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1

[Aspects of animal welfare and species protection in the international trade of ornamental fish and air transport to Germany].  

PubMed

The number of ornamental fish kept in German aquariums is rising, but the supply of offspring is not sufficient to meet the needs of the fish enthusiasts. Therefore millions of ornamental fish from foreign countries are being imported to Germany. This provokes a number of new problems regarding the protection of species and the animals' welfare during transportation. For the assessment of the transport conditions, 1000 shipments of ornamental fishes were evaluated at the Rhein-Main-Airport Frankfurt, Germany. Water samples were taken from 100 shipments and were examined for anaesthetics. The results are disturbing: 41% of the shipments have total transportation times between 31-42 h resulting in an oxygen deficit in the transport bags (5.2%) and dead ornamental fish. Also damage of the transportation containers, high fish densities as well as drastic size differences amoung the fish in one transport bag were noticeable. In 99% of the cases, formal defects could be noted. The German association of pet stores has declared that fish belonging to three special fresh water families should not be kept in an aquarium, but 1 200 of such fish were imported. The HPLC analysis of the water samples revealed an additive. The non-declared anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol was present in all samples taken from shipments based out of Singapore. The results emphasize that improvements are urgently necessary in the control of the air transport and trade with Ornamental fish. PMID:15918482

Wöhr, Anna-Caroline; Hildebrand, Heike; Unshelm, Jürgen; Erhard, Michael Helmut

2005-01-01

2

Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50 years ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens

2003-01-01

3

Circular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in  

E-print Network

of tropical fish trade such as support industries, wholesalers, retail pet stores, and aquarium productCircular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in Florida 1 Jeffrey E. Hill and Roy P Introduction Freshwater tropical ornamental fish culture is the largest component of aquaculture in the State

Watson, Craig A.

4

The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade  

PubMed Central

Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

2015-01-01

5

The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.  

PubMed

Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

2015-01-01

6

Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.  

PubMed

Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

Smith, Katherine F; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

2012-01-01

7

Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

2012-01-01

8

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2010-01-01

9

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2013-01-01

10

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2012-01-01

11

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2011-01-01

12

Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.  

PubMed

Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. PMID:25447914

Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

2015-01-25

13

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

14

Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2005-01-01

15

Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2012-12-21

16

Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment.  

PubMed

Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort and the future expression of a sexually selected ornament, we manipulated the parental effort of males by changing their brood sizes. We found that parents provisioned experimentally enlarged broods more often than reduced broods. As predicted by life-history theory, the change in parental effort had a significant effect on the relative plumage ornamentation of males in the subsequent year: males with reduced broods significantly increased in plumage brightness. Moreover, this change in plumage coloration had a direct effect on the timing of breeding in the following season: males that displayed brighter plumage in the year following the manipulation mated with females that initiated egg laying earlier in the season. These data indicate that male bluebirds must trade-off conserving energy for production of future ornamentation versus expending energy for current reproduction. PMID:17148168

Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

2005-06-22

17

Megalocytivirus Infections in Fish, with Emphasis on Ornamental Species1  

E-print Network

are listed in Table 1. Many popular aquarium fish are on this list, including freshwater angelfishFA182 Megalocytivirus Infections in Fish, with Emphasis on Ornamental Species1 Roy P. E. Yanong (genus) of fish viruses in the family Iridoviridae (the iridoviruses). Megalocytiviruses cause systemic

Watson, Craig A.

18

Profile of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A market survey and review of government statistics were carried out to establish imports and exports of marine ornamental fishes into and out of Hong Kong, and to examine the local trade in terms of volume, value and species composition. Official government import figures for marine aquarium fishes were available from 1984 to 1991 and from 1997 and 1998. When

Thierry T. C. Chan; Yvonne Sadovy

2000-01-01

19

Properties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish RP Hedrick TS McDowell  

E-print Network

perch and rainbow trout in Australia. A comparison of the ornamental fish iridovirus with these systemic of the virulence of the ornamental fish isolate for 2 important food fish species, rainbow trout (OncorhynchusProperties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish RP Hedrick TS McDowell Department of Medicine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Marine Ornamental Trade in Brazil J.L. GASPARINI1  

