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Sample records for ornamental fish trade

  1. Overview of the current international trade in ornamental fish, with special reference to Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, L

    1996-06-01

    The value of international trade in ornamental fish in 1992 was US$247 million, based on import statistics, or US$140 million, based on export statistics. Between 1983 and 1992, annual growth of imports and exports averaged 21% and 16%, respectively. More than 100 countries are involved in this trade. The top five exporting countries in 1992 were Singapore (32%), Hong Kong (11%), the United States of America (USA) (11%), the Netherlands (7%) and Germany (6%). The top five importing countries were the USA (26%), Japan (17%), Germany (9%), the United Kingdom (9%) and France (7%). The bulk of ornamental fish trade internationally are freshwater in origin and farm-bred. Marine ornamental fish species and invertebrates are mainly wild-caught. An estimated one billion ornamental fish are exported annually, involving one thousand species or more. Mass-cultured fish species - e.g. guppy, tetra, angel, swordtail, platy, goldfish, koi - have long been established in the market and will continue to constitute the major market share. The author discusses the results of a trial on quality enhancement of the shipment of guppies, and makes recommendations on treatment to minimise stress and disease transmission. PMID:8890375

  2. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. PMID:17465152

  3. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  4. Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

  5. DNA barcoding of marine ornamental fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Bamaniya, Dhaval C; Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sharma, Niti; Reang, Dhalongsaih; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2016-09-01

    India has rich marine ornamental fish diversity with 400 fish species distributed in Gulf of Munnar/Palk Bay, Gulf of Kutch, and in reefs around Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. Marine ornamental fish identification at the field level is very difficult because of their high diversity and profound changes in appearance during their developmental stages and camouflage. To facilitate ornamental fish trading with ease and in compliance with the biodiversity act, DNA barcoding technique could be used to accurately identify species. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 31 species of commercially important marine ornamental fishes from India. The average genetic distance (K2P model) within species, genus, and family was 0.446, 13.08, and 20.09%, respectively. Intraspecific variation has increased several folds (15-20 times) after including conspecific sequences from different geographical locations. The presence of allopatric lineages/cryptic species was observed in the Indo-pacific region. The NJ tree constructed based on K2P values showed distinct clusters shared by congeneric species specific to populations. PMID:25703851

  6. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed...

  9. The molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Go, Jeffrey; Lancaster, Malcolm; Deece, Kylie; Dhungyel, Om; Whittington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. They may have originated in tropical Asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. Consequently, MCP, ATPase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had been imported from Asia. There was almost complete homology (99.95%) over 4,527 bp between Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV) and an iridovirus (DGIV) present in dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) that had died in aquarium shops in Australia in 2004, and very high homology with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) (99.9%). These viruses are most likely to be a single species within the genus Megalocytivirus and probably have a common geographic origin. Primers for genus-specific PCR and for rapid discrimination of MCIV/DGIV/ISKNV and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), a notifiable pathogen, were developed. These were used in a survey to determine that the prevalence of DGIV infection in diseased gourami in retail aquarium shops in Sydney was 22% (95% confidence limits 15-31%). The global trade in ornamental fish may facilitate the spread of Megalocytivirus and enable emergence of disease in new host species in distant biogeographic regions. PMID:16697343

  10. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two ornamental fishes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Chen, Baohua; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Feng, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ornamental fishes, black molly (Poecilia sphenops) and blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus), were obtained by the traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing approach. The mitogenomes of P. sphenops and T. trichopterus are determined as 16,533 bp and 16,456 bp in length, respectively. Both the genomes include 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the complete mitogenomes of these two species and closely related 20 teleost species to assess their phylogenic relationship and evolution. PMID:26061340

  11. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  13. Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2005-06-22

    Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort and the future expression of a sexually selected ornament, we manipulated the parental effort of males by changing their brood sizes. We found that parents provisioned experimentally enlarged broods more often than reduced broods. As predicted by life-history theory, the change in parental effort had a significant effect on the relative plumage ornamentation of males in the subsequent year: males with reduced broods significantly increased in plumage brightness. Moreover, this change in plumage coloration had a direct effect on the timing of breeding in the following season: males that displayed brighter plumage in the year following the manipulation mated with females that initiated egg laying earlier in the season. These data indicate that male bluebirds must trade-off conserving energy for production of future ornamentation versus expending energy for current reproduction. PMID:17148168

  14. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  15. Parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, Jefferson Yunis; Marcusso, Paulo Fernandes; Claudiano, Gustavo da Silva; Lima, Bruno Tadeu Marotta; Marotta, Bruno L; Sebastião, Fernanda de Alexandre; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engracia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in Amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. The study was conducted from August 2007 to September 2009. We sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. Crenicichla anthurus (28.57%) was the most parasitized, followed by Aequidens diadema (26.32%), Pterophyllum scalare (22.69%), Cichlasoma sp. (9.52%), Apistogramma sp. (3.88%) and Symphysodon aequifasciatus (3.66%). Monogenea was the most abundant group of parasites, occurring in 66.67% of the cases, of which 96.88% occurred in the dry season. This parasite infested 95.68% of Pterophyllum scalare, 76.67% of Apistogramma sp, 33.33% of Cichlasoma sp. and 23.81% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus cases. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infested 100% of Aequidens diadema, 76.19% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, 66.67% of Cichlasoma sp, 41.67% of Crenicichla anthurus and 23.33% of Apistogramma sp cases. Myxosporidia infested 58.33% of Crenicichla anthurus. Trichodina infested 4.32% of Pterophyllum scalare. The prevalence of these parasites is related to the season, preferred habitat, fish behavior, individual susceptibility and handling of animals during transportation by fishermen. PMID:25909258

  16. Human Edwardsiellosis traced to ornamental fish.

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, J; Lemmens, P; de Swert, L

    1983-01-01

    Protracted diarrhea in a 2-month-old Belgian infant was associated with Edwardsiella tarda as the only potential pathogen. The same organism was isolated from a tropical aquarium fish in the home of the patient. The enteropathogenic role of E. tarda and the role of fish as a reservoir of infection are reviewed. Additional observations, volunteer studies, and careful prospective surveys in tropical countries will be needed to produce firm evidence of the enteropathogenic potential of E. tarda. PMID:6826702

  17. Occurrence of Potential Pathogens in Water Containing Ornamental Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Trust, T. J.; Bartlett, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The bacterial population of the water supplied with ornamental fish purchased from retail outlets was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. As many as 109 viable aerobic organisms per 100 ml were present, with fecal coliform counts as high as 105 per 100 ml. Citrobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio were isolated from 75% or more of the samples, whereas Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, and Streptococcus were isolated from 45 to 65% of the samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Edwardsiella tarda, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated. PMID:4602309

  18. THE IDENTITY OF THE AFRICAN FIREBUSH (HAMELIA) IN THE ORNAMENTAL NURSERY TRADE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. In recent years, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flow...

  19. Detection of dwarf gourami iridovirus (Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus) in populations of ornamental fish prior to and after importation into Australia, with the first evidence of infection in domestically farmed Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Anneke E; Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Lintermans, Mark; Landos, Matthew; Stephens, Fran; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    The movement of ornamental fish through international trade is a major factor for the transboundary spread of pathogens. In Australia, ornamental fish which may carry dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), a strain of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), have been identified as a biosecurity risk despite relatively stringent import quarantine measures being applied. In order to gain knowledge of the potential for DGIV to enter Australia, imported ornamental fish were sampled prior to entering quarantine, during quarantine, and post quarantine from wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets in Australia. Samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of megalocytivirus. Farmed and wild ornamental fish were also tested. Megalocytivirus was detected in ten of fourteen species or varieties of ornamental fish. Out of the 2086 imported gourami tested prior to entering quarantine, megalocytivirus was detected in 18.7% of fish and out of the 51 moribund/dead ornamental fish tested during the quarantine period, 68.6% were positive for megalocytivirus. Of fish from Australian wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets 14.5% and 21.9%, respectively, were positive. Out of 365 farmed ornamental fish, ISKNV-like megalocytivirus was detected in 1.1%; these were Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus). Megalocytivirus was not detected in free-living breeding populations of Blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus) caught in Queensland. This study showed that imported ornamental fish are vectors for DGIV and it was used to support an import risk analysis completed by the Australian Department of Agriculture. Subsequently, the national biosecurity policy was revised and from 1 March 2016, a health certification is required for susceptible families of fish to be free of this virus prior to importation. PMID:26452601

  20. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  1. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  2. Managing the Marine Aquarium Trade: Revealing the Data Gaps Using Ornamental Polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm “type” whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm “types”. Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site-specific with financial and educational support from NGOs, local governments and industry members. PMID:22235306

  3. Managing the marine aquarium trade: revealing the data gaps using ornamental polychaetes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G

    2012-01-01

    The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm "type" whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm "types". Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site-specific with financial and educational support from NGOs, local governments and industry members. PMID:22235306

  4. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which ornamental fish and their carriage water harbour antibiotic resistant bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Methods: 129 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm water and coldwater ornamental fish species were screened for r...

  5. Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

  6. Characterization of Microbiota Composition and Presence of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Carriage Water of Ornamental Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 12 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25084116

  7. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

    2014-05-13

    A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host. PMID:24991740

  8. Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

  9. Molecular confirmation of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in farmed and imported ornamental fish in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Cummins, David M; Davies, Kelly R; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-10-16

    Viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus have not been detected in wild populations of fish in Australia but circulate in imported ornamental fish. In 2012, detection of a megalocytivirus in healthy platys Xiphophorus maculatus was reported from a farm in Australia during surveillance testing as part of a research project undertaken at the University of Sydney. Confirmatory testing of the original samples at the AAHL Fish Diseases Laboratory verified the presence of an infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-like virus. Additional sampling at the positive farm confirmed the persistence of the virus in the platys, with 39 of 265 (14.7%) samples testing positive. Comparison of 3 separate gene regions of the virus with those of ISKNV confirmed the detection of a virus indistinguishable from ISKNV. Subsequently, ISKNV was also detected in a range of imported ornamental fish from several countries between 2013 and 2014, by screening with real-time PCR and confirmation by conventional PCR and sequence analysis. Accordingly, the current importation of live ornamental fish acts as a potential perpetual source for the establishment of ISKNV viruses within Australia. The testing of the farmed and imported ornamental fish verified the utility of the probe-based real-time PCR assay for screening of ornamental fish for Megalocytivirus. PMID:26480913

  10. Arms races, ornaments and fragrant genes: the dilemma of mate choice in fishes.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    Female preference for secondary sexual male ornaments that are handicapping survival has been an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis assumes that costly ornaments can be produced only by those males that carry the genes for resistance against the current infectious disease. I review studies in fishes that indeed bright colors can only be displayed by males in good health and females prefer healthy males by choosing the brighter ones. On the other hand, female vertebrates from fish to humans smell out partners that provide the complementary genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them producing offspring with the optimal number of different MHC alleles. In sticklebacks females have a two-step choice. Using smell they approach a male that offers the optimally complementary number of MHC alleles. When they can see the male, they accept it only when it is bright and thus offers in its complementary set of alleles the specific MHC allele providing resistance against the current disease as revealed by the male's sexual ornamentation. PMID:25152201

  11. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water

    PubMed Central

    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ≥15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM−1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. PMID:20027306

  12. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Chettri, J Kumar; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold. PMID:24650892

  13. Cryptic diversity in the mtDNA of the ornamental fish Carnegiella strigata.

    PubMed

    Schneider, C H; Gross, M C; Terencio, M L; Porto, J I R

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) sequences of the marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, an ornamental fish exported from the Negro River, was examined to determine its genetic diversity and population structure in blackwater rivers (Negro and Uatumã Rivers) in the central Amazon. Analyses of a 646 bp fragment of the ATPase 6/8 mtDNA gene revealed two monophyletic lineages of C. strigata with considerable genetic distance between them (10-12%), suggesting that these lineages should not be considered a single stock. Furthermore, there were strong differences in the geographical distribution of the lineages. These results indicate a past association between drainages of the Negro and Uatumã Rivers. They also suggest that, in the Negro River, its main tributary, the Branco River, may act as a geographical barrier and potentially an ecological barrier between populations of the middle and lower portions of the river. PMID:22957865

  14. Colonization of probiotic bacteria and its impact on ornamental fish Puntius conchonius.

    PubMed

    Divya, K R; Isamma, A; Ramasubramanian, V; Sureshkumar, S; Arunjith, T S

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the establishment and effect of probiotic bacteria such as Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus mesentericus, and Bifidobacterium infantis in the gut of freshwater ornamental fish Puntius conchonius. Postlarvae of 60 days old Puntius conchonius divided in four experimental groups each with three replicates. T1, T2 and T3 groups were fed with Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus mesentericus and Bifidobacterium infantis enriched copepod Thermocyclops decipiens respectively. T0 was the control group (without probiotic treated T. decipiens). The experiment was conducted for 45 days. The initial gut analysis of fish showed significant level of pathogenic bacteria in the gut of fish (p < 0.05). Total plate count of initial gut analysis of fish larvae were enumerated as 1.2 x 10(4)CFU ml(-1). The bacteriological study indicated thatfinal gut microflora of post-larvae have decreased level of pathogens. Total plate count of T1, T2 T3 and T0 were reported to be as 1.0 8 x 10(4), 1.06 x 10(4), 1.27 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1), respectively. Three experimental groups (T1, T2 and T3) were significantly different from control group (T0) (p < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, establishment of probiotics were examined. One week after probiotics administration, gut analysis of fish larvae showed, poor spore formation of Bacillus coagulans (2.3 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1)), when compared to B. mesentericus (3.2 +/- 0.03 x10(3) CFU ml(-1)) and Bifidobacterium infantis(3.1 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1)). The results from the study suggest that the probiotic bacteria significantly established in gut of P. conchonius and significant effects on the pathogenic gut inhabitants of the fish. PMID:23029902

  15. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  16. Changes of bacterioplankton apparent species richness in two ornamental fish aquaria.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Meziti, Alexandra; Hotos, George N; Mente, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamental fish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and diversity. We found high species richness but no dominant phylotypes were detected. Only few of the phylotypes were found in more than one time point per treatment and always with low relative abundance. The majority of the common phylotypes belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum and were closely related to Acinetobacter junii, Pseudomonas sp., Nevskia ramosa, Vogesella perlucida, Chitinomonas taiwanensis, Acidovorax sp., Pelomonas saccharophila and the rest belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, candidate division OP11 and one unaffiliated group. Several of these phylotypes were closely related to known taxa including Sphingopyxis chilensis, Flexibacter aurantiacus subsp. excathedrus and Mycobacterium sp. Despite the high phylogenetic diversity most of the inferred ecophysiological roles of the found phylotypes are related to nitrogen metabolism, a key process for fish aquaria. PMID:23519098

  17. Zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in ornamental fish: a systematic review of the existing research and survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    PubMed

    Weir, M; Rajić, A; Dutil, L; Cernicchiaro, N; Uhland, F C; Mercier, B; Tuševljak, N

    2012-02-01

    Using systematic review methodology, global research reporting the frequency of zoonotic bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in ornamental fish, and human illness due to exposure to ornamental fish, was examined. A survey was performed to elicit opinions of aquaculture-allied personnel on the frequency of AMU and AMR in ornamental fish. The most commonly reported sporadic human infections were associated with Mycobacterium marinum, while Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java was implicated in all reported outbreaks. Aeromonas spp. were most frequently investigated (n=10 studies) in 25 studies surveying ornamental fish from various sources. High levels of resistance were reported to amoxicillin, penicillin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline, which was also in agreement with the survey respondents' views. Studies on AMU were not found in our review. Survey respondents reported frequent use of quinolones, followed by tetracyclines, nitrofurans, and aminoglycosides. Recommendations for future surveillance and public education efforts are presented. PMID:21906415

  18. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    PubMed

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the treated groups and the present work concluded that, the Phthalate derivatives from I. coccinea helps to stimulate the immune system against A. hydrophila challenge in C. auratus. PMID:24380832

  19. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

  20. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin) show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles. PMID:20932273

  1. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Maroof A; Abdallah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11-29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3-8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger's wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

  2. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Maroof A.; Abdallah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11−29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3−8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

  3. Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in puerto rico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M P; Legore, R S

    2005-05-01

    In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930's. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1) an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers, collection methods and export volumes, and (2) the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators. The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators, and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits, the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order. To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy, regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1) characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports, (2) describe populations and biology of commercial species, and (3) propose appropriate fisheries management approaches. This paper describes only the first phase of this program. PMID:17465153

  4. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  5. Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451

  6. First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jung-Schroers, Verena; Adamek, Mikolaj; Wohlsein, Peter; Wolter, Jan; Wedekind, Helmut; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-05-26

    In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established. PMID:27225207

  7. 16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ornamentation. 300.16 Section 300.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...

