by tender offer. With the exception of Dutch auction offers, managers trade their firm's shares prior to repurchase announcements as though repurchases convey favorable inside information to outsiders. Prior to fixed price repurchase offers that do not follow takeover-related events, managers increase their buying and reduce their selling

  1. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  2. Global Gains from Trade Liberalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haichao Fan; Edwin L.-C. Lai; Han Steffan Qi

    2012-01-01

    What has been the overall global welfare impact of the accession to the World Trade Organization of a large country like China, or the global welfare impact of the completion of the Uruguay round of GATT negotiations? Can we come up with a simple user-friendly formula to calculate the global welfare impact of the simultaneous trade liberalization of a number

  3. Do Autocratic States Trade Less?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toke S. Aidt; Martin Gassebner

    2010-01-01

    Does the political regime of a country influence its involvement in international trade? A theoretical model that predicts that autocracies trade less than democracies is developed, and the predictions of the model are tested empirically using a panel of more than 130 countries for 1962–2000. In contrast to the existing literature, data on the regime type of individual countries are

  4. Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MITCHELL A. PETERSEN; RAGHURAM G. RAJAN

    1997-01-01

    Firms may be financed by their suppliers rather than by financial institutions. There are many theories of trade credit, but few comprehensive empirical tests. This article attempts to fill the gap. We focus on small firms whose access to capital markets may be limited and find evidence suggesting that firms use more trade credit when credit from financial institutions is

  5. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  6. Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Licandro; Antonio Navas-Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence support the claim that international trade enhances innovation and productivity growth through an increase in competition. This paper develops a two-country endogenous growth model, with firm specific R&D and a continuum of oligopolistic sectors under Cournot competition to provide a theoretical support to this claim. Since countries are assumed to produce the same set of varieties, trade openness

  7. Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Licandro; Antonio Navas-Ruiz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand whether international trade may enhance innovation and growth through an increase in competition. We develop a two-country endogenous growth model, both countries producing the same set of goods, with firm speciffic R&D and a continuum of oligopolistic sectors under Cournot competition. Since countries produce the same setof goods, trade openness makes markets

  8. Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Licandro; Antonio Navas-Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand whether international trade may enhance innovation and growth through an increase in competition. We develop a two-country endogenous growth model, both countries producing the same set of goods, with firm specific R&D and a continuum of oligopolistic sectors under Cournot competition. Since countries produce the same set of goods, trade openness makes

  9. Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Navas; Omar Licandro

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that international trade enhances innovation and productivity growth through an increase in competition. This paper develops a two-country endogenous growth model, with firm specific R&D and a continuum of oligopolistic sectors under Cournot competition to provide a theoretical support to this claim. Since countries are assumed to produce the same set of varieties, trade openness makes markets

  10. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  11. Internet-Facilitated Feedback Trading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The ease of Internet trading has lured rela- tively inexperienced investors into the financial markets. We study the impact of the influx of these uninformed traders in a dynamic setting. Our results show that these strategic uninformed online traders who adopt feedback strategies do not outperform noise traders and feedback trading does not affect market volatility. An insider's equi- librium

  12. Condition dependence of sexual ornament size and variation in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni (Diptera: Diopsidae).

    PubMed

    Cotton, Samuel; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    We used the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni to examine predictions made by condition-dependent handicap models of sexual selection. Condition was experimentally varied by manipulation of larval food availability. Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni is a highly dimorphic species exhibiting strong sexual selection, and the male sexual ornament (exaggerated eyespan) showed strong condition-dependent expression relative to the homologous trait in females and nonsexual traits. Male eyespan also showed a great increase in standardized variance under stress, unlike nonsexual traits. The inflated variance of the male ornament was primarily attributable to condition-dependent (but body-size-independent) increase in variance. Thus, evaluation of male eyespan allows females to gain additional information about male condition over and above that given by body size. These findings accord well with condition-dependent handicap models of sexual selection. PMID:15212384