E-print Network

- mentals, Reef fish Abstract. Brazil is one of the five leading exporting countries of tropical aquarium). Nearly all marine aquarium fish and invertebrate species are still harvested from the wild (Friedlander). The global import value of marine fish and invertebrates for the aquarium trade is estimated to be US$ 24

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

21

Red fish, blue fish: trade-offs between pigmentation and immunity in Betta splendens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many examples of sexually attractive red, orange, and yellow coloration in animals and play an important role in antioxidant and immune defenses. Because vertebrates cannot synthesize carotenoids, limited dietary availability may impose a trade-off between maintaining ornamental coloration and health. We used an experimental approach to test the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the fighting fish

Ethan D. Clotfelter; Daniel R. Ardia; Kevin J. McGraw

2007-01-01

22

Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria in Water Containing Ornamental Fishes  

PubMed Central

Water containing ornamental fishes was found to frequently contain countable numbers of bacteria that were resistant to one or more antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents. The multidrug-resistant strains most commonly isolated were lactose-fermenting Citrobacter freundii. The overall resistance of these aquaria strains was greater than the previously described resistance of clinical isolates of C. freundii. Although the strains examined appeared to lack R-factors, this pool of resistant bacteria may have public health implications. PMID:988781

Trust, T. J.; Whitby, J. L.

1976-01-01

23

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

24

THE IDENTITY OF THE AFRICAN FIREBUSH (HAMELIA) IN THE ORNAMENTAL NURSERY TRADE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. In recent years, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flow...

25

The Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to examine the interdependence of global trade in the context of the economic and social aspects of fisheries and aquaculture. When studying global interdependence within a science literacy context the purpose is not to promote any particular view of how nations should work together or to suggest what the balance between national interests and global ones should be for the United States or any other nation. Rather, students need to become aware of the growing number of ways in which each nation is part of a larger political, economic, military, environmental, biological, and technological system.

Science Netlinks

2000-12-06

26

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH  

E-print Network

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH dispersal distances in the Red Sea 12 Chapter 3 Comparative genetic population structure of two reef fishes and the demographic connectivity in the endemic fish species of the Red Sea Larabicus quadrilineatus, and in the two

27

Ornamental Fish Industry in Sri Lanka: Present Status and Future Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquarium fish industry in Sri Lanka has become a valuable foreign exchange earner during the past few years, earning Rs.\\u000a 530 million in 1998. Sri Lankan ornamental fish exports for the international market include locally wild caught marine, brackish-water\\u000a and freshwater species as well as captive bred freshwater fish. Presently, there are about 18 registered aquarium fish exporters\\u000a and

R. G. S. Wijesekara; A. Yakupitiyage

2001-01-01

28

Systems engineering for ornamental fish production in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop a simulation model for determining the optimal layout and management regime for ornamental fish recirculating aquaculture system (ORAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth rates, the nature of the products, and the management practices; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model of the ORAS, taking into account all factors that directly

Ilan Halachmi

2006-01-01

29

Trematode Centrocestus formosanus Infection and Distribution in Ornamental Fishes in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species;

César Ortega; Raúl Fajardo; Ricardo Enríquez

2009-01-01

30

Managing the Marine Aquarium Trade: Revealing the Data Gaps Using Ornamental Polychaetes  

PubMed Central

The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm “type” whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm “types”. Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site-specific with financial and educational support from NGOs, local governments and industry members. PMID:22235306

Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G.

2012-01-01

31

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPoorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present

Rupert A. Collins; Karen F. Armstrong; Rudolf Meier; Youguang Yi; Samuel D. J. Brown; Robert H. Cruickshank; Suzanne Keeling; Colin Johnston

2012-01-01

32

High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which ornamental fish and their carriage water harbour antibiotic resistant bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Methods: 129 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm water and coldwater ornamental fish species were screened for r...