  8. Detection and characterization of viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus in ornamental fish imported into an Australian border quarantine premises: an emerging risk to national biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Nolan, D; Stephens, F; Crockford, M; Jones, J B; Snow, M

    2015-02-01

    This report documents an emerging trend of identification of Megalocytivirus-like inclusions in a range of ornamental fish species intercepted during quarantine detention at the Australian border. From September 2012 to February 2013, 5 species of fish that had suffered mortality levels in excess of 25% whilst in the post-entry quarantine and had Megalocytivirus-like inclusion bodies in histological sections were examined by PCR. The fish had been imported from Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Ninety-seven of 111 individual fish from affected tanks of fish tested were positive for the presence of Megalocytivirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of representative PCR products revealed an identical sequence of 621 bp in all cases which was identical to a previously characterized Megalocytivirus (Sabah/RAA1/2012 strain BMGIV48). Phylogenetic analysis of available Megalocytivirus major capsid protein (MCP) sequences confirmed the existence of 3 major clades of Megalocytivirus. The virus detected in this study was identified as a member of Genotype II. The broad host range and pathogenicity of megalocytiviruses, coupled to the documented spread of ornamental fish into the environment, render this a significant and emerging biosecurity threat to Australia. PMID:24475941

  9. The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The rise of trepang fishing in the 17th century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20th century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1) a strong influence of international markets, (2) the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3) the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions. PMID:20613871

  10. Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

    2005-05-01

    This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

  11. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  12. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

  13. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

  14. Complete Sequences of IncU Plasmids Harboring Quinolone Resistance Genes qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr in Aeromonas spp. from Ornamental Fish.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Videnska, Petra; Dolejska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of three IncU plasmids from Aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish are described. They had a typical IncU backbone for plasmid replication and maintenance functions, but conjugative transfer modules were disrupted. The gene qnrS2 was inserted into mpR as a mobile insertion cassette. Novel Tn3 family transposons carrying putative toxin-antitoxin and plasmid stability genes were identified. The study demonstrates high plasticity of IncU plasmids from aquatic environments. PMID:26525788

  15. Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  16. 16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ornamentation. 300.16 Section 300.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the...

  17. 16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ornamentation. 300.16 Section 300.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the...

  18. 16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ornamentation. 300.16 Section 300.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the...

  19. 16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ornamentation. 300.16 Section 300.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the...

  20. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  1. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  2. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  3. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  4. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  5. First record of Hysterothylacium sp. Moravec, Kohn et Fernandes, 1993 larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, A A; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports for the first time infection with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques from the Paranapanema River, Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. A sample of 33 specimens of H. eques was collected in October, 2011. Four specimens of H. eques were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the intestine and coelomic cavity, with prevalence of 12.1%, mean intensity of infection of 1, and mean abundance of 0.121 ± 0.05. A total of 40 unidentified free-living nematodes were found in the stomach content of 17 fish. This fish species is introduced in the Paranapanema River. Invasive species may affect the native fauna given the introduction of pathogens and parasites. This study also complements data on the diet of H. eques due to the records of free-living nematode as part of the stomach content. Infections with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae may affect the biology of this fish and bring about profit losses to aquarists. PMID:26421773

  6. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  7. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  8. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  9. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  10. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  11. Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

    2014-01-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

  12. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  13. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  14. Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  15. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite. PMID:26688652

  16. Trading-off Fish Biodiversity, Food Security and Hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziv, G.; Baran, E.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Levin, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. These dams will block the intensive fish migration between downstream floodplains and upper reaches where fish breed. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a novel ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We show that the completion of 77 dams on tributaries, that have not been subject to strategic analysis so far, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  17. 76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 229-Charleston, WV; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc.; (Hunting, Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 229--Charleston, WV; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc.; (Hunting, Fishing, Camping and Related Outdoor Merchandise) Triadelphia, WV An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board...

  18. 76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 266-Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 266--Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing, Camping and Related Outdoor Merchandise), Prairie du Chien, WI An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  19. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  20. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  1. Virus diseases of ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental plants are grown around the world for their esthetic value, and form an important part of the agricultural economy in a large number of countries; ornamentals are also often one of the highest-valued crops that can be raised per unit area of production space. Increasing levels of internat...

  2. Risk trade-offs in fish consumption: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Hammitt, James K

    2012-11-20

    Fish consumption advisories instruct vulnerable consumers to avoid high mercury fish and to limit total fish intake to reduce neurotoxic risk. Consumption data from the U.S. suggest that nontarget consumers also respond to such advice. These consumers reduce exposure to mercury and other toxicants at the cost of reduction in cardioprotective fatty acids. We present a probabilistic model to assess these risk trade-offs. We use NHANES consumption data to simulate exposure to contaminants and nutrients in fish, employ dose-response relationships to convert exposure to health end points, and monetize them using benefit transfer. Our results suggest that newborns gained on average 0.033 IQ points from their mothers' compliance with the prominent FDA/EPA advisory. The welfare gain for a birth cohort is estimated at $386 million. This gain could be fully offset by increments in cardiovascular risk if 0.6% of consumers aged 40 and older reduced fish intake by one monthly meal until they reached the age of 60 or if 0.1% of them permanently reduced fish intake. PMID:23110525

  3. Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

  4. Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Levin, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics--herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

  5. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  6. Life history trade-offs and community dynamics of small fishes in a seasonally pulsed wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.

  7. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  8. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  9. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

  10. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-01-01

    Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and the large diet behavior range can be explained by a tendency toward an opportunistic behavior of the sympatric specimens. Indeed, the similar response of the two species and their hybrids implied an adaptation that could be defined as an alternative trade-off that underline the importance of epigenetics mechanisms for potential success in a novel environment. PMID:19860907

  11. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  12. Modelling and interpreting fish bioenergetics: a role for behaviour, life-history traits and survival trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Jrgensen, C; Enberg, K; Mangel, M

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics is used as the mechanistic foundation of many models of fishes. As the context of a model gradually extends beyond pure bioenergetics to include behaviour, life-history traits and function and performance of the entire organism, so does the need for complementing bioenergetic measurements with trade-offs, particularly those dealing with survival. Such a broadening of focus revitalized and expanded the domain of behavioural ecology in the 1980s. This review makes the case that a similar change of perspective is required for physiology to contribute to the types of predictions society currently demands, e.g. regarding climate change and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26768979

  13. Modelling and interpreting fish bioenergetics: a role for behaviour, life-history traits and survival trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, C; Enberg, K; Mangel, M

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics is used as the mechanistic foundation of many models of fishes. As the context of a model gradually extends beyond pure bioenergetics to include behaviour, life-history traits and function and performance of the entire organism, so does the need for complementing bioenergetic measurements with trade-offs, particularly those dealing with survival. Such a broadening of focus revitalized and expanded the domain of behavioural ecology in the 1980s. This review makes the case that a similar change of perspective is required for physiology to contribute to the types of predictions society currently demands, e.g. regarding climate change and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26768979

  14. Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

  15. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five per centum of the total fiber...

  16. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive of... example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3%...

  17. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive of... example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3%...

  18. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive of... example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3%...

  19. 16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive of... example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3%...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that may rejuvenate and re-establish value as an ornamental plant, shall be considered as worth full... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.305 Ornamental nursery. (a) Eligible ornamental nursery stock is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set out in this section....

  1. Sexual networks in Uganda: mixing patterns between a trading town, its rural hinterland and a nearby fishing village.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Okongo, M; Ojwiya, A; Yirrell, D; Whitworth, J

    1997-08-01

    The study was based in south-west Uganda where significant differences in HIV prevalence have been found between urban and rural areas. Longitudinal data collected in a diary format was used to determine the extent to which high-risk men and women living in a truck stop/trading town had sexual contact with people from surrounding rural areas and a nearby fishing village. Study participants were 143 men, 75 of whom were resident in the town, 40 in a fishing village and 28 in rural areas, and 81 women, of whom 47 were resident in the town, 25 in the fishing village and 9 in a rural area. During 1687 man weeks the 143 men made 3149 trips and had 5189 sexual contacts. Ninety-two per cent of these sexual contacts occurred in the man's current place of residence and 21% were with a new partner. The 81 women participated for 1280 women weeks during which they recorded 6378 sexual contacts. Women who lived in the fishing village and the rural area had around 90% of their contacts with local men while those who lived in the town fell into 3 categories: women who charged a relatively high price for commercial sex had only 11% of contacts with men living in the town, while those who charged a tenth of the price had 71% of contacts with town men. The small number of women who fell into an intermediate category, in terms of price, had sexual contact with a wide variety of men. These findings show that there is little scope for HIV infection to spread between different residential or occupational groups. This may help to explain how large differences in HIV seropositivity between neighbouring localities can be maintained for long periods, despite considerable social and economic mixing between groups and high levels of sexual partner change within groups. PMID:9259497

  2. Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

  3. Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

    2007-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

  4. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  5. Current Status of Sperm Cryopreservation in Biomedical Research Fish Models: Zebrafish, Medaka, and Xiphophorus*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamental fish trade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the needs and opportunities for future research and application of cryopreservation in aquarium fish. First, we summarize the basic biological characteristics regarding natural habitat, testis structure, spermatogenesis, sperm morphology, and sperm physiology. Second, we compare protocol development of sperm cryopreservation. Third, we emphasize the importance of artificial fertilization in sperm cryopreservation to evaluate the viability of thawed sperm. We conclude with a look to future research directions for sperm cryopreservation and the application of this technique in aquarium species. PMID:18691673

  6. 76 FR 13602 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 59--Lincoln, NE; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc... to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Lincoln Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of...

  7. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  8. Fishing for nutrients in heterogeneous landscapes: modelling plant growth trade-offs in monocultures and mixed communities

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Simon Antony; Pitchford, Jonathan W.; Hodge, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The problem of how best to find and exploit essential resources, the quality and locations of which are unknown, is common throughout biology. For plants, the need to grow an efficient root system so as to acquire patchily distributed soil nutrients is typically complicated by competition between plants, and by the costs of maintaining the root system. Simple mechanistic models for root growth can help elucidate these complications, and here we argue that these models can be usefully informed by models initially developed for foraging fish larvae. Both plant and fish need to efficiently search a spatio-temporally variable environment using simple algorithms involving only local information, and both must perform this task against a backdrop of intra- and inter-specific competition and background mortality. Here we develop these parallels by using simple stochastic models describing the growth and efficiency of four contrasting idealized root growth strategies. We show that plants which grow identically in isolation in homogeneous substrates will typically perform very differently when grown in monocultures, in heterogeneous nutrient landscapes and in mixed-species competition. In particular, our simulations show a consistent result that plants which trade-off rapid growth in favour of a more efficient and durable root system perform better, both on average and in terms of the best performing individuals, than more rapidly growing ephemeral root systems. Moreover, when such slower growing but more efficient plants are grown in competition, the overall community productivity can exceed that of the constituent monocultures. These findings help to disentangle many of the context-dependent behaviours seen in the experimental literature, and may form a basis for future studies at the level of complex population dynamics and life history evolution. PMID:26371292

  9. Fishing for nutrients in heterogeneous landscapes: modelling plant growth trade-offs in monocultures and mixed communities.

    PubMed

    Croft, Simon Antony; Pitchford, Jonathan W; Hodge, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The problem of how best to find and exploit essential resources, the quality and locations of which are unknown, is common throughout biology. For plants, the need to grow an efficient root system so as to acquire patchily distributed soil nutrients is typically complicated by competition between plants, and by the costs of maintaining the root system. Simple mechanistic models for root growth can help elucidate these complications, and here we argue that these models can be usefully informed by models initially developed for foraging fish larvae. Both plant and fish need to efficiently search a spatio-temporally variable environment using simple algorithms involving only local information, and both must perform this task against a backdrop of intra- and inter-specific competition and background mortality. Here we develop these parallels by using simple stochastic models describing the growth and efficiency of four contrasting idealized root growth strategies. We show that plants which grow identically in isolation in homogeneous substrates will typically perform very differently when grown in monocultures, in heterogeneous nutrient landscapes and in mixed-species competition. In particular, our simulations show a consistent result that plants which trade-off rapid growth in favour of a more efficient and durable root system perform better, both on average and in terms of the best performing individuals, than more rapidly growing ephemeral root systems. Moreover, when such slower growing but more efficient plants are grown in competition, the overall community productivity can exceed that of the constituent monocultures. These findings help to disentangle many of the context-dependent behaviours seen in the experimental literature, and may form a basis for future studies at the level of complex population dynamics and life history evolution. PMID:26371292

  10. Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse. PMID:20027312

  11. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  12. 7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.305 Ornamental nursery. (a) Eligible ornamental nursery stock is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set out in this section....

  13. Physiological Trade-Offs Along a Fast-Slow Lifestyle Continuum in Fishes: What Do They Tell Us about Resistance and Resilience to Hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Rick J.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that general rules of change in ecological communities might be found through the development of functional relationships between species traits and performance. The physiological, behavioural and life-history traits of fishes are often organised along a fast-slow lifestyle continuum (FSLC). With respect to resistance (capacity for population to resist change) and resilience (capacity for population to recover from change) to environmental hypoxia, the literature suggests that traits enhancing resilience may come at the expense of traits promoting resistance to hypoxia; a trade-off may exist. Here I test whether three fishes occupying different positions along the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to environmental hypoxia. Static respirometry experiments were used to determine resistance, as measured by critical oxygen tension (Pcrit), and capacity for (RC) and magnitude of metabolic reduction (RM). Swimming respirometry experiments were used to determine aspects of resilience: critical (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), and optimal cost of transport (COTopt). Results pertaining to metabolic reduction suggest a resistance gradient across species described by the inequality Melanotaenia fluviatilis (fast lifestyle) < Hypseleotris sp. (intermediate lifestyle) < Mogurnda adspersa (slow lifestyle). The Ucrit and COTopt data suggest a resilience gradient described by the reverse inequality, and so the experiments generally indicate that three fishes occupying different positions on the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to hypoxia. However, the scope of inferences that can be drawn from an individual study is narrow, and so steps towards general, trait-based rules of fish community change along environmental gradients are discussed. PMID:26070078

  14. Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

  15. Opportunities for public aquariums to increase the sustainability of the aquatic animal trade.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Michael F; Rhyne, Andrew L; Kaufman, Les; Hutchins, Michael; Reid, Gordon McGregor; Andrews, Chris; Boyle, Paul; Hemdal, Jay; McGilvray, Frazer; Dowd, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The global aquatic pet trade encompasses a wide diversity of freshwater and marine organisms. While relying on a continual supply of healthy, vibrant aquatic animals, few sustainability initiatives exist within this sector. Public aquariums overlap this industry by acquiring many of the same species through the same sources. End users are also similar, as many aquarium visitors are home aquarists. Here we posit that this overlap with the pet trade gives aquariums significant opportunity to increase the sustainability of the trade in aquarium fishes and invertebrates. Improving the sustainability ethos and practices of the aquatic pet trade can carry a conservation benefit in terms of less waste, and protection of intact functioning ecosystems, at the same time as maintaining its economic and educational benefits and impacts. The relationship would also move forward the goal of public aquariums to advance aquatic conservation in a broad sense. For example, many public aquariums in North America have been instrumental in working with the seafood industry to enact positive change toward increased sustainability. The actions include being good consumers themselves, providing technical knowledge, and providing educational and outreach opportunities. These same opportunities exist for public aquariums to partner with the ornamental fish trade, which will serve to improve business, create new, more ethical and more dependable sources of aquatic animals for public aquariums, and perhaps most important, possibly transform the home aquarium industry from a threat, into a positive force for aquatic conservation. PMID:22549966

  16. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  17. Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

  18. Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Solange; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow. PMID:25853888

  19. Ornaments Reveal Resistance of North European Cultures to the Spread of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, Solange; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow. PMID:25853888

  20. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  1. Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, John R.; And Others

    Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

  2. Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, John R.; And Others

    Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is

  3. Management of tobamoviruses in ornamental production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and other tobamovirus species infect a wide range of ornamental plants. Many tobamoviruses cause similar symptoms in certain hosts, yet cause symptomless infections in other hosts and/or cultivars. Tobamovirus virions are extremely stable and can remain infectious for ye...

  4. Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

  5. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  6. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  7. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and

  8. Producing potted ornamental ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum (Smith)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed and vegetatively propagated ohelo plants can be grown for potted ornamental and berry production in the nursery. With measured irrigation and fertilizers, ohelo can be maintained in six inch (15 cm) or one gallon (3.4 liter) pots for at least two years. For the first two weeks after field pla...