  13. Growth of Some Tropical Ornamental Plants on Artificial Topsoils Derived from Mixtures of Flyash, Sludge, Biochips, and Rengam Series Subsoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lay Pheng Tan; Jie He; Sing Kong Lee

    2004-01-01

    Four mixtures of artificial topsoils produced from mixing incinerator flyash, sewage sludge, biochips (from plant parts), and subsoil (from granite origin) in various proportions were used to grow some popular ornamental plants. The plants used were Bougainvillea spectabilisIxora coccineaand three Heliconiataxa, H. psithacorum × H. spathocircinatacv. “Golden Torch,” H.rostrataand H.psithacorumcv. “Tay.” Their physiological responses to the heavy metals present in the different

  14. An efficient protoplast-to-plant system for the hybrid ornamental shrub, Weigela × florida cv. Bristol Ruby ( Caprifoliaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio J. Ochatt

    1993-01-01

    Strategies were developed for the successful isolation of large numbers of highly viable protoplasts from the leaves, stems\\u000a and roots of axenic plants of the hybrid ornamental shrubWeigela florida cv Bristol Ruby. Protoplasts, of all sources, were cultured on different media, leading to the establishment of sustained\\u000a divisions, and coupled with the production of multi-celled (>50 cells) colonies. However, those

  15. Effects of Aquarium Collectors on Coral Reef Fishes in Kona, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN N. TISSOT; LEON E. HALLACHER

    2003-01-01

    No previous studies have conclusively documented the magnitude of the effect of aquarium col- lecting on natural populations. In Hawaii concern over the effects on reef fish populations of collecting for the aquarium trade began in the early 1970s, primarily in response to multiple-use conflicts between aquarium- fish collectors and recreational dive-tour operators. In 1997-1998 we used a paired control-impact

  16. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an alphabetical directory of "Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada"; followed by a directory of "International and Foreign Book Trade Associations" listed alphabetically by country. (AEF)

  17. Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew L.M; Li, Daiqin

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition-dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400?nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) that has sexually dimorphic UV-iridescent ornamentation, and we provide evidence that male UV coloration is condition dependent in this species. Spectral-reflection patterns change with male age and prior feeding history. The position of the UV band (i.e. UV hue) of the carapaces of younger (field-collected as subadults and matured as adults in laboratory) males shifted, relative to older (field-collected as adults) males, significantly towards longer wavelengths. Food deprivation significantly decreased the spectral intensity of the abdomen, but not the carapace. Questions concerning the mechanisms by which UV ornaments change are highlighted, as are hypotheses concerning the role of condition-dependent UV variation in male–male competition and as a criterion used by females when making mate-choice decisions. PMID:17476778

  18. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Shuman; Gregor Hodgson; Richard F. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation\\u000a of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few\\u000a ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity\\u000a of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to

  19. Victorian Trade Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How can one know the history of the Victorian era? Through its architecture, its writings, its political leaders? Yes, yes, and yes. And a fourth "yes" to the world of trade cards. These quotidian items were used to promote everything from bromides to bicycles and the University of Iowa has this wonderful collection for those curious about such matters. First-time visitors might do well to start by looking over the ads for Clark's Cotton, which includes maudlin and interesting illustrations of boys playing with a kite, colorful birds and bicycle races. It's worth noting that visitors can also search all of the items here by keyword or creator. Visitors can also make their own themed collection for future reference and students of 19th century American culture will find much to enjoy here. The site is rounded out by a site of links to other relevant digital collections, including some from the Library of Congress.

  20. Freezing Fish and Shellfish.

    E-print Network

    Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

    1980-01-01

    contents may impart off-odors and off flavors to the flesh. Digestive enzymes and bacteria found in the intestinal fluids also can begin to digest the fish flesh before the product freezes. The dark flesh of fish is usually less stable in frozen... means of preserving the fresh-caught quality of fish and shellfish. Why Freeze? Freezing preserves foods by lowering their tem peratures to a point not conducive to bacterial growth and natural enzyme action. Many spoilage bacteria are destroyed...