33

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)  

PubMed Central

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-01-01

34

Artificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial reefs may provide a useful tool to enhance production of marine ornamentals and to divert detrimental harvesting activities from sensitive natural habitat. The efficacy of this strategy depends, in part, on the extent to which artificial reefs contribute to new production (vs. attract fishes from natural habitat) and therefore benefit harvested populations on a local and regional basis. Here

JACQUELINE WILSON; CRAIG W. OSENBERG; COLETTE M. S. T. MARY; CRAIG A. WATSON; WILLIAM J. LINDBERG

2001-01-01

35

Artificial Reefs, the Attraction-production Issue, and Density Dependence in Marine Ornamental Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial reefs may provide a useful tool to enhance production of marine ornamentals and to divert detrimental harvesting activities from sensitive natural habitat. The efficacy of this strategy depends, in part, on the extent to which artificial reefs contribute to new production (vs. attract fishes from natural habitat) and therefore benefit harvested populations on a local and regional basis. Here

Jacqueline Wilson; Craig W. Osenberg; Colette M. St. Mary; Craig A. Watson; William J. Lindberg

2001-01-01

36

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

37

Characterization of Microbiota Composition and Presence of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Carriage Water of Ornamental Fish  

PubMed Central

International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1–2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25084116

Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

2014-01-01

38

Development of real-time PCR assays for detection of megalocytiviruses in imported ornamental fish.  

PubMed

Megalocytiviruses have been associated globally with severe systemic disease and economic loss in farmed food fish and ornamental fish. The viruses have been spread internationally by translocation of live fish. In New Zealand, megalocytiviruses are regarded as exotic. A potential pathway for introduction has been identified, namely imported ornamental fish. In the present study, real-time PCR assays were developed for detection of megalocytiviruses using a conserved major capsid protein gene. A SYBR green assay was developed to target all known megalocytiviruses. A second real-time PCR assay using a molecular beacon was developed to specifically target gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus, iridovirus, a species of iridovirus previously linked to ornamental fish imports in Australia. The analytical sensitivity for the SYBR green and molecular beacon assays were 10 and 100?fg, respectively. The analytical specificity of the real-time PCR assays determined using genomic DNA templates from three target viruses, 12 non-target viruses and 25 aquatic bacterial species were 100%. The intra-run and inter-run coefficients of variation of both assays were <5%. The real-time PCR assays developed in this study provide rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of megalocytiviruses and gourami iridovirus. PMID:21762172

Gias, E; Johnston, C; Keeling, S; Spence, R P; McDonald, W L

2011-08-01

39

Grading Ornamental Fish1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Introduction During and after harvest, ornamental fish are visually inspected for quality (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheet FA-117, Harvesting Ornamental Fish Ponds). Quality 919, Stress-Its Role in Fish Disease) and maximizing the quality of harvested fish. After a partial

Watson, Craig A.

40

Management of an ornamental pond as a conservation site for a threatened native fish species, crucian carp Carassius carassius  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ornamental ponds are important sites for conserving threatened native fish species (e.g. crucian carp Carassius carassius L.), but pond management plans rarely include considerations of native fishes. We developed and implemented a management\\u000a plan for a small (0.8 h), ornamental estate pond in Hertfordshire (England) using historical information (aquatic plant and\\u000a animal surveys) and a 9-year data set on climatic variables

G. H. Copp; S. Warrington; K. J. Wesley

41

Management of an ornamental pond as a conservation site for a threatened native fish species, crucian carp Carassius carassius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental ponds are important sites for conserving threatened native fish species (e.g. crucian carp Carassius carassius L.), but pond management plans rarely include considerations of native fishes. We developed and implemented a management\\u000a plan for a small (0.8 h), ornamental estate pond in Hertfordshire (England) using historical information (aquatic plant and\\u000a animal surveys) and a 9-year data set on climatic variables

G. H. Copp; S. Warrington; K. J. Wesley

2008-01-01

42

Use of Ovaprim in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture1 Roy P. E. Yanong, Carlos Martinez, and Craig A. Watson2  

E-print Network

for ap- proximately 80­90 percent of all aquarium fish raised in the United States. Florida's farmers breed and raise hundreds of species of aquarium fish, using a variety of techniques. Some speciesFA161 Use of Ovaprim in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture1 Roy P. E. Yanong, Carlos Martinez, and Craig A

Watson, Craig A.

43

Arms races, ornaments and fragrant genes: the dilemma of mate choice in fishes.  

