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1

Barcoding Nemo: DNA-Based Identifications for the Ornamental Fish Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Trade in ornamental fishes represents, by far, the largest route for the importation of exotic vertebrates. There is growing pressure to regulate this trade with the goal of ensuring that species are sustainably harvested and that their point of origin is accurately reported. One important element of such regulation involves easy access to specimen identifications, a task that is currently difficult for all but specialists because of the large number of species involved. The present study represents an important first step in making identifications more accessible by assembling a DNA barcode reference sequence library for nearly half of the ornamental fish species imported into North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 391 species from 8 coral reef locations revealed that 98% of these species exhibit distinct barcode clusters, allowing their unambiguous identification. Most species showed little intra-specific variation (adjusted mean?=?0.21%), but nine species included two or three lineages showing much more divergence (2.19–6.52%) and likely represent overlooked species complexes. By contrast, three genera contained a species pair or triad that lacked barcode divergence, cases that may reflect hybridization, young taxa or taxonomic over-splitting. Conclusions/Significance Although incomplete, this barcode library already provides a new species identification tool for the ornamental fish industry, opening a realm of applications linked to collection practices, regulatory control and conservation.

Hebert, Paul D. N.

2009-01-01

2

Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.  

PubMed

Over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into Australia alone. Compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement in Australia. Ornamental fish originate from about 100 countries and hazards are mostly unknown; since 2000 there have been 16-fold fewer scientific publications on ornamental fish disease compared to farmed fish disease, and 470 fewer compared to disease in terrestrial species (cattle). The import quarantine policies of a range of countries were reviewed and classified as stringent or non-stringent based on the levels of pre-border and border controls. Australia has a stringent policy which includes pre-border health certification and a mandatory quarantine period at border of 1-3 weeks in registered quarantine premises supervised by government quarantine staff. Despite these measures there have been many disease incursions as well as establishment of significant exotic viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and metazoan pathogens from ornamental fish in farmed native Australian fish and free-living introduced species. Recent examples include Megalocytivirus and Aeromonas salmonicida atypical strain. In 2006, there were 22 species of alien ornamental fish with established breeding populations in waterways in Australia and freshwater plants and molluscs have also been introduced, proving a direct transmission pathway for establishment of pathogens in native fish species. Australia's stringent quarantine policies for imported ornamental fish are based on import risk analysis under the SPS agreement but have not provided an acceptable level of protection (ALOP) consistent with government objectives to prevent introduction of pests and diseases, promote development of future aquaculture industries or maintain biodiversity. It is concluded that the risk analysis process described by the Office International des Epizooties under the SPS agreement cannot be used in a meaningful way for current patterns of ornamental fish trade. Transboundary disease incursions will continue and exotic pathogens will become established in new regions as a result of the ornamental fish trade, and this will be an international phenomenon. Ornamental fish represent a special case in live animal trade where OIE guidelines for risk analysis need to be revised. Alternatively, for countries such as Australia with implied very high ALOP, the number of species traded and the number of sources permitted need to be dramatically reduced to facilitate hazard identification, risk assessment and import quarantine controls. PMID:17485126

Whittington, R J; Chong, R

2007-05-07

3

Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: The case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8–10million imported into Australia alone. Compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis

R. J. Whittington; R. Chong

2007-01-01

4

[Aspects of animal welfare and species protection in the international trade of ornamental fish and air transport to Germany].  

PubMed

The number of ornamental fish kept in German aquariums is rising, but the supply of offspring is not sufficient to meet the needs of the fish enthusiasts. Therefore millions of ornamental fish from foreign countries are being imported to Germany. This provokes a number of new problems regarding the protection of species and the animals' welfare during transportation. For the assessment of the transport conditions, 1000 shipments of ornamental fishes were evaluated at the Rhein-Main-Airport Frankfurt, Germany. Water samples were taken from 100 shipments and were examined for anaesthetics. The results are disturbing: 41% of the shipments have total transportation times between 31-42 h resulting in an oxygen deficit in the transport bags (5.2%) and dead ornamental fish. Also damage of the transportation containers, high fish densities as well as drastic size differences amoung the fish in one transport bag were noticeable. In 99% of the cases, formal defects could be noted. The German association of pet stores has declared that fish belonging to three special fresh water families should not be kept in an aquarium, but 1 200 of such fish were imported. The HPLC analysis of the water samples revealed an additive. The non-declared anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol was present in all samples taken from shipments based out of Singapore. The results emphasize that improvements are urgently necessary in the control of the air transport and trade with Ornamental fish. PMID:15918482

Wöhr, Anna-Caroline; Hildebrand, Heike; Unshelm, Jürgen; Erhard, Michael Helmut

5

Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50 years ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens

2003-01-01

6

Ornamental Reef Fish Aquaculture and Collection in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental fishes endemic to Hawaii's reefs are a valued resource and a staple of the marine aquarium trade, worldwide. At present, the market for Hawaiian ornamental reef fish is supplied entirely by the export of wild-captured animals, but the long-term sustainability of this practice is debatable. The success of breeders of ornamental fishes elsewhere, and concerns about overexploitation of wild

Thomas Ogawa; Christopher L. Brown

2001-01-01

7

The ornamental fish retail market in Hong Kong: Its evolution and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, Hong Kong is one of the major centres of ornamental fish trading in Asia. The size of the Hong Kong ornamental fish trade has attracted international attention. It is particularly interesting in terms of economics and management in the sense that there is virtually no government regulation of this industry, other than the ban on the trade or

Zhi Han; Lawrence W. C. Lai; James Fan

2002-01-01

8

[Enrofloxacin, a new drug for ornamental fish].  

PubMed

The compatibility and efficacy of enrofloxacin (Baytril) a newly developed antibiotic belonging to the quinolones, were tested for five ornamental fish species (Herotilapia multispinosa, Pterophyllum scalare, Symphysodon discus, Brachydanio rerio and Melanochromis johanni). The results prove that enrofloxacin has a high tolerance level for ornamental fishes and high efficacy against important bacterial diseases. 30 micrograms/l water over 5 hours are recommended for the treatment of ornamental fishes. PMID:2080513

Reimlinger, M; Hoffmann, R; Pfeil-Putzien, C; Scheinert, P

1990-12-01

9

The molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.  

PubMed

Iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. They may have originated in tropical Asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. Consequently, MCP, ATPase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had been imported from Asia. There was almost complete homology (99.95%) over 4,527 bp between Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV) and an iridovirus (DGIV) present in dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) that had died in aquarium shops in Australia in 2004, and very high homology with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) (99.9%). These viruses are most likely to be a single species within the genus Megalocytivirus and probably have a common geographic origin. Primers for genus-specific PCR and for rapid discrimination of MCIV/DGIV/ISKNV and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), a notifiable pathogen, were developed. These were used in a survey to determine that the prevalence of DGIV infection in diseased gourami in retail aquarium shops in Sydney was 22% (95% confidence limits 15-31%). The global trade in ornamental fish may facilitate the spread of Megalocytivirus and enable emergence of disease in new host species in distant biogeographic regions. PMID:16697343

Go, Jeffrey; Lancaster, Malcolm; Deece, Kylie; Dhungyel, Om; Whittington, Richard

10

Evaluating Innovations in the Ornamental Fish Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ornamental fish industry has a number of characteristics that must be taken into account when suggesting a method for evaluating innovations at the farm level. A small model discus, Symphysodon aequifasciata, farm (high-value, low-volume egg-layers) served as the case study for this article. Innovations target such technological parameters as annual reproduction per pair, egg fertility, larval survival, and growth.

Gregory Yom Din; Zinaida Zugman; Gad Degani

2002-01-01

11

Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2012-07-03

12

Recombinant constructs and transgenic fluorescent ornamental fish therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to the method and use of reef coral fluorescent proteins in making transgenic red, green and yellow fluorescent zebrafish. Preferably, such fluorescent zebrafish are fertile and used to establish a population of transgenic zebrafish and to provide to the ornamental fish industry for the purpose of marketing. Thus, new varieties of ornamental fish of different fluorescence colors from a novel source are developed.

Blake; Alan (Austin, TX); Crockett; Richard (New York, NY); Essner; Jeffrey (Ames, IA); Hackett; Perry (Saint Paul, MN); Nasevicius; Aidas (Plant City, FL)

2010-04-20

13

Imported ornamental fish are colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about the overuse of antibiotics in the ornamental fish industry and its possible effect on the increasing drug resistance in both commensal and pathogenic organisms in these fish. The aim of this study was to carry out an assessment of the diversity of bacteria, including pathogens, in ornamental fish species imported into North America and to assess their antibiotic resistance. Kidney samples were collected from 32 freshwater ornamental fish of various species, which arrived to an importing facility in Portland, Oregon from Colombia, Singapore and Florida. Sixty-four unique bacterial colonies were isolated and identified by PCR using bacterial 16S primers and DNA sequencing. Multiple isolates were identified as bacteria with potential to cause disease in both fish and humans. The antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate was performed for nine different antibiotics. Among them, cefotaxime (16% resistance among isolates) was the antibiotic associated with more activity, while the least active was tetracycline (77% resistant). Knowing information about the diversity of bacteria in imported ornamental fish, as well as the resistance profiles for the bacteria will be useful in more effectively treating clinical infected fish, and also potential zoonoses in the future. PMID:23294440

Rose, S; Hill, R; Bermudez, L E; Miller-Morgan, T

2013-01-07

14

Effects of Two Anesthetics on Water Quality during Simulated Transport of a Tropical Ornamental Fish, the Indian tiger barb Puntius filamentosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade in the Indian tiger barb Puntius filamentosus as an ornamental fish is gaining popularity, but growth of this trade is hindered by mortalities during transport. We studied the capability of two anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) at 40 mg\\/L and benzocaine at 20 mg\\/L, to reduce stress in fish during transport and thereby maintain water quality. Both anesthetics significantly (P

P. K. Pramod; T. P. Sajeevan; A. Ramachandran; Sunesh Thampy; S. Somnath Pai

2010-01-01

15

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

16

THE IDENTITY OF THE AFRICAN FIREBUSH (HAMELIA) IN THE ORNAMENTAL NURSERY TRADE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. In recent years, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flow...

17

Characterization of Streptococcus iniae isolated from ornamental cyprinid fishes and development of challenge models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus iniae was isolated from red-tail black shark(RTB shark) Epalzeorhynchos bicolor, and rainbow shark, E. erythrurus (fam: Cyprinidae), obtained from a local freshwater ornamental fish farm in Hillsborough county (FL). Darkening of the skin and lethargy were the first signs observed in infected sharks. Hemorrhages were observed on the ventral side of the body, on the head, and at the

Riccardo Russo; Hugh Mitchell; Roy P. E. Yanong

2006-01-01

18

Genetic diversity of three ornamental reef fishes (Families Pomacanthidae and Chaetodontidae) from the Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

Reef fishes of the families Pomacanthidae (angelfish) and Chaetodontidae (butterflyfish) are popular ornamental species, intensively harvested for the aquarium trade. The impacts of such activity on intra-specific diversity and reef ecosystems are still poorly understood in the south Atlantic. In the present work, a fine-scale genetic analysis using RAPD markers was performed in distinct samples of the queen angelfish (Holacanthus ciliaris), French angelfish (Pomacanthus paru), and banded butterflyfish (Chaetodon striatus) along the Brazilian coast. Most of the genetic variation in the three species was related to intra-population diversity. However, AMOVA results demonstrated that H. ciliaris presents a subtle population structure (phi(st)=0.132, P=0.003), while P. paru and C. striatus present low genetic differentiation, especially remarkable in the latter (phi(st) = 0.090, P=0.001 and phi(st)=0.041, P=0.028, respectively). Gene flow (Nm) was also higher in C. striatus than in the angelfish species. The reported patterns of genetic differentiation contrast with the similar pelagic stage of the selected species, suggesting that larval dispersal per se is a poor predictor of population structure in these reef fishes. Ecological features coupled with biogeographic history and distinct local selective pressures might play a major role on the genetic composition of each species. Although preliminary, the present results provide a baseline for monitoring the genetic variability in these reef species. These differences in the genetic structure among co-occurring species should be taken into consideration for the conservation of eventual evolutionary units along the Brazilian Province. PMID:18278361

Affonso, P R A M; Galetti Jr, P M

2007-12-01

19

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade.

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

20

Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius) exposed to formalin.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius). A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40%) (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg.L(-1)) with four replicates and five fish per container (3L) in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (%) were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC(50-96h (I))) estimated was 50.76 mg.L(-1) with regression of y = 0.51x, and r(2) = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects. PMID:23207704

Santos, Rudã F B; Dias, Henrique M; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y

2012-12-01

21

Development of transgenic fish for ornamental and bioreactor by strong expression of fluorescent proteins in the skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, new applications of the transgenic technology in developing novel varieties of ornamental fish and bioreactor fish were explored in a model fish, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Three “living color” fluorescent proteins, green fluorescent protein (GFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and red fluorescent protein (RFP or dsRed), were expressed under a strong muscle-specific mylz2 promoter in stable

Zhiyuan Gong; Haiyan Wan; Tuan Leng Tay; Hai Wang; Mingru Chen; Tie Yan

2003-01-01

22

Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin

Sebastian A Baldauf; Theo CM Bakker; Fabian Herder; Harald Kullmann; Timo Thünken

2010-01-01

23

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ?15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM?1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.

Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

2009-01-01

24

Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata. PMID:19485122

Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo

2009-03-01

25

Cryptic diversity in the mtDNA of the ornamental fish Carnegiella strigata.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) sequences of the marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, an ornamental fish exported from the Negro River, was examined to determine its genetic diversity and population structure in blackwater rivers (Negro and Uatumã Rivers) in the central Amazon. Analyses of a 646 bp fragment of the ATPase 6/8 mtDNA gene revealed two monophyletic lineages of C. strigata with considerable genetic distance between them (10-12%), suggesting that these lineages should not be considered a single stock. Furthermore, there were strong differences in the geographical distribution of the lineages. These results indicate a past association between drainages of the Negro and Uatumã Rivers. They also suggest that, in the Negro River, its main tributary, the Branco River, may act as a geographical barrier and potentially an ecological barrier between populations of the middle and lower portions of the river. PMID:22957865

Schneider, C H; Gross, M C; Terencio, M L; Porto, J I R

2012-08-03

26

Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.  

PubMed

For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish. PMID:1589426

Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

1992-01-01

27

Use of the Lampricide 3Trifluoromethyl4Nitrophenol (TFM) to Control Tadpoles in Warmwater Ornamental Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-based static acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the relative toxicity of TFM to selected species of tadpoles and ornamental fish in soft (mean, 45 mg\\/L as CaCO3) and hard (mean, 177 mg\\/L) freshwater. Sensitivity was measured as the 96-h LC50, the concentration lethal to half the test animals in 96 h, The sensitivity of larval bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana

Paul W. Gabbadon; Frank A. Chapman

1996-01-01

28

Possible applications of modern fish larviculture technology to ornamental fish production  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been rapid development in the marine foodfishlarviculture technology in Europe since the early eighties,especially in the flat fish, turbot and halibut, and the bass andbream species. The most significant improvements in the eightieswere the introduction of light control, artificial reproductiontechniques, appropriate water treatment and the use of rotifersand Artemia nauplii of specific sizes and in the late eightiesand

P. Dhert; L. C. Lim; P. Candreva; H. Van Duffel; P. Sorgeloos

1997-01-01

29

Tracking the Trade in Ornamental Coral Reef Organisms: The Importance of CITES and its Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of coral reef organisms for the aquarium and curio trade is reported to be contributing to coral reef degradation. The total international trade and associated impacts are unknown, because data are collected only for organisms listed on Appendix II of CITES, which include stony corals, antipatharians and giant clams. CITES data indicate that trade in live stony coral

Andrew W. Bruckner

2001-01-01

30

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

31

Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird.  

PubMed

Bird song is hypothesized to be a reliable indicator of cognition because it depends on brain structure and function. Song features have been found to correlate positively with measures of cognition, but the relationship between song and cognition is complicated because not all cognitive abilities are themselves positively correlated. If cognition is not a unitary trait, developmental constraints on brain growth could generate trade-offs between some aspects of cognition and song. To further clarify the relationship between song and cognition in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we examined repertoire size and performance on a spatial task. We found an inverse relationship between repertoire size and speed of spatial learning and suggest that a developmental trade-off between the hippocampus and song control nuclei could be responsible for this relationship. By attending to male song, females may learn about a suite of cognitive abilities; this study suggests that females may glean information about a male's cognitive weaknesses as well as his strengths. PMID:23697642

Sewall, Kendra B; Soha, Jill A; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

2013-05-22

32

Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in puerto rico: a case study.  

PubMed

In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930's. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1) an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers, collection methods and export volumes, and (2) the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators. The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators, and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits, the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order. To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy, regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1) characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports, (2) describe populations and biology of commercial species, and (3) propose appropriate fisheries management approaches. This paper describes only the first phase of this program. PMID:17465153

Hardin, M P; Legore, R S

2005-05-01

33

Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2012-08-18

34

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the ornamental discus fish Symphysodon discus and cross-species amplification in other Heroini cichlid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discus fishes (Symphysodon spp.) are economically important ornamental species. Thirteen microsatellite markers were developed from a CT12- and CA12-enriched whole genomic DNA library of Symphysodon discus. Allelic variability was tested on 44 individuals of two species (S. discus and S. aequifasciatus). Allelic richness ranged from two to 11 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities from 0.083 to 0.998. All

MANUELLA VILLAR AMADO; TOMAS HRBEK; WALESKA GRAVENA; CLEITON FANTIN; ENEDINA NOGUEIRA DE ASSUNÇÃO; SPARTACO ASTOLFI-FILHO; IZENI P. FARIAS

2008-01-01

35

A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice  

PubMed Central

Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference.

Thunken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Baldauf, Sebastian A.

2012-01-01

36

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

37

The Introduction of Nonnative Fishes into Freshwater Systems of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the 1930s, alien fishes (fishes not native to Peru) have been introduced into the freshwater systems of Peru for different\\u000a purposes such as fish farming, the ornamental fish trade, public health applications, and sport fishing. The fish were introduced\\u000a either deliberately or casually into the three hydrographic systems of the country (Amazon, Pacific coastal rivers, and Lake\\u000a Titicaca). To

Hernán Ortega; Humberto Guerra; Rina Ramírez

38

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the ornamental discus fish Symphysodon discus and cross-species amplification in other Heroini cichlid species.  

PubMed

The discus fishes (Symphysodon spp.) are economically important ornamental species. Thirteen microsatellite markers were developed from a CT(12) - and CA(12) -enriched whole genomic DNA library of Symphysodon discus. Allelic variability was tested on 44 individuals of two species (S. discus and S. aequifasciatus). Allelic richness ranged from two to 11 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities from 0.083 to 0.998. All loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no pair of loci showed linkage disequilibrium within a species. Cross-species amplification was also successfully performed in the Neotropical cichlids Uaru amphiacanthoides, Hoplarchus psittacus, Hypselecara coryphaenoides, Pterophyllum sp., Mesonauta sp. and Heros sp. PMID:21586073

Amado, Manuella Villar; Hrbek, Tomas; Gravena, Waleska; Fantin, Cleiton; DE Assunção, Enedina Nogueira; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Farias, Izeni P

2008-09-15

39

Roman trade relationships at Sagalassos (Turkey) elucidated by ancient DNA of fish remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excavations of Roman and Early Byzantine contexts at the town of Sagalassos (Turkey) yielded fish remains belonging to species that do not occur near the site. The modern geographical distribution of the identified fish indicates trade with various regions of Anatolia, the Mediterranean coast, Egypt and\\/or the Levant. Trade with Levant and Egypt is evident throughout the period by

Allan Arndt; Wim Van Neer; Bart Hellemans; Johan Robben; Filip Volckaert; Marc Waelkens

2003-01-01

40

Ornamental Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

41

Sexual ornamentation, androgens and papillomatosis in male roach (Rutilus rutilus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, males with attractive sexual ornamentation are more handicapped than their less ornamented rivals because of the immunosuppressive androgens required for the production of secondary sexual characters. Here we studied the predictions of the hypothesis in a wild cyprinid fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). We assayed (1) sexual ornamentation (breeding tubercles), (2) circulating androgens (11-ketotestosterone

Raine Kortet; Anssi Vainikka; Markus J. Rantala; Ilmari Jokinen; Jouni Taskinen

2003-01-01

42

Agribusiness Opportunities of Ornamental Fisheries in North-Eastern Region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North-Eastern region produces the bulk of India’s ornamental fish exports but remains unattended for developing market opportunities. Several agribusiness opportunities can be explored through systematic collection and selling of native ornamental fish (wild catch) as well as rearing of exotic ornamental fish species (captive breeding) suitable in the region. In view of these, the present study has analysed the

Subhasis Mandal; B. K. Mahapatra; A. K. Tripathi; Med Ram Verma; K. K. Datta; S. V. Ngachan

2007-01-01

43

Evaluation of policy options for the live reef food fish trade in the province of Palawan, Western Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The live reef food fish (LRFF) trade has an estimated annual retail value of US$1 billion in the Asia-Pacific region and at least US$30 million in the Philippines. Palawan Province is the trade's center accounting for as much as 55% of the commodity's total export. Concern about the LRFF trade has caused the Palawan Provincial government to take action to

Robert S. Pomeroy; Michael D. Pido; John Francisco A. Pontillas; Benjamin S. Francisco; Alan T. White; Eva Marie C. Ponce De Leon; Geronimo T. Silvestre

2008-01-01

44

Risk trade-offs in fish consumption: a public health perspective.  

PubMed

Fish consumption advisories instruct vulnerable consumers to avoid high mercury fish and to limit total fish intake to reduce neurotoxic risk. Consumption data from the U.S. suggest that nontarget consumers also respond to such advice. These consumers reduce exposure to mercury and other toxicants at the cost of reduction in cardioprotective fatty acids. We present a probabilistic model to assess these risk trade-offs. We use NHANES consumption data to simulate exposure to contaminants and nutrients in fish, employ dose-response relationships to convert exposure to health end points, and monetize them using benefit transfer. Our results suggest that newborns gained on average 0.033 IQ points from their mothers' compliance with the prominent FDA/EPA advisory. The welfare gain for a birth cohort is estimated at $386 million. This gain could be fully offset by increments in cardiovascular risk if 0.6% of consumers aged 40 and older reduced fish intake by one monthly meal until they reached the age of 60 or if 0.1% of them permanently reduced fish intake. PMID:23110525

Rheinberger, Christoph M; Hammitt, James K

2012-11-08

45

PEPPER, ORNAMENTAL, CAPSICUM ANNUUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ornamental peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are morphologically diverse and admired for their ornamental value. Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varyin...