  1. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array-based multiplex assay.

    PubMed

    Lievens, B; Frans, I; Heusdens, C; Justé, A; Jonstrup, S P; Lieffrig, F; Willems, K A

    2011-11-01

    Fish diseases can be caused by a variety of diverse organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa, and pose a universal threat to the ornamental fish industry and aquaculture. The lack of rapid, accurate and reliable means by which fish pathogens can be detected and identified has been one of the main limitations in fish pathogen diagnosis and fish disease management and has consequently stimulated the search for alternative diagnostic techniques. Here, we describe a method based on multiplex and broad-range PCR amplification combined with DNA array hybridization for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV-1, CyHV-2 and CyHV-3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were targeted. For bacterial identification, the ribosomal RNA gene was used. The developed methodology permitted 100% specificity for the identification of the target species. Detection sensitivity was equivalent to 10 viral genomes or less than a picogram of bacterial DNA. The utility and power of the array for sensitive pathogen detection and identification in complex samples such as infected tissue is demonstrated in this study. PMID:21988358

  2. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated. PMID:25666551

  3. Anglers' fishing problem

    E-print Network

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  4. Red Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes By Chandra Shekhar

    E-print Network

    to the extreme. Cichlids in Lake Victoria prefer males of different colors, which apparently led to separate in sensory perception--not just geography--can spark speciation. The fish in question live in Lake Victoria like those in Lake Victoria that spurred the evolution of the blue and red cichlids. Trevor Price

  5. 78 FR 69648 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory...Herbert Clark Hoover Building, 1401 Constitution Ave...Trade Administration's Civil Nuclear Trade Initiative Update. 2. Civil Nuclear Trade Promotion...for clearance into the building. Please specify...

  6. 17 CFR 23.202 - Daily trading records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and accurate trade reconstruction for each swap. Each...and accurate trade reconstruction; and (ii) A...the swap. (3) Post-execution trade information... (i) Records of post-trade processing...and accurate trade reconstruction for each...

  7. 17 CFR 23.202 - Daily trading records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and accurate trade reconstruction for each swap. Each...and accurate trade reconstruction; and (ii) A...the swap. (3) Post-execution trade information... (i) Records of post-trade processing...and accurate trade reconstruction for each...

  8. Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

  9. Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian) fish from the Lower Bokkeveld Group (Ceres Subgroup), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. E.; Almond, J. E.; Evans, F. J.; Long, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    Four major groups of fish are represented by fragmentary remains from South Africa's Lower Bokkeveld Group of Early to Middle Devonian age: the Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi and Osteichthyes. These represent the oldest known occurrences of these groups in southern Africa, as well as an important addition to the very meagre record of earlier Devonian fish from the Malvinokaffric Province of southwestern Gondwana. Bokkeveld fish material comes from the Gydo (Late Emsian) and Tra Tra (Middle Eifelian) Formations of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces. The cosmopolitan marine acanthodian Machæracanthus is represented only by isolated fin spines which may belong to two different species on the basis of their external ornamentation, cross-sectional outline and internal histology. The elasmobranchs are represented by four elements: (1) a flattened chondrocranium which bears affinity to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous symmoriid (protacrodont) 'cladodont' sharks. It is probably the earliest known (Emsian) shark chondrocranium; (2) an isolated, primitive scapulocoracoid with a very short coracoidal ridge; (3) ankylosed and isolated radials, interpreted as parts of pterygial plates of a paired fin of an unknown chondrichthyan bearing affinity to the Middle Devonian Zamponiopteron from Bolivia; and (4) isolated barlike structures, perhaps gill arch or a jaw elements, thought to be from the same taxon as (3). The placoderms are represented by an incomplete trunk armour and fragmentary, finely ornamented plates of a primitive antiarch. The Osteichthyes are represented by a single large scale of an unidentified dipnoan from the Eifelian of the Cedarberg range, as well as a probable sarcopterygian dermal plate from the Emsian of the Prince Albert area. These are among the earliest sarcopterygian remains recorded from the Malvinokaffric Province.