  9. Ornamental Horticulture. A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed as part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide for a 2-year ornamental horticulture course contains six functional units, each with several sub-units, and six horizontal supportive units. Each unit includes behavioral objectives, learning activities, topic…

  10. Outlines of Courses in Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, F. L.

    Intended to suggest subject matter content of courses or programs in ornamental horticulture for high school and postsecondary vocational-technical programs, this curriculum guide was prepared by staff members of the Agricultural Education Department at the Pennsylvania State University, and tested in a workshop with vocational agriculture…

  11. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Darrell J.; Reznick, David N.; Grether, Gregory F.; Endler, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable ‘solutions’ are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2–3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive. PMID:19776075

  12. Elevated temperature causes metabolic trade-offs at the whole-organism level in the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Sandersfeld, Tina; Davison, William; Lamare, Miles D; Knust, Rainer; Richter, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    As a response to ocean warming, shifts in fish species distribution and changes in production have been reported that have been partly attributed to temperature effects on the physiology of animals. The Southern Ocean hosts some of the most rapidly warming regions on earth and Antarctic organisms are reported to be especially temperature sensitive. While cellular and molecular organismic levels appear, at least partially, to compensate for elevated temperatures, the consequences of acclimation to elevated temperature for the whole organism are often less clear. Growth and reproduction are the driving factors for population structure and abundance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term acclimation to elevated temperature on energy budget parameters in the high-Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii. Our results show a complete temperature compensation for routine metabolic costs after 9 weeks of acclimation to 4°C. However, an up to 84% reduction in mass growth was measured at 2 and 4°C compared with the control group at 0°C, which is best explained by reduced food assimilation rates at warmer temperatures. With regard to a predicted temperature increase of up to 1.4°C in the Ross Sea by 2200, such a significant reduction in growth is likely to affect population structures in nature, for example by delaying sexual maturity and reducing production, with severe impacts on Antarctic fish communities and ecosystems. PMID:26056241

  13. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

    2013-09-01

    A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

  14. Pathogens in Ornamental Waters: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Maria; Rodrigues, Joao Carlos; Reis, Lucia; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Patricia A.; Brandão, João; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The results show a dynamic microbiota integrating human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter spp., and also antibiotic resistant bacteria. K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. were present as planktonic and biofilm organized bacteria. In vitro K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. showed an enhanced ability to assemble biofilm at 25 °C than at 37 °C. Bacteria recovered from biofilm samples showed an increased antibiotic resistance compared to the respective planktonic counterparts. PMID:26891309

  15. Pathogens in Ornamental Waters: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria; Rodrigues, Joao Carlos; Reis, Lucia; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Patricia A; Brandão, João; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The results show a dynamic microbiota integrating human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter spp., and also antibiotic resistant bacteria. K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. were present as planktonic and biofilm organized bacteria. In vitro K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. showed an enhanced ability to assemble biofilm at 25 °C than at 37 °C. Bacteria recovered from biofilm samples showed an increased antibiotic resistance compared to the respective planktonic counterparts. PMID:26891309

  16. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, CR; Gjøen, HM; Larsen, B; Egeland, ES

    2015-01-01

    Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained. PMID:25861558

  17. Do female ornaments indicate quality in eider ducks?

    PubMed Central

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The fitness consequences of female ornamentation remain little studied and the results are often contradictory. Female ornamentation may be an artefact of a genetic correlation with male ornamentation, but this possibility can be disregarded if the ornament only occurs in females. Female-specific white wing bars in eiders (Somateria mollissima) have been suggested to indicate individual quality, and we studied size variation in this trait in relation to key fitness components and quality attributes. We found that clutch size, body condition, female age, hatching date and success were unrelated to female ornament size; ornament size was explained by its size in the previous year. In contrast, good body condition was associated with hatching success. These results suggest that the breadth of the white wing bars does not indicate individual quality in our study population. PMID:19846446

  18. Do female ornaments indicate quality in eider ducks?

    PubMed

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Jaatinen, Kim; Ost, Markus

    2010-04-23

    The fitness consequences of female ornamentation remain little studied and the results are often contradictory. Female ornamentation may be an artefact of a genetic correlation with male ornamentation, but this possibility can be disregarded if the ornament only occurs in females. Female-specific white wing bars in eiders (Somateria mollissima) have been suggested to indicate individual quality, and we studied size variation in this trait in relation to key fitness components and quality attributes. We found that clutch size, body condition, female age, hatching date and success were unrelated to female ornament size; ornament size was explained by its size in the previous year. In contrast, good body condition was associated with hatching success. These results suggest that the breadth of the white wing bars does not indicate individual quality in our study population. PMID:19846446

  19. Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity.

    PubMed

    Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Maiorino, Leonardo; Piras, Paolo; Teresi, Luciano; Meiri, Shai; Itescu, Yuval; Novosolov, Maria; Baiano, Mattia Antonio; Martínez, Ricard; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Luxuriant, bushy antlers, bizarre crests, and huge, twisting horns and tusks are conventionally understood as products of sexual selection. This view stems from both direct observation and from the empirical finding that the size of these structures grows faster than body size (i.e., ornament size shows positive allometry). We contend that the familiar evolutionary increase in the complexity of ornaments over time in many animal clades is decoupled from ornament size evolution. Increased body size comes with extended growth. Since growth scales to the quarter power of body size, we predicted that ornament complexity should scale according to the quarter power law as well, irrespective of the role of sexual selection in the evolution and function of the ornament. To test this hypothesis, we selected three clades (ammonites, deer, and ceratopsian dinosaurs) whose species bore ornaments that differ in terms of the importance of sexual selection to their evolution. We found that the exponent of the regression of ornament complexity to body size is the same for the three groups and is statistically indistinguishable from 0.25. We suggest that the evolution of ornament complexity is a by-product of Cope's rule. We argue that although sexual selection may control size in most ornaments, it does not influence their shape. PMID:26655146

  20. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  1. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  2. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to

  3. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico. PMID:23894937

  4. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;

  5. Research on Exotic Scarabs in Ornamental Nurseries in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) such as Anomala orientalis and Rhizotrogus majalis are serious pests of ornamental nursery crops in northern Ohio. The larval stage of these insects feed on the roots of ornamental trees often stunting or killing their hosts. The biology, life history, and m...

  6. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  7. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  8. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  9. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  10. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  11. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  12. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  13. Alternatives to methyl bromide for nematode control in ornamental crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode control options for production of in-ground ornamental crops are extremely limited. Ornamental production has different obstacles to nematode control and chemical application than raised-bed vegetable production. These challenges include a need for flat fumigation, lack of labeled herbicide...

  14. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  15. Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A.

    2007-11-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response.

  16. THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

  17. Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

  18. Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

  19. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  20. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. PMID:25082298

  1. Neolithic trade routes re-aligned by oxygen isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Shackleton, N; Renfrew, C

    1970-12-12

    Oxygen isotope analyses of Spondylus shells from neolithic sites suggest that the source for the shells used as ornaments in the Balkans and central Europe during the fourth millennium BC was the Aegean and not the Black Sea. The trade in Spondylus may have taken the form of an exchange of gifts. PMID:16058780

  2. Screening ornamentals for their potential as As Accumulator Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic-based pesticides, herbicides and insecticides are used in horticultural operations resulting in soil contamination around greenhouse structures. Phytoremediation and phytostabilization are two techniques for treating arsenic (As) contaminated soil. Several ornamental plant species, Iris (Ir...

  3. Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. 21 CFR 109.16 - Ornamental and decorative ceramicware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and decorative ceramicware. The use of ornamental or decorative ceramicware to prepare, serve, or hold... Food Use. May Poison Food,” “Not for Food Use. Glaze contains lead. Food Use May Result in...

  5. 21 CFR 109.16 - Ornamental and decorative ceramicware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and decorative ceramicware. The use of ornamental or decorative ceramicware to prepare, serve, or hold... Food Use. May Poison Food,” “Not for Food Use. Glaze contains lead. Food Use May Result in...

  6. 21 CFR 109.16 - Ornamental and decorative ceramicware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and decorative ceramicware. The use of ornamental or decorative ceramicware to prepare, serve, or hold... Food Use. May Poison Food,” “Not for Food Use. Glaze contains lead. Food Use May Result in...

  7. 11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  8. Detail of secondstory bay with terra cotta ornament on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second-story bay with terra cotta ornament on east façade. Photograph taken April 1973 - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  9. Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of terra cotta ornament on southwest corner pier, first story. Photograph taken 1973. - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  10. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 13. Detail showing typical ornamental portal bracing sway bracing (L) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail showing typical ornamental portal bracing sway bracing (L) and vertical member (R). View to northwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Genetic Architecture of Conspicuous Red Ornaments in Female Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lengxob; Peichel, Catherine L.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions contribute to red throat coloration, and harbor candidate genes related to pigment production and pigment cell differentiation. One of these regions is also associated with spine coloration, indicating that both ornaments might be mediated partly via pleiotropic genetic mechanisms. PMID:26715094

  14. Ornamental plants as sinks and bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of urban air pollution is a big challenge, especially for the metropolitan cities of the world. In an Indian metropolis like Delhi, even after the implementation of several control policies, no such remarkable change has been observed in its air quality. Globally, afforestation or greenbelt development is an effective and well-recognized pollution abatement process. The aim of our present study was to examine the biochemical response of some naturalized ornamental plant species, viz. Dracaena deremensis, Tagetes erecta, Rosa indica and Dianthus caryophyllus. During experimental study, plants were kept at selected sites which were categorized in terms of traffic density (emission source) and vegetative pattern during winter months for 120 days. Four biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH, relative water contents along with Air Pollution Tolerance Indices were determined from foliar samples at each selected site. D. deremensis and T. erecta were classified under tolerant while R. indica and D. caryophyllus were marked as in sensitive category. Based on the sensitivity of selected plant species, it has been recommended that D. deremensis and T. erecta may be used as sinks for the abatement of air pollution at highly polluted sites whereas R. indica and D. caryophyllus can be used as bioindicators. PMID:24617064

  15. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Michael J.; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Neupane, Kabi R.; Hu, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3′ termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92% identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  16. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  17. Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat.

    PubMed

    Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C; Haussmann, Mark F

    2011-06-23

    Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow 'bib'. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

  18. Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination. PMID:22610632

  19. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. PMID:26168874

  20. Reuse of ornamental rock-cutting waste in aluminous porcelain.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Paes, H R; Holanda, J N F

    2011-03-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes are discarded in the ornamental rocks industry. This work investigates the incorporation of ornamental rock-cutting waste as a raw material into an aluminous porcelain body, replacing natural feldspar material by up to 35 wt.%. Formulations containing rock-cutting waste were pressed and sintered at 1350 °C. The porcelain pieces were tested to determine their properties (linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, mechanical strength, and electrical resistivity). Development of the microstructure was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results showed that ornamental rock-cutting waste could be used in aluminous porcelains, in the range up to 10 wt.%, as a partial replacement for traditional flux material, resulting in a valid route for management of this abundant waste. PMID:21074931

  1. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  2. Cosmic Ornament of Gas and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 4-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Silicon Gas Figure 2 Argon Figure 3 Dust Collection Figure 4

    This beautiful bulb might look like a Christmas ornament but it is the blown-out remains of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Called Cassiopeia A, this supernova remnant is located about 10,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way galaxy. The remains are shown here in an infrared composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Silicon gas is blue and argon gas is green, while red represents about 10,000 Earth masses worth of dust. Yellow shows areas where red and green overlap.

    The fact that these two features line up (as seen in yellow in the combined view) tells astronomers that the dust, together with the gas, was created in the explosion. This is the best evidence yet that supernovae are a significant source of dust in the early universe something that was postulated before, but not proven. Dust in our young universe is important because it eventually made its way into future stars, planets and even people.

    In figure 1, the upper left panel is a composite made up of three infrared views shown in the remaining panels. The bottom left view (figure 3) shows argon gas (green) that was synthesized as it was ejected from the star. The upper right panel (figure 2) shows silicon gas (blue) deep in the interior of the remnant. This cooler gas, called the unshocked ejecta, was also synthesized in the supernova blast. The bottom right view (figure 4) shows a collection of dust (red), including proto-silicates, silicate dioxide and iron oxide.

    The data for these images were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light apart to reveal the fingerprints of molecules and elements. In total, Spitzer collected separate 'spectra' at more than 1,700 positions across Cassiopeia A. Astronomers then created maps from this massive grid of data, showing the remnant in a multitude of infrared colors.

  3. Are Non-Native Plants Perceived to Be More Risky? Factors Influencing Horticulturists' Risk Perceptions of Ornamental Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N = 625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195

  4. SYSTEMIC ACTIVITY OF NEONICOTINOIDS INFLUENCES FEEDING BY ADULT BLACK VINE WEEVILS ON VARIOUS SPECIES OF ORNAMENTALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black vine weevil (BVW) is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. The larval stage feeds on the roots of ornamental plants and small fruits often stunting or killing the plants. The adults feed on the foliage of ornamental plants. A standard management technique is to apply foliar treatm...

  5. Pacific area wide program for methyl bromide alternatives – Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 5 years the following field trials have been conducted as part of the Pacific Area-Wide program for cut flowers and ornamentals using various combinations of 1, 3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and metam: 1) Drip demonstration trial with field-grown calla lilies at Golden State Bulb ...

  6. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  7. An Analysis of Tasks Performed in the Ornamental Horticulture Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

    This publication is the result of a detailed task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. Nine types of horticulture businesses identified were: (1) retail florists, (2) farm and garden supply store, (3) landscape services, (4) greenhouse production, (5) nursery production, (6) turf production, (7) arborist…

  8. Development of Two Intelligent Spray Systems for Ornamental Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current application technology for floral, nursery, and other specialty crop production wastes significant amounts of pesticides. Two different real-time variable-rate sprayer prototypes for ornamental nursery and tree crops were developed to deliver chemicals on target areas as needed. The first pr...

  9. Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

  10. Viruses present in ornamental Allium in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Allium includes important species used for human consumption and many other species grown as ornamentals. Plants of the genus Allium can be infected by several viruses of the genera Allexivirus, Carlavirus and Potyvirus, often in mixed infections. Bulbs of fifteen different species of Alli...

  11. Nematode management in Florida vegetable and ornamental production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing restrictions on chemical soil fumigants have necessitated the development of new options for plant-parasitic nematode management in vegetable and ornamental crop production. USDA-ARS researchers with their collaborators are developing new tactics to manage nematodes and weeds in vegetable...

  12. Ornamental Annual Plants and Their Uses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with ornamental annual plants and their uses. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 254 slides illustrating 97 different plants. At least two slides are provided for each plant: one shows the growth habits of the…

  13. Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control. Sale Publication 4074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information for recognition and control of ornamental and turf pests. Included are disease agents, insects and mites, weeds, and vertebrates. Symptoms and causes of phytotoxicity are given, and a discussion is presented of environmental concerns. Application methods and area measurement are also discussed. (BB)

  14. Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L.; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

  15. 3. VIEW WEST, ORNAMENTAL TEST PLOT IN THE MIDDLE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, ORNAMENTAL TEST PLOT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FIELDS, WITH LARGE CHINESE SAWTOOTH OAK (DAUGHTER OF THE ORIGINAL OAK THAT WAS LOCATED TO THE EAST OF BUILDING I) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Landscape, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  16. Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

  17. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  18. Occupational Education for Students with Special Needs: Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassau County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Westbury, NY.

    This curriculum resource guide on ornamental horticulture is one of a series of seventeen specialized curriculum guides for occupational education of the marginal, handicapped, or special needs occupational education student. The guide begins with six behavior clusters that contain a series of forty-two instructional topics designed to teach…

  19. Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

  20. 12. Detail showing ornamental intermediate portal bracing and vertical member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail showing ornamental intermediate portal bracing and vertical member (right) near mid-span along north line of trusses. View to northwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  1. 11. Detail of showing ornamental intermediate portal bracing and vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of showing ornamental intermediate portal bracing and vertical strut (left) standing atop pier along south line of trusses. View to southwest - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. 49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental Details in Bronze and Iron of the New City Hall, Philadelphia. 5 vols. Compiled in 1883. II,n.p. - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P

    2014-07-01

    Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

  4. Evaluation of Cuphea Species for Traits of Ornamental Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of cuphea species and clones, particularly in the Cuphea taxonomic sections Heterodon and Melvilla, with various ornamental traits were evaluated under environmental conditions prevalent in the Gulf South. Conditions include full sun and overhead irrigation typical of container production ...

  5. Spray technologies for insect and disease control in ornamental nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite stringent market requirements for blemish-free ornamentals, applications of pesticides and other pest or disease control strategies have helped to achieve this goal. However, proficient applications of pesticide are often complicated by many factors. Pesticide applications in nursery crops i...

  6. Nutrient leaching from container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically producing marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees with minimum amounts of nutrient leachate requires better management of nutrient applications during a growing season. Fertilizer practices with 16 treatments were used to test the nutrient leachate for growing Acer rubrum ‘Red...

  7. 2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, AND THE EXAGGERATED TRIGLYTHS ABOVE THE DOOR, LOOKING WEST. NOTE THE PERSONNEL DOOR COMPRISED OF THE BOTTOM THREE PANELS IN THE LEFT BIFOLD DOOR. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration. PMID:24946976

  9. Experimental evidence that female ornamentation increases the acquisition of sperm and signals fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Birkhead, Tim R

    2006-01-01

    Mate choice can lead to the evolution of sexual ornamentation. This idea rests on the assumption that individuals with more elaborate ornaments than competitors have higher reproductive success due to gaining greater control over mating decisions and resources provided by partners. Nevertheless, how the resources and quality of sexual partners that individuals gain access to are influenced by the ornamentation of rival individuals remains unclear. By experimentally concealing and subsequently revealing female ornaments to males, we confirm in the fowl, Gallus gallus, that female ornamentation influences male mating decisions. We further show, by manipulating the relative ornament size of females, that when females had larger ornaments than competitors they were more often preferred by males and obtained more sperm, especially from higher quality males, as measured by social status. Males may benefit by investing more sperm in females with larger ornaments as they were in better condition and produced heavier eggs. Female ornament size also decreased during incubation, providing a cue for males to avoid sexually unreceptive females. This study reveals how inter-sexual selection can lead to the evolution of female ornaments and highlights how the reproductive benefits gained from mate choice and bearing ornaments can be dependent upon social context. PMID:17476780

  10. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  11. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors. PMID:26842787

  12. Degree of mutual ornamentation in birds is related to divorce rate.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2003-09-01

    Many bird species have ornaments that are expressed equally in both sexes. I use comparative analysis to investigate why some monomorphic birds are highly ornamented, whereas others are drab. The results show a significant positive association between the degree of mutual ornamentation and divorce rate. This result is robust to the removal of the effects of phylogeny, site fidelity, residency, coloniality, nest type, mortality, body size and body-size dimorphism. The level of extra-pair paternity was not related to the degree of mutual ornamentation. I argue that these results are compatible with a process of mutual sexual selection, in which both sexes compete for access to mates. The coupled evolution of ornamentation and divorce rate, from the probable ancestral state of a high degree of ornamentation and a low divorce rate, appears to result mainly from a loss of ornamentation under mate fidelity. PMID:12964980

  13. How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations. PMID:24884492

  14. The Antioxidants Changes in Ornamental Flowers during Development and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of antioxidant compounds is constitutive and variable from species to species and is also variable considering the development of the plant tissue. In this review, we take into consideration the antioxidant changes and the physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that are able to modulate the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in ornamental flowers during the whole development process until the senescence. Many ornamental flowers are natural sources of very important bioactive compounds with benefit to the human health and their possible role as dietary components has been reported. The most part of antioxidants are flower pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols, often present in higher concentration compared with the most common fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants content changes during development and during senescence many biochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are activated to counteract the increase of reactive oxygen species and free radicals. There is a tight correlation between antioxidants and senescence processes and this aspect is detailed and appropriately discussed. PMID:26784342

  15. Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

  16. Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation.