46

Life history trade-offs and community dynamics of small fishes in a seasonally pulsed wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.

DeAngelis, D. L.; Trexler, J. C.; Loftus, W. F.

2005-01-01

47

Biomechanical trade-offs bias rates of evolution in the feeding apparatus of fishes  

PubMed Central

Morphological diversification does not proceed evenly across the organism. Some body parts tend to evolve at higher rates than others, and these rate biases are often attributed to sexual and natural selection or to genetic constraints. We hypothesized that variation in the rates of morphological evolution among body parts could also be related to the performance consequences of the functional systems that make up the body. Specifically, we tested the widely held expectation that the rate of evolution for a trait is negatively correlated with the strength of biomechanical trade-offs to which it is exposed. We quantified the magnitude of trade-offs acting on the morphological components of three feeding-related functional systems in four radiations of teleost fishes. After accounting for differences in the rates of morphological evolution between radiations, we found that traits that contribute more to performance trade-offs tend to evolve more rapidly, contrary to the prediction. While ecological and genetic factors are known to have strong effects on rates of phenotypic evolution, this study highlights the role of the biomechanical architecture of functional systems in biasing the rates and direction of trait evolution.

Holzman, Roi; Collar, David C.; Price, Samantha A.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Thomson, Robert C.; Wainwright, Peter C.

2012-01-01

48

The relationship between male ornamentation and swimming performance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine if three male ornaments in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were reliable indicators of swimming performance. Tail shape and dorsal fin length were chosen because they are ornaments that are of primary importance in swimming, which is a major survival component of fitness in fish. The carotenoid pigments and especially their density are

Paul F. Nicoletto

1991-01-01

49

The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution of sexual ornaments, and particularly that of female sexual ornaments, is an enduring challenge in evolutionary biology. Key to this challenge are establishing the relationship between ornament expression and female reproductive investment, and determining the genetic basis underpinning such relationship. Advances in genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to study the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments in model species. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a female sexual ornament, the comb of the fowl, Gallus gallus, using a large-scale intercross between red junglefowl and a domestic line, selected for egg production. First, we demonstrate that female somatic investment in comb reflects female reproductive investment. Despite a trade-off between reproductive and skeletal investment mediated by the mobilization of skeletal minerals for egg production, females with proportionally large combs also had relatively high skeletal investment. Second, we identify a major QTL for bisexual expression of comb mass and several QTL specific to female comb mass. Importantly, QTL for comb mass were nonrandomly clustered with QTL for female reproductive and skeletal investment on chromosomes one and three. Together, these results shed light onto the physiological and genetic architecture of a female ornament. PMID:18053076

Wright, Dominic; Kerje, Susanne; Brändström, Helena; Schütz, Karin; Kindmark, Andreas; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Pizzari, Tommaso

2007-12-05

50

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade.  

PubMed

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:14703908

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-11-01

51

Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

52

VORONOI DIAGRAMS AND ORNAMENTAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of points in the plane induces a Voronoi diagram, a division of the plane based on proximity to points in the set. Voronoi diagrams have been used extensively in engineering and scientific disciplines, but the possibility of using them for creating abstract ornamental designs is largely unexplored. I present some techniques for creating attractive ornamental designs using Voronoi

Craig S. Kaplan

1999-01-01

53

Living off a fish: A trade-off between parasites and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in fish immune system and parasite invasion mechanisms has advanced the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby parasites evade or cope with fish immune response. The main mechanisms of immune evasion employed by fish parasites are reviewed and considered under ten headings. 1) Parasite isolation: parasites develop in immuno-privileged host tissues, such as brain, gonads, or eyes, where host barriers

A. Sitjà-Bobadilla

2008-01-01

54

Sexual and lifetime selection on body size in a marine fish: the importance of life-history trade-offs.  

PubMed

Many field measurements of viability and sexual selection on body size indicate that large size is favoured. However, life-history theory predicts that body size may be optimized and that patterns of selection may often be stabilizing rather than directional. One reason for this discrepancy may be that field estimates of selection tend to focus on limited components of fitness and may not fully measure life-history trade-offs. We use an 8-year, demographic field study to examine both sexual selection and lifetime selection on body size of a coral reef fish (the bicolour damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Selection via reproductive success of adults was very strong (standardized selection differential=1.04). However, this effect was balanced by trade-offs between large adult size and reduced cumulative survival during the juvenile phase. When we measured lifetime fitness (net reproductive rate), selection was strongly stabilizing and only weakly directional, consistent with predictions from life-history theory. PMID:21605216

Johnson, D W; Hixon, M A

2011-05-23

55

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Before any vessel documented with a fishery license endorsement shall touch and trade at a foreign port or place, the master shall obtain from the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and...

2013-04-01

56

Detection of multiple stimulus features forces a trade-off in the pyramidal cell network of a gymnotiform electric fish's electrosensory lateral line lobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of an existing neural structure to support a second function will produce a trade-off between the two functions\\u000a if they are in some way incompatible. The trade-off between two such sensory functions is modeled here in pyramidal neurons\\u000a of the gymnotiform electric fish's medullar electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). These neurons detect two electric stimulus\\u000a features produced when a

P. K. Stoddard

1997-01-01

57

Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the

Emmanuel Corse; Caroline Costedoat; Nicolas Pech; Rémi Chappaz; Jonathan Grey; André Gilles

2009-01-01

58

Developmental Plasticity, Genetic Differentiation, and Hypoxia-induced Trade-offs in an African Cichlid Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in the process of adaptation and evolutionary change in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae. Parental fish were collected from a hypoxic swamp, a lake ecotone, and a river in Uganda. Broods (F1) were split and grown under hypoxia or normoxia. We measured mor- phological parameters of the gill

Lauren Chapman; James Albert; Frietson Galis

2008-01-01

59

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...prevention, growing medium, fertilization, irrigation, insect and...facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged...

2013-01-01

60

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...prevention, growing medium, fertilization, irrigation, insect and...facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged...

2012-01-01

61

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five...

2013-01-01

62

VIRUS DISEASES OF ORNAMENTAL HIBISCUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diagnosis of virus diseases of ornamental hibiscus or shoe flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and H. hybrid, was conducted using tissue blot immunoassay techniques. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the viral coat protein (CP) gene from infected hibiscus and its nu...

63

Ornamental Chrysanthemums: Improvement by Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro tissue culture and micropropagation of chrysanthemums, important floricultural (cut-flower) and ornamental (pot and garden) plants, have been well studied. An increase in genetic transformation studies aimed at improving aesthetic and growth characteristics of the plants has been hampered by low transformation efficiencies and genotype dependence of protocols. As a result chrysanthemum regeneration studies have once again emerged

2004-01-01

64

Current Status of Sperm Cryopreservation in Biomedical Research Fish Models: Zebrafish, Medaka, and Xiphophorus*  

PubMed Central

Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamental fish trade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the needs and opportunities for future research and application of cryopreservation in aquarium fish. First, we summarize the basic biological characteristics regarding natural habitat, testis structure, spermatogenesis, sperm morphology, and sperm physiology. Second, we compare protocol development of sperm cryopreservation. Third, we emphasize the importance of artificial fertilization in sperm cryopreservation to evaluate the viability of thawed sperm. We conclude with a look to future research directions for sperm cryopreservation and the application of this technique in aquarium species.

Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

2009-01-01

65

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

2009-01-01

66

Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

67

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2013-01-01

68

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2010-01-01

69

Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

2009-01-01

70

Owen Jones and the Conventionalization of Ornament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owen Jones (1809-1874) was a Victorian architect, antiquarian and ornamentor of house-hold fame. He was Superintendant of the Works for the Royal Society of Arts sponsored Crystal Palace of 1851. He published his monumental chromolithographed The Grammar of Ornament in 1856, an encyclopediac compendium of nineteen styles of world ornament and a final twentieth chapter on nature. One of the

John Kresten Jespersen

2010-01-01

71

Ornamental Horticulture. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary ornamental horticulture education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in ornamental horticulture in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills.…

Simpson, Bruce; And Others

72

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF DIVERSE PHYTOPLASMAS OF SUBGROUPS 16SRI-A, 16SRI-B, 16SRI-L, AND 16SRI-M INFECTING ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN LITHUANIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trade in ornamental plant species comprises a significant segment in the economies of countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Since the quality of ornamental plants is adversely affected by diseases attributed to phytoplasmas, we surveyed plant collections in botanical gardens and floricultur...

73

Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries to Manage Areas for Farming Coral Reef Fish and Invertebrates for the Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef fish, corals, and other marine invertebrate species associated with coral reefs need to be managed in a sustainable manner to halt destructive fishing in the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. As part of the Coastal Communities Empowerment Project, the International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) plans to implement Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs) to help manage municipal waters; while

Peter J. Rubec; Vaughan R. Pratt; Ferdinand Cruz

2001-01-01

74

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal\\u000a honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration\\u000a of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen

Pilar López; Marianne Gabirot; José Martín

2009-01-01

75

Oxidative stress and the effect of parasites on a carotenoid-based ornament  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Oxidative stress, the physiological condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences, causes damage to key bio-molecules. It has been implicated in many diseases, and is proposed as a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. Whether oxidative stress mediates the expression of carotenoid-based signals, which are among

F. Mougeot; J. Martinez-Padilla; J. D. Blount; L. Perez-Rodriguez; L. M. I. Webster; S. B. Piertney

2010-01-01

76

I'll Trade You a Bag of Chips, Two Cookies, and $60,000 for Your Tuna Fish Sandwich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduces concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.

77

Quantitative genetic evidence that males trade attractiveness for ejaculate quality in guppies.  

PubMed

Polyandry, where females mate with multiple males, means that a male's reproductive success will depend both on his ability to acquire mates and the ability of his sperm to compete effectively for fertilizations. But, how do males partition their reproductive investment between these two episodes of selection? Theory predicts that increases in ejaculate investment will come at a cost to investment in other reproductive traits. Although evidence revealing such trade-offs is accumulating, we know little about their genetic basis. Here, I report patterns of genetic (co)variation for a range of traits subject to pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a promiscuous livebearing fish in which males alternate between courtship and sneak matings to obtain copulations. The analyses of genetic variation and covariation for these behaviours revealed a strong genetic predisposition for one tactic over the other. Both mating tactics were also strongly genetically integrated with the level of sexual ornamentation and ejaculate quality. Males that predominantly performed sneak matings were less ornamented but had faster swimming sperm than those that predominantly used courtship. These patterns of genetic variation and covariation reveal potential evolutionary constraints on the direction of selection of pre- and post-copulatory traits, and support sperm competition theory by revealing a trade-off between sexual attractiveness and investment in ejaculates. PMID:20504807

Evans, Jonathan P

2010-05-26

78

Gonadal development in a giant threatened reef fish, the humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, and its relationship to international trade.  

PubMed

An opportunity arose to obtain humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus specimens between 2006 and 2009 from Indonesia, the major source and exporting country of this species, making study on its early gonad development possible for the first time. Protogynous hermaphroditism, previously proposed for this species, was confirmed in this study. Based on histological examination of 178 specimens, mainly <500 mm total length (L(T)) and ranging from 208 to 1290 mm L(T) (119.1 g to 43.0 kg whole body mass), the minimum body sizes for female and male sexual maturation were determined to be 650 and 845 mm L(T), respectively. Primary male development through juvenile sexual differentiation was not detected. A unique blind pouch, with a possible sperm storage function and associated with the testis, was reported for the first time in the Labridae. In Hong Kong retail markets, the global trading centre for this valuable species, live C. undulatus on sale for food were dominated by body sizes <500 mm L(T) between 1995 and 2009, reflecting an international trade largely focused on juveniles. In consideration of these findings, and given the threatened status of this species, management for C. undulatus capture and trade nationally and internationally are discussed with recommendations for ensuring sufficient spawning biomass in exploited populations and for sustainable trade. PMID:20701649

Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y; Liu, M; Suharti, S

2010-08-01

79

Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.  

PubMed

The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P?>?0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants. PMID:23532544

Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

2013-03-27

80

Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

NONE

1995-07-01

81

Treatment of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage ofIchthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1–11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5-

Günter Schmahl; Silke Ruider; Heinz Mehlhorn; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

1992-01-01

82

Human?assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 34 alien fish species have established populations in Australian freshwaters with a further 53 native fish species translocated within the country. Twelve pathways of human?assisted dispersal for freshwater fish have been identified in Australia, and each is discussed with examples given. The major pathway has been the aquarium or ornamental fish industry, with 22 of the 34 alien species

Mark Lintermans

2004-01-01

83

Microencapsulation of Fish Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

84

Sexual Ornament Size and the Cost of Fluctuating Asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that extravagant secondary sexual characters, i.e. ornaments, give males a mating advantage through male-male competition or female choice, all males should benefit from growing very large ornaments. If sexual characters are to function as reliable advertisements of male quality, there must be a limit for males in their ability to grow or maintain large ornaments because of associated fitness

Anders Pape Moller

1991-01-01

85

Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORNAMENTAL traits such as colourful bird plumage were the prime motivation for Darwin's theory of sexual selection1. Other evolutionary mechanisms could also select for ornamental traits2-6, but such mechanisms have received far less attention, and empirical evidence for their existence is weak. Here we show that parental choice selects for the bizarre ornamental plumes of newly hatched American coot (Fulica

Bruce E. Lyon; John M. Eadie; Linda D. Hamilton

1994-01-01

86

Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

Hartman, John R.; And Others

87

Mutual ornamentation, age, and reproductive performance in the European starling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental traits expressed in both sexes are widespread among birds. Many studies have indicated that male ornaments develop through sexual selection. Female ornaments may be correlated effects of selection on males or have signaling functions in their own right. In the facultatively polygynous starling Sturnus vulgaris, both sexes possess iridescent throat feathers, which are actively displayed during courtship by males.

Jan Komdeur; Margot Oorebeek; Thijs van Overveld; Innes C. Cuthill

2005-01-01

88

Simple ecological trade-offs give rise to emergent cross-ecosystem distributions of a coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential\\u000a to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the\\u000a movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds)\\u000a to areas preferred by adults. It

Monique G. G. Grol; Ivan Nagelkerken; Andrew L. Rypel; Craig A. Layman

2011-01-01

89

Ornamental Horticulture. A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide for a 2-year ornamental horticulture course contains six functional units, each with several sub-units, and six horizontal supportive units. Each unit includes behavioral objectives, learning activities, topic…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

90

Outlines of Courses in Ornamental Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to suggest subject matter content of courses or programs in ornamental horticulture for high school and postsecondary vocational-technical programs, this curriculum guide was prepared by staff members of the Agricultural Education Department at the Pennsylvania State University, and tested in a workshop with vocational agriculture…

Richards, F. L.

91

Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

92

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

93

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

94

Testing the interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on carotenoid-based ornamentation in a wild bird.  

PubMed

Testosterone underlies the expression of most secondary sexual traits, playing a key role in sexual selection. However, high levels might be associated with physiological costs, such as immunosuppression. Immunostimulant carotenoids underpin the expression of many red-yellow ornaments, but are regulated by testosterone and constrained by parasites. We manipulated testosterone and nematode burdens in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) in two populations to tease apart their effects on carotenoid levels, ornament size and colouration in three time-step periods. We found no evidence for interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on ornament size and colouration. We showed that ornament colouration was testosterone-driven. However, parasites decreased comb size with a time delay and testosterone increased carotenoid levels in one of the populations. This suggests that environmental context plays a key role in determining how individuals resolve the trade-off between allocating carotenoids for ornamental coloration or for self-maintenance needs. Our study advocates that adequately testing the mechanisms behind the production or maintenance of secondary sexual characters has to take into account the dynamics of sexual trait expression and their environmental context. PMID:20536879

Martínez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Webster, L M I; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Piertney, S B

2010-05-01

95

Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

2013-09-01

96

Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

2012-01-01

97

Senescing sexual ornaments recover after a sabbatical.  

PubMed

Somatic deterioration in ageing animals may arise from allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of repair and maintenance. Thus, accumulated reproductive effort is likely to progressively limit the expression of sexual ornaments at older ages. We analysed the effect of age and reproductive effort on the sexual attractiveness (foot colour) of male blue-footed boobies. Using a long-term dataset, we found that, as animals age and accumulate reproductive events, the expression of foot colour deteriorates. In addition, after non-breeding events males displayed more colourful feet compared with males that reproduced the year before, suggesting that sabbatical years facilitate recovery. Our results indirectly support the idea that allocation of resources to reproduction limits sexual attractiveness and that animals could cope with the negative effects of senescence on sexual ornaments by skipping some breeding events. PMID:19955170

Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

2009-12-02

98

FOOD PREFERENCE OF GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS (LINNAEUS, 1758)) AND ITS POTENTIAL IN MOSQUITO CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental fishes are the most popular pets in present day world. Among these orna- mental fishes, gold fish (Carrasius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)) is the most admired ornamental fish through out the world and also in India. Most of the fish farmers associated with ornamental fish trade in India are engaged in captive cul- ture of gold fishes. Supply of suitable

Sandipan Gupta; Samir Banerjee

99

ENRICHMENT OF ARTEMIA FOR USE IN FRESHWATER ORNAMENTAL FISH PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors extend,a hearty,MAHALO and,ALOHA to all who contributed to the completion,of this manual. The production,of this handbook,is a combined,effort of three institutions: 1),the United States Department,of Agriculture Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture,(CTSA) through,a grant,from the U.S. Department,of Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (USDA grant #96-38500-2743). 2),the University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service (SGES)

Clyde S. Tamaru; Harry Ako; Restituto Paguirigan

100

Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris).  

PubMed

Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response. PMID:17569027

Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A

2007-06-14

101

Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

Wilson, Aubry

102

Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

103

Stabilizing sexual selection for female ornaments in a dance fly.  

PubMed

Ornamental traits function by improving attractiveness and are generally presumed to experience directional selection for mating success. However, given the greater investment of females in offspring than males, female-specific ornaments can in theory signal fecundity yet be constrained by fecundity costs. Theoretical work predicts that such constraints can lead to stabilizing selection via male choice for intermediately ornamented females. Female dance flies Rhamphomyia longicauda (Diptera: Empididae) display two female-specific ornaments in mating swarms - inflatable abdominal sacs and pinnate tibial scales. We investigated the intensity and form of sexual selection on female traits including ornaments and found no evidence for directional sexual selection. Instead, we found marginally nonsignificant quadratic selection for all three measures of ornament expression. Canonical analysis confirmed that the strongest vectors of nonlinear selection were associated with ornamental traits, although the significance of the quadratic coefficients associated with these vectors depended on the statistical approach. Direct Mitchell-Olds and Shaw tests for the location of the maximum fitted fitness value for both raw morphological traits and canonical axes revealed only one marginally nonsignificant result for the multivariate axis loading most heavily on pinnate leg scales. Together, these results provide the first tentative support for stabilizing selection on female-specific ornaments. PMID:22551204

Wheeler, J; Gwynne, D T; Bussière, L F

2012-05-03

104

Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for Florida ornamental production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This project is a cooperative effort among USDA, ARS and University of Florida researchers, Florida in-ground ornamental producers, and fumigant industry representatives. Funding is provided through the USDA-ARS Area-wide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide. The ornamental i...

105

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornaments may advertise genetic benefits to females choosing mates. These benefits may come in the form of genes for resistance to parasites and disease. Thus, females that prefer more ornamented males as mates may receive genes for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is the only species to date in which a male

Julia C. Garvin; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Douglas A. Steeber; D. Hasselquist

2007-01-01

106

Sex-limited expression of ornamental feathers in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extravagant secondary sexual characters show sexual size dimorphism in some species but are completely sex limited in others. Sexual ornamentation has been hypothesized to benefit mainly males through sexual selection, but the costs of secondary sexual characters initially would be experienced by both sexes. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism of ornaments and, eventually, the complete sex-limited expression of these

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones

107

Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A

2012-08-13

108

Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

2011-04-27

109

Temporary Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most trade theories assume bilateral trade relationships are forged on the basis of some comparative advantages, scale considerations, market structure or some productivity advantage of firms. Since these factors change slowly, bilateral trade relationships should be stable. However, we argue that over half of the non-zero bilateral trade relationships are of temporary nature: they last for a short period only

Balazs Murakozy; Gabor Bekes

2009-01-01

110

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

111

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS §...

2013-04-01

112

Segment-arrow diagrams and invariants of ornaments  

SciTech Connect

An ornament is a finite collection of closed oriented curves in the plane no three of which have common points. Homotopy invariants of ornaments are considered. Similarly to the case of knot classification, all invariants of ornaments are equal to the linking numbers with appropriate cycles in the discriminant, that is, in the set of collections of curves with forbidden intersections. Finite-order (or Vassiliev) invariants are those for which the corresponding cycle can be described in terms of finitely many strata in the natural stratification of the discriminant by the types of forbidden points. The calculation of these invariants is reduced to the calculation of certain cohomological spectral sequences. A new explicit combinatorial construction of a series of finite order invariants of ornaments is presented. It is shown that some previously known series of finite order invariants are contained in this series, which can also be expressed in terms of cohomology classes of natural finite-dimensional topological spaces.

Merkov, A B [Institute for System Analysis , Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-12-31

113

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

114

16. DETAIL, WEST PARAPET, FROM EAST, SHOWING SIMPLY ORNAMENTED SOLID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. DETAIL, WEST PARAPET, FROM EAST, SHOWING SIMPLY ORNAMENTED SOLID PARAPET PANEL AT STIFF TOWER, SUPPORTING ORIGINAL METAL LIGHT STANDARD - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

115

SOUTH AND EAST SIDES; HENSCHIEN APPLIED HIS ORNAMENTAL MOTIF EVEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH AND EAST SIDES; HENSCHIEN APPLIED HIS ORNAMENTAL MOTIF EVEN TO THIS TINY STRUCTURE; NOTE PRAIRIE-STYLE CAPITALS ON PILASTERS - Rath Packing Company, Salt Bunker, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

116

Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.  