  10. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  11. Conventional and PCR Detection of Aphelenchoides fragariae in Diverse Ornamental Host Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    McCuiston, Jamie L.; Hudson, Laura C.; Subbotin, Sergei A.; Davis, Eric L.; Warfield, Colleen Y.

    2007-01-01

    A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for early detection and identification of Aphelenchoides fragariae directly in host plant tissues using the species-specific primers AFragFl and AFragRl that amplify a 169-bp fragment in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. These species-specific primers did not amplify DNA from Aphelenchoides besseyi or Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. The PCR assay was sensitive, detecting a single nematode in a background of plant tissue extract. The assay accurately detected A. fragariae in more than 100 naturally infected, ornamental plant samples collected in North Carolina nurseries, garden centers and landscapes, including 50 plant species not previously reported as hosts of Aphelenchoides spp. The detection sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was higher for infected yet asymptomatic plants when compared to the traditional, water extraction method for Aphelenchoides spp. detection. The utility of using NaOH extraction for rapid preparation of total DNA from plant samples infected with A. fragariae was demonstrated. PMID:19259510

  12. Availability of non-carotenoid antioxidants affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual ornament.

    PubMed

    Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2007-08-22

    Carotenoids are responsible for much of the yellow, orange and red pigmentation in the animal kingdom, and the importance of such coloration as an honest signal of individual quality has received widespread attention. In particular, owing to the multiple roles of carotenoids as pigments, antioxidants and immunostimulants, carotenoid-based coloration has been suggested to advertise an individual's antioxidant or immune defence capacity. However, it has recently been argued that carotenoid-based signals may in fact be advertising the availability of different antioxidants, many of which (including various vitamins, antioxidant enzymes and minerals) are colourless and so would be uninformative as components of a visual signal, yet often have greater biological activity than carotenoids. We tested this hypothesis by feeding male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) a diet containing a fixed level of carotenoids and either low or high, but biologically realistic levels of the colourless antioxidant vitamins C and E. High-antioxidant diet males produced significantly more intensely coloured (but not larger) carotenoid-based regions of nuptial coloration and were preferred over size-matched males of the opposite diet treatment in mate-choice trials. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between an individual's somatic antioxidant activity and signal intensity. Our data suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal an individual's availability of non-carotenoid antioxidants, allowing females to make adaptive mate-choice decisions. PMID:17472903

  13. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    PubMed Central

    Efzueni Rozali, Shahril; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5?mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0?mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6?g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0?mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  14. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  15. Environment and Trade: A Handbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations Environment Programme and the International Institute for Sustainable Development have joined forces to produce this handbook on environment and trade. Designed to "help us understand how trade can affect the environment, for better and for worse, and how environmental concern can work through the trading system, to foster or frustrate development, in both rich and poor countries," this resource attempts to synthesize the multiple pieces of this complex interaction. The handbook is available either as a .pdf document or as a continuously updated HTML version.

  16. Natural mortality: Its ecology, how it shapes fish life histories, and why it may be increased by fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Holt, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    A stronger focus on natural mortality may be required to better understand contemporary changes in fish life histories and behaviour and their responses to anthropogenic drivers. Firstly, natural mortality is the selection under which fish evolved in the first place, so a theoretical understanding of effects of natural mortality alone is needed. Secondly, due to trade-offs, most organismal functions can only be achieved at some cost in terms of survival. Several trade-offs might need to be analysed simultaneously with effects on natural mortality being a common currency. Thirdly, there is scattered evidence that natural mortality has been increasing, some would say dramatically, in some fished stocks, which begs explanations. Fourthly, natural mortality most often implies transfer of mass and energy from one species to another, and therefore has foodweb and ecosystem consequences. We therefore analyse a model for evolution of fish life histories and behaviour, where state-dependent energy-allocation and growth strategies are found by optimization. Natural mortality is split into five different components, each specified as the outcome of individual traits and ecological trade-offs: a fixed baseline mortality; size-dependent predation; risk-dependent growth strategy; a fixed mortality when sexually mature; and mortality increasing with reproductive investment. The analysis is repeated with and without fishing. Each component of natural mortality has consequences for optimal life history strategies. Beyond earlier models, we show i) how the two types of reproductive mortality sometimes have similar and sometimes contrasting effects on life history evolution, ii) how ecosystem properties such as food availability and predation levels have stronger effects on optimal strategies than changing other mortality components, and iii) how expected changes in risk-dependent growth strategies are highly variable depending on the type of mortality changed.