PubMed

Female preference for secondary sexual male ornaments that are handicapping survival has been an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis assumes that costly ornaments can be produced only by those males that carry the genes for resistance against the current infectious disease. I review studies in fishes that indeed bright colors can only be displayed by males in good health and females prefer healthy males by choosing the brighter ones. On the other hand, female vertebrates from fish to humans smell out partners that provide the complementary genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them producing offspring with the optimal number of different MHC alleles. In sticklebacks females have a two-step choice. Using smell they approach a male that offers the optimally complementary number of MHC alleles. When they can see the male, they accept it only when it is bright and thus offers in its complementary set of alleles the specific MHC allele providing resistance against the current disease as revealed by the male's sexual ornamentation. PMID:25152201

Milinski, Manfred

2014-10-01

44

Preliminary Investigations of Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Selected Ornamental Fishes and Efficacy against External Bacteria and Parasites in Green Swordtails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue

Riccardo Russo; Eric W. Curtis; Roy P. E. Yanong

2007-01-01

45

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

46

Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade  

E-print Network

Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade Erin Gertzen, Oriana to identify invasion risk. We focused on fishes introduced via the aquarium trade, because this pathway by (i) identifying and quantifying aquarium fishes sold, (ii) determining fish owner behavior and dis

Leung, Brian

47

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ?15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM?1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. PMID:20027306

Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

2009-01-01

48

Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata. PMID:19485122

Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo

2009-03-01

49

Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.  

PubMed

Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg?¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ? 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ? 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ? 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the treated groups and the present work concluded that, the Phthalate derivatives from I. coccinea helps to stimulate the immune system against A. hydrophila challenge in C. auratus. PMID:24380832

Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

2014-02-01

50

Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

FA-117 Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez and physical damage during harvesting (see UF IFAS Circular 919 Stress-Its Role in Fish Disease). Overall, col practices revealed that 59% of respondents used traps to harvest fish and 79% used seines. Trapping

Watson, Craig A.

51

On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish 1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

(Figure 1) . Typically, fish are harvested from a pond and placed into a transport container that is filled with water and covered with a lid (see UF IFAS Fact Sheet FA-117 Harvesting Ornamental Fish from tubs, 4) wood/fiberglass boxes, and 5) 55-gallon plastic barrels. Following harvest, fish

Watson, Craig A.

52

Histopathological survey of lesions and infections affecting sick ornamental fish in pet shops in New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of histopathological lesions and categorize histopathologically evident infections in sick ornamental fish from pet shops in New South Wales, Australia. We examined 108 fish that had evidence of morbidity or mortality, including 67 cyprinids, 25 osphronemids, 11 poeciliids, 4 characids and 1 cichlid, sourced from 24 retail outlets. Conditions frequently observed in the study population included branchitis (62/86, 72.1%), visceral granulomas (41/108, 38.0%), dermatitis (17/55, 30.9%), wasting (31/108, 28.7%), and intestinal coccidiosis (18/104, 17.4 %). Branchitis and dermatitis were usually due to monogenean flukes, or flagellate or ciliate protozoa. Intralesional Microsporidia (16/41, 39.0%), mycobacteria (7/41, 17.%), or Myxosporidia (5/41, 12.2%) were identified in the majority of fish with visceral granulomas; however, special stains were critical in their identification. The proportion of histologically evident infections was remarkably high (77/108, 71.3%), and parasitic infections predominated. Many pathogens identified in the study have low host specificity and/or direct life cycles which would facilitate transmission to exposed naive fish populations, potentially posing a threat to native and commercial fish populations. Those caring for sick ornamental fish should take appropriate steps to investigate infectious disease and should take precautions that prevent the spread of pathogens. PMID:21648243

Wickins, S C; Dennis, M M; Landos, M; Slapeta, J; Whittington, R J

2011-04-01

53

Some nematodes and acanthocephalans from exotic ornamental freshwater fishes imported into Germany.  