PubMed

A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-05-14

117

Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.  

PubMed Central

Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'.

Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Raberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

2002-01-01

118

A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

2013-06-04

119

The Schools Market for Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The White Fish Authority and the Torry Research Station of the Department of Trade and Industry have been investigating the use of fish in school meals. This report presents information collected on the amount and kind of fish served, and the prices paid ...

A. Moore D. A. Palfreman

1971-01-01

120

Fishing in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting magazine from the European Commission covers diverse topics related to (but not exclusive of) the fishing industry (in .pdf format). The current issue of the magazine includes a piece from the Trade Union of Fish Merchants; the story of an expanding fishing village; the discovery of the Patagonian toothfish, a potentially threatened species; and a discussion of Total Allowable Catches for the year 2000.

121

Use of molluscs, fish, and other marine taxa by tourism in Zanzibar, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection of shells is a popular tourist activity in coastal areas of tropical countries. Tourists also buy shells, particularly large gastropods, which may be important species in marine ecosystems. While some, though outdated, information exists on the magnitude of the international trade with ornamental shells, virtually nothing is known about the extent of the regional tourist-related curio trade. A

Stefan Gössling; Timo Kunkel; Kim Schumacher; Maiken Zilger

2004-01-01

122

An examination of the trade-offs in public health resulting from the use of default exposure assumptions in fish consumption advisories.  

PubMed

Efforts to provide for public health protection from environmental contaminants in fish have resulted in various advisories or recommendations with regard to fish consumption from local, state, and federal agencies. These advisories are based on measured levels of contaminants in fish that are combined with values for body weight and portion size to produce an estimate of an "acceptable" consumption frequency (e.g., eat no more than once per month). Because values for body weight and portion size are generally generic default values, they do not necessarily relate to a specific population or to any individual in that population. Thus, the use of default values may result in underprotection or overprotection in any given case. Given the benefits of fish consumption and the risks from overexposure to various toxicants, vigilance is required by custodians of public health to ensure that populations are protected while being cautious not to over- or underprotect them. In this analysis, we examine the "acceptable" consumption limits derived for fish species/groups consumed by three specific populations and determine the extent of public health protection afforded by these limits. To accomplish this, the "acceptable" consumption frequencies are derived based, in part, on default assumptions and are compared to intakes calculated from empirically derived species-specific individual consumption and demographic data. Sensitivity analyses and population-specific probabilistic assessments of exposure are conducted to identify those values and/or assumptions which might significantly influence the resulting fish consumption advisories. Three populations were chosen for study based on their ability to represent populations of greatest concern: those most sensitive and/or those most exposed. We conclude from this investigation that consumption pattern data, contaminant data and body weight data together can be used to make fish consumption advisories more focused and, therefore, less likely to be under- or overprotective. PMID:15820733

Mariën, Koenraad; Stern, Alan H

2005-06-01

123

Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.  

PubMed

In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination. PMID:22610632

Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

2012-01-01

124

Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi).  

PubMed

Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and the different mode of inheritance of the two black patterns associated with them. Identifying the genetic basis of color and color patterns in Koi will promote the production of this valuable ornamental fish. Furthermore, given the rich variety of colors and patterns, Koi serves as a good model to unravel pigmentation genes and their phenotypic effects and by that to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of colors also in natural populations. PMID:23355846

Bar, Ido; Kaddar, Ethan; Velan, Ariel; David, Lior

2013-01-25

125

Low Cost Fish Fed for Aquarium Fish: a Test Case Using Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive trial was undertaken to assess the effect of various types of feed on biomass conversion rate as well as on ovary weight in Kolisa Kholisa, a fish for food and ornamental use. Three groups of Juvenile fishes (3.0±0.015 g; 10.00±0.75 mm) were fed with three different types of feed. The special prepared food (SPF) made with dried earthworm

D. Chakrabarty; S. K. Das

126

Insider trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a time, illegal insider trading grabbed headlines in the United States as a succession of high-flying offenders were brought to earth by criminal and civil prosecutions. These flamboyant cases aside, the characteristics of “routine” insider trading have never been explored. This study broke into new substantive territory by providing details regarding 452 persons charged by the federal government with

Elizabeth Szockyj; Gilbert Geis

2002-01-01

127

Variable sexual ornaments in scarlet-tufted malachite sunbirds ( Nectarinia johnstoni) on Mount Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to be elaborated by sexual selection, sexual ornaments must vary perceptibly and genetically among individuals in natural populations. Rather little is known about ornament variation in monogamous species, in which sexual selection should act more weakly than in polygynous species. We report phenotypic variation in feather ornament size (elongated tails and pectoral tufts) and body size in the

Matthew R. Evans; Phoebe Barnard

1995-01-01

128

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVERAL NEW AND EMERGING POTYVIRUSES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases caused by viruses continue to seriously affect the production and quality of ornamental plants. Growers have reported problems with previously unreported viruses in several economically important ornamental crop species exhibiting virus-like symptoms. Total RNA was isolated from ornamental ...

129

Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test

Karen K. W. Mak; Hideshi Yanase; Reinhard Renneberg

2005-01-01

130

AUTOMATED QUANTISATION AND TRANSCRIPTION OF ORNAMENTS FROM AUDIO RECORDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method for rhythm quantisation and measurement of expressive timing. This paper focuses on the automatic quantisation and rhythmic transcription of syncopated rhythms and baroque ornaments, e.g. ap- pogiaturas, mordants and trills from time-tagged audio rec- ordings without knowing the score in advance. We demon- strate the transcription of the Aria of J. S. Bach's Goldberg Variations,

Georg Boenn

131

Seed germination of ornamental plants: A greenery plan contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased urbanization, coupled with harsh climatic condition presents difficulties in ornamental plant introduction and selection. Selection of plant materials is crucial in landscaping, as the plants should be well-adapted to the harsh environment. Selection of heat- and drought- tolerant plants is the efficient method for the execution of landscape projects locally especially when they are properly selected, placed and maintained.

M. K. Suleiman

2003-01-01

132

Developmental perspective on the evolution of sexual ornaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual ornaments are favoured to be both less integrated with other organismal traits for greater expression, and yet more integrated with organismal development and functions to better indicate the physiological quality of an organism. Two conceptual approaches in morphological evolution - the consideration of internal and external processes and the evolution of integration and modularity - are useful in resolving

Alexander V. Badyaev

2004-01-01

133

Evaluation of Cuphea Species for Traits of Ornamental Value  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of cuphea species and clones, particularly in the Cuphea taxonomic sections Heterodon and Melvilla, with various ornamental traits were evaluated under environmental conditions prevalent in the Gulf South. Conditions include full sun and overhead irrigation typical of container production ...

134

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SELECTED ERICACEOUS ORNAMENTAL HOST SPECIES TO PHYTOPHTHORA RAMORUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed disease reactions of 51 species or varieties of Ericaceous ornamental hosts to two isolates of Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death. Hosts varied widely in susceptibility, ranging from 0% to over 90% leaf area infected. For only one host were statistically significant...

135

Pacific area wide program for methyl bromide alternatives – Ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past 5 years the following field trials have been conducted as part of the Pacific Area-Wide program for cut flowers and ornamentals using various combinations of 1, 3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and metam: 1) Drip demonstration trial with field-grown calla lilies at Golden State Bulb ...

136

Thin Cell Layers: Developmental Building Blocks in Ornamental Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to control developmental and morphogenetic processes in vitro has always been the fascination and primary focus of many ornamental tissue culture studies. Thin cell layers or TCLs were first used to control the development of flowers, roots, shoots and somatic embryos in tobacco pedicels. Since those studies over 30 years ago, TCLs have been successfully used in the

Stefania Biondi; Duong T. Nhut; Maria Maddalena Altamura; Xo Viet; Nghe Tinh; A. Moro

2007-01-01

137

2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, AND THE EXAGGERATED TRIGLYTHS ABOVE THE DOOR, LOOKING WEST. NOTE THE PERSONNEL DOOR COMPRISED OF THE BOTTOM THREE PANELS IN THE LEFT BIFOLD DOOR. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

138

Development of Two Intelligent Spray Systems for Ornamental Nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current application technology for floral, nursery, and other specialty crop production wastes significant amounts of pesticides. Two different real-time variable-rate sprayer prototypes for ornamental nursery and tree crops were developed to deliver chemicals on target areas as needed. The first pr...

139

49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental Details in Bronze and Iron of the New City Hall, Philadelphia. 5 vols. Compiled in 1883. II,n.p. - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

140

No heightened condition dependence of zebra finch ornaments--a quantitative genetic approach.  

PubMed

The developmental stress hypothesis offers a mechanism to maintain honesty of sexually selected ornaments, because only high quality individuals will be able to develop full ornamentation in the face of stress during early development. Experimental tests of this hypothesis have traditionally involved the manipulation of one aspect of the rearing conditions and an examination of effects on adult traits. Here, we instead use a statistically powerful quantitative genetic approach to detect condition dependence. We use animal models to estimate environmental correlations between a measure of early growth and adult traits. This way, we could make use of the sometimes dramatic differences in early growth of more than 800 individually cross-fostered birds and measure the effect on a total of 23 different traits after birds reached maturity. We find strong effects of environmental growth conditions on adult body size, body mass and fat deposition, moderate effects on beak colour in both sexes, but no effect on song and plumage characters. Rather surprisingly, there was no effect on male attractiveness, both measured in mate choice trials and under socially complex conditions in aviaries. There was a trend for a positive effect of good growth conditions on the success at fertilizing eggs in males breeding in aviaries whereas longevity was not affected in either sex. We conclude that zebra finches are remarkably resilient to food shortage during growth and can compensate for poor growth conditions without much apparent life-history trade-offs. Our results do not support the hypothesis that sexually selected traits show heightened condition dependence compared to nonsexually selected traits. PMID:20074304

Bolund, E; Schielzeth, H; Forstmeier, W

2010-01-14

141

Microsatellite markers for the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, a commercially important fish from central Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi is a very popular aquarium fish and the most important ornamental fishery resource for riverine communities inhabiting the Rio Negro floodplain in central Amazonia. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of 14 microsatellite DNA loci for cardinal tetras. Number of alleles and heterozygosity per locus in a sample of 30 fish ranged from 2

L. B. BEHEREGARAY; L. M. MOLLER; T. S. SCHWARTZ; N. L. CHAO; A. CACCONE

2004-01-01

142

Experimental streptococcal meningo-encephalitis in cultured fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1984 a disease of fish appeared in Israel which spread rapidly in cultured fishponds. The disease affected tilapia (Oreochromis aura × Oreochromis nilotica hybrids) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Common carp (Cyprinus carpus), although reared in community with tilapia were not susceptible to the disease. Various species of ornamental cyprinids and cichlids were also affected. Morbidity was high and mortality

Avi Eldar; Ytzhak Bejerano; Alex Livoff; Avshalom Horovitcz; Herve Bercovier

1995-01-01

143

Response of Perennial Herbaceous Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla.  

PubMed

Sixty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals in 56 genera were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Plants were rated susceptible or resistant based on the number of galls present on the root system. Thirty-six percent had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. Thirty percent of the plants tested did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated resistant. The remaining 34 percent were intermediate in response. Variation in response to M. hapla was observed within plant genera and species. The identification of M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in management of this nematode in landscapes and production fields. PMID:19277335

Lamondia, J A

1995-12-01

144

The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and fleshy yellow wattles. In this paper we report the differences in ornamentation between sexes and

A. Velando; C. M. Lessells; J. C. Marquez

2001-01-01

145

Anthocyanins from ornamental flowers of red frangipani, Plumeria rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthocyanins were isolated from ornamental reddish flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) by a combination of chromatographic techniques. Their structures were elucidated mainly by the use of homo- and heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry. The anthocyanin cyanidin 3-O-?-(2?-glucopyranosyl-O-?-galactopyranoside) (75%), has previously been isolated only from Cornus suecica (Cornaceae) fruits, while the other (20%) was

Robert Byamukama; Jane Namukobe; Monica Jordheim; Øyvind M. Andersen; Bernard T. Kiremire

2011-01-01

146

The Political Trade-offs of Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

Bosshardt, William

1996-01-01

147

Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille

1996-01-01

148

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

149

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

150

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

151

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

152

Are Regional Trading Partners \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central statement of the theory of natural trading partners is that preferential trading with regional trading partners is less likely to be trade diverting and therefore geographically proximate partners are to be considered \\

Pravin Krishna

2003-01-01

153

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish (like tuna ... alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the body's ...

154

Negative Impact on the Aquatic Ecosystems of the State of Morelos, Mexico from Introduced Aquarium and Other Commercial Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 22 fish species presently inhabiting the waters of the state of Morelos, México, more than half (64%) have been introduced, mainly for fisheries and ornamental aquaculture purposes. Even though there are other significant problems such as pollution, eutrophication and drought, we found that fish introductions have caused the worst ecological impacts. These problems stem from a general lack

Topiltzin Contreras-MacBeath; Humberto Mejia Mojica; Roberto Carrillo Wilson

1998-01-01

155

25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Commercial fishing is the taking, fishing for, or possession of fish, shellfish, or other fishery resources with the intent of disposing of such fish, shellfish, or other fishery resources or parts thereof for profit, or by sale, barter, trade, or in commercial...

2013-04-01

156

International Trade: Romanian Trade Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The General Accounting Office report evaluates the impact of reinstating Romania's most-favored-nation (MFN) trade status. In particular it includes data on (1) the leading U.S. imports from Romania from 1985 to 1991, (2) the impact of MFN status on tarif...

1992-01-01

157

trade name  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a syn. proprietary name, brand name, invented name; name used together with a trade mark or the name of the manufacturer (opp.\\u000a international non-proprietary name, generic name); relates to a finished product and identifies the manufacturer; for a commercially available medicinal product; within the\\u000a EC it is recommended to use the same t.n. throughout the Community, unless a justification to do

Gerhard Nahler

158

Mass propagation of ornamental gentian in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient system for clonal mass propagation in liquid culture was established for the propagation of ornamental gentian.\\u000a In a test of the requirements for three cytokinins [6-benzylaminopurine, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea and N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (TDZ)] in combination with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), we found that effective propagation\\u000a of shoots occurred with 0.01 mg l–1 TDZ in a 300 ml conical flask that contained

K. Hosokawa; Y. Oikawa; S. Yamamura

1998-01-01

159

Trade Wars and Trade Talks with Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the optimal tariffs of the US? What tariffs would prevail in a worldwide trade war? How costly would be a breakdown of international trade policy cooperation? And what is the scope for future multilateral trade negotiations? I address these and other questions using a unified framework which nests traditional, new trade, and political economy motives for protection. I

Ralph Ossa

2011-01-01

160

Growth and Trade vs. Trade and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional trade literature, there is a well-developed area analyzing the effect of growth on trade and its reflection on income growth. This literature developed already in the 1950s and 1960s. Generally speaking, an interest in the effects of trade on growth has also existed for many years, where trade has often been viewed as an engine of growth.

Karolina Ekholm; Bo Södersten

2002-01-01

161

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

2011-04-01

162

78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

2013-09-11

163

Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon. Analyses of Artifacts from the Chaco Project, 1971-1978. Volume 3. Lithics and Ornaments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...

F. J. Mathien

1997-01-01

164

Developing a High School Program in Ornamental Horticulture. Volume I, Nursery Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…

Brown, Howard C.; And Others

165

Carotenoid and protein supplementation have differential effects on pheasant ornamentation and immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A currently popular hypothesis states that the expression of carotenoid- dependent sexual ornaments and immune function may be correlated because both traits are positively affected by carotenoids. However, such a correlation may arise for another reason: it is well known that immune function is dependent on nutritional condition. A recent study has suggested that the expression of ornaments may too

H. G. SMITH; L. RABERG; T. OHLSSON; M. GRANBOM; D. HASSELQUIST

2006-01-01

166

Decorative Ornament on Facade of Sino-Portuguese Building in Phuket Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research was to study the decorative ornaments shown on the facade of Sino-Portugese building in Phuket province as well as their implications and symbolic representations. Data was collected by means of photography, observation, interview, documentary research, and drawing. It was found that the decorative ornaments were created roughly between the late 19th and early 20th century.

Punya Tepsing; Woothi Wattanasin

167

Complexity and integration in sexual ornamentation: an example with carotenoid and melanin plumage pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual ornaments often consist of several components produced by distinct developmental processes. The complexity of sexual ornaments might be favoured by mate choice of individual components in different environments which ultimately results in weak interrelationships (integration) among the developmental processes that produce these components. At the same time, sexual selection for greater exaggeration of individual components favours their stronger co-dependence

A. V. Badyaev; R. L. Young

2004-01-01

168

Sex role reversal in a pipefish: female ornaments as amplifying handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for sex role reversal in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle are reviewed. In this species, females compete for males, which are choosier than females. Before mating, females display a sexual ornament, a cross-wise striped pattern along their body sides. This ornament is here shown to be an amplifier that facilitates for males to tell females of different sizes apart

Anders Berglund

2000-01-01

169

Patterns of Fluctuating Asymmetry in Avian Feather Ornaments: Implications for Models of Sexual Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extravagant secondary sexual characters, i.e. sexual ornaments, are exaggerated, often bilaterally symmetrical traits of great intricacy of design. The full expression of such traits is likely to be very costly and close to the limits of production. Any kind of environmental stress is therefore more likely to affect the expression of ornaments than that of any other morphological trait not

Anders Pape Moller; Jacob Hoglund

1991-01-01

170

Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards.  

PubMed

Bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. Thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. Additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. However, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimicrobials, and the putative importance of pathogens for the evolution of male ornamentation, tests of these hypotheses are lacking. We examined the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal capacity of semen was associated with bill coloration, a sexually selected trait. We show that mallard semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that males with more colourful bills have semen with superior bacterial-killing ability. These results suggest that females could use male phenotypic traits to avoid sexually transmitted pathogens and acquire partners whose sperm suffer less bacteria-induced damage. PMID:21490006

Rowe, Melissah; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; McGraw, Kevin J; Giraudeau, Mathieu

2011-04-13

171

Can too strong female choice deteriorate male ornamentation?  

PubMed

Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition. PMID:15306306

Morrell, Lesley J; Kokko, Hanna

2004-08-01

172

Firms in International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that importing and exporting are extremely rare firm activities, economists generally devote little attention to the role of firms when discussing international trade. This paper summarizes key differences between trading and non-trading firms, demonstrates how these differences present a challenge to standard trade models and shows how recent 'heterogeneous-firm' models of international trade address these challenges. We

Andrew B. Bernard; J. Bradford Jensen; Stephen J. Redding; Peter K. Schott

2007-01-01

173

Fair trade in tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism as an industry is increasing rapidly in developing countries. Due to historical inequality in global trading relationships on the basis of 'core-periphery' dependency, globalisation and liberalised free trade, mainstream mass tourism reinforces the social and economic disadvantages of southern destinations. The 'Fair Trade Movement' has sought to redress unequal trading by promoting fair trade in commodities with small producers

Robert Cleverdon; Angela Kalisch

2000-01-01

174

Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation throughout the lifetime of a passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male investment into sexual ornamentation is a reproductive decision that depends on the context of breeding and life history state. In turn, selection for state- and context-specific expression of sexual ornamentation should favour the evolution of developmental pathways that enable the flexible allocation of resources into sexual ornamentation. We studied lifelong variation in the expression and condition-dependence of a sexual

A. V. Badyaev; R. A. Duckworth

2003-01-01

175

The state of research on chondrichthyan fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a decade has passed since the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) first alerted the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the urgent need to establish programs for collecting biological and trade data and for managing the impacts of fishing on shark populations. By 2000, FAO had developed the International Plan of Action for the

Terence I. Walker; Lead Essay

2007-01-01

176

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical

Jing You; Rebecca A. Kelley; Curtis C. Crouse; Jesse T. Trushenski; Michael J. Lydy

177

The commercial seed trade: An early disperser of weeds in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds, bulbs, and cuttings of exotic plant species, including plants cultivated exclusively as ornamentals, were being advertised\\u000a for sale in printed circulars in the United States by 1800. By the end of the 19th century seed trade catalogs were prolific\\u000a and often listed dozens of exotic species that were already naturalized in the U.S. or new introductions from foreign suppliers.

Richard N. Mack

1991-01-01

178

Jewellery- and ornament-related injuries in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers in Canada. Few publications have addressed injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children. OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms and the incidence of injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children and teenagers, to identify children at high risk for these type of injuries and to recommend specific injury prevention strategies. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a Canadian database (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) of a tertiary paediatric centre. All patients between zero and 18 years of age who were diagnosed in the emergency department with jewellery- and ornament-related injuries during a 10-year period (1997 to 2006) were identified. Patients were categorized according to six age groups (younger than one year of age; one to two years of age; two to four years of age; five to nine years of age; 10 to 14 years of age, and 15 to 18 years of age). For each case, the context and the mechanism of injury were investigated. RESULTS: From a total of 150,771 reported injury cases, 380 (0.25%) were jewellery related. Unlike with most trauma, girls predominate in this kind of injury (n=288; 75.8% of cases). Over one-half of cases (58.1%) were reported for children four years of age or younger. Emergency physicians reported the presence of jewellery as a foreign body in a natural orifice (mouth, nose, ear or genitourinary tract) in 308 cases (81%). No case of intestinal obstruction, strangulation or death was reported. Eleven cases (2.9%) required emergency hospitalization, all for endoscopic evaluation of a foreign body in the airway or in the digestive tract. In the adolescent group, five cases of injuries secondary to piercing were reported. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that, although jewellery-related injuries are relatively infrequent, some can cause severe injuries that could compromise patients’ health. As a primary prevention strategy, doctors and health professionals working with children should make parents and caregivers aware of the possibility of trauma in children wearing or playing with jewellery, especially in the zero- to four-year-old group requiring closer supervision. Specific anticipatory guidance concerning piercing may be helpful to adolescents.