  17. Explore it! Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Species profiles of 10 common, and often less-publicized, Great Lakes fishes. Each profile describes the fish's length, weight, coloring, common names, and preferred habitat. Site also discusses its creator, Cliff Kraft, and why he selected these 10 particular species. Profiles include: the lake sturgeon, lake herring, brook stickleback, brook trout, longnose sucker, deepwater sculpin, spottail shiner, siscowet, logperch, and lean lake trout.

  18. Fish in the city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Güttler; Danica Lambrecht; Biniam S. Fitwi; Carsten Schulz; Rolf A. E. Müller

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most recent addition to animal husbandry and it is the fastest growing food production industry. Its contribution to world food security in the 21st century is already significant and it is bound to continue to grow because demand for fish for human consumption is rapidly increasing whereas fish supplies from ocean fisheries are likely to decline. The

  19. Dilled Fish Fillets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Dilled Fish Fillets Ingredients: 1 pound cod fillets 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1/8 teaspoon dill-baking dish. Sprinkle with lemon juice and seasonings. Cover with wax paper. 2. Cook at "medium" power in the microwave for 3 minutes. Remove cover, turn fish over, and sprinkle with lemon juice and seasonings. 3

  20. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  1. Cryopreservation in Aquarium Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence R. Tiersch

    2001-01-01

    Few studies have addressed sperm cryopreservation in aquarium fishes (body sizes of 10 cm or less). There are several challenges inherent in developing cryopreservation procedures for these fishes. First, their small body size and sperm volume limit experimental replication and the numbers of treatments possible without pooling of samples. This hinders research, especially if many experimental variables are evaluated. The

  2. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  3. SOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    SOUTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT 2011 Annual Report The South Carolina issues in the state of South Carolina, as well as throughout the SE U.S. and internationally. #12;2011 Annual Report Page 2 South Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit 2 0 1 1 A N N U

  4. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  5. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    2005 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program Annual Report #12; 2005Annual Report Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program www.coopunits.org #12;2 #12;2 Front cover photos Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana (Sammy King/LA Unit). Rocky Mountain elk near the Wichita Mountains National

  6. Histamine fish poisoning revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh Lehane; June Olley

    2000-01-01

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

  7. Financial Trading Rules Automated Development & Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    F-Trade: Financial Trading Rules Automated Development & Evaluation Chengqi Zhang, Longbing Cao in ASX, what will happen if he uses moving average technical trading rule? How about other rules? #12;Some Examples (Cont.) · If Cary is a small broker (Investment advisor), he has his own trading rule

  8. Trade Liberalization and Self-Control Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Abel-Koch

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the welfare e!ects of trade liberalization when individuals su!er from self-control problems. Within a classic Ricardian model of trade, the welfare e!ects crucially depend on the direction of trade. In the importing country, indi- viduals lose from trade if they are su\\

  9. Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman

    E-print Network

    MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit or baseline-and-credit trading ­ Essential mechanism: Credit for exceeding target that can be used to meet

  10. Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Hasbrouck

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact

  11. Human Capital, International Trade and Technology Diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bassetti

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by trade openness in the process of international technology diffusion. Starting from the model provided by Benhabib and Spiegel (2005), here we show that the impact of trade openness on productivity growth is nonlinear. In particular, we will see how for low levels of trade openness a trade liberalization policy will reduce the rate

  12. Viet Nam,Human Rights and Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kinley

    2008-01-01

    With the liberalization of trade Viet Nam became the 150th member of World Trade Organization in January 2007. The country became an example to the world on how trade can spur the economic and social development. The study throws light on the effect of trade liberalization on the enjoyment of human rights in Viet Nam. The process posed challenges and

  13. Securities trading of concepts (STOC)

    E-print Network

    Dahan, Ely

    Identifying winning new product concepts can be a challenging process that requires insight into private consumer preferences. To measure consumer preferences for new product concepts, the authors apply a “securities trading ...