PubMed

Five species of adult nematodes, unidentifiable nematode larvae, and three species of acanthocephalans, were found in freshwater ornamental fishes newly imported into Germany from Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The following species were identified: Adult Nematoda: Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, Capillariidae gen. sp., Dichelyne hartwichi sp. n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pintoi and Spinitectus allaeri; Acanthocephala: Pseudogorgorhynchus arii gen. et sp. n., Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Pallisentis sp. The nematode Dichelyne hartwichi sp. n. (male only) from the intestine of Chelonodon fluviatilis (Hamilton) from Thailand is characterised mainly by the presence of minute cuticular spines on the tail tip, length of spicules (510 microns) and arrangement of caudal papillae. The acanthocephalan Pseudogorgorhynchus arii sp. n. from the intestine of Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) from Colombia represents a new genus Pseudogorgorhynchus gen. n., differing from other genera of the Rhadinorhynchidae mainly in possessing a small proboscis armed with markedly few (18) hooks arranged in six spiral rows. Spinitectus macheirus Boomker et Puylaert, 1994 and Spinitectus moraveci Boomker et Puylaert, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of Spinitectus allaeri Campana-Rouget, 1961. PMID:10730202

Moravec, F; Wolter, J; Körting, W

1999-01-01

54

Dead and alive parasites: sexual ornaments signal resistance in the male fish, Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hamilton and Zuk hypothesis proposed that male sexual ornaments could signal resistance against local co-evolving parasites. We examined the ornamentation - the breeding tubercles - of roach from five populations in relation to (a) parasite load (intensity\\/prevalence; five species), (b) host resistance (proportion of dead parasites; two species), (c) immune function (spleen size) and (d) somatic condition. The gill

Jouni Taskinen; Raine Kortet

2002-01-01

55

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

56

Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish  

PubMed Central

Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin) show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles. PMID:20932273

2010-01-01

57

Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

2012-01-01

58

New perspectives on aquarium fish trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1990s, the international market for importing aquarium fish is suspicious of stock coming from South-East Asia.\\u000a Fish catches are still executed with cyanide-based toxic products. In the present paper, the potential of the French Polynesian\\u000a Islands to develop a marine aquarium fish business with a new approach is explored. Coral reef fish are captured at the larval\\u000a stage

David Lecchini; Sandrine Polti; Yohei Nakamura; Pascal Mosconi; Makoto Tsuchiya; Georges Remoissenet; Serge Planes

2006-01-01

59

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden  

PubMed Central

Abstract The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11?29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3?8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

Khalaf, Maroof A.; Abdallah, Mohamed

2014-01-01

60

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11-29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3-8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger's wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

Khalaf, Maroof A; Abdallah, Mohamed

2014-01-01

61

Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird.  

PubMed

Bird song is hypothesized to be a reliable indicator of cognition because it depends on brain structure and function. Song features have been found to correlate positively with measures of cognition, but the relationship between song and cognition is complicated because not all cognitive abilities are themselves positively correlated. If cognition is not a unitary trait, developmental constraints on brain growth could generate trade-offs between some aspects of cognition and song. To further clarify the relationship between song and cognition in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we examined repertoire size and performance on a spatial task. We found an inverse relationship between repertoire size and speed of spatial learning and suggest that a developmental trade-off between the hippocampus and song control nuclei could be responsible for this relationship. By attending to male song, females may learn about a suite of cognitive abilities; this study suggests that females may glean information about a male's cognitive weaknesses as well as his strengths. PMID:23697642

Sewall, Kendra B; Soha, Jill A; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

2013-08-23

62

Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Bird song is hypothesized to be a reliable indicator of cognition because it depends on brain structure and function. Song features have been found to correlate positively with measures of cognition, but the relationship between song and cognition is complicated because not all cognitive abilities are themselves positively correlated. If cognition is not a unitary trait, developmental constraints on brain growth could generate trade-offs between some aspects of cognition and song. To further clarify the relationship between song and cognition in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we examined repertoire size and performance on a spatial task. We found an inverse relationship between repertoire size and speed of spatial learning and suggest that a developmental trade-off between the hippocampus and song control nuclei could be responsible for this relationship. By attending to male song, females may learn about a suite of cognitive abilities; this study suggests that females may glean information about a male's cognitive weaknesses as well as his strengths. PMID:23697642

Sewall, Kendra B.; Soha, Jill A.; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