Boisclair, S; Rousseau-Harsany, E; Nguyen, BH

2010-01-01

179

Intriguing evidence of translocations in Discus fish (Symphysodon, Cichlidae) and a report of the largest meiotic chromosomal chain observed in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to understand the genetics of Amazonian ornamental fish, classical cytogenetics was used to analyze Symphysodon aequifasciatus, S. discus and S. haraldi, popular and expensive aquarium fishes that are endemic to the Amazon basin. Mitotic analyses in Symphysodon have shown some odd patterns compared with other Neotropical cichlids. We have confirmed that Symphysodon species are characterized

M C Gross; E Feldberg; D M Cella; M C Schneider; C H Schneider; J I R Porto; C Martins

2009-01-01

180

Induction of Plasma Vitellogenin Synthesis by the Commercial Fish Diets in Male Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Dietary Phytoestrogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyzed contents of phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, equol, and coumestrol) in two com- mercial fish diets (a diet for trout (TD) and a diet for ornamental carp (CD)) using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy\\/Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS\\/MS), and these contents were compared with that of a casein-based for- mulated fish diet (FD) which does not contain soya bean or fish

Hiroshi Ishibashi; Makito Kobayashi; Tomohiko Koshiishi; Toshihisa Moriwaki; Katsuyasu Tachibana; Mutsuyosi Tsuchimoto; Kiyoshi Soyano; Taisen Iguchi; Chisato Mori; Koji Arizono

2002-01-01

181

Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

182

Honest olfactory ornamentation in a female-dominant primate.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory predicts that potential mates or competitors signal their quality to conspecifics. Whereas evidence of honest visual or vocal signals in males abounds, evidence of honest signalling via scent or by females is scarce. We previously showed that scent marks in male lemurs seasonally encode information about individual heterozygosity - a reliable predictor of immunocompetence and survivorship. As female lemurs dominate males, compete over resources, and produce sexually differentiated scent marks that likely evolved via direct selection, here we tested whether females also advertise genetic quality via olfactory cues. During the breeding season specifically, individual heterozygosity correlated negatively with the diversity of fatty acids (FAs) expressed in labial secretions and positively with the diversity of heavy FA esters. As odour-gene relationships predictive of health and survivorship emerged during a period critical to mate choice and female competition, we posit that genital scent marks function as honest olfactory ornaments in females. PMID:20492092

Boulet, M; Crawford, J C; Charpentier, M J E; Drea, C M

2010-05-18

183

On the function of female ornaments: male bluethroats prefer colourful females  

PubMed Central

Female ornaments in animals with conventional sex roles have traditionally been considered non-functional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate choice experiments with bluethroats (Luscinia s. svecica), a passerine bird in which females vary considerably in coloration of an ornamental throat patch. In outdoor aviaries placed in prime breeding habitat, males were allowed to choose between a colourful and a drab female. We found that males associated more with, and performed more sexual behaviours towards, colourful females. Female coloration was not age-related, but correlated significantly with body mass and tarsus length. Thus, we have demonstrated both a male preference for female ornamentation, and a relationship between ornament expression and female body size, which may be indicative of quality. Our results refute the correlated response hypothesis and support the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected.

Amundsen, T.; Forsgren, E.; Hansen, L. T. T.

1997-01-01

184

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

185

Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInternational fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study aims to evaluate the

Marc Kochzius; Christian Seidel; Aglaia Antoniou; Sandeep Kumar Botla; Daniel Campo; Alessia Cariani; Eva Garcia Vazquez; Janet Hauschild; Caroline Hervet; Sigridur Hjörleifsdottir; Gudmundur Hreggvidsson; Kristina Kappel; Monica Landi; Antonios Magoulas; Viggo Marteinsson; Manfred Nölte; Serge Planes; Fausto Tinti; Cemal Turan; Moleyur N. Venugopal; Hannes Weber; Dietmar Blohm

2010-01-01

186

Soviet Foreign Trade Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade and contacts among nations can help pre vent war. A characteristic of the present Soviet trade is its high rate of development—today she holds the sixth place in world trade volume. Another feature is the change in the commodity composition of the exports and imports of the country. The number of states carrying on trade with the Soviet Union

Vladimir S. Alkhimov

1959-01-01

187

Informationally Ecient Trade Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are trade barriers often used to protect home producers, even at the cost of introducing deadweight losses from higher commodity prices? We add an informational friction to the standard textbook argument in favor of free trade, and show that trade restrictions may be a more ecient policy than a lump sum transfer to the displaced producers. Trade barriers, while

Matthew F. Mitchell; Andrea Moro

188

Are Insider Trades Informative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine insider trading activities of all companies traded on the NYSE, AMEX, and Nasdaq during the 1975-95 period. In general, very little market movement is observed when insiders trade and when they report their trades to the SEC. Insiders in aggregate are contrarian investors. However, they predict market movements better than simple contrarian strategies. Insiders also seem to be

Josef Lakonishok; Inmoo Lee

2001-01-01

189

Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant  

PubMed Central

Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, Üça??zl? Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (roughly 41,000–43,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels in Üça??zl? Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions.

Kuhn, Steven L.; Stiner, Mary C.; Reese, David S.; Gulec, Erksin

2001-01-01

190

Development of Methods of Nitrogen Management for Woody Ornamental Species in Landscape Plantings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of fertilizer nitrogen source on survival and growth of several woody ornamental species used in highway plantings. Even without nitrogen fertilization, very satisfactory growth occurred. ...

J. F. Power H. W. Sengpiel

1977-01-01

191

Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacterial Species from Ornamental Aquarium Plants  

PubMed Central

Ornamental aquarium plants were demonstrated to carry as many as 108 viable mesophilic bacteria per g. Gram-negative organisms predominated among the 19 genera of bacteria identified. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was readily isolated from 53% of the samples tested.

Trust, T. J.; Bartlett, Karen H.

1976-01-01

192

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field t...

193

Developmental plasticity in sexual roles of butterfly species drives mutual sexual ornamentation.  

PubMed

Current explanations for why sexual ornaments are found in both sexes include genetic correlation, same sex competition, and mutual mate choice. In this study, we report developmental plasticity in mating behavior as induced by temperature during development in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Males and females reciprocally change their sexual roles depending on their larval rearing temperatures. This switch is correlated with a change in mating benefits to females and costs to males. The discrete seasonal environments, wet season and dry season, are known to produce the two developmental forms and as a consequence impose alternating, symmetrical patterns of sexual selection, one season on male ornaments, the following season on female ornaments. Thus, reciprocal selection through time may result in mutual sexual ornamentation. PMID:21212355

Prudic, Kathleen L; Jeon, Cheonha; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antónia

2011-01-01

194

Fish production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to the use of spinosyn or a physiologically acceptable derivative or salt thereof for improved production of fish; controlling ectoparasite infestations in aquaculture raised fish; and fish feed formulations.

2011-02-01

195

Female ornamentation, parental quality, and competitive ability in the rock sparrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of female ornaments is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests not only that female ornaments may be genetic\\u000a correlates of selection on males but may also have evolved through male mate choice and\\/or through female–female aggressive\\u000a interactions. In the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, both sexes have a carotenoid-based yellow patch that is sexually selected by both sexes. The benefits

Matteo Griggio; Valeria Zanollo; Herbert Hoi

2010-01-01

196

Age before beauty? Relationships between fertilization success and age-dependent ornaments in barn swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

When males become more ornamented and reproduce more successfully as they grow older, phenotypic correlations between ornament\\u000a exaggeration and reproductive success can be confounded with age effects in cross-sectional studies, and thus say relatively\\u000a little about sexual selection on these traits. This is exemplified here in a correlative study of male fertilization success\\u000a in a large colony of American barn

Jan T. Lifjeld; Oddmund Kleven; Frode Jacobsen; Kevin J. McGraw; Rebecca J. Safran; Raleigh J. Robertson

197

Male ornament size as a reliable cue to enhanced offspring viability in the barn swallow.  

PubMed Central

Many extravagant secondary sexual characters are assumed to have evolved as a result of female choice, either because they attract females or because they reliably reflect the quality of males. Females mating with the most ornamented individuals with a superior genotype are expected to benefit by producing more viable offspring. A viability advantage associated with mate choice can be demonstrated only if (i) parent ornament size reliably reflects parent viability and (ii) offspring viability is directly related to the expression of the ornament of the parent. Barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) are monogamous passerine birds, which are sexually size dimorphic in tail length. Previous experiments and observations have shown that females prefer males with the largest tail ornaments and that male survivors have larger tail ornaments than nonsurvivors. Here I demonstrate that offspring longevity is positively related to ornament size of the male parent and that the longevity of sons is a trait with a statistically significant resemblance to that of their fathers. The viability effects could be entirely due to differences in quality of parental care. However, relative paternal provisioning of offspring was negatively related to the tail length of males, while total provisioning rate by both pair members, and thus offspring body size, body mass, and body condition, was unrelated to male tail length. Therefore, females may, through their mate choice, gain an indirect fitness advantage in terms of enhanced offspring viability.

M?ller, A P

1994-01-01

198

From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated?  

PubMed

Floral senescence involves an ordered set of events coordinated at the plant, flower, organ and cellular level. This review assesses our current understanding of the input signals, signal transduction and cellular processes that regulate petal senescence and cell death. In many species a visible sign of petal senescence is wilting. This is accompanied by remobilization of nutrients from the flower to the developing ovary or to other parts of the plant. In other species, petals abscise while still turgid. Coordinating signals for floral senescence also vary across species. In some species ethylene acts as a central regulator, in others floral senescence is ethylene insensitive and other growth regulators are implicated. Due to the variability in this coordination and sequence of events across species, identifying suitable models to study petal senescence has been challenging, and the best candidates are reviewed. Transcriptomic studies provide an overview of the MAP kinases and transcription factors that are activated during petal senescence in several species including Arabidopsis. Our understanding of downstream regulators such as autophagy genes and proteases is also improving. This gives us insights into possible signalling cascades that regulate initiation of senescence and coordination of cell death processes. It also identifies the gaps in our knowledge such as the role of microRNAs. Finally future prospects for using all this information from model to non-model species to extend vase life in ornamental species is reviewed. PMID:22983713

Rogers, Hilary J

2012-09-15

199

Ecotoxicological effects of cadmium on three ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological effects of cadmium (Cd) on three ornamental plants African marigold (Tagetes erecta), scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) and sweet hibiscus (Abelmoschus manihot) were investigated. Seeds of these plants were exposed to five different concentrations of Cd (0-50 mgl(-1)). Ecotoxicological indexes based on inhibition rate (IC) of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, biomass (fresh weight and dry weight), as well as IC50 (Cd concentration when 50% plants show inhibition) and tolerance indexes (the ratio of maximum root length in an experimental group to that in a control group) were determined. The results indicated that Cd had little effects (p>0.05) on seed germination of the three plants and shoot elongation of scarlet sage (S. splendens). Cadmium had significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effects on root elongation of the three plants and shoot elongation of African marigold (T. erecta). The fresh weight biomass of scarlet sage (S. splendens) was most sensitive to Cd, while that of sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was least sensitive. On a dry weight basis, African marigold (T. erecta) was the least sensitive, and scarlet sage (S. splendens) was the most sensitive to Cd. Based on IC50 of seed germination, sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was the most insensitive plant with an IC50 value as high as 428.0 gl(-1). According to Cd-tolerance indexes under the same Cd concentration, sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was the most tolerant plant whereas scarlet sage (S. splendens) was the most sensitive one. PMID:15910897

Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

2005-06-01

200

Multiple mating and sequential mate choice in guppies: females trade up.  

PubMed

The trade-up hypothesis outlines a behavioural strategy that females could use to maximize the genetic benefits to their offspring. The hypothesis proposes that females should be more willing to accept a mate when the new male encountered is a superior genetic source to previous mates. We provide a direct test of the trade-up hypothesis using guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and evaluate both behavioural and paternity data. Virgin female guppies were presented sequentially with two males of varying attractiveness, and their responsiveness to each male was quantified. Male attractiveness (ornamentation) was scored as the amount of orange coloration on their body. Females were generally less responsive to second-encountered males, yet responsiveness to second males was an increasing function of male ornamentation. These attractive second males also sired a greater proportion of the offspring. There was an overall tendency for last-male advantage in paternity, and this advantage was most exaggerated when the second male was more ornamented than the first. Finally, we found that our estimate of relative sperm number did not account for any significant variation in paternity. Our results suggest that female guppies may use pre-copulatory mechanisms to maximize the genetic quality of their offspring. PMID:12908984

Pitcher, Trevor E; Neff, Bryan D; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

2003-08-01

201

Developing Actionable Trading Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actionable trading strategies for trading agents determine the potential of the simulated models in real-life markets. The\\u000a development of actionable strategies is a non-trivial task, which needs to consider real-life constraints and organizational\\u000a factors in the market. In this paper, we first analyze such constraints on developing actionable trading strategies. Further\\u000a we propose an actionable trading strategy development framework. These

Longbing Cao

202

Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

203

Trade, Wages, and Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new general equilibrium model of trade with heterogeneous firms, variable demand elasticities and endogenously determined wages. Trade integration favors wage convergence, intensifies competition, and forces the least efficient firms to leave the market, thereby affecting aggregate productivity. Since wage and productivity responses are endogenous, our model is well suited to study the impacts of trade integration on

Kristian Behrens; Giordano Mion; Yasusada Murata; Jens Sudekum

2008-01-01

204

Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

205

Trade and Empire &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a new database of over 21,000 bilateral trade observations from 1870–1913 to assess the contemporaneous effects of empire on trade. Our analysis shows that belonging to an empire roughly doubled trade relative to those countries that were not part of an empire. The use of a common language, the establishment of currency unions, the monetisation of recently acquired

Kris James Mitchener; Marc Weidenmier

2008-01-01

206

Detecting Personal Trading Abuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual fund industry has been rocked recently by disclosures of alleged personal trading abuses. The market timing alleged by portfolio managers in their personal trading accounts is just the tip of the scandalous personal trading abuses, some of which will be uncovered in the months and years to come. While working at the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1994

Craig J. McCann

207

Female throat ornamentation does not reflect cell-mediated immune response in bluethroats Luscinia s. svecica.  

PubMed

The brilliantly coloured throat patch in male bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, influences their social mating success and both within- and extra-pair paternity. Female bluethroats are highly variable in their extent of throat coloration, from entirely drab to almost male-like. The ornament in females could be due to a genetic correlation between the sexes. However, it has been shown that male bluethroats prefer brightly coloured females, suggesting that female ornamentation has evolved by direct sexual selection on females through male choice. Males may prefer extravagant traits in females if these reliably signal female quality, such as resistance to disease. We investigated whether variation in the extent of structural and melanin plumage ornamentation in female bluethroats reflects cell-mediated immune response. We caught the females at their nests and measured their immune response as a swelling following a challenge by phytohemagglutinin. An analysis of the data from two years of study revealed that the cell-mediated immune response was not related to female ornamentation. However, the immune response was strongly correlated with female body condition. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis that female ornament expression signals quality in terms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:16193297

Pärn, Henrik; Lifjeld, Jan T; Amundsen, Trond

2005-10-27

208

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male-male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male-male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male-male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

2005-06-01

209

Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences.

Schilthuizen, Menno

2003-01-01

210

Fish and Seafood Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada serves up market information on fish and seafood at this site. The site contains fact sheets on a few of the 120 species of fish and shellfish taken commercially from Canadian waters. Pitched at seafood-loving consumers/ buyers, the fact sheets include distribution information, identification tips, nutritional profiles, product forms, preparation techniques, markets, and suppliers. An interesting component of the site is the searchable Suppliers Directory, in which users may search for suppliers by product name. The site also offers statistics highlighting Canada's seafood trade performance (exports and imports) for the year 2000. An events calendar lists upcoming seafood shows. For anyone interested in the market forces driving marine resource extraction in Canada (or anywhere else, for that matter), this site will be an interesting eye-opener.

211

Do sexual ornaments demonstrate heightened condition-dependent expression as predicted by the handicap hypothesis?  

PubMed Central

The handicap hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that sexual ornaments have evolved heightened condition-dependent expression. The prediction has only recently been subject to experimental investigation. Many of the experiments are of limited value as they: (i) fail to compare condition dependence in sexual ornaments with suitable non-sexual trait controls; (ii) do not adequately account for body size variation; and (iii) typically consider no stress and extreme stress manipulations rather than a range of stresses similar to those experienced in nature. There is also a dearth of experimental studies investigating the genetic basis of condition dependence. Despite the common claim that sexual ornaments are condition-dependent, the unexpected conclusion from our literature review is that there is little support from well-designed experiments.

Cotton, Samuel; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2004-01-01

212

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators.

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M.; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

213

77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...

2012-02-03

214

78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...

2013-04-22

215

Social stimulation, nuptial colouration, androgens and immunocompetence in a sexual dimorphic cichlid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the costs maintaining honesty of sexual signalling in inter- and intrasexual interactions remains a contentious\\u000a issue. For carotenoid-based colour ornaments, it has been hypothesized that the honesty of the signal is enforced when carotenoid\\u000a allocation to colour expression is traded off against carotenoid availability for immunocompetence. In addition, honesty is\\u000a enforced if androgens required for colour expression

Peter D. Dijkstra; Renske Hekman; Rüdiger W. Schulz; Ton G. G. Groothuis

2007-01-01

216

Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species. PMID:17943344

Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

2008-01-01

217

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)|

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

218

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

219

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

HEMP, PAUL E.

220

Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition- dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400 nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) that has sexually dimorphic UV-iridescent ornamentation, and we

Matthew L. M. Lim; Daiqin Li

2007-01-01

221

Parasites, condition, immune responsiveness and carotenoid-based ornamentation in male red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual ornaments might indicate better condition, fewer parasites or a greater immune responsiveness. Carotenoid-based ornaments are common sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Skin or beaks pigmented by carotenoids can change colour rapidly, and could be particularly useful as honest indicators of an individual's current condition and\\/ or health. This is because carotenoids must be acquired through

Francois Mougeot; Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez; Nuria Sumozas; Julien Terraube

2009-01-01

222

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

223

Coral reef fish breeding: the secrets of each species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the interest in the trade of tropical fish has increased significantly, with direct negative repercussions on coral reefs and marine ecosystems.The reproduction and rearing of some of the species most commonly used in the aquarium trade actually represent an economical and ecological tool for broadening development. The present study illustrates the first case ever of a small

Ike Olivotto; Marco Cardinali; Luca Barbaresi; Francesca Maradonna; Oliana Carnevali

2003-01-01

224

Frozen Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is not uncommon for small fish to be frozen to ice in shallow water. In 1838 I put some of these frozen fish into tepid water, and they recovered. In 1852, in one part of the lake at Highfield House, there must have been hundreds frozen to the ice, but when it melted scarcely any dead fish were seen:

E. J. Lowe

1891-01-01

225

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update;

2003-10-13

226

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

227

Understanding China's Trade Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last quarter of a century, China has emerged as one of the most important players in world trade. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China's exports increased from US$13.7 billion in 1979 to US$437.9 billion in 2003, while its imports increased from US$15.7 billion to US$413.1 billion during the same period. The WTO International Trade Statistics 2004

Yum K. Kwan; C. Lai

228

British Trade International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.

229

Trade and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the relationship between trade and culture has been described as one of those new issues that pose “serious practical\\u000a and theoretical challenges ... to present understanding of the trade regime,”1 trade conflicts concerning cultural goods and services are not in fact a new phenomenon. Such conflicts go back to the 1920’s\\u000a when European countries, following the First World War,

Ivan Bernier

230

The Trade Card Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Author and collector Ben Crane maintains The Trade Card Place for "all who are interested in Victorian Trade Cards used to advertise American goods and services during the late 1800s." Although the site is geared toward collectors, hosting dealer, collector, and organization directories for the potential Victorian Trade Card buyer, advertising students may also be interested, as Crane includes articles on trade card history and, in his Victorian Scrapbook archive, has posted thumbnail images of cards on subjects ranging from beverages and clothing to toys and tobacco.

1996-01-01

231

SICE: Foreign Trade Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SICE (Foreign Trade Information System) is the "information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS)." It provides information and trade documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. The available documents are divided into categories such as Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) process, Trade Agreements, Investment Treaties, and Dispute Settlement. The Dispute Settlement section contains all of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel reports from 1948 to 1994. The site also contains a quantitative trade data section with links to data on tariffs, trade flows and national statistical agencies. Spanish, Portuguese and French versions of the site are available.