  14. Solving Trade Discount Word Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coonce, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

  15. Trade-offs between sexual advertisement and immune function in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed Central

    Kilpimaa, Janne; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Siitari, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Good genes models of sexual selection assume that sexual advertisement is costly and thus the level of advertisement honestly reveals heritable viability. Recently it has been suggested that an important cost of sexual advertisement might be impairment of the functioning of the immune system. In this field experiment we investigated the possible trade-offs between immune function and sexual advertisement by manipulating both mating effort and activity of immune defence in male pied flycatchers. Mating effort was increased in a non-arbitrary manner by removing females from mated males during nest building. Widowed males sustained higher haematocrit levels than control males and showed higher expression of forehead patch height, suggesting that manipulation succeeded in increasing mating effort. Males that were experimentally forced to increase mating effort had reduced humoral immune responsiveness compared with control males. In addition, experimental activation of immune defence by vaccination with novel antigens reduced the expression of male ornament dimensions. To conclude, our results indicate that causality behind the trade-off between immune function and sexual advertisement may work in both directions: sexual activity suppresses immune function but immune challenge also reduces sexual advertisement. PMID:15058434

  16. Solar System Trading Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Storr

    2007-12-12

    The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

  17. Developing Actionable Trading Strategies for Trading Agents Longbing Cao, Chao Luo, Chengqi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Developing Actionable Trading Strategies for Trading Agents Longbing Cao, Chao Luo, Chengqi Zhang,chengqi}@it.uts.edu.au Abstract Trading agents are very useful for developing and back- testing quality trading strategies for actions taking in the real world. However, the existing trading agent research mainly focuses

  18. Who trades IPOs? A close look at the first days of trading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina Ellis

    2006-01-01

    I examine the enormous trading volume in the first two days of trading following an initial public offering (IPO) with a sample of Nasdaq IPOs. The composition of trading varies widely with the initial return and not all trading is investor-related. Cold IPOs have a high proportion of interdealer sell trades, whereas hot IPOs have balanced investor buying and selling.

  19. Two-Sided Markets and Inter-Temporal Trade Clustering: Insights into Trading Motives

    E-print Network

    Kearns, Michael

    cluster in certain trading intervals for both NYSE and Nasdaq stocks under a broad range of conditionsTwo-Sided Markets and Inter-Temporal Trade Clustering: Insights into Trading Motives Asani Sarkar Clustering: Insights into Trading Motives We show that equity markets are typically two-sided and that trades

  20. Multilateral versus Bilateral and Regional Trade Liberalization: explaining China's pursuit of free trade agreements (FTAs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ka Zeng

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, at the same time it has pursued multilateral trade negotiations via membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), China has embraced a regional approach to trade liberalization by negotiating a number of bilateral or regional free trade agreements (FTAs) with its trading partners. This paper examines China's increasingly active FTA diplomacy and seeks to explain China's motives

  1. Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA, Alexandre to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA INRA, UMR1302 SMART, F-35000 Rennes, France, France Financial support received by the "New Issues in Agricultural, Food and Bio-energy Trade

  2. P-Trade the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    P-Trade ­ the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations · Auctions are negotiation mechanisms configuration depends on multiple factors like traded good, participants, information available on the value of the traded good, etc. The system architecture of P-Trade · A central auction name server (ANS) containing

  3. Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

  4. Jon Haveman's International Trade Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Jon Haveman, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, maintains this metasite of industry classification concordances and international data links for researchers pursuing empirical studies of international trade. Among Haveman's collection of Industry Concordances, ISIC, SITC, usSIC, HS, TSUSA, and NACE classifications are covered with detailed source and downloading information. Links to a variety of International Trade Data such as the Penn World Tables are also well-documented; recent additions to both resources are listed by month.