    PubMed

    Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2013-06-25

    Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

  17. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  18. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  19. Condition-dependent variation in the blue-ultraviolet coloration of a structurally based plumage ornament

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, A. J.; Hill, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    After years of investigation into the function of sexually dimorphic ornamental traits, researchers are beginning to understand how bright plumage colour in birds acts as an intraspecific signal. This work has focused primarily on pigment-based ornaments because they are highly variable in patch size, hue and brightness for some species. In contrast, structurally based ornaments have been little studied, in part because they do not appear to be as variable as pigment-based ornaments. We investigated a structurally based plumage ornament in a wild population of blue grosbeaks (Guiraca caerulea), a sexually dimorphic passerine. We report plumage variation that extends into the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The pattern of covariation between four out of five elements of plumage variation suggests that structurally based ornamentation is pushed towards extreme expression of the trait as predicted by the sexual selection theory. The 'bluest' birds have the highest percentage of blue feathers on the body. These ornamental feathers reflect light maximally at the shortest wavelengths (ultraviolet), with the greatest intensity and the greatest contrast. Age may have some effect on expression of blueness. In addition, plumage variables are correlated with growth bars in tail feathers (a record of nutritional condition during moult in a non-ornamental trait). This suggests that the ornament is partially condition dependent. Thus, blue plumage in male grosbeaks may serve as an honest indicator of age and quality.

  20. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false HMS international trade permit. 300.182 Section 300.182 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.182 HMS international trade permit....

  1. Accumulation of dietary carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherol in the internal tissues of a bird: a hypothesis for the cost of producing colored ornaments.

    PubMed

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid-based ornaments may have evolved as a consequence of their costs of production, which would assure the reliability of the traits as signals of individual quality. Different costs due to carotenoid allocation to the signal have been proposed, considering the scarcity of these pigments at the environment (ecological cost) and their physiological properties that would trade against the maintenance of the organism. Carotenoids of many red ornaments (ketocarotenoids) are often the result of biotransformation of those pigments abundant in the diet (usually lutein and zeaxanthin). Some authors have suggested that such a conversion implies a cost relevant for signaling because it requires high levels of antioxidant vitamins in the tissues where biotransformation takes place. We explore this hypothesis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) by analyzing ketocarotenoids in the ornaments (bare parts) and carotenoids, vitamin A in different forms (free and esterified) and vitamin E in blood, liver and fat. Ketocarotenoids in ornaments (astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone) were not found in internal tissues, suggesting that they were directly transformed in the bare parts. However, ketocarotenoid levels where positively correlated with the levels of their precursors (zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively) in internal tissues. Interestingly, ketocarotenoid levels in bare parts negatively and positively correlated with vitamin A and E in the liver, respectively, the same links only being positive in blood. Moreover, retinyl and zeaxanthin levels in liver were negatively related. We hypothesize that storing substrate carotenoids in the main storage site (the liver) implies a cost in terms of regulating the level of vitamin A. PMID:25421097

  2. The Sun and solar eclipses in traditional Romanian ornamental patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Dimitrie; Olenici, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Various ornamental shapes, such as the wheel, the rhombus, the broken cross, and the radiant triangle, which can be seen on popular costumes, domestic objects as well as in architecture, represent solar symbols with a clear apotropaic function whose origins may be detected on the Neolithic clay plates from Jevdet Nasr (Iraq), Knosos (Greece) and Tartaria (Romania). In the North-East of Romania the occurrence of such motifs is extremely frequent especially in traditional architecture. The Triple-Rayed Sun intersected by two lateral arcs is a remarkable adornment of this kind that seems to suggest the representation of an eclipse.

  3. A compendium of ornamental germplasm cultivar releases from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We provide an overview of the past and current ornamental cultivar development at the National Germplasm Repository (NPGR) in Miami, FL. During the past six years several cultivars of ornamental plants have been released: Polygala ymirtifolia ‘Chapman Field’, D. iridioides ‘Amatola’, improved germp...

  4. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  5. Developing a High School Program in Ornamental Horticulture. Volume I, Nursery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Howard C.; And Others

    This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…

  6. Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

  7. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  8. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  9. Evaluating Sterility of A Late-flowering Ornamental Tung Oil Tree (Aleurites fordii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified an Aleurites fordii seedling with ornamental potential that shows late flowering, approximately 4 weeks delayed, and does not produce normal drupes, which are toxic and a nuisance to lawn mowers since they are large (5-8 cm) and heavy. The ornamental and landscape industries c...

  10. Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Melissah; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; McGraw, Kevin J.; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. Thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. Additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. However, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimicrobials, and the putative importance of pathogens for the evolution of male ornamentation, tests of these hypotheses are lacking. We examined the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal capacity of semen was associated with bill coloration, a sexually selected trait. We show that mallard semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that males with more colourful bills have semen with superior bacterial-killing ability. These results suggest that females could use male phenotypic traits to avoid sexually transmitted pathogens and acquire partners whose sperm suffer less bacteria-induced damage. PMID:21490006

  11. Oospore Wall Ornamentation in the Genus Tolypella (Charales, Charophyceae).

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Jacek; Langangen, Anders; van Raam, Joop

    2012-12-01

    The ultrastructural features of oospore wall ornamentation in the genus Tolypella were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The taxonomic relationships among several species were discussed on the basis of oospore ultrastructure and measurements. In the case of T. glomerata and T. nidifica, our results support the status of separate species. Close relationships and transitional forms may exist between T. nidifica and T. normaniana, and not only in oospore wall ornamentation. Oospores of T. hispanica exhibited the same distinct type of reticulate oospore wall as previously reported, but our results do not support the recognition of T. hispanica as a separate species. Ultrastructure of the oospore walls of T. prolifera and T. intricata was almost identical, suggesting that these species are closely related. We therefore reject previous suggestions that morphological characteristics of oospores as observed in SEM are sufficient for identification of individual species. Although significant differences were found among oospores in individual species of Tolypella, large variation among populations, and among individuals belonging to the same population, caused substantial overlap among species. PMID:27010004

  12. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  13. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  14. Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Inserra, R. N.; Dunn, R. A.; Vovlas, N.

    1994-01-01

    The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm³ soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

  15. Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Inserra, R N; Dunn, R A; Vovlas, N

    1994-12-01

    The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm(3) soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

  16. The Political Trade-offs of Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, William

    1996-01-01

    Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

  17. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science

  18. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  19. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  20. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  1. Preventive control of aphids in ornamental plants with complementary parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, N; Thielemans, T; Ruisinger, M; Rosemeyer, V

    2012-01-01

    Biological control of aphids can be achieved with parasitoids. A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize aphids in a host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are used in organic or integrated pest management strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid against a given aphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently identified. By the time the aphids are spotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control over an increasing aphid population. Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on the crop treated. There was a need for a product controlling the largest possible spectrum of aphid species susceptibly present in ornamental crops. As the first step of development, an inventory of the aphid species attacking ornamental crops was made in various regions. A unique cocktail of parasitoids species (OrnaProtect) controlling all these aphids was then developed. OrnaProtect contains six different species of natural aphid enemies, and is able to control all commonly appearing aphids attacking ornamental crops. The fact of mixing different species not only covers the entire spectrum of aphids, but also contributes to prolonged hatching. To reinforce this long lasting emergence, mummies of different ages are mixed, older mummies (stored at low temperature) emerging earlier after release than young mummies. With that prolonged hatching dynamics, a release every two weeks assures a permanent presence of fresh adult parasitoids in the crop. The ready-to-use units of OrnaProtect contain an integrated feeding point which contributes to longevity and efficiency of the parasitoids. Its application in the crop is much faster than even any chemical treatment. Here, we show the results of trials made with OrnaProtect in 2011 on several crops (Hydrangea macrophylla, Solanum jasminoides, Argyranthemum frutescens and Osteospermum ecklonis). OrnaProtect controlled the aphids in all trials. In one trial, aphids were already present at the time of first release and a localized treatment on about ten plants, compatible with beneficial insects, was applied. After that, an excellent control of the aphids was achieved by the parasitoids. In the other trials, when used in a really preventive way (no aphid at the time of first release, the aphid population was immediately controlled and all plants could be sold as first quality plant without any insecticide treatment. PMID:23885420

  2. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  3. Honest olfactory ornamentation in a female-dominant primate.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M; Crawford, J C; Charpentier, M J E; Drea, C M

    2010-07-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that potential mates or competitors signal their quality to conspecifics. Whereas evidence of honest visual or vocal signals in males abounds, evidence of honest signalling via scent or by females is scarce. We previously showed that scent marks in male lemurs seasonally encode information about individual heterozygosity - a reliable predictor of immunocompetence and survivorship. As female lemurs dominate males, compete over resources, and produce sexually differentiated scent marks that likely evolved via direct selection, here we tested whether females also advertise genetic quality via olfactory cues. During the breeding season specifically, individual heterozygosity correlated negatively with the diversity of fatty acids (FAs) expressed in labial secretions and positively with the diversity of heavy FA esters. As odour-gene relationships predictive of health and survivorship emerged during a period critical to mate choice and female competition, we posit that genital scent marks function as honest olfactory ornaments in females. PMID:20492092

  4. Runaway ornament diversity caused by Fisherian sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Pomiankowski, Andrew; Iwasa, Yoh

    1998-01-01

    Fisher’s runaway process of sexual selection is potentially an important force generating character divergence between closely related populations. We investigated the evolution of multiple female preferences by Fisher’s runaway process. There are two outcomes of runaway. The first is the evolution of mate preference to a stable equilibrium. This evolution occurs if the benefits of mate choice are sufficiently large relative to the cost of choice. Alternatively, mate preferences evolve cyclically. The rate and pattern of cyclic evolution depends primarily on the individual cost of choice and epistasis in the joint cost of choice. If there are small differences in natural selection (e.g., predation risk) between populations, cyclic evolution quickly leads to divergence in mate preferences and sexual ornaments and so to sexual isolation. PMID:9560236

  5. Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

  6. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field t...

  7. Genomic resources for valuable woody ornamental landscape plants such as hydrangea macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New and improved ornamental landscape plants are typically produced by conventional breeding. Unfortunately, long generation times for woody plants can significantly slow progress. Incorporating genomic and biotechnology resources provides more information when designing breeding strategies and ac...

  8. Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Steven L.; Stiner, Mary C.; Reese, David S.; Gle, Erksin

    2001-01-01

    Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, a??zl? Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (roughly 41,00043,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels in a??zl? Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions. PMID:11390976

  9. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  10. Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

  11. Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

    2008-01-01

    B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

  12. I'm sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Juhani; Baudry, Gautier; Candolin, Ulrika; Kaitala, Arja

    2015-10-01

    In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate choice. In support of this, we found brightness to correlate with female fecundity, and males to prefer brighter dummy females. Thus, the glow emitted by females is a reliable sexual signal of female fecundity. It is likely that male preference for the fecundity-indicating ornament has evolved because of large variation among females in fecundity, and because nocturnal males cannot directly assess female size and fecundity. These results indicate that female ornamentation may evolve in capital breeders (i.e. those in which stored resources are invested in reproduction) when females vary significantly in fecundity and this variation cannot be assessed directly by males. PMID:26490414

  13. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

  14. Vegetative regeneration capacities of five ornamental plant invaders after shredding.

    PubMed

    Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk. PMID:25387455

  15. Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 μg L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

  16. Vegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

  17. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  18. Transgenic Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

  19. Differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in vertebrates: a comparative histological study among the Crocodylomorpha.

    PubMed

    de Buffrénil, V; Clarac, F; Fau, M; Martin, S; Martin, B; Pellé, E; Laurin, M

    2015-04-01

    Bone ornamentation, that is, hollow (pits and grooves) or protruding (ridges) repetitive reliefs on the surface of dermal bones, is a frequent, though poorly studied and understood, feature in vertebrates. One of the most typical examples of this characteristic is given by the Crurotarsi, a taxon formed by the crocodilians and their closest allies, which generally display deep ornamentation on skull roof and osteoderms. However, the ontogenetic process responsible for the differentiation and development of this character remains controversial. This study was conducted to settle the question on histological and microanatomical evidence in several crurotarsan taxa. Observational and experimental data in extant and extinct crocodyliforms show that bone ornamentation is initially created, and later maintained during somatic growth (that is indefinite in crocodilians), by a complex process of bone remodeling comprising local resorption of superficial bone cortices, followed by partial reconstruction. The superficial reliefs of crocodilian dermal bones are thus permanently modified through pit enlargement, drift, stretching, shrinking, or complete filling. Ridges are also remodeled in corresponding ways. These processes allow accommodation of unitary ornamental motifs to the overall dimensions of the bones during growth. A parsimony optimization based on the results of this study, but integrating also published data on bone histology in non-crocodyliform crurotarsans and some non-crurotarsan taxa, suggests that the peculiar mechanism described above for creating and maintaining bone ornamentation is a general feature of the Crurotarsi and is quite distinct from that attributed by previous authors to other vertebrates. PMID:25488816

  20. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  1. Sexual selection, multiple male ornaments, and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat.

    PubMed

    Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Morin, Douglas F; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A; Tsang, Susan M

    2010-04-01

    In many animals, sexual selection has resulted in complex signaling systems in which males advertise aspects of their phenotypic or genetic quality through elaborate ornamentation and display behaviors. Different ornaments might convey different information or be directed at different receivers, but they might also be redundant signals of quality that function reliably at different times (ages) or in different contexts. We explored sexual selection and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler with two prominent plumage ornaments--a melanin-based, black facial "mask" and carotenoid-based, UV-yellow "bib." In a three-year study, variance among males in the number of social (M(w)) and extra-pair (M(e)) mates generated strong sexual selection on mask and bib attributes. Some traits (mask size, bib yellow brightness) were correlated with male age and did not experience selection beyond age-related increases in M(w) and M(e). Other traits showed age-specific (bib size) or age-reversed (ultraviolet brightness) patterns of selection that paralleled changes in the information-content of each ornament. The components of male fitness generating selection in young versus old males were distinct, reflecting different sources of variation in male fertilization success. Age- and context-dependent changes in the strength, direction, and target of selection may help explain the maintenance of multiple ornaments in this and other species. PMID:19863585

  2. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  3. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    PubMed Central

    Schilthuizen, Menno

    2003-01-01

    Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences. PMID:12791170

  4. Sexual selection on female ornaments in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli).

    PubMed

    Flanagan, S P; Johnson, J B; Rose, E; Jones, A G

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how selection acts on traits individually and in combination is an important step in deciphering the mechanisms driving evolutionary change, but for most species, and especially those in which sexual selection acts more strongly on females than on males, we have no estimates of selection coefficients pertaining to the multivariate sexually selected phenotype. Here, we use a laboratory-based mesocosm experiment to quantify pre- and post-mating selection on female secondary sexual traits in the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), a sexually dimorphic, sex-role-reversed species in which ornamented females compete for access to choosy males. We calculate selection differentials and gradients on female traits, including ornament area, ornament number and body size for three episodes of selection related to female reproductive success (number of mates, number of eggs transferred and number of surviving embryos). Selection is strong on both ornament area and ornament size, and the majority of selection occurs during the premating episode of selection. Interestingly, selection on female body size, which has been detected in previous studies of Gulf pipefish, appears to be indirect, as evidenced by a multivariate analysis of selection gradients. Our results show that sexual selection favours either many bands or larger bands in female Gulf pipefish. PMID:25292365

  5. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  6. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes. PMID:25091549

  7. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... international trade? 23.20 Section 23.20 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... CITES documents are required for international trade? (a) Purpose. Articles III, IV, and V of the...