232

The allometric pattern of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments and factors affecting allometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static allometry of secondary sexual characters is currently subject to debate. While some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for such traits, but isometry or negative allometry for nonornamental traits, other studies maintain that any kind of allometric pattern is possible. Therefore, we investigated the allometry of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments in 67 species of birds. We

J. J. CUERVO; A. P. MØLLER

2009-01-01

233

Elaborate ornaments are costly to maintain: evidence for high maintenance handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaborate secondary sexual traits, such as the ornamental plumage of birds, may be favored by female choice because they serve as honest indicators of male quality. Elaborate traits are thought to be honest signals because they are expensive to produce and increase predation risk. Here we investigate another potential cost of elaborate traits, i.e., the time and energy required to

Bruno A. Walther; Dale H. Clayton

2005-01-01

234

Expression of starch metabolic genes in the developing nectaries of ornamental tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the mechanisms that control starch metabolism in the nectary, this study combined TEM analysis of floral nectaries in ornamental tobacco with gene expression analysis of a number of starch metabolism genes over the time course of nectary development. Using TEM, we observed an increase in amyloplasts accumulating from early developmental stages until stage 9 (S9), and their subsequent

Gang Ren; Rosanne A. Healy; Harry T. Horner; Martha G. James; Robert W. Thornburg

2007-01-01

235

Transient starch metabolism in ornamental tobacco floral nectaries regulates nectar composition and release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enlargement of the floral nectary gland of ornamental tobacco during its development is accompanied by a major accumulation of starch granules in nectary amyloplasts. Quantification of starch in the nectary at various developmental stages showed little starch accumulation at early stages but increasing amounts of starch over the course of nectary development that reached a peak approximately 24h prior to

Gang Ren; Rosanne A. Healy; Anna M. Klyne; Harry T. Horner; Martha G. James; Robert W. Thornburg

2007-01-01

236

An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

Ideoka, Keith

237

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

238

Influence of microfractures and porosity on the physico-mechanical properties and weathering of ornamental granites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the influence porosity and fissuration exert on the physico-mechanical properties and durability of nine Portuguese ornamental granites with different petrographical and physical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allows the type of cracks (intergranular, intragranular and transgranular) to be identified. A microfracture index was calculated based on the collected data. This index is

Luís M. O. Sousa; Luis M. Suárez del Río; Lope Calleja; Vicente G. Ruiz de Argandoña; Angel Rodríguez Rey

2005-01-01

239

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

Cott, A. E.; And Others

240

Evaluation of inhaled and cutaneous doses of imidacloprid during stapling ornamental plants in tunnels or greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to assess dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to imidacloprid during manual operations with ornamental plants previously treated in greenhouses or tunnels. A total of 10 female workers, 5 in greenhouses and 5 in tunnels, were monitored for 3 or 5 consecutive days. Actual skin contamination, excluding hands, was evaluated using nine filter paper

Cristina Aprea; Liana Lunghini; Bruno Banchi; Antonio Peruzzi; Letizia Centi; Luana Coppi; Mirella Bogi; Enrico Marianelli; Mariella Fantacci; Pietro Catalano; Alessandra Benvenuti; Lucia Miligi; Gianfranco Sciarra

2009-01-01

241

A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal fluctuating asymmetry in the offspring. We experimentally demonstrate in wild barn owls ( Tyto alba) that the

Alexandre Roulin; Anne-Lyse Ducrest; François Balloux; Cor Dijkstra; Christian Riols

2003-01-01

242

Female throat ornamentation does not reflect cell-mediated immune response in bluethroats Luscinia s. svecica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brilliantly coloured throat patch in male bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, influences their social mating success and both within- and extra-pair paternity. Female bluethroats are highly variable in their extent of throat coloration, from entirely drab to almost male-like. The ornament in females could be due to a genetic correlation between the sexes. However, it has been shown that male

Henrik Pärn; Jan T. Lifjeld; Trond Amundsen

2005-01-01

243

Female ornaments hinder escape from spider webs in a role-reversed swarming dance fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-tailed dance flies, Rhamphomyia longicauda (Diptera: Empididae), show a striking reversal in the typical pattern of animal sexual dimorphism. Whereas male R. longicauda are mosquito-like in appearance, females sport rows of scales on their legs and have elaborate eversible pleural (abdominal) sacs that are inflated just prior to entry into a female competitive mating swarm. Both sets of ornaments appear

Darryl T. Gwynne; Luc F. Bussière; Tracie M. Ivy

2007-01-01

244

Microspore Embryogenesis in Selected Medicinal and Ornamental Species of the Asteraceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated microspore culture experiments were carried out to induce microspore embryogenesis in Chamomilla recutita, Solidago virgaurea, Sanvitalia procumbens of the Asteracea, and Valeriana officinalis of the Valerianaceae. The Asteracea is one the largest plant families of commercial significance for medicinal, aromatic, food and ornamental\\u000a use. Availability of protocols for an efficient production of doubled haploids via microspore embryogenesis would facilitate

U. Bal; A. Touraev

245

COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

DILLON, ROY D.

246

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

247

Screening of medicinal and ornamental plants for insecticidal and growth regulating activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 121 medicinal and ornamental plants were screened for insecticidal and growth regulating activity to milkweed\\u000a bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas. The most effective extracts stemmed from Inula helenium L., Rumex crispus L., R. acetosa L., Asarum europaeum L., and Calendula officinalis L. All these extracts exerted growth inhibiting activities and moderate or low acute toxicity. Most promising were extracts

Maja Alexenizer; August Dorn

2007-01-01

248

Status of methyl bromide alternatives for ornamental crop production in Florida and California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phase-out of methyl bromide presents critical challenges to producers of cut-flowers and in-ground ornamentals. Work in California and Florida has included combinations of chemicals, various formulations, and application methods for registered compounds, including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ch...

249

Geographic variation in the function of ornaments in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used controlled aviary experiments to study the role of male ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic warbler. Previous aviary studies in Wisconsin, USA, indicated that males with larger black facial masks were dominant over males with smaller masks and preferred by females in mate choice experiments. In this study,

Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Corey R. Freeman-Gallant; Jonathan DeCoste

2008-01-01

250

Multiple sexual ornaments in satin bowerbirds: ultraviolet plumage and bowers signal different aspects of male quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention has been devoted to understanding the evolution of elaborate male ornaments and how they may signal male quality. However, the evolution of multicomponent sexual signals remains poorly understood, and past research on this type of signaling has been largely theoretical. Satin bowerbirds, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, are polygynous, are sexually dichromatic, and construct sexually selected display structures (bowers): a model

Ste´phanie M. Doucet; Robert Montgomerie

2003-01-01

251

Sexual selection, natural selection and the evolution of dimorphic coloration and ornamentation in agamid lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sexual selection and natural selection can influence the form of dimorphism in secondary sexual traits. Here, we used a comparative approach to examine the relative roles of sexual selection and natural selection in the evolution of sexually dimorphic coloration (dichromatism) and ornamentation in agamid lizards. Sex- ual dimorphism in head and body size were used as indirect indicators of

Devi M. Stuart-Fox; Terry J. Ord

2004-01-01

252

Area-Wide Demonstration of Chemical Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Florida Ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The studies reported here are part of the USDA-ARS Areawide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide South Atlantic Area and involve a cooperative effort between Florida in-ground ornamental producers, fumigant industry representatives, and researchers from the USDA, ARS and Univer...

253

Development of an Odor-Based Trap Tree Strategy for Ambrosia Beetles Infesting Ornamental Nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as key pests of ornamental nursery stock, and Xylosandrus germanus is one of the most problematic species. Xylosandrus germanus has a wide host range, but deciduous trees are preferred over coniferous hosts. Xylosandrus germanus has an effici...

254

Detection and molecular characterizations of new and emerging potyviruses of ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Floral crop sales comprise one of the fastest growing segments of US agriculture, forming an over $5.4 billion industry. Many plant virus diseases cause significant losses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, are very difficult to control, and new diseases occur as different crops are...

255

Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

256

Career Preparation in Ornamental Horticulture: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide in ornamental horticulture is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes five occupational subgroups: arboriculture, floriculture, landscape maintenance and establishment, nursery production, and…

McGhee, Max B.

257

Potential Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Diseases in Ornamental Plant Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research is being done to evaluate uses of chlorine dioxide in ornamental plant production systems. Chlorine dioxide has been shown to control spread of Fusarium oxysporum during the hot water treatment of daffodils and should provide replacement of formaldehyde which was used in the past. By dipp...

258

Why Are There Seeds In My Banana? A Look at Ornamental Bananas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the world bananas are a staple food, while in other regions they are a highly valued ornamental plant. Bananas are the fourth most important food crop in the world, and they are also used in many other ways—every part of the plant has value. In addition to the standard dessert bananas, there is another group of

Esendugue Greg Fonsah; Richard Wallace; Gerard Krewer

2008-01-01

259

IR-4 ORNAMENTAL TRIALS CONDUCTED BY USDA-ARS IN OHIO: 2003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A shortage of registered pest control products for the ornamental industry is an ongoing problem. The Interregional Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) is designed to address this problem by funding pesticide trials to obtain the data needed by the EPA for label expansion and registration of new products...

260

Spatial distribution of ciguateric fish in the Republic of Kiribati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera is food poisoning caused by human consumption of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The expanding international trade of tropical fish species from ciguatera-endemic regions has resulted in increased global incidence of ciguatera, and more than 50000 people are estimated to suffer from ciguatera each year worldwide. The Republic of Kiribati is located in the Pacific Ocean; two of

Wing Hei Chan; Yim Ling Mak; Jia Jun Wu; Ling Jin; Wai Hung Sit; James Chung Wah Lam; Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson; Leo Lai Chan; Paul Kwan Sing Lam; Margaret B. Murphy

2011-01-01

261

A Note on Overfishing, Fishing Rights and Futures Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing a futures market for fishing rights would increase utility for risk averse fishermen. We use the EV model to analyze possible reductions in (expected) profits for futures trading that would make fishermen indifferent between the situation with and without futures markets. It is found that a futures market for fishing rights enables policy makers to pursue substantial cuts in

Erwin H. Bulte; Joost M. E. Pennings

1997-01-01

262

Assessment of the Artisanal Shark Fishery and Local Shark Fin Trade on Unguja Island, Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the current state of the directed artisanal shark fishery off Unguja Island, Zanzibar, with a focus on the East Asian shark fin trade and its impact on the utilization of this valuable marine resource. The study concentrates on the two fish markets in Stone Town: Malindi and Darajani. Large fish are brought to these markets both from

Deborah Schaeffer

2004-01-01

263

Trading: An Optimization Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euent trading to manage water pollution holds considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper proposes an optimization based ap- proach to assist decision making in pollutant trading which is beyond heuristics. The optimization model, formulated as an Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, allows decision makers to incorporate watershed and technology specific information in regulation development. The

Y. Shastri; U. Diwekar; S. Mehrotra

264

Trade, wages, and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new general equilibrium model of monopolistic competition with heterogeneous firms, variable demand elasticity and multiple asymmetric regions, in which trade integration induces wage and productivity changes. Using Canada-US interregional trade data, we structurally estimate a theory-based gravity equation system featuring endogenous wages and productivity. Given the estimated parameter values, we first decompose ?border effects? into a ?pure?

Kristian Behrens; Giordano Mion; Yasusada Murata; Jens Suedekum

2009-01-01

265

Introduction to International Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)|

Intercom, 1986

1986-01-01

266

Currency wars & international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the contemporary international trade and currency system to determine whether the system is appropriate for the level of knowledge, development and maturity of countries today. International trade and currencies are a key mechanism by which governments manage the livelihoods, standard of living and well-being of national economies including the relationship between countries and their peoples. Therefore, understanding

Siize Punabantu

2010-01-01

267

Free Trade: A Misnomer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)|

McMillan, Robert R.

1983-01-01

268

Detecting Illegal Arms Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illegal arms are responsible for thousands of deaths in civil wars every year. Yet, their trade is very hard to detect. We propose a method to statistically detect illegal arms trade based on the investor knowledge embedded in financial markets. We focus on eight countries under UN arms embargo in the period 1990-2005, and analyze eighteen events during the embargo

Stefano DellaVigna; Eliana La Ferrara

2007-01-01

269

Innovation, Diffusion, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the determinants of research specialization across countries and its consequences for relative wages. Using a dynamic Ricardian model we examine the effects of faster international technology diffusion and lower trade barriers on the incentive to innovate. In the absence of any diffusion at all, countries devote the same share of resources toward research regardless of trade barriers or

Jonathan Eaton; Samuel Kortum

2006-01-01

270

Trade, FDI and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a theoretical synthesis of the New Economic Geography to analyse the links between trade, FDI and migrations. We find that liberalizing from high trade costs, a country can attract both capital and labour – the bifurcation pattern is a gradual peripheral exodus of workers associated with capital flight from the periphery – but after a threshold of

Fabien Candau

2012-01-01

271

Rethinking Free Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the present theories and shortcomings of current free trade policy, and the consequences thereof, which promote protectionist behavior among countries on an international scale. Theoretically, free trade should encourage progress within the global community. However, developing countries, with astonishing growth rates, like Brazil, China or India, have based their economies on opposing economic policies, closer to mercantilism

Fernando L. Leila

2010-01-01

272

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

273

Emerging asymmetric interactions between forage and predator fisheries impose management trade-offs(a.).  

PubMed

A size and trait-based marine community model was used to investigate interactions, with potential implications for yields, when a fishery targeting forage fish species (whose main adult diet is zooplankton) co-occurs with a fishery targeting larger-sized predator species. Predicted effects on the size structure of the fish community, growth and recruitment of fishes, and yield from the fisheries were used to identify management trade-offs among the different fisheries. Results showed that moderate fishing on forage fishes imposed only small effects on predator fisheries, whereas predator fisheries could enhance yield from forage fisheries under some circumstances. PMID:24090553

Houle, J E; Andersen, K H; Farnsworth, K D; Reid, D G

2013-07-01

274

Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).  

PubMed

A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892

Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

2013-07-04

275

Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.  

PubMed

World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

2012-05-08

276

Ice Fishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet is written for the newcomer to ice fishing. It provides the basic information needed to take up the sport, safely and inexpensively. At first, perhaps, the novice may find ice fishing simply an intriguing pastime to occupy long winter weekends...

W. Downs

1973-01-01

277

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

278

Puffer fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.

Ibrahim Iujaz (None;)

2007-06-08

279

Protecting fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program has recently completed a study of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at conventional hydroelectric projects. The report, Environmental Mitigation at Hydroelectric Projects, Volume II. Benefits and Costs of Fish Passage and Protection (Volume II), provides information describing both historical and current mitigation efforts in the United States. The study used 16

J. Francfort; B. Rinehart

1994-01-01

280

Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

281

Carbon, Trade Policy, and Carbon Free Trade Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses both the potential contribution that trade policy initiatives can make towards the achievement of significant global carbon emissions reduction and the potential impacts of proposals now circulating for carbon reduction motivated geographical trade arrangements, including carbon free trade areas. We first suggest that trade policy is likely to be a relatively minor consideration in climate change containment.

Yan Dong; John Whalley

2008-01-01

282

Fair trade and ethical trade: are there moves towards convergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair trade and ethical trade have traditionally had quite different aims, scope and modalities, the former principally focused on terms of trade with small scale producers and the latter on working conditions in mainstream production. Global value chain analysis suggests that this coincided with different forms of governance in the chain: fair trade reflecting relational governance based on trust and

Sally Smith; Stephanie Barrientos

2005-01-01

283

Greenhouse gas emissions trading and the world trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme has the potential to bring parties into conflict with the WTO provisions in dealing with the initial allocation of permits, non-compliance with emissions targets, emissions trading system enlargement, and trade measures against non-members of an emissions trading club, and relates the discussion to joint implementation with developing countries. To our

ZhongXiang Zhang

1998-01-01

284

Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon. Analyses of Artifacts from the Chaco Project, 1971-1978. Volume 2. Lithics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...

F. J. Mathien

1997-01-01

285

Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon. Analyses of Artifacts from the Chaco Project, 1971-1978. Volume 1. Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 1971 and 1978, the National Park Service assembled a multidisciplinary research team to study the cultural and natural resources of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The analyses of ceramics, lithics, and ornaments presented in this volume are major contr...

F. J. Mathien

1997-01-01

286

Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and\\/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer

Csongor I. Vágási; Péter L. Pap; Zoltán Barta

2010-01-01

287

Sexual selection and the function of a melanin-based plumage ornament in polygamous penduline tits Remiz pendulinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanin-based ornaments are often involved in signaling aggression and dominance, and their role in sexual selection is increasingly\\u000a recognized. We investigated the functions of a melanin-based plumage ornament (facial ‘mask’) in male Eurasian penduline tits\\u000a Remiz pendulinus in the contexts of male–male aggression, mating success, and parental care. The penduline tit is a passerine bird with a\\u000a unique mating system

Sjouke A. Kingma; István Szentirmai; Tamás Székely; Veronika Bókony; Maarten Bleeker; András Liker; Jan Komdeur

2008-01-01

288

Size of ornament is negatively correlated with baseline corticosterone in males of a socially monogamous colonial seabird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goymann–Wingfield model predicts that glucocorticoid levels in social animals reflect the costs of acquiring and maintaining\\u000a social status. The crested auklet is one of the few avian colonial species where a mutual ornament in males and females is\\u000a used in both sexual and aggressive displays. Previous studies of the crested auklet support the notion that the crest ornament\\u000a is

Hector D. Douglas; Alexander S. Kitaysky; Evgenia V. Kitaiskaia; Aidan Maccormick; Anke Kelly

2009-01-01

289

Chemical ornaments of male lizards Psammodromus algirus may reveal their parasite load and health state to females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for parasite-mediated sexual selection has been found in many species that use visual ornaments to attract females.\\u000a However, in many animals, variation in female responses to scents of parasitized males suggests that parasitic infections\\u000a might also affect information conveyed by pheromones (i.e., chemical ornaments). Thus, pheromones might also function in parasite-mediated\\u000a sexual selection. We show here that female lizards

José Martín; Emilio Civantos; Luisa Amo; Pilar López

2007-01-01

290

Trading forest carbon - OSU  

EPA Science Inventory

Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

291

Morocco-EU Trade Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is Morocco's main trading partner. In 2008 Moroc- co-EU bilateral merchandise trade represented some 60 percent of total Moroccan merchandise trade with the world (table 10.1). Since the Asso- ciation Agreement entered into force in 2000, bilateral merchandise trade between the two partners has tripled. The increase has been especially signifi cant on the import side, but

CLAIRE BRUNEL

292

Trade Union Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The provision of trade union education is a function of the structure of trade unionism which, in turn, is a function of the structure of collective bargaining. Trade union structure is taken to include size distribution, distribution of power, and objectives of trade unions. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL,…

Sullivan, T.

1982-01-01

293

Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

294

Noise Trading and Market Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impact of noise trading on the TSEC. The special market structures of the TSEC offer a unique opportunity to examine the noise trading that have been previously studied in the specialist or dealer markets. The intraday patterns of market quality and noise trading are examined. The Granger causality between noise trading and market quality is also

Jie-Haun Lee; Robin K. Chou; Chiou-Fa Lin

295

Optimization of the spraying equipment and technology used in ornamental crops.  

PubMed

In 2006, a research project concerning the optimization of the spraying equipment and technology used in ornamental crops was started. First, several greenhouse growers were surveyed on the spray equipment and technology they were using for their plant protection. Later on, different parts of their equipment were evaluated. It this way, we could advice the connected growers on how to improve their own techniques and equipment. Additionally, the survey showed that growers predominantly use knapsack sprayers and lances for crop protection purposes. These techniques are often proven to be less effective compared to spray booms, which could explain the high application rates (up to 6650 L ha(-1)) used by most growers. Since spray boom equipment could enhance spray distribution and minimize labour cost, operator exposure; the usability of this technique in ornamental crops was studied by means of laboratory tests, field trials and bio-efficacy experiments. PMID:21542478

Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

2010-01-01

296

Trade Policy Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent economic crisis--with the plunge in the stock market, numerous bank failures and widespread financial distress, declining output and rising unemployment--has been reminiscent of the Great Depression. The Depression of the 1930s was marked by the spread of protectionist trade policies, which contributed to a collapse in world trade. Although policymakers today claim that they will resist the protectionist

Douglas A. Irwin

297

Amendment of Fly Ash to Container Substrates for Ornamental Plant Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental plants are largely produced in containerized soilless substrates that generally consist of sphagnum peat, bark,\\u000a and other organic matter. Such substrates initially have a low pH (around 4.0) and limited amount of mineral nutrients. In\\u000a order to raise pH and increase fertility, commercial ground limestone and chemical fertilizers have to be incorporated into\\u000a the substrates. Fly ash, a coal

Jianjun Chen; Yuncong Li

298

Male barn swallows use different signalling rules to produce ornamental tail feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of secondary sexual characters is the subject of controversial debate between those defending their role as\\u000a ‘viability indicators’ and those arguing that ornaments are purely ‘attractive traits’ selected by females. Recent theoretical\\u000a studies suggest that these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, as both viability and attractiveness can contribute to improve\\u000a the reproductive success of progeny and could thus

Alberto Muñoz; José Miguel Aparicio; Raúl Bonal

299

Does Breeding Ornamentation Signal Genetic Quality in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic theories of sexual selection predict that most ornamental secondary sexual traits provide reliable indication of the\\u000a genetic quality of their bearers. Accordingly, also the offspring of mates with elaborate mating display should perform better\\u000a than those of less conspicuous counterparts. In this study, we used Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) as a model species to investigate whether the variation in

Matti Janhunen; Nina Peuhkuri; Craig R. Primmer; Irma Kolari; Jorma Piironen

2011-01-01

300

An insight into some relevant aspects concerning eriophyoid mites inhabiting forests, ornamental trees and shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Worldwide a great variety of eriophyoid mites inhabit forest canopy trees and ornamental plants that are used in city parks,\\u000a squares and boulevards. An analysis of the relevant bibliography portrays only a fragmentary knowledge and the majority of\\u000a our information concerns the temperate zone. Three case studies are presented as examples of different approaches to solve\\u000a problems connected with eriophyoid

Marisa Castagnoli; Mariusz Lewandowski; Gabriel S. ?abanowski; Sauro Simoni; Gra?yna M. Soika

301

An insight into some relevant aspects concerning eriophyoid mites inhabiting forests, ornamental trees and shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide a great variety of eriophyoid mites inhabit forest canopy trees and ornamental plants that are used in city parks,\\u000a squares and boulevards. An analysis of the relevant bibliography portrays only a fragmentary knowledge and the majority of\\u000a our information concerns the temperate zone. Three case studies are presented as examples of different approaches to solve\\u000a problems connected with eriophyoid

Marisa Castagnoli; Mariusz Lewandowski; Gabriel S. ?abanowski; Sauro Simoni; Gra?yna M. Soika

2010-01-01

302

Airborne pollen of ornamental tree species in the NW of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed airborne pollen counts for the tree taxa most widely used for ornamental purposes in the northwestern\\u000a Iberian Peninsula (Platanus, Cupressaceae, Olea, Myrtaceae, Cedrus, and Casuarina) at four sites (Vigo, Ourense, Santiago, and Lugo), using aerobiological data recorded over a long period (1993–2007). The\\u000a abundance and the temporal and spatial distribution of these pollen types were analyzed, and

María Jesús Aira; Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rajo; María Fernández-González; Victoria Jato

2011-01-01

303

Biodeterioration of ornamental marble statues in the Boboli Gardens (Florence, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonisation of ornamental marble statues in theBoboli Gardens of Florence (Italy) by photosyntheticmicro-organisms was investigated. The greenmicroalga Coccomyxa was the first colonizer ofnewly restored marble surfaces, appearing one yearafter the periodic cleaning and restoration of thestatues. Two years after restoration this alga gaverise to very thin green biofilms, with densitiesreaching about 3 × 102 cells cm-2. Later,the biofilms were

Gioia Lamenti; Piero Tiano; Luisa Tomaselli

2000-01-01

304

Diversity and Activity of PAH-Degrading Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants were characterized based on their diversity and activity towards the removal of\\u000a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major air pollutants in urban area. The amounts of PAH-degrading bacteria were\\u000a about 1–10% of the total heterotrophic phyllosphere populations and consisted of diverse bacterial species such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Mycobacterium, and uncultured bacteria. Bacterial community structures

Chontisak Yutthammo; Nudchanard Thongthammachat; Pairoh Pinphanichakarn; Ekawan Luepromchai

2010-01-01

305

Correlation of production rate of ornamental stone with rock brittleness indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of production rate in ornamental stones sawing is very important in cost estimation and process planning of\\u000a the rock sawing plants. The main aim of this paper is finding a mathematical correlation between production rate and rock\\u000a brittleness indexes. The utilized data have been collected from several stone factories in Iran. Seventeen different granite\\u000a and carbonate rocks have

Reza Mikaeil; Mohammad Ataei; Reza Yousefi

306

How to detect soil sterilant damage in ornamental trees and shrubs  

SciTech Connect

The death of ornamental plants can sometimes be attributed to the effects of soil sterilants. These chemicals are often used under asphalt and paved areas adjacent to plantings of trees. Tree roots can and do grow under paved areas and come into contact with the chemicals. The symptoms of this sort of poisoning can often mimic other kinds of injury (such as drought and/or nutritional stress). Soil sterilants can remain toxic for as long as 5 years.