  5. An Historical Example of the Global Economy: James Macbraire and the Newfoundland Cod Trade of 1805. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Provides background information, primary source document, and learning activities related to the early 19th-century cod trade in Newfoundland. The document is a long business letter detailing activities between a Scotch fish merchant and his Canadian suppliers. The activities cover geography, history, global economics, and environmental issues.…

  6. Transmission Ecology and Larval Behaviour of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda, Camallanidae) Under Aquarium Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Levsen

    2001-01-01

    The parasitic fish nematode Camallanus cotti has been reported from a number of freshwater fish species around the world. Its wide geographical distribution seems mainly\\u000a to be the result of anthropogenic dissemination due to extensive ornamental fish trade. In most reports it is assumed that\\u000a C. cotti's life cycle involves cyclopoid copepods as intermediate host and various freshwater fishes as

  7. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  8. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade...in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards...the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  9. FishScope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Mark Cooper, professor of Zoology at the University of Washington, maintains this site which features time-lapse recordings and confocal images of the development of fish. Visitors can view QuickTime and MPEG movies of: zebrafish developmental landmarks, neural crest and neural tube dynamics, and medaka embryo contraction waves fish epidermal cells. In addition, a still image gallery and material describing how the images were prepared is available. This site is intended for teachers, researchers, and students interested in the developmental biology of fish and other aquatic organisms.

  10. Growth responses of three ornamental plants to Cd and Cd-Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-nv; Zhou, Qi-xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

    2008-02-28

    Up to now, there was no document on ornamental plants that had been applied to phytoremediation, which can remedy contaminated environment and beautify it at the same time. Thus, the growth responses and possible phytoremediation ability of three ornamental plants selected from the previous preliminary experiments were further examined under single Cd or combined Cd-Pb stress. The results showed that these tested plants had higher tolerance to Cd and Pb contamination and could effectively accumulate the metals, especially for Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea. For C. officinalis, it grew normally in soils containing 100 mg kg(-1) Cd without suffering phytotoxicity, and the Cd concentration in the roots was up to 1084 mg kg(-1) while the Cd concentration in the shoots was 284 mg kg(-1). For A. rosea, the Cd accumulation in the shoots was higher than that in the roots when the Cd concentration in soils was <100 mg kg(-1), and reached 100 mg kg(-1) as the criteria of a Cd hyperaccumulator when the Cd concentration in soils was 100 mg kg(-1). Their accumulation and tolerance to Cd and Pb were further demonstrated through the hydroponic-culture method. And A. rosea had a great potential as a possible Cd hyperaccumulator under favorable or induced conditions. Furthermore, the interactive effects of Cd and Pb in the three ornamentals were complicated, not only additive, antagonistic or synergistic, but also related to many factors including concentration combinations of heavy metals, plant species and various parts of plants. Thus, it can be forecasted that this work will provide a new way for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:17869419