  8. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control for Commercial Applicators: Pest Control of Ornamental Plants; NCR 12, Lawn Diseases in the Midwest; NCR 26, Lawn Weeds and their Control. Manual 89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, W. S., Comp.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the ornamental and turf pest control category. The text discusses pest control of ornamental plants, lawn diseases, and lawn weeds and their control. (CS)

  9. Recent advances on the development and regulation of flower color in ornamental plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Daqiu; Tao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Flower color is one of the most important features of ornamental plants. Its development and regulation are influenced by many internal and external factors. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of color development and its regulation provides an important theoretical basis and premise for the cultivation and improvement of new color varieties of ornamental plants. This paper outlines the functions of petal tissue structure, as well as the distribution and type of pigments, especially anthocyanins, in color development. The progress of research on flower color regulation with a focus on physical factors, chemical factors, and genetic engineering is introduced. The shortcomings of flower color research and the potential directions for future development are explored to provide a broad background for flower color improvements in ornamental plants. PMID:25964787

  10. Display Modes of Personal Ornaments in the Upper Palaeolithic Sites of Istria, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cvitkušić, Barbara; Komšo, Darko

    2015-06-01

    In the attempt to understand culture and social behavior of prehistoric populations, findings of personal ornaments are of particular interest. Personal ornaments in their formal expressions (marine shells and snails, river snails, animal teeth, modified animal bones etc.) not only point to an universal idea of decoration and aesthetic sensibility, but may also reveal contact zones and communication paths. Perforated animal teeth, mostly deer canines, reveal us not only symbolic, but also some important sociocultural aspects of behavior of prehistoric populations. In order to test whether there are universals in display modes and materials used in this region, we will use the finds of personal ornaments from the Upper Paleolithic strata from five Istrian sites: Ljubićeva cave, Pupićina cave, Romualdova cave, Šandalja II, and Vešanska cave. PMID:26753470

  11. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  12. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  13. Comparative data on the differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in gnathostomes (Chordata: Vertebrata).

    PubMed

    de Buffrénil, Vivian; Clarac, François; Canoville, Aurore; Laurin, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Bone ornamentation, in the form of rounded pits framed by a network of ridges, is a frequent feature among a great diversity of gnathostome taxa. However, the basic osteogenic processes controlling the differentiation and development of these reliefs remain controversial. The present study is a broad comparative survey of this question with the classical methods used in hard tissue histology and paleohistology. Distinct processes, unevenly distributed among taxa, are involved in the creation and growth of pits and ridges. The simplest one is mere differential growth between pit bottom (slow growth) and ridge top (faster growth). The involvement of several complex remodeling processes, with the local succession of resorption and reconstruction cycles, is frequent and occurs in all major gnathostome clades. Some broad, inclusive clades (e.g., Temnospondyli) display consistency in the mechanisms controlling ornamentation, whereas other clades (e.g., Actinopterygii) are characterized by the diversity of the mechanisms involved. If osteogenic mechanisms are taken into account, bone ornamentation should be considered as a character extremely prone to homoplasy. Maximum likelihood (ML) optimizations reveal that the plesiomorphic mechanism creating ornamentation is differential apposition rate over pits (slow growth) and ridges (faster growth). In some taxas e.g., temnospondyls vs lissamphibians or pseudosuchians, bone ornamentation is likely to be a homoplastic feature due to a convergence process driven by similar selective pressures. ML models of character evolution suggest that the presence of resorption in the development of ornamentation may be selectively advantageous, although support for this conclusion is only moderate. J. Morphol. 277:634-670, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26968432

  14. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level. PMID:25466575

  15. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMP, PAUL E.

    A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

  16. Lack of Nut Production in a Potentially Sterile, Late-flowering Ornamental Tung Oil Tree (Aleurites fordii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified an Aleurites fordii seedling with ornamental potential that shows late flowering, approximately 4 weeks delayed, and does not produce normal drupes, which are toxic and a nuisance to lawn mowers since they are large (5-8 cm) and heavy. The ornamental and landscape industries c...

  17. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  18. Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

  19. Ironworker--Structural/Ornamental: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 40-2-06.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The graduate of the Ironworker-Structural/Ornamental apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) demonstrate the principles of drafting, how drawings originate and how to correctly interpret the information…

  20. Optimizing ethanol-baited traps for monitoring damaging ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in ornamental nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. We tested different rates of commercially available pouch-style ethanol lures in bottle-traps to optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for ...

  1. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in ornamental nurseries and surrounding habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nu...

  2. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

  3. Effects of arsenic on nutrient accumulation and distribution in selected ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Miami, Florida 95% of residential and 33% commercial soils exceed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection goals for cleanup of arsenic contamination. Ornamental plants have not been fully investigated as a mechanism for phytoremediation of low level As contaminated soil. This study eva...

  4. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  5. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  6. Development of an Odor-Based Trap Tree Strategy for Ambrosia Beetles Infesting Ornamental Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as key pests of ornamental nursery stock, and Xylosandrus germanus is one of the most problematic species. Xylosandrus germanus has a wide host range, but deciduous trees are preferred over coniferous hosts. Xylosandrus germanus has an effici...

  7. Career Preparation in Ornamental Horticulture: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Max B.

    This curriculum guide in ornamental horticulture is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes five occupational subgroups: arboriculture, floriculture, landscape maintenance and establishment, nursery production, and turfgrass…

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  9. Effect of different ornamental pepper pollen on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...

  10. Effect of different ornamental pepper pollens on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, a newly introduced pest in the United States, is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still considered a primary mode for its control. The ration...

  11. Characterizing pathways of invasive plant spread to Alaska: I. propagules from container-grown ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the size and nature of container-grown plant soil as a pathway for introduction of exotic plant species to Alaska, soil from ornamentals was obtained from vendors and was incubated in the greenhouse. Fifty four plant species were identified growing in containers or germinating from the ...

  12. She Wore a Flower in Her Hair: The Effect of Ornamentation on Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, JeriJayne W.; Hensley, Wayne E.

    Six waitresses in a restaurant of a large midwestern city agreed to participate in a study of the nonverbal effects of ornamentation. The hypothesis was that diners would leave larger tips for a waitress who wore a flower in her hair than for the same waitress without a flower. During the four nights that data were collected, the waitresses…

  13. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  14. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.

  15. Area-Wide Demonstration of Chemical Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Florida Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The studies reported here are part of the USDA-ARS Areawide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide South Atlantic Area and involve a cooperative effort between Florida in-ground ornamental producers, fumigant industry representatives, and researchers from the USDA, ARS and Univer...

  16. Response of weeds and ornamental plants to potting soil amended with dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn and developing new uses for DDGS could increase the profitability of ethanol production. This research evaluated DDGS as a soil amendment to container grown ornamentals to suppress weeds. Adding DDGS to a com...

  17. A quantitative assessment of bone area increase due to ornamentation in the Crocodylia.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Souter, Thibaud; Cornette, Raphaël; Cubo, Jorge; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2015-10-01

    Bone ornamentation, in the form of highly repetitive motives created by pits and ridges, is a frequent feature on vertebrate skull roofs and osteoderms. The functional significance of this character remains a matter of controversy and speculation. The many diverging hypotheses proposed to explain it all share a common logical prerequisite: bone ornamentation should increase significantly the surface area of the bones that bear it. In order to test this assumption in the Crocodylia, we developed a method for quantifying the gain in area due to ornamentation using a three-dimensional-surface scanner. On crocodylian osteoderms, the gain in area can be up to 40%, and on the cranial table, it ranges between 10 and 32% in adult specimens (in both cases, it shows substantial differences between the adults of the various species included in the sample). Area gain on the snout is lesser (0-20% in adults), and more variable between species. In general, bone ornamentation is less pronounced, and results in fewer area gains in juvenile specimens. The main morphometric results yielded by this study are discussed in reference to the few comparative data available hitherto, and to the functional interpretations proposed by previous authors. PMID:26130114

  18. Detection and molecular characterizations of new and emerging potyviruses of ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floral crop sales comprise one of the fastest growing segments of US agriculture, forming an over $5.4 billion industry. Many plant virus diseases cause significant losses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, are very difficult to control, and new diseases occur as different crops are...

  19. Wide-swath Spray Application in Ornamental Nurseries with Cannon Air Jet Sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide spray applications in nurseries are usually implemented in the very early morning to avoid chemical exposures to regular workers and to prevent potential drift to nearby residential areas. Conventional sprayers cannot efficiently apply pesticides to many container ornamental crops due to ...

  20. Rare naturalization of an ornamental Tillandsia, Tillandsia ionantha, in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the naturalization of a Mesonamerican bromeliad Tillandsia ionantha in Broward County, in southern Florida. This species is a popular ornamental bromeliad. A total of 63 clusters of plants were found on 31 Australia pine trees adjacent to a Mangrove forest at Anne Kobe Nature Center i...

  1. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  3. Induced polyploidy and mutagenesis of embryogenic cultures of ornamental giner (Hedychium J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium J. Koenig is among the largest genera of Zingiberaceae. These plants are increasingly being used as ornamentals worldwide because of their diverse and showy, scented flowers. Hedychium plants are mainly planted in the landscape because they are generally too tall to be grown as potted plan...

  4. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  5. Chemical Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Field-Grown Ornamental Crop Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of alternatives to methyl bromide for field-grown ornamental crops in the U.S. is particularly challenging because of the need to control rogues (off-varieties), limited availability of labeled materials, difficulty gluing wide sheets of virtually impermeable films for broadcast fumig...

  6. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  7. EVALUATION OF MIDAS™ FOR PRODUCTION OF ORNAMENTAL COCKSCOMB (Celosia argentea) IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50) for production of ornamental cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata) in Martin County, Florida in spring 2006. Treatments included an untreated check, Midas™ applied at 224 kg/ha (200 lb/A), and methyl bromide:chloro...

  8. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

  9. Development and Efficient In Vitro Clonal Propagation of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species are multipurpose plants which are used as ornamentals, for making perfumes because of their scented flowers, and raw material for manufacturing paper. They are also used in ethnomedicine because of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, they are not generally suite...

  10. Plant Exploration in tropical forests of Puerto Rico to collect ornamental germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May, 2005, an ornamental plant exploration trip was conducted in remnant forests of Puerto Rico. The main focus of this collection trip was Tabebuia haemantha, a rare Puerto Rican endemic that has many features of interest to horticulture. It is a small-statured tree, evergreen, red-flowered an...

  11. Fear, food and sexual ornamentation: plasticity of colour development in Trinidadian guppies

    PubMed Central

    Ruell, E. W.; Handelsman, C. A.; Hawkins, C. L.; Sofaer, H. R.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Angeloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of male ornamentation often reflects compromises between sexual and natural selection, but it may also be influenced by phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the developmental plasticity of male colour ornamentation in Trinidadian guppies in response to two environmental variables that covary in nature: predation risk and food availability. We found that exposure to chemical predator cues delayed the development of pigment-based colour elements, which are conspicuous to visual-oriented predators. Predator cues also reduced the size of colour elements at the time of maturity and caused adult males to be less colourful. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first example of a plastic reduction in the development of a sexually selected male ornament in response to predator cues. The influence of predator cues on ornamentation probably affects individual fitness by reducing conspicuousness to predators, but could reduce attractiveness to females. Reduced food availability during development caused males to delay the development of colour elements and mature later, probably reflecting a physiological constraint, but their coloration at maturity and later in adulthood was largely unaffected, suggesting that variation in food quantity without variation in quality does not contribute to condition dependence of the trait. PMID:23466982

  12. Potential Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Diseases in Ornamental Plant Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is being done to evaluate uses of chlorine dioxide in ornamental plant production systems. Chlorine dioxide has been shown to control spread of Fusarium oxysporum during the hot water treatment of daffodils and should provide replacement of formaldehyde which was used in the past. By dipp...

  13. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. W.; And Others

    The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

  14. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar

  15. Status of methyl bromide alternatives for ornamental crop production in Florida and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phase-out of methyl bromide presents critical challenges to producers of cut-flowers and in-ground ornamentals. Work in California and Florida has included combinations of chemicals, various formulations, and application methods for registered compounds, including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ch...

  16. Potential of entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea to protect potted ornamental plants against Bemisia tabaci during shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroesa has been evaluated under abiotic conditions similar to those typical for shipping of ornamental plants. When applied to a synchronized population of B. tabaci L4 nymphs on poinsettias, I. fumosorosea induced mortality even in regime of low t...

  17. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  18. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. PMID:25453953

  19. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-03-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

  20. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

  1. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of

  2. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  3. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,

  4. Fish Face

    The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

  5. Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).

    PubMed

    Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

    2013-12-01

    A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892

  6. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  7. MONITORING THE AMBROSIA BEETLE COMPLEX IN ORNAMENTAL NURSERIES IN OHIO, TENNESSEE, AND VIRGINIA: INFLUENCE OF TRAP HEIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Scolytinae) are becoming increasing problems in ornamental tree nurseries. Xylosandrus crassiusculus has become especially worrisome to southeastern and Atlantic states. This species tends to attack healthy trees often killing their host. Management of ...

  8. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  9. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  10. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By

  11. Tolerance of Ornamental Succulent Plant Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milli) to Chromium and its Remediation.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Sivakoti; Biswas, Ashis Kumar; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Ajay; Ahirwar, Narendar Kumar; Subba Rao, Annangi

    2015-01-01

    The potential of an ornamental shrub Crown of thorns (Euphorbia milli) was evaluated for remediation of soil contaminated with Cr. The plant is one of the rare succulent ornamental shrubs with a slow to moderate growth rate and is capable of blooming almost year-round. The plant could tolerate well up to 75 mg of applied Cr and beyond that there was mortality of plants. Though the plant could not be classified as a hyperaccumulator, the plant was still very efficient in translocating Cr from roots to shoots as evident from the data on uptake and translocation efficiency values. The translocation efficiency of over 80% in our study demonstrates that a large proportion of Cr has been translocated to the harvestable biomass of the plant and therefore, this plant could be effectively recommended for the remediation of soils contaminated with low to medium level of contamination i.e., up to 50 mg/kg soil. PMID:25409249

  12. Is Sexual Ornamentation an Honest Signal of Male Quality in the Chinese Grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi)?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen; Wang, Jie; Fang, Yun; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels. PMID:24386132

  13. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  14. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  15. The evolution of honest communication: integrating social and physiological costs of ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs such as social costs or physiological costs favor the accuracy of signals. Previous work has largely considered these costs separately, but we may be missing essential connections by studying costs in isolation. After all, social interactions produce rapid changes in hormone titers which can then affect individual behavior and physiology. As a result, social costs are likely to have widespread physiological consequences. Here, I present a new perspective on the factors that maintain honest signals by describing how the interplay between social costs and physiological costs may maintain an accurate link between an animal's abilities and ornament elaboration. I outline three specific mechanisms by which the interaction between social behavior and hormones could favor honest signals and present specific predictions for each of the three models. Then, I review how ornaments alter agonistic behavior, agonistic behavior influences hormones, and how these hormonal effects influence fitness. I also describe the few previous studies that have directly tested how ornaments influence hormones. Finally, opportunities for future work are discussed. Considering the interaction between social behavior and physiology may address some challenges associated with both social and physiological models of costs. Understanding the dynamic feedbacks between physiology and social costs has potential to transform our understanding of the stability of animals' communication systems. PMID:24944118

  16. Spore ornamentation of Haplosporidium hinei n. sp. (Haplosporidia) in pearl oysters Pinctada maxima (Jameson, 1901).

    PubMed

    Bearham, D; Spiers, Z; Raidal, S; Jones, J B; Burreson, E M; Nicholls, P K

    2008-04-01

    An infection of pearl oysters, Pinctada maxima, attributed to a Haplosporidium sp. by Hine and Thorne (1998) has been detected on 3 occasions and is considered to represent a serious concern to the pearling industry in Australia. The spore ornamentation of the parasite was determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Spores of the parasite were pleomorphic, or elongated 3.5-4 microm x 2.5-3.0 microm in size. Two filaments were wound around the spore and originated from 2 'knob-like' posterior thickenings. Both filaments passed up one side of the spore together until just below the operculum whereupon each split and passed obliquely under the lip of the opercula lid. Each filament wrapped around the spore 4 times. The posterior thickenings seem to appear late in the development of the spore and were composed of spore wall material. A second set of branching tubular filaments composed of a different material was observed on the spore body although not on mature spores possessing a 'knob-like' posterior thickening. The ornamentation on the spores of the pearl oyster parasite was unique amongst described haplosporidian species where spore ornamentation is known. The parasite is named in this manuscript as Haplosporidium hinei n. sp. PMID:18248686

  17. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T; Luepold, Shannon H Buckley; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-26

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes. PMID:27225128

  18. The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016

  19. Morphology, ornaments and performance in two chameleon ecomorphs: is the casque bigger than the bite?

    PubMed

    Measey, G John; Hopkins, Kevin; Tolley, Krystal A

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of ecomorphs within a species may represent either unique evolutionary events or multiple convergent events in similar environments. Functional studies of differing morphological traits of ecomorphs have been important to elucidate their role in adaptive radiations. The Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, has two ecomorphs: a large, brightly colored, ornate form found in closed habitats, and a small, dull form with reduced ornamentation found in open vegetation. The typical form is known to use casque size to communicate fighting ability, but it is unknown whether this is an honest signal and whether casque size is related to bite force. We show through a population genetic analysis that these ecomorphs are not separate genetic lineages but the result of multiple transitions between closed and open habitats. From measurements of ornamental and non-ornamental morphological characters and bite force in 105 chameleons, we find that bite force is significantly related to head size and is best predicted by head width. Bite force was reasonably predicted by casque height in ecomorphs from closed habitats, but not in those from open habitats. For size-adjusted data, open habitat males had wider heads, biting harder than closed habitat males. Our data suggest honesty in signaling for closed habitat ecomorphs, but for open habitat ecomorphs communication is different, a finding commensurate with the common framework for species radiations. PMID:19230632

  20. Conservation of Ornamental Stone by Myxococcus xanthus-Induced Carbonate Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel; Ben Chekroun, Koutar; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Increasing environmental pollution in urban areas has been endangering the survival of carbonate stones in monuments and statuary for many decades. Numerous conservation treatments have been applied for the protection and consolidation of these works of art. Most of them, however, either release dangerous gases during curing or show very little efficacy. Bacterially induced carbonate mineralization has been proposed as a novel and environmentally friendly strategy for the conservation of deteriorated ornamental stone. However, the method appeared to display insufficient consolidation and plugging of pores. Here we report that Myxococcus xanthus-induced calcium carbonate precipitation efficiently protects and consolidates porous ornamental limestone. The newly formed carbonate cements calcite grains by depositing on the walls of the pores without plugging them. Sonication tests demonstrate that these new carbonate crystals are strongly attached to the substratum, mostly due to epitaxial growth on preexisting calcite grains. The new crystals are more stress resistant than the calcite grains of the original stone because they are organic-inorganic composites. Variations in the phosphate concentrations of the culture medium lead to changes in local pH and bacterial productivity. These affect the structure of the new cement and the type of precipitated CaCO3 polymorph (vaterite or calcite). The manipulation of culture medium composition creates new ways of controlling bacterial biomineralization that in the future could be applied to the conservation of ornamental stone. PMID:12676699

  1. 77 FR 28924 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO... the vessel VAN'S CATCH TWO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Sport Fishing...