Feucht, J.R.

1981-02-01

307

Chemical and environmental manipulation of ornamental Acacia Mill. species for pot plant production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and environmental control of vegetative growth and flowering were investigated in ornamental Acacia species for pot plant production. High night temperature (20 °C\\/25 °C day\\/night vs. 25 °C\\/20 °C day\\/night) was ineffective in reducing height or width, but paclobutrazol (PBZ) controlled plant size of most species. Neither pruning nor 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) were effective in stimulating branching. Plants of

M. A. Parletta; M. Sedgley

1996-01-01

308

Fish Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast contains three fish tales. First discussed is the fact that researchers have found that much of the fish sold as red snapper in the United States may actually be something else. The show explores the unusual behavior of the midshipman fish, which hums to attract a mate. New research indicates a connection between the hormone levels in the female of the species and its ability to hear the humming males. Finally, the show discusses jellyfish, and whether jelly blooms have an environmental significance.

309

Phylogenetic Relationships of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Isolated from Landscape Ornamentals in Southern California.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that has been associated with a rise in incidence of diseased landscape ornamentals in southern California. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize strains isolated from ornamental hosts to understand their distribution and identity. Strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from ornamentals were characterized using a multiprimer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR). Based on RAPD-PCR and 16S-23S rDNA ISR, strains isolated from daylily, jacaranda, and magnolia clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and caused oleander leaf scorch but not Pierce's disease symptoms in glasshouse assays on oleander and grape, respectively. This demonstrated both that our groupings based on genetic characterization were valid and that strains of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi are present in hosts other than oleander. Strains isolated from Spanish broom, cherry, and one strain isolated from western redbud clustered with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa members. Strains isolated from purple-leafed plum, olive, peach, plum, sweetgum, maidenhair tree, crape myrtle, and another western redbud strain clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. All strains isolated from mulberry and one from heavenly bamboo formed a separate cluster that has not yet been defined as a subspecies. PMID:18943935

Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; de la Cerda, Karla A; Costa, Heather S; Cooksey, Donald A; Wong, Francis P

2007-07-01

310

An insight into some relevant aspects concerning eriophyoid mites inhabiting forests, ornamental trees and shrubs.  

PubMed

Worldwide a great variety of eriophyoid mites inhabit forest canopy trees and ornamental plants that are used in city parks, squares and boulevards. An analysis of the relevant bibliography portrays only a fragmentary knowledge and the majority of our information concerns the temperate zone. Three case studies are presented as examples of different approaches to solve problems connected with eriophyoid mites of forest and ornamental trees. The first example deals with eriophyoids of a temperate zone forest in a natural environment, focusing on conifers which represent the largest component. The second case study documents a possible approach to obtain greater knowledge and control of the bud mite species, Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) on Cupressaceae. This is a harmless species in the natural environment which becomes a serious pest in nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens in the Mediterranean region. The final case study reports on long-term studies carried out in Poland on injurious eriophyoid species that are found in nurseries, city greenery and parks. This paper also discusses future perspectives for research on eriophyoid mites living on forest and ornamental plants. PMID:19771396

Castagnoli, Marisa; Lewandowski, Mariusz; ?abanowski, Gabriel S; Simoni, Sauro; Soika, Grazyna M

2009-09-22

311

Conservation of Ornamental Stone by Myxococcus xanthus-Induced Carbonate Biomineralization  

PubMed Central

Increasing environmental pollution in urban areas has been endangering the survival of carbonate stones in monuments and statuary for many decades. Numerous conservation treatments have been applied for the protection and consolidation of these works of art. Most of them, however, either release dangerous gases during curing or show very little efficacy. Bacterially induced carbonate mineralization has been proposed as a novel and environmentally friendly strategy for the conservation of deteriorated ornamental stone. However, the method appeared to display insufficient consolidation and plugging of pores. Here we report that Myxococcus xanthus-induced calcium carbonate precipitation efficiently protects and consolidates porous ornamental limestone. The newly formed carbonate cements calcite grains by depositing on the walls of the pores without plugging them. Sonication tests demonstrate that these new carbonate crystals are strongly attached to the substratum, mostly due to epitaxial growth on preexisting calcite grains. The new crystals are more stress resistant than the calcite grains of the original stone because they are organic-inorganic composites. Variations in the phosphate concentrations of the culture medium lead to changes in local pH and bacterial productivity. These affect the structure of the new cement and the type of precipitated CaCO3 polymorph (vaterite or calcite). The manipulation of culture medium composition creates new ways of controlling bacterial biomineralization that in the future could be applied to the conservation of ornamental stone.

Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel; Ben Chekroun, Koutar; Gonzalez-Munoz, Maria Teresa

2003-01-01

312

Why do trade costs vary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tariffs have fallen, it is apparent that trade costs are a significant obstacle to international trade and that they vary\\u000a from country to country. The gap between the cif and fob value of a trade flow is a useful measure of aggregate trade costs,\\u000a but only if the measure is based on a consistent volume of trade; mirror statistics

Richard Pomfret; Patricia Sourdin

2010-01-01

313

MARKET STRUCTURE AND TRADING VOLUME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, trading volume reported for NASDAQ stocks has been overstated vis-à-vis New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) stocks, both because of the dealer's participation in trades as a market maker and because of interdealer trading. Beginning in 1997, the Securities and Exchange Commission changed order-handling rules and trade-reporting rules, which may have reduced or eliminated the overstatement of NASDAQ trading. We

Anne-Marie Anderson; Edward A. Dyl

2005-01-01

314

Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

315

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

316

Trade Creation, Trade Diversion and Investment Flows: Evidence from the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the perspective of the new regionalism described by Ethier (2001), this paper examines the changes in trade patterns introduced with the Canada - Chile Free Trade Agreement signed in 1997. Dynamic gravity equations are used to appraise the trade creation or trade diversion effect for a sample period beginning in 1994 and ending in 2002. Commodities at the two

Guillermo Yane

317

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... and Caesar dressing Worcestershire sauce Bouillabaisse Imitation or artificial fish or shellfish (surimi, also known as “sea ... always read the label and ask questions about ingredients before eating a food that you have not ...

318

Fish Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... of cooked* seafood that contains little or no mercury, such as these types that are higher in ... not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating ...

319

One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish: The Economic and Environmental Impacts of Commercial Fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish and fisheries play an important role in the Amazon River Basin. Fishing provides jobs to people of both urban and rural communities, and fish are a major source of protein in people’s diets and a major part of the Amazon River ecosystem. In recent years commercial fishing has increased due to greater access to both domestic and international markets,

Jessica Glenn

2006-01-01

320

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

321

Global Trade and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

2005-01-01

322

Global trade and public health.  

PubMed

Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

2005-01-01

323

77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...request the permission of the CBP port director for the withdrawal and lading of bonded merchandise (especially alcoholic beverages) for use on board fishing vessels involved in international trade. The applicant must certify on CBP Form...

2012-03-15

324

The Profitability of Carry Trade - La redditività del carry trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profitability of carry trade is investigated using six currency combinations and historical data covering the period December 1999-June 2006. Hypothesis testing and Monte Carlo simulations produce results that cast doubt on the profitability of carry trade, as there is mostly a fifty-fifty chance that profit can be made from a single carry trade operation. The results also show that

Imad A. Moosa

2010-01-01

325

Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

326

The Trade and Investment Effects of Preferential Trading Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the impact of traditional and new age' provisions of preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) on merchandise trade and investment. It does so by estimating gravity models of bilateral trade and investment. It finds that recent and some past PTAs are not as benign as some contemporary empirical assessments have suggested. A careful consideration of the analytical issues including

Philippa Dee; Jyothi Gali

2005-01-01

327

The Trade and Investment Effects of Preferential Trading Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the impact of traditional and new age' provisions of preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) on merchandise trade and investment. It does so by estimating gravity models of bilateral trade and investment. It finds that recent and some past PTAs are not as benign as some contemporary empirical assessments have suggested. A careful consideration of the analytical issues including

Philippa Dee; Jyothi Gali

2003-01-01

328

Watershed-based pollution trading development and current trading programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watershed-based pollution trading is a very recent water quality management development - preliminary guidance for its use was issued by the EPA in 1996 and final trading guidelines were expected to be published in late 1999. As innovative and flexible methods of maintaining water quality in unique watersheds, the few existing watershed-based pollution trading programs are extremely distinct in terms

S. L. McGinnis

2001-01-01

329

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-sixth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published i...

R. Kirk

2011-01-01

330

Technical trade barriers in US|Europe agricultural trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical barriers strongly affect US|European agricultural and food trade. A 1996 USDA survey identifies 57 questionable European regulations affecting US agricultural exports with an estimated trade impact of $899.55 million. This article identifies European and US technical regulations that impede bilateral trade. The article provides a background for case studies and draws conclusions regarding the future role of technical barriers.

Silvia Weyerbrock; Tian Xia

2000-01-01

331

Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

332

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2013 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the 28th in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published in March....

2013-01-01

333

Modern Maritime Trade Warfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to an arguably decreased likelihood of total war and the recent focus on the reduction of collateral damage, the techniques used to affect maritime trade in past conflicts become less likely to be used and less desirable strategically. Without the wil...

J. B. Howell

2013-01-01

334

Trading in Public Hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article distinguishes three categories of hope: private, collective, and public. Public hope is hope that is invoked by political actors in relation to a societal goal of some kind. The article argues that public hope is the most dangerous kind of hope. The argument is developed using the recent history of trade negotiations between the United States and developing

Peter Drahos

2004-01-01

335

Syllabus in Trade Welding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

336

Trading forest carbon  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

337

Trade Masonry Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

338

Contagion and trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currency crises tend to be regional; they affect countries in geographic proximity. This suggests that patterns of international trade are important in understanding how currency crises spread, above and beyond any macroeconomic phenomena. We provide empirical support for this hypothesis. Using data for five different currency crises (in 1971, 1973, 1992, 1994 and 1997) we show that currency crises affect

Reuven Glick; Andrew K. Rose

1999-01-01

339

Decimal Trading and Market Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high-frequency data and a carefully constructed 1-1 matched sample of control (non-decimal) stocks, we isolate the effects of decimalization for a sample of NYSE-listed common stocks trading in decimals. We find that both quoted and effective bid-ask spreads and depths have declined significantly following decimalization. Both trades and trading volume have declined significantly in all trade size, as well

Sugato Chakravarty; Robert A. Wood; Stephen P. Harris

2002-01-01

340

Lesson Plan on the US Trade Deficit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan explaining the concept of the balance of trade and the positives and negatives to a trade surplus and a trade deficit. Deals with the US trade deficit and its potential effects on the US economy.

Studies, Center F.

341

Market Entry and Trade Weighted Import Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trade costs have fallen surprisingly little given the large increase in international trade in the last 50 years. This paper examines whether trade costs are properly measured. The author shows theoretically that trade weighted measures will underestimate...

B. Bridgman

2010-01-01

342

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

343

Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2012-11-05

344

International Trade and Income Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

I develop a novel view of the trade frictions between rich and poor countries by arguing that to reconcile bilateral trade volumes and price data within a standard gravity model, the trade frictions between rich and poor countries must be systematically asymmetric, with poor countries facing higher costs to export relative to rich countries. I provide a method to model

Michael E. Waugh

2010-01-01

345

Trade restrictiveness and efficiency &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a trade restrictiveness quantity index (TRQI) to measure the welfare impact of trade restrictions based on a distance functions approach. The TRQI embodies two Farrell measures of efficiency—respectively for producers and consumers—that can be computed using standard efficiency measurement techniques. The TRQI can also be decomposed into a trade distortion and domestic distortion component. In the context

Nancy H. Chau; Rolf Färe; Shawna Grosskopf

2003-01-01

346

Thalis: An Autonomous Trading Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the Internet, trading in electronic mar- ket places has become common practice for an increasing number of businesses and individuals. The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) is an open-invitation forum designed to encourage research into electronic markets and trading agents. The emphasis of TAC-02 and previous com- petitions has been on developing a successful strategy for maximizing

Maria Fasli; Nikolaos Poursanidis

347

Time as a Trade Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

International trade occurs in physical space and moving goods requires time. This paper examines the importance of time as a trade barrier, estimates the magnitude of time costs, and relates these to patterns of trade and the international organization of production. Estimates indicate that each additional day spent in transport reduces the probability that the US will source from that

David Hummels

2000-01-01

348

South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

Crook, Shirley J.

349

The indefensibility of insider trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article, “Inside Trading Revisited,” has taken the stance that insider trading is neither unethical nor economically inefficient. Attacking my arguments to the contrary developed in an earlier article, ‘The Ethics of Inside Trading’ (Journal of Business Ethics, 1989) this article constructs careful arguments and even appeals to Adam Smith to justify its conclusions. In my response to this article

Patricia H. Werhane

1991-01-01

350

The ethics of insider trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that a number of economists and philosophers of late defend insider trading both as a viable and useful practice in a free market and as not immoral, I shall question the value of insider trading both from a moral and an economic point of view. I shall argue that insider trading both in its present illegal form

Patricia H. Werhane

1989-01-01

351

Fish Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

Science Update;

2004-08-23

352

fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schooling fish species are conventionally subdivided into obligate and facultative species, depending on the proportion of the time spent in structured schools, but little is known about the factors affecting the group structure in the absence of external structuring stimuli such as food sources, risk of predators or water flow. Changes in attraction and repulsion indicators, depending on the species

M. SORIA; P. FREON; P. CHABANET

353

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)|

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

354

Flying Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN excellent opportunity of observing the aerial means of propulsion in the flying fish was afforded me during a six days' calm lately when crossing the Bay of Bengal. This must be my excuse for again touching this subject. I watched day by day some hundreds rise under the bows of the ship. The water surface was a glassy calm.

Alfred Carpenter

1885-01-01

355

Commercial Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

356

Disappearing Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, authors like Herman Melville, Jules Verne, and Ernest Hemingway pitted grizzled adventurers against the mightiest creatures of the ocean. Today, the struggle of man-versus-nature is quite a different contest. Science reporter Bob Hirshon tells us that the world's biggest fish are now in serious jeopardy.

Science Update;

2003-07-21

357

Karuk Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

358

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

359

Does Trade Liberalization Reduce Pollution Emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature on trade liberalization, economic development, and the environment is largely inconclusive about the environmental consequences of trade. This study treats trade and income as endogenous and estimates the overall impact of trade openness on environmental quality using the instrumental variables technique. Trade is found to benefit the environment using a globally representative sample. A 1% increase in trade openness

MANAGI Shunsuke; HIBIKI Akira; TSURUMI Tetsuya

2008-01-01

360

Trade, wages, and the political economy of trade protection: evidence from the Colombian trade reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worker industry affiliation plays a crucial role in how trade policy affects wages in many trade models. Yet, most research has focused on how trade policy affects wages by altering the economy-wide returns to a specific worker characteristic (i.e., skill or education) rather than through worker industry affiliation. This paper exploits drastic trade liberalizations in Colombia in the 1980s and

Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg; Nina Pavcnik

2005-01-01

361

Federation of International Trade Associations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring an annotated index of more than 2,500 world trade Websites, the Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA) homepage houses a wealth of resources for members and non-members of this organization. The FITA Website hosts a marketing database consisting of Export and Protocol reviews of over 80 countries, job postings, and a searchable database of international trade-related conferences and seminars. In conjunction with the "international trade webcast network" How to Conquer the World, FITA also includes a wide array of indexed and annotated interviews with leading international trade professionals, available in RealAudio format.

362

The Economic Impact of Invasive Species in the Ornamental Commodity in Puerto Rico: Towards Establishing a Multidimensional Framework for Data Collection and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ornamental commodity in Puerto Rico is valued for its economic contribution in the agricultural sector, its contribution to the esthetics of natural scenarios that impact the tourism sector, and for its environmental role. In the fiscal year 2001, ornamentals generated 4.8% of the total Agricultural Gross Product. In that year the production value at farm level was $34.1 million,

Carmen I. Alamo; R. A. Franqui; Edward A. Evans

2004-01-01

363

Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.  

PubMed

Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

2013-09-18

364

Confirmation of cross-fertilization using molecular markers in ornamental passion flower hybrids.  

PubMed

Several interspecific Passiflora hybrids are produced in the northern hemisphere for the ornamental plant market. In Brazil, production of passion flower hybrids is limited to the introgression of genes into the main cultivated species, yellow passion fruit, to be used as rootstocks. Confirmation of hybridization in the initial developmental stage is important for breeding perennial and sub-perennial plants, such as passion flowers, reducing time and costs in plant stock maintenance. In order to obtain F? hybrids with ornamental potential, four species of Passiflora (P. alata, P. gardneri, P. gibertii, and P. watsoniana) from the Active Germplasm Bank at UESC were hybridized. Flower buds, in pre-anthesis, of the genitors were previously protected, and the female buds were emasculated. To confirm hybridization, the genomic DNA of the genitor species and the supposed hybrids was extracted and RAPD primers were used to obtain molecular markers and select passion flower interspecific hybrids. Eight primers were used to confirm hybrids derived from P. gardneri with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. gardneri, and P. gardneri with P. gibertii; 75, 50, 45, and 46% of the informative bands, respectively, confirmed the hybrid nature of these plants. The RAPD technique was effective in the early identification of hybrids; this will be useful for development of hybrid Passiflora progeny. PMID:21264815

Conceição, L D H C S; Belo, G O; Souza, M M; Santos, S F; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Corrêa, R X

2011-01-11

365

Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants.  

PubMed

Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

2012-06-01

366

Survey of scale insects of ornamental plants in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

This investigation covers a survey of the scale insects associating with some ornamental plants at three chosen public gardens as well as at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. A total of nineteen scale insect species belonging to sixteen genera related to four families of the super-family Coccoidea were found infesting eighteen ornamental plants during the period from April, 1998 up to March, 1999. These species are: Family: Asterolecaniidae--Represented by one species only The fig scale Russelaspis pustulans; (Cockerell) = (Asterolecanium pustulans Cock). Family: Coccidae--Represented by the seven species Florida wax scale. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Green shield scale. Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell), Long brown scale. Caccus elongatus (Douglas), Brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Linn.), Tessellated scale. Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret), Hemispherical scale. Saissetia coffeae (Walker), and Olive soft scale. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) Family: Diaspididae--Represented by the ten species: Oleander scale. Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), Minute cypress scale. Carulaspis minima (Targioni-Tozzetti), Dictyosprmum scale Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Palm fiorinia scale. Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni), Latania scale Hemiberlisia lataniae (Signoret), Fig scale. Lepidosaphes ficus (Signoret), Snow scale. Lineaspis striata (Newstead), Masked scale. Mycetaspis personata (Comstock), Olive scale. Parlatoria oleae (Colvee), and White peach scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti), Family: Eriococcidae--Represented by one species only Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell). During the same study, many species of natural enemies (nine parasitoids and eight predators), were also noticed to be associated with the aforementioned scale insects. PMID:12425080

Mourad, A K; Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K S; Abdel-Razak, S I

2001-01-01

367

Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament.  

PubMed

Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female-female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions. PMID:22393521

de Heij, Maaike E; Gustafsson, Lars; Brommer, Jon E

2011-12-01

368

Ovulatory shifts in human female ornamentation: near ovulation, women dress to impress.  

PubMed

Humans differ from many other primates in the apparent absence of obvious advertisements of fertility within the ovulatory cycle. However, recent studies demonstrate increases in women's sexual motivation near ovulation, raising the question of whether human ovulation could be marked by observable changes in overt behavior. Using a sample of 30 partnered women photographed at high and low fertility cycle phases, we show that readily-observable behaviors - self-grooming and ornamentation through attractive choice of dress - increase during the fertile phase of the ovulatory cycle. At above-chance levels, 42 judges selected photographs of women in their fertile (59.5%) rather than luteal phase (40.5%) as "trying to look more attractive." Moreover, the closer women were to ovulation when photographed in the fertile window, the more frequently their fertile photograph was chosen. Although an emerging literature indicates a variety of changes in women across the cycle, the ornamentation effect is striking in both its magnitude and its status as an overt behavioral difference that can be easily observed by others. It may help explain the previously documented finding that men's mate retention efforts increase as their partners approach ovulation. PMID:17045994

Haselton, Martie G; Mortezaie, Mina; Pillsworth, Elizabeth G; Bleske-Rechek, April; Frederick, David A

2006-10-12

369

Mercury advisories and household health trade-offs.  