  11. Partial diel vertical migrations in pelagic fish.

    PubMed

    Mehner, Thomas; Kasprzak, Peter

    2011-07-01

    1. Field studies on diel vertical migration (DVM) usually report uniform behaviour with population-wide ascents and descents during crepuscular periods. This contrasts partial seasonal migrations of many animal populations, where individuals choose either the resident or the migrant strategy depending on population density, feeding opportunity and predation risk in the resident and migrant habitats. 2. We tested whether DVM of freshwater zooplanktivorous fish (Coregonus spp.) resembles partial migrations. Twenty-eight hydroacoustic surveys were performed in the deep Lake Stechlin (Germany) between 2000 and 2010, with samplings encompassing all months between March and December. Zooplankton samples were simultaneously taken in epilimnetic and hypolimnetic layers. Fish obtained from depth-stratified samplings by a midwater trawl were used to test for individual differences between residents and migrants. 3. We show for the first time that DVMs of freshwater fish resemble patterns of partial migrations often found in seasonal environments. Across all samplings, 7-33% of fish did not ascend at dusk, but exhibited the resident strategy. The proportion or residents increased at low zooplankton feeding rates in the daytime habitat and during months when the temperature difference between daytime and night-time habitats was minor. 4. Slightly larger size and higher caloric density of migrants over residents in one of the coexisting Coregonus species suggested that individual differences contributed to the migration strategy performed. However, these results were based on one sample only, and extrapolation to the entire data set is not possible. 5. Our results are indirect evidence that the balance between migrants and residents may primarily depend on the trade-off between feeding gains and metabolic and predation costs of migration. However, the results also suggest that the global fitness consequences for the resident and migrant strategies may not be identical, rendering the importance of individual traits in the 'decision to migrate' likely. PMID:21366565

  12. The target strengths of fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. G. Haslett

    1969-01-01

    Knowledge of the acoustic target strength of a fish (or of a shoal of fish) is required to enable the performance of present and future sonar equipments to be determined for fish targets. Also, it is hoped that measurement of the strengths and characters of the echoes received from fish will give a reliable guide to the size of the

  13. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Office of International Trade; State Trade...U.S. Small Business Administration...activities for small businesses may include... The design of international marketing...

  14. Fish product mislabelling: failings of traceability in the production chain and implications for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

    PubMed

    Helyar, Sarah J; Lloyd, Hywel Ap D; de Bruyn, Mark; Leake, Jonathan; Bennett, Niall; Carvalho, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing consumer demand for seafood, combined with concern over the health of our oceans, has led to many initiatives aimed at tackling destructive fishing practices and promoting the sustainability of fisheries. An important global threat to sustainable fisheries is Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, and there is now an increased emphasis on the use of trade measures to prevent IUU-sourced fish and fish products from entering the international market. Initiatives encompass new legislation in the European Union requiring the inclusion of species names on catch labels throughout the distribution chain. Such certification measures do not, however, guarantee accuracy of species designation. Using two DNA-based methods to compare species descriptions with molecular ID, we examined 386 samples of white fish, or products labelled as primarily containing white fish, from major UK supermarket chains. Species specific real-time PCR probes were used for cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to provide a highly sensitive and species-specific test for the major species of white fish sold in the UK. Additionally, fish-specific primers were used to sequence the forensically validated barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Overall levels of congruence between product label and genetic species identification were high, with 94.34% of samples correctly labelled, though a significant proportion in terms of potential volume, were mislabelled. Substitution was usually for a cheaper alternative and, in one case, extended to a tropical species. To our knowledge, this is the first published study encompassing a large-scale assessment of UK retailers, and if representative, indicates a potentially significant incidence of incorrect product designation. PMID:24921655

  15. 75 FR 18482 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC...environmental technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general...

  16. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC...environmental technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general...

  17. 76 FR 39846 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration...of Competition and Economic Analysis (``OCEA'') of the International Trade Administration...of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade...

  18. Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (U.S.). Office of Seafood.

    The Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration "to help federal, state, and local officials and purchasers of seafood identify species substitution and economic deception in the marketplace." As such, the RFE is a compilation of data in several formats (including photographic and imaging parameters, specific isoelectric focusing, DNA sequence patterns, protein patterns, and taxonomic authentication) "that assists with the accurate identification of fish species." Fish and other seafood types are listed by common, regional, market, scientific, and family names, and the site also provides images of some whole fish and market cuts. Additional detailed scientific and taxonomic information is available for some species, but researchers will find the site's varied techniques for identification most useful.

  19. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  20. Fish and fries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-03-17

    Anything that has been fried has been cooked in oil. It will produce a large grease spot, meaning that it contains a lot of fat. You can see the grease spots on the white paper from the fish and fries.