  2. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  3. 77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME... the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing charter boat.'' Geographic...

  4. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE... of the vessel BAD INFLUENCE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``6 pack fishing...

  5. 76 FR 70216 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws; Vessel REEL ATTITUDE... the vessel REEL ATTITUDE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing Charter passenger less...

  6. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  7. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  8. Fish Is Food - The FAO’s Fish Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F.; Smith, Martin D.; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations–which compiles prices for other major food categories–has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

  9. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need to be taken with caution. PMID:26729940

  10. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need to be taken with caution. PMID:26729940

  11. 75 FR 15416 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003) (``Antidumping Duty Order''). On February 19... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  12. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Request for New Shipper Review... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  13. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). Pursuant to section 751(a... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  14. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups. PMID:11193639

  15. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  16. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  17. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  18. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  19. The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV.

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Saskia Mc; Heck, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade. Good health among fisherfolk is a basic mainstay of productive and sustainable fisheries, providing food and income to fishing communities and the nation at large. However, these benefits are severely at risk as per-capita fish supplies in several African countries are declining, and fisherfolk are among the populations most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Under the regional programme 'Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in sustainable solutions,' the WorldFish Center conducted a socioeconomic assessment in the Kafue Flats fishery in Zambia to identify factors related to HIV/AIDS vulnerability among people in the fishing communities, particularly female fish traders. The study identified a variety of factors, hence the 'Fish Trader+' model of intervention was developed to reduce female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV by building on their economic rationale through the formation of savings groups. This article outlines the implementation of the Fish Trader+ model in Zambia and examines its potential to empower female fish traders so as to reduce poverty and vulnerability to HIV in fishing communities. PMID:25870894

  20. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  1. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  2. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child could have different reactions to different types of fish or react differently at different times. Some reactions can be very mild and involve only one system of the body, like hives on the skin. ...

  3. The MYB305 transcription factor regulates expression of nectarin genes in the ornamental tobacco floral nectary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyu; Ren, Gang; Guirgis, Adel; Thornburg, Robert W

    2009-09-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding the ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii X N. sanderae) homolog of the antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) MYB305. This transcription factor was robustly expressed at Stage 12 of nectary development but was only weakly expressed in the earlier Stage 6 nectaries. The ornamental tobacco MYB305 contains a conserved R2R3 MYB DNA binding domain with 76 amino acids in the activation domain. A green fluorescent protein-MYB305 fusion localized to nucleus of tobacco protoplasts and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that it functions as a transcription activator. A conserved 23-amino acid C-terminal domain is required to activate gene expression. The coding region of the myb305 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and was purified to homogeneity. This protein shows binding to two consensus MYB binding sites on the ornamental tobacco Nectarin I (nec1) promoter as well as to the single site located on the Nectarin V (nec5) promoter. Deletions of either of the binding sites from the nec1 promoter significantly reduced expression in nectary tissues. Temporally, MYB305 expression precedes that of nec1 and nec5, as would be expected if the MYB305 factor regulates expression of the nec1 and nec5 genes. Ectopic expression of MYB305 in foliage was able to induce expression of both nec1 and nec5, as well as two flavonoid biosynthetic genes in the foliage. Finally, RNA interference knockdown of MYB305 resulted in reduced expression of both nectarins and flavonoid biosynthetic genes. We conclude that expression of MYB305 regulates expression of the major nectarin genes in the floral nectary. PMID:19783761

  4. Heritability and genetic correlation between the sexes in a songbird sexual ornament

    PubMed Central

    Potti, J; Canal, D

    2011-01-01

    The genetic correlation between the sexes in the expression of secondary sex traits in wild vertebrate populations has attracted very few previous empirical efforts of field researchers. In southern European populations of pied flycatchers, a sexually selected male ornament is also expressed by a proportion of females. Additive genetic variances in ornament size and expression, transmission mechanisms (autosomal vs Z-linkage) and maternal effects are examined by looking at patterns of familial resemblance across three generations. Size of the secondary sex trait has a genetic basis common to both sexes, with estimated heritability being 0.5 under an autosomal model of inheritance. Significant additive genetic variance in males was also confirmed through a cross-fostering experiment. Heritability analyses were only partially consistent with previous molecular genetics evidence, as only two out of the three predictions supported Z-linkage and lack of significant mother–daughter resemblance could be due to small sample sizes caused by limited female trait expression. Therefore, the evidence was mixed as to the contribution of the Z chromosome and autosomal genes to trait size. The threshold heritability of trait expression in females was lower, around 0.3, supporting autosomal-based trait expression in females. Environmental (birth date) and parental effects on ornament size mediated by the mother's condition after accounting for maternal and paternal genetic influences are also highlighted. The genetic correlation between the sexes did not differ from one, indicating that selection on the character on either sex entails a correlated response in the opposite sex. PMID:21081966

  5. Zebra finch males compensate in plumage ornaments at sexual maturation for a bad start in life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background An individual's fitness in part depends on the characteristics of the mate so that sexually attractive ornaments, as signals of quality, are used in mate choice. Often such ornaments develop already early in life and thus are affected by nutritional conditions experienced then. Individuals thus should benefit by compensating as soon as possible for poor initial development of ornaments, to be attractive already at sexual maturity. Here, we tested whether early nutritional stress affects the cheek patch size of male Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which are important in mate choice, and whether a small cheek patch size early on is compensated at sexual maturation. Furthermore we tested whether exploration behaviour is affected by such a compensation, as shown for other compensatory growth trajectories. Results Zebra finch males which were raised under poorer nutritional conditions initially expressed smaller cheek patches at day 50 post-hatching but then compensated in cheek patch size already at 65 days, i.e. when becoming sexually mature. Furthermore, compensatory growth in cheek patch during adolescence was negatively correlated with activity and exploration behaviour, measured in a novel environment. Conclusion This compensation in cheek patch size benefits male attractiveness but also was related to less exploration behaviour, an established proxy for avian personality traits. We discuss the possibility that compensatory priorities exist so that not all deficits from a bad start are caught-up at the same time. Resource allocation to compensate for poorly expressed traits is likely to have evolved to optimise traits by the time they are most beneficial. PMID:26816511

  6. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Frozen Fish and Fish Processing Materials from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sanjee, Sohana Al; Karim, Md. Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at the microbiological analysis of export oriented frozen fishes, namely, Jew fish, Tongue Sole fish, Cuttle fish, Ribbon fish, Queen fish, and fish processing water and ice from a view of public health safety and international trade. Microbiological analysis includes the determination of total viable aerobic count by standard plate count method and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms by most probable number method. The presence of specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae were also investigated. The TVAC of all the samples was estimated below 5 × 105 cfu/g whereas the total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were found below 100 MPN/g and 10 MPN/g, respectively, which meet the acceptable limit specified by International Commission of Microbiological Specification for Food. The microbiological analysis of water and ice also complies with the specifications having TVAC < 20 cfu/mL, and total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were below the limit detection of the MPN method. Specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae were found absent in all the samples under the investigation. From this study, it can be concluded that the investigated frozen fishes were eligible for export purpose and also safe for human consumption. PMID:27019847

  7. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish. PMID:26691086

  8. Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  9. Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  10. Hypochnella verrucospora (Basidiomycota, Atheliales), a neotropical new species with ornamented basidiospores.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gilberto; Douanla-Meli, Clovis; Langer, Ewald; Langer, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    Hypochnella verrucospora sp. nov. is described and illustrated from material collected in Brazil and Argentina. The new species is characterized by dark purplish, violaceous to dark lilaceous, resupinate and membranous basidiomes and ellipsoid to subcylindrical, pale brown, slightly thick-walled, amyloid and delicately ornamented basidiospores. The monotypic genus Hypochnella was represented so far by H. violacea, which is distinctly characterized by smooth basidiospores, and is restricted to temperate regions in the northern hemisphere, whereas H. verrucospora seems to be Neotropical. Morphological comparison of the two species and a discussion of the genus description of Hypochnella are provided. PMID:20943515

  11. Heavy metals in fish from the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean: effect of origin, fish species and size and correlation among the metals.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Al-Athamneh, Ahmad M; Jaradat, Qasem M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the levels of As, Cu, Pb, and Cd in fish from Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal levels were compared with international standards. The levels among fish types and origin, the relationship among metals, and the correlation between the levels and fish size were statistically tested. Fish type and origin significantly affected the levels. None of the fish contained As, Cu, and Pb above the FAO and EU codes. However, Cd exceeded the Jordanian, FAO, and EC codes from the three origins. As and Cd positively correlated with each other in Arabian Sea fish. As and Pb correlated negatively, but Cu and Cd did not correlate with fish size. This study indicates that Cd is common in fish from the three origins regardless the fish size. This warrants continuous monitoring for heavy metals, especially Cd, in internationally traded fish. PMID:25822330

  12. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  13. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  14. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  15. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information. PMID:26457747

  16. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  17. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80 % of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  18. Ornamental pepper as banker plants for establishment of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of multiple pests in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selectivity factors and host preference of Amblyseius swirskii were determined on ornamental pepper banker plant candidates for control of insect pests in floriculture and landscapes. Cultivar selectivity and preference by the gravid female Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) between ornamental pep...

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

  20. Ethylene resistance in flowering ornamental plants – improvements and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Andreas; Lütken, Henrik; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Various strategies of plant breeding have been attempted in order to improve the ethylene resistance of flowering ornamental plants. These approaches span from conventional techniques such as simple cross-pollination to new breeding techniques which modify the plants genetically such as precise genome-editing. The main strategies target the ethylene pathway directly; others focus on changing the ethylene pathway indirectly via pathways that are known to be antagonistic to the ethylene pathway, e.g. increasing cytokinin levels. Many of the known elements of the ethylene pathway have been addressed experimentally with the aim of modulating the overall response of the plant to ethylene. Elements of the ethylene pathway that appear particularly promising in this respect include ethylene receptors as ETR1, and transcription factors such as EIN3. Both direct and indirect approaches seem to be successful, nevertheless, although genetic transformation using recombinant DNA has the ability to save much time in the breeding process, they are not readily used by breeders yet. This is primarily due to legislative issues, economic issues, difficulties of implementing this technology in some ornamental plants, as well as how these techniques are publically perceived, particularly in Europe. Recently, newer and more precise genome-editing techniques have become available and they are already being implemented in some crops. New breeding techniques may help change the current situation and pave the way toward a legal and public acceptance if products of these technologies are indistinguishable from plants obtained by conventional techniques. PMID:26504580

  1. Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament

    PubMed Central

    de Heij, Maaike E; Gustafsson, Lars; Brommer, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female–female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions. PMID:22393521

  2. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Rundle, Howard D.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  3. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture

    PubMed Central

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Punyasena, Surangi W.

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

  4. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zlatković, Milica; Keča, Nenad; Wingfield, Michael J; Jami, Fahimeh; Slippers, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the Western Balkans region during the past decade. The disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the Botryosphaeriaceae. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Isolates were initially characterized based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and six major clades were identified. Representative isolates from each clade were further characterized using DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, β-tubulin-2 and large subunit rRNA gene regions, as well as the morphology of the asexual morphs. Ten species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified of which eight, i.e., Dothiorella sarmentorum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Sphaeropsis visci, Diplodia seriata, D. sapinea and D. mutila were known taxa. The remaining two species could be identified only as Dothiorella spp. Dichomera syn-asexual morphs of D. sapinea, Dothiorella sp. 2 and B. dothidea, as well as unique morphological characters for a number of the known species are described. Based on host plants and geographic distribution, the majority of Botryosphaeriaceae species found represent new records. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the distribution, host associations and impacts of these fungi on trees in urban environments. PMID:26891906

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata: a review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei Chiang; Wong, Siu Kuin

    2015-11-01

    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yellow or white with a yellow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest globally. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-allergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers. PMID:26559362

  6. Evidence to Suggest That Teeth Act as Human Ornament Displays Signalling Mate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Colin A.; Brewer, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value. PMID:22860076

  7. Ornamental stone finished product aesthetic inspection and characterization through a combined digital spectrophotometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Stefano

    2003-05-01

    Many manufactured good products present different market characteristics according to their pictorial aspects. Such aspects usually depends from many factors: in some cases they are related to the adopted production process, in other cases they are intrinsically linked to the handled material characteristics. Ornamental stone represent a typical example, where both the two previous mentioned factors have to be considered. Both the aspects, in fact, are of primarily importance to certify, in pictorial terms, the aesthetic attributes of slabs, tiles and, in general, of ornamental and/or dimensional stone based products. The study was mainly addressed to investigate the possibility to develop a methodology and a technique to measure the quality of the polished stone samples, evaluating at the same time, the effect of polishing on the final detected stone surface pictorial attributes. To reach such a goal a specially designed probe holder, together with computer generated spectrum analysis techniques, has been developed and measurements were made on various rock samples to quantify, independently from stone surface pictorial attributes, as color and texture, stone surface degree of polishing. The obtained results allowed to quantify the correlation existing between stone characteristics (constituting minerals, texture, structure) and surface status after different polishing actions.

  8. Context-dependent female preference for multiple ornaments in the bearded reedling.

    PubMed

    Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert; Lukasch, Barbara; Pilastro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    While it is well established that females prefer to mate with well-ornamented males, the influence of perceptive and cognitive processes on the expression of female mate choice is still poorly known. It has been suggested that the female perception of a male's attractiveness is not absolute, but depends on the other males with which he is compared that have been previously encountered (comparative evaluation). We investigated whether mate preference in bearded reedlings (Panurus biarmicus) is dependent on or independent of social context in relation to two different traits: beard and tail lengths. Each female had a choice between two to three males with different modifications of beard and tail. For each female, three different experiments were conducted (one binary and two trinary tests). We found that when females are presented with options that vary antagonistically with respect to two ornaments (binary test), some individuals prefer one trait while others the other trait. This indicates that in our bearded reedlings population exists a mate preference polymorphisms. Moreover, we found that the presence of a third stimulus, irrespective of the initial preference, reduced the strength of the initial preference - what we can call a "preference dilution effect." Our results suggest that the female's choice may be constrained by her cognitive abilities when she is simultaneously presented with several options varying for two uncorrelated traits. PMID:26843933

  9. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    PubMed

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-01

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

  10. Genetic-evolutionary studies on cultivated cannas : VI. Origin and evolution of ornamental taxa.

    PubMed

    Khoshoo, T N; Mukherjee, I

    1970-01-01

    Hybridization has played a dominant and decisive role in the origin of ornamental cannas. This has been made possible by the ecospecific differentiation of the parental species, which implies lack of barriers and a good deal of recombination associated with reasonably high fertility.Colour differences between species are controlled by a number of genes and their intensifiers, inhibitors, lethals, etc. From recombination in interspecific hybrids of such a wide range of genes, segregating simultaneously and involving complex segregation, arises a wide array of heterozygous genotypes with new colours and colour combinations, releasing much genetic diversity.Hybridization has also been responsible for transgressive segregation, particularly in length and breadth of staminodia and luxuriance, affecting not only plant height but also flower size. Perhaps the most important single factor responsible for the evolution of ornamental cannas has been the repeated cycles of hybridization which have led to the breakage of size and other barriers; this seems to have been exploited continuously until very large flower size was built up and combined with other useful vegetative and floral characters such as colour and number of flowers per inflorescence, extended blooming period, cold resistance, etc. The efficient vegetative propagation made fixing of the useful genotypes no problem, although they may contain a high degree of heterozygosity and sexual sterility.Along these lines, Année (hybrids between C. indica and C. glauca) and Ehemann (hybrids between C. iridiflora and C. warscwiczii) cannas came into being in 1848 and 1863 respectively. Although both were a distinct improvement over the original species, they were still relatively small-flowered and major improvements came roundabout 1868, when Crozy, Gladiolus or French Dwarf cannas (C. X generalis Bailey) were released. This group arose from hybrids and back crosses of the first two groups and contains diploids, interchange heterozygotes and autotriploids. When further intercrossing, inbreeding and selection yielded no significant improvement, "new blood" in the form of C. flaccida was introduced. The result was the release of Italian, Iris, Orchid or Giant flowered cannas (C. X orchiodes Bailey) in 1872. These are asynaptic seedless diploids and allo- or segmental allotriploids. By and large, Crozy cannas are the result of exploiting new genetic diversity and transgression, while Italian cannas owe their excellence to the luxuriance accompanying the introduction of C. flaccida.Next to hybridization, triploidy (14%) has been an important mechanism in the origin of cultivars with thicker, more durable and larger flower parts. The two types of triploids, autotriploids and segmental allotriploids, are distinguishable by their morphological and cytogenetical properties.It is evident that during the 44 years 1848-1892 the speed of evolution was rapid and its direction governed by the following principles of selection: increase in hardiness, reduction in height, spikes well above foliage, free flowering, erect flowers, increase in flower size, colour diversity, circular form of flowers, increase in thickness of flower parts and durability of flower, self shedding flowers, etc. The result has been the transformation of cannas from simple foliage plants to attractive ornamental flowers.It is noteworthy that selection for the two principal uses of canna not only involved different organs, but also took place in very different environments. While selection in ornamental canna was for floral parts under a temperate European climate new to Canna, that for starch involved the rhizome in its native habitat. It is interesting that the two different purposes of selection under different habitats have both ended in triploidy: in the ornamentals this has considerably enlarged the flowers, while in the starch-yielding C. edulis it has enlarged the fleshy rhizome but had a very limited effect on the flower. PMID:24435803

  11. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  12. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  13. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  14. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

  15. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  16. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  17. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on non-native plants: comparison of two important Southeastern ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the plants intentionally introduced to the U.S. for use as horticultural crops have become serious invasive weeds. Understanding how the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere will effect landscape plants will aid future selection and management of useful ornamentals and may help predic...