PubMed

The conventional economic wisdom is that improving consumer information will enhance welfare. Yet, some scientists speculate that the Food and Drug Administration's prominent mercury in fish advisory may have harmed public health. Lower mercury intakes reduce neurological toxicity risks. However, since seafood is the predominant dietary source of healthful omega-3 fatty acids, reduced fish consumption may have significant offsetting health impacts. We explore this risk trade-off using a rich panel of household-level seafood consumption data. To control for confounding factors, we use a non-parametric changes-in-changes approach. We find strong evidence that while the advisory reduced mercury loadings, it did so at the expense of substantial reductions in healthful omega-3s. We find this response pattern even for consumers with low fish consumption. Using advisory response patterns as inputs into a prominent risk assessment model, the central estimate is that net benefits from the advisory were negative. PMID:20609487

Shimshack, Jay P; Ward, Michael B

2010-06-04

370

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

371

2000 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the United States Trade Representative (USTR), this report "surveys significant foreign trade barriers to U.S. export." Created from information collected from government agencies including the USTR and the US Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, the report attempts to classify barriers in foreign trade into ten categories including import policies, government procedures, lack of intellectual property protection, and investment barriers. Reports on US trade relations with 55 countries, from the Arab League to Zimbabwe, are provided, giving succinct summaries of the outlined ten categories. Available in .pdf format only, the report may be downloaded by country or in its entirety.

372

The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally,

Kathleen Schwerdtner Máñez; Sebastian C. A. Ferse; Sharyn Jane Goldstien

2010-01-01

373

Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the

Marcela C. M. Vaz; Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos; Rui J. M. Rocha; Isabel Lopes; Ruth Pereira; Armando C. Duarte; Peter J. Rubec; Ricardo Calado

2012-01-01

374

Using ornamental stone cutting rejects as raw materials for red clay ceramic products: Properties and microstructure development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of various wastes in red clay-based ceramic products has been widely investigated, frequently with the aim of reducing the waste environmental impact. This work explores the not so obvious waste potentialities and describes the properties and microstructure development in a natural clay showing large processing limitations, upon the addition of two different ornamental stone cutting rejects, granite and

Wilson Acchar; Francisco A. Vieira; Ana M. Segadães

2006-01-01

375

Monitoring Ambrosia Beetles with Ethanol-Injected Sentinel Trees and Ethanol-Baited Bottle Traps in Ornamental Nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus is a serious pest in ornamental tree nurseries. The current strategy for managing X. germanus in nurseries is to spray the trunks of trees with insecticides before damage occurs. However, timing sprays for this pest is difficult because monitoring technique...

376

High frequency plant regeneration from microspore-derived embryos of ornamental kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effect of solid medium, developmental stage, embryonic age, cold treatment and additives to the medium on plant regeneration from microspore-derived embryos in four F1 hybrids of ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). The results showed that all of the cultivars responded best when the embryos were cultured in solidified B5

Yushu Wang; Yan Tong; Yuefei Li; Yun Zhang; Jun Zhang; Jianyun Feng; Hui Feng

2011-01-01

377

National inventory of organic wastes for use as growing media for ornamental potted plant production: case study in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory of materials suitable for use as growing media for ornamental potted plant production in Spain has been prepared. Special attention has been paid to solid organic wastes generated by production, industrial and consumer activities. Information obtained from this study has been organised into two data bases. Data base 1 contains the “General Characteristics” file of more than 105

Manuel Abad; Patricia Noguera; Silvia Burés

2001-01-01

378

NCDC216: A New Multistate Group for Water Management and Quality for Ornamental Crop Production and Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have established a USDA multistate development committee (NCDC216) to create a project focused on water management and quality for ornamental crop production and health. The nursery and greenhouse industry ranks 5th (>$14.6 billion) among all US agriculture commodities and within the top 5 commod...

379

Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control two important ornamental pests: 1) Corythucha ciliata, a native lace bug that attacks the foliage of sycamore trees, and 2) the recently described exotic pest, Stethobaris nemesis, a weevil that attacks amaryllis leave...

380

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) International Trade 1987-88. Volume 1 and Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of contents: Volume I; The report in brief; Developments in world merchandise trade; Trade trends in agriculture; Trade policy in an evolving global economy; Appendix tables; Volume II: World merchandise trade; Trade by product; Merchandise trade by...

1988-01-01

381

Thalis: A Flexible Trading Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the Internet, trading in electronic mar- ket places has become common practice for an increasing number of businesses and individuals. The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) is an open-invitation forum designed to encourage research into electronic markets and trading agents. The emphasis of TAC-02 and previous competitions has been on developing a successful strategy for maximizing pro…t

Maria Fasli; Nikolaos Poursanidis

382

TradingCharts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the International DoubleClick Network, an affiliate of AltaVista, TradingCharts provides free financial charts on stock market prices, market indices, and money markets. Chart data are updated daily, and a written technical analysis of market movements is given with each chart output. NASDAQ, NYSE, CDN, NDX, and money market symbols may be entered in daily, weekly, or monthly terms at the homepage, and search and browse options are available for unknown symbols. In addition, a Personalized Chart Menu allows users to save charts for future reference while browsing.

383

Stopping the Torture Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from Amnesty International has been issued as part of the organization's larger campaign against torture launched in October 2000. The report examines the ballooning international trade in both traditional tools of torture (e.g., leg irons and shackles) as well as newer electro-shock devices and other "non-lethal" weapons. The report reveals how torturers have been trained through the transfer of military and security training and makes a number of recommendations to governments and corporations on methods they can pursue to eradicate torture. Users may download the report by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

384

Ecological analysis of world trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2013-01-01

385

Greenhouse gas trading starts up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

Showstack, Randy

386

Trading and Investing in Romania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present basic authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, researchers, and those concerned with international trade and economic conditions. For individual reports, see below:

R. S. Edwards

1973-01-01

387

Fish Tales  

SciTech Connect

This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

McLerran, L.

2010-07-06

388

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis due to mycobacteria is one of the most common bacterial diseases in ornamental fish. We describe here the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. using ATCC Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae as references. A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains. PMID:20971487

Najiah, M; Lee, K L; Noorasikin, H; Nadirah, M; Lee, S W

2010-10-23

389

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition...World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a) Eligible products from WTO...

2012-10-01

390

Tissue culture of ornamental pot plant: a critical review on present scenario and future prospects.  

PubMed

Recent modern techniques of propagation have been developed which could help growers to meet the demand of the horticultural industry in the next century. An overview on the in vitro propagation via thin cell layer, meristem culture, regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is presented. Available methods for the transfer of genes could significantly simplify the breeding procedures and overcome some of the agronomic and environmental problems, which other wise would not be achievable through conventional propagation methods. The development and remarkable achievements with biotechnology in ornamental pot plants made during the three decades have been reviewed. The usefulness of the pot plants in commercial industry as well as propagation techniques, screening for various useful characteristics and selection of somaclonal variation is also discussed. PMID:16814509

Rout, G R; Mohapatra, A; Jain, S Mohan

2006-05-23

391

Airborne pollen of ornamental tree species in the NW of Spain.  

PubMed

This study analyzed airborne pollen counts for the tree taxa most widely used for ornamental purposes in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Platanus, Cupressaceae, Olea, Myrtaceae, Cedrus, and Casuarina) at four sites (Vigo, Ourense, Santiago, and Lugo), using aerobiological data recorded over a long period (1993-2007). The abundance and the temporal and spatial distribution of these pollen types were analyzed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Platanus (in Ourense) and Olea (in Vigo) were the taxa contributing most to pollen counts. In general terms, the results may be taken as indicators of potential risk for pollen-allergy sufferers and therefore used in planning future green areas. PMID:20300833

Aira, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco Javier; Fernández-González, María; Jato, Victoria

2010-03-19

392

Molecular identification of new varieties of Nierembergia linariaefolia (Graham), a native Argentinean ornamental plant.  

PubMed

Six Nierembergia linariaefolia clones were selected for ornamental traits during a native germplasm development program. For fingerprinting diagnosis, 13 anchored inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers and 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer-enzyme combinations were used. Both markers revealed high levels of polymorphism, enabling genetic discrimination of the accessions analyzed by using 443 informative ISSRs and 541 AFLP markers. Both molecular techniques are suitable for monitoring genetic diversity in Nierembergia linariaefolia and, under our experimental conditions, they showed correlation coefficients of 0.629 for similarity matrices and of 0.649 in the cophenetic matrices. These results suggest that ISSRs are a good choice for DNA analysis in N. linariaefolia when simple manipulation and a low budget are required. PMID:17495344

Escandón, Alejandro S; Zelener, Noga; de la Torre, Mariana Pérez; Soto, Silvina

2007-01-01

393

A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal fluctuating asymmetry in the offspring. We experimentally demonstrate in wild barn owls (Tyto alba) that the extent to which females display black spots on their plumage does not only signal offspring parasite resistance as shown in a previous study but also developmental homeostasis in the offspring. A greater number of spotted females produced offspring that had more symmetrical feathers during the period of growth. Males, that pair non-randomly with respect to female plumage spottiness therefore appear to gain substantial benefits by mating with heavily spotted females. Genetic variation in plumage spottiness is nevertheless maintained as the covariation between offspring body mass and mother plumage spottiness varies annually depending on environmental conditions.

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Balloux, Francois; Dijkstra, Cor; Riols, Christian

2003-01-01

394

Molecular characterization of allium virus X, a new potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae, infecting ornamental allium.  

PubMed

ABTRACT: A new potexvirus affecting ornamental allium spp in the Netherlands was identified and characterized at the molecular level. The virus had a single-stranded RNA genome of 7100 bp (excluding the 18 bp poly A tail). The genome organization was found to be typical of members of the genus Potexvirus and consisted of five open reading frames (ORF). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with those of known potexvirus members showed that this virus is related to Hosta virus X and Hydrangea ringspot virus. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the allium virus is a new and distinct species in the genus Potexvirus and the name, Allium virus X (AlVX) is proposed. PMID:21938462

Miglino, R; Druffel, K L; van Schadewijk, A R; Pappu, H R

2011-09-22

395

Trade union modernisation and lifelong learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent developments in trade union education in the United Kingdom. It considers policy developments in response to the government's lifelong learning agenda, and also initiatives from within trade unions themselves. The article is structured in three sections which consider consecutively the contexts of trade union education, current developments in trade union education including the interface between trade

Keith Forrester; John Payne

2000-01-01

396

Sensitive Product Treatment in Agricultural Trade Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings

Alvaro Durand-Morat; Eric J. Wailes; Misti Sharp

2011-01-01

397

Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)|

Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

1992-01-01

398

Got a Sick Fish?  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

399

Elementary Populations of Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents include: Intraspecific groupings of fish; Elementary fish populations; Major biological traits of elementary fish populations; Biological (adaptive) significance of elementary populations; The process of emergence of elementary populations in fis...

N. V. Lebedev

1969-01-01

400

Year-round resource defence and the evolution of male and female song in suboscine birds: social armaments are mutual ornaments.  

PubMed

The evolution of sexually monomorphic (i.e. mutual) ornamentation has attracted growing attention as a 'blind-spot' in evolutionary biology. The popular consensus is that female ornaments are subject to the same modes of sexual selection as males: intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it remains unclear how these forces interact within and between sexes, or whether they fully capture selection on female traits. One possibility is that the 'armament-ornament' model - which proposes that traits used primarily in male-male contests are also co-opted by females as indicators of male quality - can be extended to explain signal evolution in both sexes. We examine this idea by testing the function of acoustic signals in two species of duetting antbirds. Behavioural observations and playback experiments suggest that male and female songs function primarily as armaments in competitive interactions. Removal experiments reveal that song is also a classic ornament used by unpaired males and females to advertise for mates. These results indicate that 'armament-ornament' processes may operate in reciprocal format, potentially explaining widespread mutual ornamentation in species with elevated intrasexual competition for resources. In addition, given that songs mediate competition between species outside the breeding season, our findings suggest that processes shaping monomorphic ornaments extend beyond the traditional definitions of sexual selection and are best understood in the broader framework of social selection. PMID:21707816

Tobias, J A; Gamarra-Toledo, V; García-Olaechea, D; Pulgarín, P C; Seddon, N

2011-06-27

401

A radiological study of some ornamental stones: the bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain) we have found a variety of striking bluish and secondary yellow granites outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals in which a bluish phosphate is dispersed throughout the rock. Their physical and mechanical properties make these granites a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. Within the pluton the radiological background is fairly homogeneous, with no significant differences between the gamma ray fluxes of the different facies. U (6.4 ± 0.51 ppm), Th (2.9 ± 0.47 ppm) and K2O (4.32 ± 0.26%) contents determined in the laboratory by gamma-ray spectrometry from representative samples are in good accordance with fast in situ measurements carried out with the same technique and also with conventional chemical analysis. Estimated activities for K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 were, on average, 1022 ± 36 Bq kg-1, 84 ± 9 Bq kg-1 and 6.8 ± 1.6 Bq kg-1. On the basis of these results, the I index of EU technical document 112 was determined, with an average result of 0.66 ± 0.03. This suggests that the rock can be used with no restrictions for all types of construction purposes. Striking differences were observed between the blue facies and the yellow facies in radon exhalation tests from crushed material (0.03 Bq kg-1 vs. 0.20 Bq kg-1). Since both granites have similar uranium contents (6.3 ppm and 6.5 ppm, respectively), these results can probably be explained in terms of important differences in the mineralogical distribution of this chemical element, radon emanation being enhanced in the yellow facies. However, due to the ordinary use as ornamental stone, the yellow facies does not present a radiological risk in terms of excess effective dose due to internal exposure to radon.

Pereira, D.; Neves, L.; Pereira, A.; Peinado, M.; Blanco, J. A.; Tejado, J. J.

2012-02-01

402

Democratization: The Contribution of Fair Trade and Ethical Trading Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

De-democratization and institutional corruption threaten equality among the expanding global market community. International treaties have been largely unsuccessful because they are designed to favor the more politically and economically advantaged players. In addition to meeting these challenges, there are many additional benefits to be gained from adopting the principles of the Fair Trade and Ethical Trading movements. Finally, international law

Janet Dine

2008-01-01

403

Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

404

Preferential Trade Agreements and the Optimal Liberalisation of Agricultural Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) between developed and developing economies. Typically however many of these PTAs only incorporate a partial liberalisation of food and agricultural trade by developed economies. This paper reports the results from simulations conducted using a global comparative static model CGE model that has been calibrated with

Scott McDonald; Terrie Walmsley

2004-01-01

405

Just Trade: A New Covenant Linking Trade and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

While modern trade law and human rights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade

Stephen J Powell; Berta E Hernandez-Truyol

2009-01-01

406

Masonry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in masonry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

407

Sea turtle consumption and black market trade in Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined sea turtle consumption and illegal trade in Baja California Sur (BCS) using data from (1) bimonthly surveys at beaches, fishing camps and dumpsites and (2) semi-struc- tured interviews with fishermen. From March 2006 to February 2008, we found the carcasses of 1014 sea turtles; the meat of 461 of these turtles (45.5%) had been consumed. The East Pacific

Agnese Mancini; Volker Koch

2009-01-01

408

Capacity Building for Pro-Poor Trade: Learning from the Limitations in Current Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is a paper commissioned for the 2005 Human Development Report. It describes and evaluates the use of trade related development assistance (TRDA) in three sectors in Africa, namely Ghanian pineapples, Kenyan horticulture and Senegalese fish. Furthermore, it discusses broader lessons on TRDA included in the existing stock of evaluations of various donor programmes in the field of

Michael Friis Jensen

2005-01-01

409

The 2001 trading agent competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition was the second in a series of events aiming to shed light on research issues in automating trading strategies. Based on a challenging market scenario in the domain of travel shopping, the competition presents agents with difficult issues in bidding strategy, market prediction, and resource allocation. Entrants in 2001 demonstrated substantial progress over the prior

Michael P. Wellman; Amy Greenwald; Peter Stone; Peter R. Wurman

410

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Trading Agent Competition was the second in a series of events aiming to shed light on research issues in automating trading strategies. Based on a challenging market scenario in the domain of travel shopping, the competition presents agents with difficult issues in bidding strategy, market prediction, and resource allocation. Entrants in 2001 demonstrated substantial progress over the prior

Michael P. Wellman; Amy R. Greenwald; Peter Stone; Peter R. Wurman

2002-01-01

411

Pollution trading rights could spread  

SciTech Connect

Bearing out the concept that market-based solutions are efficient in reducing pollution, The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) and EPA say the second annual acid rain emission auction was successful in making strides toward reducing acid rain. Futhermore, that success may lead to expanding emissions trading to other industries and other emissions.

Lucas, A.

1994-04-06

412

North American Free Trade Agreement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trade negotiators from the United States, Mexico, and Canada initialed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on October 7, 1992. This event marked more than two years of intense negotiations which culminated in a 2000-page plan to reduce and ult...

K. Knight

1993-01-01

413

Product Development and International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a multicountry, dynamic general equilibrium model of product innovation and international trade to study the creation of comparative advantage through research and development and the evolution of world trade over time. In our model, firms must incur resource costs to introduce new products, and forward-looking potential producers conduct R & D and enter the product market whenever profit

Gene M. Grossman; Elhanan Helpman

1989-01-01

414

Extracting information from trading volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method to extract information about the true value of a traded asset using the market price and the equilibrium trading volume when the joint distribution of the traders' demands, the market price, and the asset value is known and the market clears. The paper applies the method to a chosen noisy rational-expectations model. We first condition

Dominique Y. Dupont

2002-01-01

415

NONTARIFF AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminological, as well as substantive, problems with other-than-customs-duty trade protection issues have existed for a long time. After World War II, these problems proved troublesome for trade analysts. Baldwin [1970], Denton and O'Cleiracain [1972], and Lloyd [1973] were among the first who helped clarify language and ideas. Unlike many at that time, I chose to stick with \\

Jimmye S. Hillman

1996-01-01

416

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK,

Martin Junginger; Torjus Bolkesjø; Douglas Bradley; Paulo Dolzan; Jussi Heinimö; Bo Hektor; Øyvind Leistad; Erik Ling; Miles Perry; Erik Piacente; Frank Rosillo-Calle; Yves Ryckmans; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Birger Solberg; Erik Trømborg; Arnaldo da Silva Walter; Marc de Wit

2008-01-01

417

Taxation and Domestic Free Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is argued that the domestic division of labor and trade is organized according to the same principle as the international division of labor and trade – the Ricardian comparative advantages. After all, the ultimate source of these comparative advantages is the individual. The comparative advantages of individuals then lend themselves to groups of people, companies, regions

Richard C. B. Johnsson

2004-01-01

418

The Ethics of Emissions Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article defends three ethical arguments against emissions trading. The first argument alleges that emissions trading is morally objectionable, because it ‘commodifies’ the atmosphere. The second argument involves various objections to attaching prices to units of emissions – loosely speaking, the objection is to pricing that which is priceless or should not be priced. The third argument turns on the

Jonathan Aldred

2012-01-01

419

The Ethics of Emissions Trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article defends three ethical arguments against emissions trading. The first argument alleges that emissions trading is morally objectionable, because it ‘commodifies’ the atmosphere. The second argument involves various objections to attaching prices to units of emissions – loosely speaking, the objection is to pricing that which is priceless or should not be priced. The third argument turns on the

Jonathan Aldred

2011-01-01

420

Building Trades 1. Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to assist building trades instructors, this course outline to a prevocational building trades program for junior and senior high school students covers four occupational areas: carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electricity. Specific notes to the administrator and teacher and the course goals precede the four occupational units. Each unit…

Hill, Clair S.

421

Trowel Trades: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for use by all trowel trade instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the trowel trades (masonry) program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

422

Agricultural Trade and Freshwater Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 75% of all water used by humans goes towards food production, much of which is traded internationally. This study formally models how this works in the case of crop agriculture, making use of recent advances in international trade theory and new data on the productivity by which countries use water for crop agriculture. The strength of the model lies

Jeffrey J. Reimer

2012-01-01

423

Industry, Trade, and Technology Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Industry Trade and Technology Review (ITTR) is a quarterly staff publication of the Office of Industries, U.S. International Trade Commission. The report is intended to provide analysis of important issues and insights into the global position of U.S....

1998-01-01

424

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements § 400.47 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in activated...duty-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage...whether an activity is retail trade, subject to review by...

2013-01-01

425

Federal Trade Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...or the substance of, a trade regulation rule or any...directed to G. Richard Gold, Attorney, telephone...ftc.gov, Federal Trade Commission, 600 Pennsylvania... Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Completed...of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal...

2010-04-26

426

78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Date Location Activity...medium-sized company (SME) \\6\\ or for a trade...only is $1500 for an SME or trade association...trade association, or SME) is $500. Exclusions...to partisan political activities (including...

2013-03-11

427

Wind Turbines. Industry and Trade Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States International Trade Commission has initiated its current Industry and Trade Summary series of reports to provide information on the rapidly evolving trade and competitive situation of the thousands of products imported into and exported ...

A. S. David M. Anderson M. Reed

2009-01-01

428

Selecting Trade Books for Elementary Science Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the importance of using well-chosen trade books for stimulating student interest and motivation in the natural world. Discusses how to assess and select trade books. Lists selected trade books on the life cycles of plants. (YDS)

Rop, Charles J.; Rop, Sheri K.

2001-01-01

429

Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants  

PubMed Central

Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

Hong, Yunhan

2011-01-01

430

Trade Cost, Trade Policy and Trade Volume: A Study of Indian Apple Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade Cost form a significant part of moving goods from producer to consumer. These cost are particularly high in developing countries. As a representative country, we look at India’s apple trade. Although tariff on apple imports is high, local distribution cost are much higher. While Tariff reduction will somewhat benefit the consumer, liberalization that promotes lowering of traders’ margins may

Satish Y. Deodhar

431

Virtual Clone Fish Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual clone fish experimental system is designed and set up. The system simulates the clone fish experiment process using the technique of virtual reality based on behavior model. Through the experiment, users can further observe the results and make conclusion more conveniently and quickly. The virtual clone fish experiment can reduce unnecessary waste caused in a reality clone fish

Qian Xu; Wen-Yong Wang; Shao-Chun Zhong; Xiao-lin Quan; Qingrong Zhang; Ying Liang

2006-01-01

432

Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

433

Analysis of persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds containing fish oil and other alternative lipid sources.  