2013-01-01

63

Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species can cause economic and environmental harm. Researchers have developed risk assessment models for exotic species based on biological characteristics. However, few have quantified propagule pressure despite its relevance for establishment. Both are needed to identify invasion risk. We focused on fishes introduced via the aquarium trade, because this pathway transports thousands of species throughout the world. We developed

Erin Gertzen; Oriana Familiar; Brian Leung

2008-01-01

64

Global Change in African Fish Trade: Engine of Development or Threat to Local Food Security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today fish is the most traded food commodity in the World. This situation is not without generating potential issues. On the one hand, fish trade is said to support economic growth processes in developing countries by providing an important source of cash revenue. On the other hand, fish trade is also said to lead to a decline in food security

Christophe Béné

2008-01-01

65

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2013-04-01

66

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2011-04-01

67

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2012-04-01

68

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2010-04-01

69

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2014-04-01

70

[Causes of disease and death in ornamental fish--frequency and importance].  

PubMed

Between 1986 and 1990 1068 aquarium fishes from breeders, wholesale dealers and pet shops and from private owners were examined. In 45% of the cases different non infectious causes of illness or death were detected. Infectious causes were present in 38%. 14% of the fishes showed no pathologic symptoms, whereas 3% of the samples were unfit for examination. The frequency of infectious and non infectious diseases respectively in fishes from breeders vs. dealers vs. private owners is given. From these results factors of pathogenesis in aquarium fishes are discussed and compared to those in fish breeding for food fish. Advices for prevention of diseases in fancy fishes are given. PMID:1497579

Engelhardt, A

1992-06-01

71

The history of Makassan trepang fishing and trade.  

PubMed

The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The rise of trepang fishing in the 17(th) century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20(th) century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1) a strong influence of international markets, (2) the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3) the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions. PMID:20613871

Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Ferse, Sebastian C A

2010-01-01

72

The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade  

PubMed Central

The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The rise of trepang fishing in the 17th century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20th century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1) a strong influence of international markets, (2) the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3) the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions. PMID:20613871

Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.

2010-01-01

73

Postharvest mortality in the marine aquarium trade: A case study of an Indonesian export facility1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia, a centre of global coral reef biodiversity, is a focus of the marine aquarium trade and the world's largest exporter of reef ornamentals. In order to provide information on the cause of post- harvest mortality, and to identify possible solutions to reduce mortality rates, post-harvest mortalities of marine ornamental fish were assessed in several deliveries made to and processed

Christiane Schmidt; Andreas Kunzmann

2005-01-01

74

Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  

PubMed

Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

75

Current status of sperm cryopreservation in biomedical research fish models: Zebrafish, medaka, and Xiphophorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamental fish trade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the

Huiping Yang; Terrence R. Tiersch

2009-01-01

76

Detection and characterization of viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus in ornamental fish imported into an Australian border quarantine premises: an emerging risk to national biosecurity.  

PubMed

This report documents an emerging trend of identification of Megalocytivirus-like inclusions in a range of ornamental fish species intercepted during quarantine detention at the Australian border. From September 2012 to February 2013, 5 species of fish that had suffered mortality levels in excess of 25% whilst in the post-entry quarantine and had Megalocytivirus-like inclusion bodies in histological sections were examined by PCR. The fish had been imported from Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Ninety-seven of 111 individual fish from affected tanks of fish tested were positive for the presence of Megalocytivirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of representative PCR products revealed an identical sequence of 621 bp in all cases which was identical to a previously characterized Megalocytivirus (Sabah/RAA1/2012 strain BMGIV48). Phylogenetic analysis of available Megalocytivirus major capsid protein (MCP) sequences confirmed the existence of 3 major clades of Megalocytivirus. The virus detected in this study was identified as a member of Genotype II. The broad host range and pathogenicity of megalocytiviruses, coupled to the documented spread of ornamental fish into the environment, render this a significant and emerging biosecurity threat to Australia. PMID:24475941