  18. Comparison of ornamental and invasive saltcedar in the USA northern Great Plains using chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saltcedars (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrids) have invaded riverways and lakeshores across the western USA and northern Mexico. In Montana, ornamental plantings of saltcedar have been hypothesized, to varying degrees, to be the origin of nearby, wild populations. To examine this ...

  19. Monitoring Ambrosia Beetles with Ethanol-Injected Sentinel Trees and Ethanol-Baited Bottle Traps in Ornamental Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus is a serious pest in ornamental tree nurseries. The current strategy for managing X. germanus in nurseries is to spray the trunks of trees with insecticides before damage occurs. However, timing sprays for this pest is difficult because monitoring technique...

  20. Pesticides for Ornamentals: Commercial Recommendations for 1977 Nurseries, Garden Centers, Parks, Roadsides. Extension Bulletin E-944. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, George W.; And Others

    This pamphlet outlines control measures for disease and insect infestation of ornamentals and turfgrass. Hosts are identified with comments on rates and times of pesticide application for greatest effect. Other sections of the document deal with aquatic and terrestrial weed control in a similar manner. (CS)

  1. USING AND CARING FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE, CARE FOR, AND MAINTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER…

  2. Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control two important ornamental pests: 1) Corythucha ciliata, a native lace bug that attacks the foliage of sycamore trees, and 2) the recently described exotic pest, Stethobaris nemesis, a weevil that attacks amaryllis leave...

  3. ISOLATION OF AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTER FROM CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS FOR EXPRESSION OF DISEASE RESISTANT GENES IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial diseases caused by Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. often result in significant loses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, and are very difficult to control. The use of genetically engineered crops offers a novel, cost effective and environ...

  4. Research on Black Vine Weevil and White Grubs in Ornamental Nurseries in Ohio by USDA-ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2001 and 2002, various projects were conducted to study the biology of certain subterranean insect pests of ornamental nurseries and to develop tactics for their management. This report contains a summary of these projects. The black vine weevil (BVW) and exotic scarab grub complex were the...

  5. Response of ornamental sunflower cultivars ‘Sunbeam’ and ‘Moonbright’ to irrigation with saline wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the possibility that saline wastewaters may be used to grow commercially acceptable floriculture crops, a study was initiated to determine the effects of salinity on two pollen-free cultivars of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). ‘Moonbright’ and ‘Sunbeam’ were grown in greenho...

  6. NCDC216: A New Multistate Group for Water Management and Quality for Ornamental Crop Production and Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have established a USDA multistate development committee (NCDC216) to create a project focused on water management and quality for ornamental crop production and health. The nursery and greenhouse industry ranks 5th (>$14.6 billion) among all US agriculture commodities and within the top 5 commod...

  7. Earliest evidence of personal ornaments associated with burial: The Conus shells from Border Cave.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda

    2016-04-01

    The four to six month old infant from Border Cave, found with a perforated Conus shell in a pit excavated in Howiesons Poort (HP) layers dated to 74 ± 4 BP, is considered the oldest instance of modern human burial from Africa, and the earliest example of a deceased human interred with a personal ornament. In this article we present new data retrieved from unpublished archives on the burial excavation, and conduct an in-depth analysis of the Conus found with the infant, and a second similar Conus that probably originates from the same layer. Based on morphological, morphometric and ecological evidence we assign these two shells to Conus ebraeus Linnaeus 1758, a tropical species still living on the nearest coastline to Border Cave, in northern KwaZulu-Natal. This attribution changes the paleoclimatic setting inferred from the previous ascription of these shells to Conus bairstowi, a species endemic to the Eastern Cape and adapted to colder sea surface temperatures. Reconstructions of 74 ka sea surface temperatures along the southern African east coast are consistent with our reassignment. Analysis of shell thanatocoenoses and biocoenosis from the KwaZulu-Natal coast, including microscopic study of their surfaces, reveals that complete, well preserved living or dead Conus, such as those found at Border Cave, are rare on beaches, can be collected at low tide at a depth of c. 0.5-2 m among the rocks, and that the archeological shells were dead when collected. We demonstrate that the perforations at the apex were produced by humans, and that traces of wear due to prolonged utilization as an ornament are present. SEM-EDX analysis of patches of red residue on the Conus found in the pit with the infant indicates that it is composed of iron, phosphorus, silicon, aluminium, and magnesium. Results indicate that, at least in some areas of southern Africa, the use of marine gastropods as ornaments, already attested in Still Bay, extended to the first phases of the HP. PMID:27086058

  8. The development of a plant risk evaluation (PRE) tool for assessing the invasive potential of ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool for ornamental plants. The 19 questions in the final PRE tool were narrowed down from 56 original questions from existing WRA tools. We evaluated the 56 WRA questions by screening 21 known invasive and 14 known non-invasive ornamental plants. After statistically comparing the predictability of each question and the frequency the question could be answered for both invasive and non-invasive species, we eliminated questions that provided no predictive power, were irrelevant in our current model, or could not be answered reliably at a high enough percentage. We also combined many similar questions. The final 19 remaining PRE questions were further tested for accuracy using 56 additional known invasive plants and 36 known non-invasive ornamental species. The resulting evaluation demonstrated that when "needs further evaluation" classifications were not included, the accuracy of the model was 100% for both predicting invasiveness and non-invasiveness. When "needs further evaluation" classifications were included as either false positive or false negative, the model was still 93% accurate in predicting invasiveness and 97% accurate in predicting non-invasiveness, with an overall accuracy of 95%. We conclude that the PRE tool should not only provide growers with a method to accurately screen their current stock and potential new introductions, but also increase the probability of the tool being accepted for use by the industry as the basis for a nursery certification program. PMID:25803830

  9. The Development of a Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) Tool for Assessing the Invasive Potential of Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W.; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool for ornamental plants. The 19 questions in the final PRE tool were narrowed down from 56 original questions from existing WRA tools. We evaluated the 56 WRA questions by screening 21 known invasive and 14 known non-invasive ornamental plants. After statistically comparing the predictability of each question and the frequency the question could be answered for both invasive and non-invasive species, we eliminated questions that provided no predictive power, were irrelevant in our current model, or could not be answered reliably at a high enough percentage. We also combined many similar questions. The final 19 remaining PRE questions were further tested for accuracy using 56 additional known invasive plants and 36 known non-invasive ornamental species. The resulting evaluation demonstrated that when “needs further evaluation” classifications were not included, the accuracy of the model was 100% for both predicting invasiveness and non-invasiveness. When “needs further evaluation” classifications were included as either false positive or false negative, the model was still 93% accurate in predicting invasiveness and 97% accurate in predicting non-invasiveness, with an overall accuracy of 95%. We conclude that the PRE tool should not only provide growers with a method to accurately screen their current stock and potential new introductions, but also increase the probability of the tool being accepted for use by the industry as the basis for a nursery certification program. PMID:25803830

  10. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  11. Year-round resource defence and the evolution of male and female song in suboscine birds: social armaments are mutual ornaments.

    PubMed

    Tobias, J A; Gamarra-Toledo, V; García-Olaechea, D; Pulgarín, P C; Seddon, N

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of sexually monomorphic (i.e. mutual) ornamentation has attracted growing attention as a 'blind-spot' in evolutionary biology. The popular consensus is that female ornaments are subject to the same modes of sexual selection as males: intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it remains unclear how these forces interact within and between sexes, or whether they fully capture selection on female traits. One possibility is that the 'armament-ornament' model - which proposes that traits used primarily in male-male contests are also co-opted by females as indicators of male quality - can be extended to explain signal evolution in both sexes. We examine this idea by testing the function of acoustic signals in two species of duetting antbirds. Behavioural observations and playback experiments suggest that male and female songs function primarily as armaments in competitive interactions. Removal experiments reveal that song is also a classic ornament used by unpaired males and females to advertise for mates. These results indicate that 'armament-ornament' processes may operate in reciprocal format, potentially explaining widespread mutual ornamentation in species with elevated intrasexual competition for resources. In addition, given that songs mediate competition between species outside the breeding season, our findings suggest that processes shaping monomorphic ornaments extend beyond the traditional definitions of sexual selection and are best understood in the broader framework of social selection. PMID:21707816

  12. Preliminary Molecular Identification of a Predatory Bug, Orius albidipennis, Collected from Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Samy M.; Montaser, Metwally M.; Elsayed, G.; Amer, Sayed A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Orius albidipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a generalist predator used for biological control of insects attacking ornamental plants. Molecular identification of this species using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA was conducted for the first time. The complete sequence of ITS1 and fragments of its flanking 18S and 5.8S rDNA genes are reported herein. The estimated length of ITS1 of O. albidipennis was 305 bp. This spacer was nearly identical to its counterpart of Orius sp-Taif strain in spite of the difference in their length. The phylogentic relationships were determined using the maximum-likelihood method supported with strong bootstrap probabilities clustering of both taxa together. Further molecular markers could be useful to identify the Taif strain and support its sister relationship to the Egyptian O. albidipennis. PMID:23885782

  13. Cloth-Based Power Shirt for Wearable Energy Harvesting and Clothes Ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Suling; Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Wang, Bo; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-15

    Harvesting ambient mechanical energy from human body motion has attracted great research interest. In this work, a power shirt based on triboelectrification and the electrostatic induction effect between fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and external objects is demonstrated. This power shirt can effectively convert the ambient mechanical energy into electric power, and the working mechanism is systematically discussed. A maximum short-circuit current density of ∼0.37 μA/cm2 and a maximum peak power density of ∼4.65 μW/cm2 were achieved. Simultaneously, 11 blue LEDs were lit by sliding the sleeve and power shirt, indicating the potential application of the power shirt in clothes ornamentation and risk warning. This study develops an efficient path for harvesting human body energy and promoting the development of wearable electronics and smart garments. PMID:26098265

  14. Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.

    PubMed

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-10-01

    Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties. PMID:25099879

  15. Tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamental plants, vegetables and weeds in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mertelík, J; Mokrá, V

    1998-11-01

    The occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in horticulture crops and weeds in the Czech Republic has been studied in 1992-1997. During this period TSWV was established in 91 plant species. Virus identity was based on the host range, serology and electron microscopy. Natural TSWV infection was detected in glasshouses where the main vector Frankliniella occidentalis was present too. The most frequently TSWV-infected plant species were Chrysanthemum morifolium and Zantedeschia sp. Among vegetable crops, the TSWV infection was very frequently detected in tomatoes and peppers. In all cases these plants were nursed or grown in glasshouses together with different species of ornamental plants, many of which were TSWV-infected. Among weeds, the TSWV infection occurred very often in Stellaria media and Galinsoga parviflora. These two plant species were prevalent in glasshouses and were also good hosts of F. occidentalis. PMID:10358737

  16. Molecular characterization of allium virus X, a new potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae, infecting ornamental allium.

    PubMed

    Miglino, R; Druffel, K L; van Schadewijk, A R; Pappu, H R

    2011-11-01

    ABTRACT: A new potexvirus affecting ornamental allium spp in the Netherlands was identified and characterized at the molecular level. The virus had a single-stranded RNA genome of 7100 bp (excluding the 18 bp poly A tail). The genome organization was found to be typical of members of the genus Potexvirus and consisted of five open reading frames (ORF). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with those of known potexvirus members showed that this virus is related to Hosta virus X and Hydrangea ringspot virus. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the allium virus is a new and distinct species in the genus Potexvirus and the name, Allium virus X (AlVX) is proposed. PMID:21938462

  17. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  18. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and

  19. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as

  20. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

  1. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  2. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.

  3. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.…

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  5. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  6. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  7. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  8. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

  9. Construction Trades Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

  10. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  11. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  12. Biological functionality of extracellular matrix-ornamented three-dimensional printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, R D K

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is considered an ideally suitable method to fabricate patient specific implantable devices. The approach enabled to produce a porous scaffold with tailored physical, mechanical, and biological properties because of the flexibility to tune the scaffold architecture. The objective of the study described was to elucidate the determining role of cell-laid extracellular matrix (ECM) in impacting biological response. In this regard, to mimic the natural ECM environment or the attributes of the native tissue, a natural ECM analogue surface was produced on the 3D printed and sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold surface by the mineralized ECM of the osteoblast. This involved the growth of osteoblast on 3D printed scaffolds, followed by differentiation to deposit the mineralized ECM on the biomaterial surface. The cells were removed from the mineralized matrix using freeze-thaw cycles to obtain a decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) on the biomaterial surface. Subsequently, seeding of osteoblast on dECM-ornamented HA scaffolds led to 3D growth with enhanced expression of prominent proteins, actin and vinculin. Based on preliminary observations of present study, it was underscored that HA scaffolds-ornamented with dECM provided an optimized microenvironment conducive to the growth of 3D structural tissue and favorably promoted biological functionality because of the availability of an environment that promoted cell-cell and cell-scaffold interaction. The primary advantage of dECM is that it enabled constructive remodeling and promoted the formation of tissue in lieu of less functional tissue. The study opens-up a new path for printing of 3D structures suitable to treat segmental bone defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1343-1351, 2016. PMID:26799466

  13. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. PMID:26051892

  14. Deterioration of the ornamental stones from Apulia (SE Italy) caused by thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, G. F.; Germinario, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mesozoic carbonate rocks cropping out in Apulia, SE Italy, represent today, as in the past, a fundamental artistic and communicative mean for the local culture. For their physico-mechanical and aesthetic properties, these sedimentary rocks have always found a large application both as ornamental stones and as simple construction materials, particurarly in military architecture and worship buildings during the Middle Ages. The Apulian "marbles" are characterised by high strength and durability, nevertheless outdoors exposure often involves significant changes in their technical properties and state of conservation caused by weathering. The effects of thermal stresses on the material performances, due to diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations, constitute a topic of particular interest in the assessment of durability problems associated to long-term exposure. In this work, a study about changes in technical properties of the Apulian ornamental limestones and dolostones induced by thermal stresses is presented. Direct and indirect evaluations concerning index properties, mechanical strength, deformability, textural characteristics and chromatic features, on samples subjected to thermal cycles, were used for providing a comprehensive perspective about deterioration, from the mesoscopic scale to the microscopic one. In a muffle fornace, the samples were subjected to thermal cycles ranging from 100 to 700°C. At the end of each cycle, mass and volume determinations, mercury porosimetry measurements, sclerometric tests, ultrasonic tests, thin section observations and chromatic evaluations through image analysis and Munsell charts were performed. The proposed methodology took into account only non-destructive or semi-destructive tests, in order to highlight the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of decay related to thermal stresses exclusively. In this way a constant comparison among the results of different experimental tests was carried out.

  15. Fresh from the Ornamental Garden: Hips of Selected Rose Cultivars Rich in Phytonutrients.

    PubMed

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Weber, Nika; Jakopic, Jerneja; Zupan, Anka; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Morphological parameters (size, weight, color), the content of sugars, organic acids, lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolics were determined in hips of Rosa canina (RCA), Rosa sweginzowii (RSW), Rosa rugosa (RUG), and selected ornamental Rosa cultivars Fru Dagmar Hastrup (FDH), Repandia (REP), Veilchenblau (RVB), Aloha (RAL), Bonica (BON), and Golden Gate (RGG). Although traditionally used RCA hips contained the highest amount of cyanidin-3-glucoside (83 μg/g DW) and were the reddest (h° = 17.5), they did not stand out in other analyzed parameters. RGG climber had the biggest hips (8.86 g), which also contained highest sugar levels (50.9 g/100 g DW). RAL stood out as the cultivar rich in organic acids (33.9 g/100 g DW), mainly because of high quinic acid content (17.6 g/100g DW). FDH and RSW hips were characterized by particularly high ascorbic acid levels (4325 mg/100 g DW and 4711 mg/100 g DW). Other ornamental cultivars contained low amounts of ascorbic acid compared to the analyzed species. The phenolic profile was species/cultivars-specific. The greatest diversity of phenolic compounds was detected in RUG and FDH hips (55 and 54 different tentatively identified compounds with HPLC/MS). Flavanols represented the main phenolic class in most of the investigated species/cultivars and RGG hips contained the highest amount of catechin and proanthocyandin derivatives (15855 μg/g DW). Altogether RAL hips contained the highest quantity of phenolics (44746 μg/g DW) mainly due to high levels of hydrolysable tannins compared to other species/cultivars. Although small, hips of BON and REP were most abundant regarding β-carotene and lycopene content, respectively. PMID:26773854

  16. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  17. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative

  18. Spawning Behavior, Egg Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology of Hyphessobrycon eques (Pisces: Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Najiah, M; Lee, K L; Noorasikin, H; Nadirah, M; Lee, S W

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacteriosis due to mycobacteria is one of the most common bacterial diseases in ornamental fish. We describe here the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. using ATCC Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae as references. A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains. PMID:20971487

  20. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  1. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  2. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  3. THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCANN, W.P.

    THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING WAS FOUNDED IN LONDON, ENGLAND IN 1873 BY THE REVEREND HENRY SOLLY TO PROMOTE THE VOCATIONAL AND FURTHER EDUCATION OF ARTISANS. NOT A TRADE UNION ORGANIZATION, IT INVOLVED SKILLED WORKERS OUTSIDE THE UNIONS AS WELL AS TRADE UNIONISTS. A SERIOUS CONFLICT BETWEEN SOLLY'S PATERNALISTIC PHILANTHROPY AND THE PRINCIPLES OF…

  4. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  5. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  6. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  7. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  8. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  9. Tropical fish medicine. Anesthesia in fish.

    PubMed

    Brown, L A

    1988-03-01

    1. Before using anesthesia in fish, check water quality parameters for tropical fish aquariums in the locality. 2. Monitor any changes in water quality that result from anesthetic administration, especially pH and alkalinity. Have adequate buffering agents available to counter these changes. 3. Use one or two preferred agents, and become familiar with the effects they produce. 4. Where possible, withhold food from fish for 24 hours prior to administration of the anesthetic agent. 5. Try to anesthetize a few fish in a group first as a test batch. Wait 12 to 24 hours for signs of delayed mortality before proceeding to anesthetize the rest of the fish. 6. Always provide adequate aeration in holding vessels. 7. Where practical, use water that the fish has come from in the anesthetic tank. 8. Always have a container of the same water for the fish to recover in. PMID:3259752

  10. Electro-Fishing

    Iowa State Coop student Tony Sindt measures and identifies fish from Iowa's East Indian Creek with the aide of Undergrad student Megan Thul. The fish were collected using backpack electro-fishing as part of an effort to assess the fish community and stream habitat after stream was re-meandered....

  11. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

  12. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: a model of the evolution of cancer defences

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Amy M.; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Aktipis, C. Athena

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. PMID:26056364

  13. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: a model of the evolution of cancer defences.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Amy M; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Aktipis, C Athena

    2015-07-19

    The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. PMID:26056364

  14. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  15. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed. PMID:15854827

  16. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Mak KK; Yanase H; Renneberg R

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed.

  17. A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.

    PubMed

    Staib, F; Folkens, U; Tompak, B; Abel, T; Thiel, D

    1978-11-01

    The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in respect of diagnosis and epidemiology. PMID:83753

  18. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    PubMed

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB. PMID:22007449

  19. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. PMID:26456701

  20. Intra-sexual competition alters the relationship between testosterone and ornament expression in a wild territorial bird.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S; Redpath, S M

    2014-05-01

    In a reliable signalling system, individual quality is expected to mediate the costs associated with ornamental displays, with relatively lower costs being paid by individuals of higher quality. These relative costs should depend not only on individual quality, but also on levels of intra-sexual competition. We explored the current and delayed effects that testosterone implants have on bird ornamentation in populations with contrasted population densities, as a proxy for intra-sexual competition. In a replicated experiment, we manipulated testosterone in 196 yearling male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus in autumn in populations of high and low levels of intra-sexual competition. Males were assigned to one of three exogenous testosterone (T) treatments: empty implants (T0), small T implants (T1) or larger T implants (T2). We monitored subsequent changes in testosterone levels, ornament size and carotenoid-based colouration, carotenoid levels and body condition from autumn to spring. Testosterone implants increased testosterone levels, comb redness and comb size, and decreased body condition but these effects depended on levels of intra-sexual competition. Specifically, T2-implanted birds increased testosterone levels and comb size more, and reduced body condition more, in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. In the following spring, testosterone levels of T2-treated birds kept increasing in populations where intra-sexual competition was high but not in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. Our results highlight that levels of intra-sexual competition alter the relationship between testosterone levels and ornament expression, influencing their condition-dependence; they also indicate that the outcome of standard hormone manipulation conducted in free-living animals vary depending on the population context. PMID:24698833

  1. An RT-PCR primer pair for the detection of Pospiviroid and its application in surveying ornamental plants for viroids.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Hidayet; Nie, Xianzhou; Singh, Rudra P

    2004-03-15

    A primer pair for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), based on the conserved sequences of the members of genus Pospiviroid was designed to yield a fragment of about 200 base pairs (bp). Since pospiviroids infect a large number of plants species and a few members of the genus Pospiviroid have been already detected in some ornamental plants, the primer pair was evaluated for its efficacy using ornamental plants. The method of return-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (R-PAGE) was used to determine the general presence of viroids in the test samples. Efficacy of the primer pair for members of genus Pospiviroid was demonstrated by the detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in potato, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Iresine viroid in Verbena and Vinca species, and Citrus exocortis viroid in Impatiens species. Specificity of the primer pair became evident, where additional viroids were detected by R-PAGE in Coleus and Magilla species, but they were not amplified by the Pospiviroid primer. This primer pair would be of benefit in indexing ornamental plants in quarantine samples or in viroid-free certification schemes, irrespective of their actual identity. PMID:14738987

  2. Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew L.M; Li, Daiqin

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition-dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400 nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) that has sexually dimorphic UV-iridescent ornamentation, and we provide evidence that male UV coloration is condition dependent in this species. Spectral-reflection patterns change with male age and prior feeding history. The position of the UV band (i.e. UV hue) of the carapaces of younger (field-collected as subadults and matured as adults in laboratory) males shifted, relative to older (field-collected as adults) males, significantly towards longer wavelengths. Food deprivation significantly decreased the spectral intensity of the abdomen, but not the carapace. Questions concerning the mechanisms by which UV ornaments change are highlighted, as are hypotheses concerning the role of condition-dependent UV variation in male–male competition and as a criterion used by females when making mate-choice decisions. PMID:17476778

  3. Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a New Hybrid from Irrigation Reservoirs at Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-01-01

    A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

  4. 17 CFR 37.400 - Core Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... trading and trade processing. 37.400 Section 37.400 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.400 Core Principle 4—Monitoring of trading and trade processing. The swap execution facility shall: (a) Establish...

  5. A single polyprobe for detecting simultaneously eight pospiviroids infecting ornamentals and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Torchetti, Enza Maria; Navarro, Beatriz; Di Serio, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    The spread of viroids belonging to the genus Pospiviroid (family Pospiviroidae), recorded recently in ornamentals and vegetables in several European countries, calls for fast, efficient and sensitive detection methods. Based on bioinformatics analyses of sequence identity among all pospiviroids, a digoxigenin-labeled polyprobe (POSPIprobe) was developed that, when tested by dot-blot and Northern-blot hybridization, detected Potato spindle tuber viroid, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Pepper chat fruit viroid and Chrysanthemum stunt viroid. The end-point detection limits of the POSPIprobe ranged from 5(-2) to 5(-4), and from 5(-1) to 5(-3) for nucleic acid preparations obtained by phenol extraction and silica-capture, respectively, similar to those of single probes. Based on sequence identity, the POSPIprobe is expected to detect also the two pospiviroid species not tested in this study (Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid and Iresine viroid-1). Dot-blot assays with the POSPIprobe were validated by testing 68 samples from tomato, chrysanthemum and argyranthemum infected by different pospiviroids as revealed by RT-PCR, thus confirming the potential of this polyprobe for quarantine, certification and survey programs. PMID:22935607

  6. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    PubMed Central

    Efzueni Rozali, Shahril; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  7. Growth of ornamental plants in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gomez, A; Bernal, M P; Roig, A

    2002-06-01

    Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree prunings; and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a commercial substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilisers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physico-chemical properties such as total pore space and electrical conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive calceolaria hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. Adequate substrates for the development of calendula can be prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat or at up to 50% with CS, and C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS. For calceolaria, the substrate should have a lower proportion of compost, C1 at up to 50% and C2 at up to 25%, both mixed with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants. provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:12056495

  8. Movement of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ornamental Nurseries and Surrounding Habitats.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Christopher T; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Some exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental nurseries. Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is the most problematic ambrosia beetle in Ohio nurseries. Movement of X. germanus in nurseries has not been characterized, and knowledge is lacking on whether infestations originate from within nurseries or surrounding habitats. Flight activity of X. germanus was monitored in nurseries and adjacent wooded areas to determine the source of beetles infesting nurseries, and characterize their movement within nurseries. Ethanol-baited bottle traps were positioned within wooded areas adjacent to commercial nurseries and within nurseries at various distances from the nursery woodlot interface. Flight activity of overwintered X. germanus occurred in wooded areas adjacent to nurseries before occurrence within nurseries. There was a direct relationship between degree-days and the distance from woodlots when X. germanus were first found in traps in spring, with earlier captures closest to wooded areas and latest ones furthest away into the nursery. X. germanus appeared to move into nurseries from adjacent wooded areas, with numbers trapped within nurseries decreasing with distance away from wooded areas. Trees in the interior of nurseries would appear to be subjected to less attack pressure than trees near the nursery border. Intercepting beetles as they move into nurseries might be an effective strategy to reduce attack pressure on valuable trees. PMID:26470339

  9. Local Dkk1 Crosstalk from Breeding Ornaments Impedes Regeneration of Injured Male Zebrafish Fins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Junsu; Nachtrab, Gregory; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Precise spatiotemporal regulation of signaling activators and inhibitors can help limit developmental crosstalk between neighboring tissues during morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration. Here, we find that the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dkk1b is abundantly produced by dense regions of androgen-regulated epidermal tubercles (ET) on the surfaces of adult male zebrafish pectoral fins. High-speed videos and amputation experiments reveal that pectoral fins and their ET are employed for male spawning. Formation and vigorous turnover of ET involve Dkk1b induction and maintenance, whereas Dkk1b is typically restricted from the regeneration blastema after amputation injury. When amputation occurs through an ET-containing region, a Dkk1b-enriched wound epidermis forms and blastema formation is disrupted, compromising regeneration. Thus, homeostatic signaling by key breeding ornaments can interfere with injury-activated tissue regeneration. Our findings help explain sexually dimorphic fin regeneration in zebrafish, and have implications for how regenerative potential might decline as development progresses or during species evolution. PMID:24135229

  10. Embryogenesis in the anthers of different ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Barroso, P A; Rêgo, M M; Rêgo, E R; Soares, W S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate flower bud size with microspore developmental stages and the induction of embryos in the anthers of different ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes. Flower buds were randomly collected and visually divided into three classes based on both petal and sepal size. The length and diameter of the bud as well as the length of the petal, sepal, and anther were then measured. The microspore stage was also determined for each anther of the bud where it was found. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.01), and the means were separated by Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.01). The broad sense heritability, the CVg/CVe relation, and the Pearson correlation between characters were also determined. Anthers from 10 C. annuum genotypes were cultivated in four culture media types for the induction of embryos. The data were transformed by Arcsin (x) and subjected to analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.01), and the means were separated by Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.01). The majority of anthers in the second class had uninucleate microspores. No correlation was observed between bud size and the number of uninucleate microspores. Genotype 9 specimens grown in M2 medium induced the highest number of embryos (16) compared to the other treatments, which indicates a significant interaction effect between culture media and genotypes. PMID:26535649

  11. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  12. Conventional and PCR Detection of Aphelenchoides fragariae in Diverse Ornamental Host Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    McCuiston, Jamie L.; Hudson, Laura C.; Subbotin, Sergei A.; Davis, Eric L.; Warfield, Colleen Y.

    2007-01-01

    A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for early detection and identification of Aphelenchoides fragariae directly in host plant tissues using the species-specific primers AFragFl and AFragRl that amplify a 169-bp fragment in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. These species-specific primers did not amplify DNA from Aphelenchoides besseyi or Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. The PCR assay was sensitive, detecting a single nematode in a background of plant tissue extract. The assay accurately detected A. fragariae in more than 100 naturally infected, ornamental plant samples collected in North Carolina nurseries, garden centers and landscapes, including 50 plant species not previously reported as hosts of Aphelenchoides spp. The detection sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was higher for infected yet asymptomatic plants when compared to the traditional, water extraction method for Aphelenchoides spp. detection. The utility of using NaOH extraction for rapid preparation of total DNA from plant samples infected with A. fragariae was demonstrated. PMID:19259510

  13. Efficacy of Insecticides for Control of Aphelenchoides fragariae and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Flowering Perennial Ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    The effects of abamectin B1, diazinon, and methiocarb insecticides on Aphelenchoides fragariae and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Lamium maculatum, Phlox subulata, Rhododendron indicum, and Begonia x tuberhybrida were determined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Abamectin at 0.005 or 0.011 g a.i./liter (0.3 or 0.6 ml/liter Avid 0.15 EC), diazinon at 0.62 or 1.87 g a.i./liter (2.6 or 7.8 ml/liter KnoxOut GH), or methiocarb at 3.5 g a.i./liter (4.7 g/liter Mesurol) were applied in two to six weekly or biweekly applications to foliage until runoff. Diazinon and abamectin reduced both A. fragariae and D. dipsaci populations in Lamium and Phlox, especially after repeated applications. Diazinon was generally more effective than abamectin. While methiocarb reduced A. fragariae densities in Lamium, it was not as efficacious as diazinon or abamectin. Nematode populations varied widely between host plant species and over time. Management of high nematode populations was difficult, and none of the materials tested was effective against A. fragariae in azalea or begonia. Both abamectin and diazinon are currently registered for insect control in ornamentals and may be combined with cultural control tactics to manage foliar nematodes. PMID:19270930

  14. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  15. Enhancement of cadmium uptake by Amaranthus caudatus, an ornamental plant, using tea saponin.

    PubMed

    Cay, Seydahmet

    2016-06-01

    In this study, tea saponin (TS) was extracted from tea camellia seed by microwave-assisted extraction. The potential of TS was compared with ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), which is used as a common chemical agent to enhance uptake of cadmium (Cd) by Amaranthus caudatus, an ornamental plant in the natural vegetation of Turkey under pot conditions. The enrichment coefficient (EC) and translocation factor (TF) values were calculated to evaluate the removal efficiency of the TS and EDTA. The results showed that an increase in both TS and EDTA concentration significantly increased Cd uptake by A. caudatus, accumulating Cd in different parts of the plant. Higher EC and TF values obtained from stems, leaves, and inflorescences of A. caudatus showed that this plant might be cultivated and used as a hyperaccumulator in the uptake of Cd from the Cd contaminated soils. Thus, the present technique can efficiently reduce the metal load in the food chain; hence, it could be applied in catchment areas of urban cities where Cd contamination has become an unavoidable factor. PMID:27142816

  16. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    PubMed

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera. PMID:25136669

  17. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  18. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  19. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers. PMID:19508290

  20. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets. PMID:25494520

  1. Ecological analysis of world trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

  2. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry productivity and profitability. PMID:8890373

  3. Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-09-15

    A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. PMID:21807185

  4. To trade or not to trade? Criteria for applying cap and trade.

    PubMed

    Benkovic, S; Kruger, J

    2001-11-30

    The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide recognition as an extremely effective policy tool. The U.S. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Program has achieved an unprecedented level of environmental protection in a cost-effective manner. The successful results of the program have led domestic and foreign governments to consider the application of cap and trade to address other air quality issues. Certain analyses are particularly important in determining whether or not cap and trade is an appropriate policy tool. This paper offers a set of questions that can be used as criteria for determining whether or not cap and trade is the preferred policy approach to an environmental problem. PMID:12805840

  5. Carpentry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in carpentry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  6. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID:20838643

  7. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  8. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  9. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  10. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  11. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  12. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  13. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  14. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  15. Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M.; Plath, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish ( Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect ( Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands.

  16. Rapid isolation of DNA from fresh and preserved fish scales for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yue, G H; Orban, L

    2001-05-01

    We developed a simple and inexpensive method to extract DNA from fresh and preserved fish scales. The procedure is based on boiling the scales in 5% Chelex 100, followed by digestion with proteinase K and subsequent absorption of genomic DNA using silica. A single fresh scale from larger species (e.g., tilapia) or a few scales from smaller species (e.g., 4 scales from zebrafish) provide over 200 ng of DNA, enough for at least 40 polymerase chain reaction amplifications. The procedure is applicable for DNA isolation not only from fresh and ethanol-preserved scales, but also from dried and formaldehyde-treated samples, and thus might be useful for investigating specimens stored in museums and other collections. Since the removal of a few scales is a gentle means of sample collection, this technique will allow analysis of genetic diversity, mating systems, and parentage in populations of endangered or ornamental fish with minimal experimental influence. PMID:14961356

  17. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  18. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  19. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  20. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…