PubMed

A trade-off exists between beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated acids and toxic persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), both of which primarily originate from fish oil commonly used in fish feeds. Alternative lipid sources are being investigated for use in fish feeds to reduce harmful contaminant accumulation, hence, research is needed to evaluate PHHs in fish feeds with various lipid compositions. An analytical method was developed for PHHs including nine organochlorine insecticides (OCPs), 26 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish feeds with differing proportions of fish oils and alternative lipid sources by GC-ECD after accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and sulfuric acid cleanup. The GPC removed the majority of the neutral lipids and sulfuric acid treatment effectively destroyed the polar lipids. Thus, the combination of the two methods removed approximately 99.7% of the lipids in the extracts. The method detection limits were less than 5 ng/g dry weight (dw) for most PHHs, while recoveries were 75-118%, 67-105%, 69-92%, 63-100% and 94-144% with relative standard deviations of 0.2-39%, 0.3-20%, 0.5-12%, 1.5-18% and 1.5-15% for PHHs in five types of fish feeds made from different lipid sources. Although the source of lipid showed no impact on cleanup efficiency and the developed method worked well for all feeds, fish feeds with 100% fish oil contained background PHHs and more interference than feeds containing alternative lipids. PMID:21807185

You, Jing; Kelley, Rebecca A; Crouse, Curtis C; Trushenski, Jesse T; Lydy, Michael J

2011-06-12

434

Plant-Related Factors Influence the Effectiveness of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a Biological Control Agent of Spider Mites on Landscape Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predatory mite Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) was evaluated as a biological control agent of herbivorous mites on outdoor-grown ornamental landscape plants. To elucidate factors that may affect predator efÞciency, replicated tests were conducted on 30 ornamental plant cultivars that varied in relationship to their generalized morphology (e.g., conifers, shade trees, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, and herbaceous perennials), production method (potted

P. D. Pratt; R. Rosetta; B. A. Croft

2002-01-01

435

The evolution of trade treaties and trade creation : lessons for Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the main distinction between trade liberalization under the General Agreement on Tariffs andTrade (GATT) and under regional trading agreements. Under the GATT, trade liberalization is based on the most-favored-nation principle. Under regional trade agreements, it is based on preferential trade. Establishing regional trade agreements does not necessarily lead to greater regional integration. The European Economic Community has

Sarath Rajapatirana

1994-01-01

436

Trade, Trade Policy, and Productivity Growth in OECD Manufacturing. (Rev).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trade liberalization may promote economic growth in a number of ways, including possibly by accelerating the rate of technological change. It has variously been proposed that firms which face more itense import competition may be spurred to greater uses o...

N. Benjamin M. J. Ferrantino

1998-01-01

437

Electrical power trade-offs  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power trade studies were initiated in September 1982 supporting the Space Station Systems Definition activity. Responsibility for performing the electrical power trade studies (Power Data Base) was divided between the NASA Centers. Center representatives and their respective subjects are identified in the accompanying chart. The data base material was used to conduct a general storage trade study. When the results appeared to favor the flywheel option, effort was focused on a comparative flywheel investigation wherein a range of flywheel performance and cost possibilities was compared with optimistic projections of competing options.

Giudici, B.

1983-12-01

438

Over-expression of Arabidopsis FT gene reduces juvenile phase and induces early flowering in ornamental gentian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental gentian plants are perennial and have a juvenile period of over 1 year before flowering. We transformed gentian\\u000a plants with a construct comprising the Arabidopsis\\u000a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene (encoding a major component protein of the flowering hormone ‘florigen’) under the control of the rolC promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes, which is known to induce vascular-specific expression. The resultant rolCpro-FT

Takashi Nakatsuka; Yoshiko Abe; Yuko Kakizaki; Akiko Kubota; Norimoto Shimada; Masahiro Nishihara

2009-01-01

439

Passion flower hybrids and their use in the ornamental plant market: perspectives for sustainable development with emphasis on Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) genus consists of about 500 species widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, commonly\\u000a known as the passion flower. The passion flowers are considered ornamental plants because of the exotic beauty of their flowers\\u000a and variant foliage. Since their introduction to the Old World, around 1625, seventeenth century, they have been used to decorate\\u000a European glasshouses

Priscilla Patrocínio Abreu; Margarete Magalhães Souza; Eileen Azevedo Santos; Marcel Viana Pires; Mônica Moura Pires; Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida

2009-01-01

440

Volatile Metabolite Compositions of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ornamental and Artemisinin Rich Cultivars of Artemisia annua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the aerial parts (flowers, leaves and stems) of the artemisinin rich cultivar ‘Jeevanraksha’ and artemisinin poor ornamental type cultivar Suraksha of Artemisia annua, grown at New Delhi, were characterized for their metabolite composition by GC and GC\\/MS analyses. Ninety-seven compounds comprising 91.3% of the total oil of ‘Jeevanraksha’ were identified. Forty-three monoterpenes (56.6%), 32 sesquiterpenes (31.1%),

Divya Goel; Gopal Rao Mallavarupu; Sushil Kumar; Vijender Singh; Mohammed Ali

2008-01-01

441

Bacterial Community Dynamics During the Application of a Myxococcus xanthus Inoculated Culture Medium Used for Consolidation of Ornamental Limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated under laboratory conditions the bacterial communities inhabiting quarry and decayed ornamental\\u000a carbonate stones before and after the application of a Myxococcus xanthus-inoculated culture medium used for consolidation of the stones. The dynamics of the community structure and the prevalence\\u000a of the inoculated bacterium, M. xanthus, were monitored during the time course of the consolidation treatment

Guadalupe Piñar; Concepcion Jimenez-Lopez; Katja Sterflinger; Jörg Ettenauer; Fadwa Jroundi; Antonia Fernandez-Vivas; Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Muñoz

2010-01-01

442

75 FR 47675 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers and Reports on Sanitary...Phytosanitary and Standards-Related Foreign Trade Barriers AGENCY: Office of the...National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE). With this...

2010-08-06

443

76 FR 50287 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers and Reports on Sanitary...Phytosanitary and Standards-Related Foreign Trade Barriers AGENCY: Office of the...National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE). With this...

2011-08-12

444

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.

2007-12-12

445

Industry and Trade Summary: Franchising.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary discusses two forms of commercial franchising: (1) product and trade name franchising and (2) business format franchising. Business format franchising receives greater coverage in this report because it is in a more dynamic phase of developme...

C. Melly

1995-01-01

446

Industry and Trade Summary: Gemstones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a global overview of the gemstone industry and examines market trends through a unique compilation of production and trade data that is not otherwise readily available. Industry products covered include: (1) natural and cultured pearl...

1997-01-01

447

International Trade: Rules of Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining the country of origin of a product is important for properly assessing tariffs, enforcing trade remedies (such as antidumping and countervailing duties) or quantitative restrictions (tariff quotas), and statistical purposes. Other commercial t...

M. F. Martin V. C. Jones

2008-01-01

448

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Nunenkamp, David; Coonce, Carol

2008-01-01

449

Systems for carbon trading: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the increasing number of regional, national and international systems for trading and transfer of greenhouse gas emission allowances and emission reduction credits. The paper will serve as a platform for further discussions on the development of the international carbon trading market. The analysis builds on the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) Trading Schemes Database, which has

Henrik Hasselknippe

2003-01-01

450

Preferential Trade Agreements and the Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labor market consequences are at the forefront of most debates on the merits of trade liberalization. Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have become the primary form of trade liberalization in most countries, and several studies have shown that discriminatory and non-discriminatory trade liberalization can lead to very different outcomes. Yet to date there has not been any attempt to study the

Emanuel Ornelas

2012-01-01

451

Outsourcing as a private barrier to trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility that endogenous industrial restructura- tion may mitigate the effect of trade liberalization on import flows, thus evaluating the idea that private barriers to trade may replace governmen- tal barriers to trade. Within a successive oligopoly model, we show that outsourcing may indeed act as a barrier to trade with quite substantial ef- fects. Since outsourcing is

E. Avenel; C. Barlet

2003-01-01

452

Estimation of Missing Intra-African Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing trade is defined as the exports and imports that may have taken place between two potential trading partners, but which are unknown to the researcher because neither partner reported them to the United Nation’s COMTRADE, the official global repository of trade statistics. In a comprehensive sample of African countries, over 40% of the potential trade flows fit this definition.

Nelson Villoria

2008-01-01

453

Trade Is Everybody's Business [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trade has been an important factor in United States from the 17th century to the present day. The United States was born out of a trade dispute with Great Britain. From the moment the founders first set pen to paper, trade has helped spur U.S. economic growth. This booklet covers trade topics such as policy, perspectives, difference in nations…

Aaronson, Susan A.

454

Does the WTO Make Trade More Stable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the hypothesis that membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has increased the stability and predictability of trade flows. I use a large data set covering annual bilateral trade flows between over 175 countries between 1950 and 1999, and estimate the effect of GATT\\/WTO membership on the

Andrew K. Rose

2005-01-01

455

World Trade Organization (WTO), Annual Report 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 World Trade Report is split into two main parts. The first is a brief summary of the trade situation in 2010. The second part focuses on the special theme of preferential trade agreements. This year's World Trade Report takes an in-depth fresh lo...

2011-01-01

456

THE TRADE DEBATE'S UNLEVEL PLAYING FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans have a general understanding of trade. We understand that trade is good. We may not be exactly sure what ''free trade'' is, but we have a sense that it is mostly a good thing. Unfortunately, the instinctive appreciation that trade is beneficial is coupled with a woeful ignorance of why this is so. If you listen to politicians, you

Ronald A. Cass

457

Trade Measurement Legislation Amendment Bill 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before explaining the relationship between the New South Wales trade measurement legislation and the uniform legislation I would like to outline the scope of the two New South Wales Acts to which I have just referred. The Trade Measurement Act applies to all measurements made for trade purposes and aims to promote fair trading and consumer protection in relation to

LINDA BURNEY

2007-01-01

458

Does Trade Openness Promote Multilateral Environmental Cooperation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article puts forward a number of arguments why trade openness might promote multilateral environmental cooperation. Most of these arguments are grounded in the substantive self-interest of the trading country. It tests the proposition using a range of proxy variables for general trade openness as well as specific export interests. The article examines whether countries open to trade are more

Eric Neumayer

2002-01-01

459

Trade Liberalisation and Poverty Reduction in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impacts of trade liberalisation on poverty reduction in Vietnam during the period of economic reform. Using a combined approach dealing with four transmitting channels from trade to poverty, the major findings are summarised as follows. First, Vietnam's trade liberalisation has fostered economic growth, which has helped to raise per capita GDP and reduce poverty. Second, trade

Yoon Heo; Nguyen Khanh Doanh

2009-01-01

460

Local dkk1 crosstalk from breeding ornaments impedes regeneration of injured male zebrafish fins.  

PubMed

Precise spatiotemporal regulation of signaling activators and inhibitors can help limit developmental crosstalk between neighboring tissues during morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration. Here, we find that the secreted Wnt inhibitor Dkk1b is abundantly produced by dense regions of androgen-regulated epidermal tubercles (ETs) on the surfaces of adult male zebrafish pectoral fins. High-speed videos and amputation experiments reveal that pectoral fins and their ETs are used for male spawning. Formation and vigorous turnover of ETs involve Dkk1b induction and maintenance, whereas Dkk1b is typically restricted from the regeneration blastema after an amputation injury. When amputation occurs through a region containing ETs, a Dkk1b-enriched wound epidermis forms and blastema formation is disrupted, compromising regeneration. Thus, homeostatic signaling by key breeding ornaments can interfere with injury-activated tissue regeneration. Our findings help explain sexually dimorphic fin regeneration in zebrafish and have implications for how regenerative potential might decline as development progresses or during species evolution. PMID:24135229

Kang, Junsu; Nachtrab, Gregory; Poss, Kenneth D

2013-10-14

461

Isolation and Properties of Floral Defensins from Ornamental Tobacco and Petunia1  

PubMed Central

The flowers of the solanaceous plants ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana alata) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) produce high levels of defensins during the early stages of development. In contrast to the well-described seed defensins, these floral defensins are produced as precursors with C-terminal prodomains of 27 to 33 amino acids in addition to a typical secretion signal peptide and central defensin domain of 47 or 49 amino acids. Defensins isolated from N. alata and petunia flowers lack the C-terminal domain, suggesting that it is removed during or after transit through the secretory pathway. Immunogold electron microscopy has been used to demonstrate that the N. alata defensin is deposited in the vacuole. In addition to the eight canonical cysteine residues that define the plant defensin family, the two petunia defensins have an extra pair of cysteines that form a fifth disulfide bond and hence define a new subclass of this family of proteins. Expression of the N. alata defensin NaD1 is predominantly flower specific and is most active during the early stages of flower development. NaD1 transcripts accumulate in the outermost cell layers of petals, sepals, anthers, and styles, consistent with a role in protection of the reproductive organs against potential pathogens. The floral defensins inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum in vitro, providing further support for a role in protection of floral tissues against pathogen invasion.

Lay, Fung T.; Brugliera, Filippa; Anderson, Marilyn A.

2003-01-01

462

Trade, Technology, and Wage Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico during the 1980s, the wages of more-educated, more- experienced workers rose relative to those of less-educated, less- experienced workers. We assess the extent to which the increase in the skilled-unskilled wage gap was associated with Mexico's recent trade reform. In particular, we examine whether trade reform has shifted employment towards industries that are relatively intensive in the use

Gordon H. Hanson; Ann Harrison

1995-01-01

463

Jon Haveman's International Trade Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jon Haveman, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, maintains this metasite of industry classification concordances and international data links for researchers pursuing empirical studies of international trade. Among Haveman's collection of Industry Concordances, ISIC, SITC, usSIC, HS, TSUSA, and NACE classifications are covered with detailed source and downloading information. Links to a variety of International Trade Data such as the Penn World Tables are also well-documented; recent additions to both resources are listed by month.

1999-01-01

464

What Are Trade Pull Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were ten counties that have trade pull factors scoring between the range of 0.80 - 1.00. These counties are shaded in light blue on the county trade pull factor map, namely Kay (0.97), Pontotoc (0.93), Jackson (0.92), Comanche (0.91), Muskogee (0.90), Woods (0.89), Cleveland & Stephens (0.86), Pittsburg (0.84), and Pottawatomie (0.80). With the exception of

Fui Phang; Shamus Moore

2009-01-01

465

Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Mary E. Burfisher and Elizabeth A. Jones, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (described in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), the report Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture analyzes the "trade-creating" and "trade-diverting" impacts of US participation in regional trade agreements (RTAs). Twelve chapters cover the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the US-Israel Free Trade Agreement, among other RTAs. Arguments are made that increased US participation benefits US agriculture but could hurt non-member trade participants.

Jones, Elizabeth A.; Burfisher, Mary E.

1998-01-01

466

Trading Places, Trading Problems: Global Markets in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roundtable set US trade policy in the context of evolving World Trade Organization rules, impact of trade on developing nations and the challenge of open trade with China. The goal of the discussion was to help citizens understand the political, social and environmental dimensions of global trade reform.

Frank Boyd; William Munro; Abigal Jahiel

2006-01-01

467

Omega-3 in Fish: How Eating Fish Helps Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... the potential effects of toxins in fish. Does mercury contamination outweigh the health benefits of eating fish? ... avoid eating fish because of the concerns over mercury or other contaminants? If you eat enough fish ...

468

Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation\\u000a of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few\\u000a ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity\\u000a of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to

Craig S. Shuman; Gregor Hodgson; Richard F. Ambrose

2005-01-01

469

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as...172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at...

2009-10-01

470

49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.218 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as...172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at...

2010-10-01

471

World Trade Organization: Standard of Review and Impact of Trade Remedy Rulings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World Trade Organization (WTO) members rely on trade remedies in the form of duties or other import restrictions to protect their industries from injury due to unfair foreign trade practices or unexpected import surges. There is congressional concern that...

2003-01-01

472

78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade...in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards...the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

2013-07-15

473

Advisory on Puffer Fish  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... caught fish. The liver, gonads (ovaries and testes), intestines and skin of puffer fish typically contain the toxin. Unless puffer ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

474

Scorpion fish sting  

MedlinePLUS

... The fins of these prickly fish carry poisonous venom. This article describes the effects of a sting ... Scorpion fish venom ... person does often depends on how much poisonous venom entered the body and how soon treatment is ...

475

Meat, Poultry and Fish  

MedlinePLUS

Choose fish, shellfish, poultry without the skin, and trimmed lean meats, no more than 6 ounces, cooked, per day. Enjoy at least 2 ... fat and total fat than most meats and poultry. Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids such ...

476

Flashlight Fish Symbiosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigates the symbiosis between anomalopids (flashlight fishes) and their luminous bacteria symbionts. Anomalopid fishes harbor luminous bacterial symboints in large light organs located beneath the eyes. This association is one of the mos...

M. G. Haygood

1990-01-01

477

Peruvian Fishing Industry, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Peruvian fishing sector is an export-oriented industry concentrating primarily on fishmeal. Peru exports 90 percent of it's fishmeal. Before nationalization and a particularly devastating 'El Nino' in 1972, Peru was one of the world's foremost fishing...

M. B. Long

1990-01-01

478

Commercial Fish Harvest Inventory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was to obtain accurate data on the catch rates of the entanglement gear fished in Kentucky Reservoir, Tennessee, and to evaluate the impact of such gear on the game fish population, especially the striped bass.

J. E. Hayes

1980-01-01

479

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

480

SAMPLE FISH DATA, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish data at sample locations in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed, 1993-1995. See http://sgi1dncrlg.er.usgs.gov/albe-html/biology/fish/fishdatadic.html for list of fields and their meanings....

481

Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. Consequently, reducing the trading costs of comparatively few expensive trades would already result in substantial savings on total trading costs. Since trading costs depend to some extent on steering variables, investors can try to lower trading costs by carefully controlling these

Jacob A. Bikker; Laura Spierdijk; Roy P. M. M. Hoevenaars; Pieter Jelle Van der Sluis

2008-01-01

482

Folkbiology of freshwater fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural differences were consistently observed. Majority-culture fish experts tended to sort fish into taxonomic

Douglas L. Medin; Norbert O. Ross; Scott Atran; Douglas Cox; John Coley; Julia B. Proffitt; Sergey Blok

2006-01-01

483

Trade and social determinants of health.  

PubMed

The effects of trade and trade liberalisation on the social determinants of health are not well known. Here, we outline a conceptual framework of links between trade liberalisation and health outcomes, and review existing evidence for these by focusing on four key factors: income, inequality, economic insecurity, and unhealthy diets. Even though trade liberalisation seems to have positive effects on economic growth, it is not sufficient to boost growth. In several countries, trade reforms have not translated into enhanced economic expansion because complementary policies are needed. Trade liberalisation and openness are associated with greater wage inequality and raised economic insecurity. Trade liberalisation has facilitated availability of highly processed, calorie-rich, nutrient-poor food in developing countries, but further research is needed to better understand the effects of trade on unhealthy diets. Policymakers and health professionals need to be aware that the global economy affects the health of populations and understand how risks associated with trade liberalisation can be mitigated. PMID:19167058

Blouin, Chantal; Chopra, Mickey; van der Hoeven, Rolph

2009-01-21

484

ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND  

PubMed Central

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance.

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2012-01-01

485

Fishing for Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

Matthews, Bruce

1994-01-01

486

Fishing for Environmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

Matthews, Bruce

1994-01-01

487

Juvenile Zebra fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The juvenile stage is the third stage in the zebra fish life cycle. In the juvenile stage, the zebra fish is continuing to grow in size. At this stage, the juvenile fish can feed on its own and does not need a yolk sac.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-08

488

Zebra fish juvenile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The juvenile stage is the third stage in the zebra fish life cycle. In the juvenile stage, the zebra fish is continuing to grow in size. At this stage, the juvenile fish can feed on its own and does not need a yolk sac.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-08

489

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site informs visitors about Japan's current economic policies. Reports available include the plans to reform the economic structure, trade issues, and the 1997 White Paper on International Trade which looks at trends in world trade and long-term issues concerning Japanese trade and industry. A collection of chronologically sorted press releases, transcripts of press conferences, statistics on industrial production, and a summary of industrial economic trends can be found at this site. A collection of trade-related reports and Japanese submissions to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are also available.

1997-01-01

490

Fisheries Foreign Trade Information Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Fisheries Statistics & Economics Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service, this spectacular foreign trade data base includes annual and monthly data since 1975 and is constantly updated as new information becomes available. For scientists interested in quantifying or tracking human impact on marine ecosystems, this site is a veritable gold mine. The database offers three types of data, all of which are searchable and may be downloaded: imports of fishery products, exports, and re-exports. Trade data exist for all countries with which the US conducts trade. A new feature increases the worth of this already valuable site: users can, with the help of explicit instructions, "build a database" (for download), organized by specified countries and time periods.

1999-01-01

491

International Trade: An Analysis of Free Trade Agreements and Congressional and Private Sector Consultations under Trade Promotion Authority.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress granted the President Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) to negotiate agreements, including free trade agreements (FTA) in 2002. TPA stipulated negotiating objectives and procedural steps for the administration, including consulting with Congress an...

2007-01-01

492

Machine Shop. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metal occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the machinist trade as recommended by the successful machinist. An instructional program based upon the implementation of this guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

493

Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

494

Turtles and Trade: The WTO's Acceptance of Environmental Trade Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea turtle has become an icon ofenvironmentalist opposition to the World Trade Organization. Two decisions by the WTO in 1998 against a United States law intended to force other countries to adopt more turtle-friendly rules attracted widespread attention. A third decision in 2001 which supported the US law, however, went almost entirely unnoticed. A closer examination ofthe three decisions

Elizabeth R. DeSombre; J. Samuel Barkin

2002-01-01

495

Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

496

Masonry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the masonry trade as recommended by the successful mason. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to adequately…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

497

Machine Shop. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metal occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the machinist trade as recommended by the successful machinist. An instructional program based upon the implementation of this guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

498

Fish under exercise.  

PubMed

Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

2011-05-25

499

Fish Allergy: In Review.  

PubMed

Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

2013-02-27

500

The Fishing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fishing Game pits students against two virtual fishing companies. The goal is to maximize the company's bank account at the end of 10 years' fishing. This almost always results in a crash of the fishing population and ultimate demise of the fishing company. The player tries each of 4 resource management models in an attempt to both maximize profit and save the fisheries for the long term. A population modeling tool allows predictions to be made based on fishing effort and the management limitations. For example, fishing season length, % of marine reserves, or catch share, can be set depending on the chosen scenario. The results of game play are emailed to the instructor or can be printed out to hand in.

Prothero, Bill