Nolan, D; Stephens, F; Crockford, M; Jones, J B; Snow, M

2015-02-01

77

The Introduction of Nonnative Fishes into Freshwater Systems of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the 1930s, alien fishes (fishes not native to Peru) have been introduced into the freshwater systems of Peru for different\\u000a purposes such as fish farming, the ornamental fish trade, public health applications, and sport fishing. The fish were introduced\\u000a either deliberately or casually into the three hydrographic systems of the country (Amazon, Pacific coastal rivers, and Lake\\u000a Titicaca). To

Hernán Ortega; Humberto Guerra; Rina Ramírez

78

Fiber optic spectrophotometry for monitoring dissolved oxygen in a tropical ornamental fish tank environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Fiber Optic Spectro-Photometry (FOSP) methodology, a set of high sensitivity fiber optic oxygen monitoring system performing NDT is developed for fish farming environment. The working principle of the sensor is based on the detection signal at a particular wavelength due to the fluorescence and quenching of coated dye (ruthenium complex) in response to oxygen concentration at the tip of

Anand K. Asundi; Jun Wei Chen; Duo Min He

1999-01-01

79

THE FISHERIES AND FISH" TRADE OF PORTO RICO.. WILLIAM A. WILCOX,  

E-print Network

of the United States Fish Commission. ::::::::c=================== 27 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12. F. C. 1899, p. 1-34, plates 1-6.) 29 #12;30 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. determine;THE FISHERIES AND FISH TRADE OF PORTO RICO. By WILLIAM A. WILCOX, Agent 0/the United Stafes Fish

80

First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region. PMID:24252956

Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

2013-01-01

81

Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2012-01-01

82

Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.  

PubMed

The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:21424528

Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

2011-12-01

83

Fiber optic spectrophotometry for monitoring dissolved oxygen in a tropical ornamental fish tank environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Fiber Optic Spectro-Photometry (FOSP) methodology, a set of high sensitivity fiber optic oxygen monitoring system performing NDT is developed for fish farming environment. The working principle of the sensor is based on the detection signal at a particular wavelength due to the fluorescence and quenching of coated dye (ruthenium complex) in response to oxygen concentration at the tip of the probe. This paper looks into the application of fiber optics oxygen sensor in an aquatic environment. A comparison study of the optical probe was made with a conventional electrochemical oxygen sensor. Both sensors were setup to monitor the dissolved oxygen of an aquatic system for a period of time. This new methodology offers an alternative choice for monitoring dissolved oxygen. Apart from the possibility to miniaturize the monitoring equipment for aquatic environment, it is also feasible to 'bundle' other chemical sensors together into one single cable, thus achieving compactness, effectiveness and yet without forgoing whatever the traditional electrochemical sensors could offer.

Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

1999-05-01

84

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.  

PubMed

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

2012-01-01

85

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

86

Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs  

PubMed Central

Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

2014-01-01

87

Ornamental Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

88

Fish Gonadogenesis. Part I: Genetic and Environmental Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of fish produced in aquaculture or for the ornamental fish trade exhibit sexual dimorphism in growth, age at maturity, secondary sexual characters, or other traits of interest. This has led to a desire to produce populations of only one sex for commercial ongrowing. Although direct sex reversal via manipulation of sex differentiation is used commercially (e.g., in tilapia

David J. Penman; Francesc Piferrer

2008-01-01

89

Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 15 2005 Foundation for Environmental Conservation doi:10.1017/S0376892905002481 Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America  

E-print Network

-food fisheries, syngnathids, traditional Chinese medicine INTRODUCTION Little is known about the extensive trades in fishes for non-food purposes such as traditional medicines, curiosities, research and ornamental display: 4 October 2005 SUMMARY Seahorses (genus Hippocampus) are traded globally for use in traditional

Baum, Julia K.

90

History of Fish Marketing and Trade with Particular Reference to Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history of fish marketing in Japan. The Japanese experience is rich in terms of long history, species handled, products forms, cooking methods, ways of utilization, and interaction with domestic fisheries. Along with the change of people's life style from hunting to farming, marketing and trade have developed. The self-sufficiency rate of fishermen was less than that

Yoshiaki Matsuda

91

Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin  

PubMed Central

The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

2012-01-01

92

Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.  

PubMed

The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

2012-04-10

93

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

94

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish.  

PubMed

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics--herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Levin, Philip S

2014-01-01

95

Virus diseases of ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ornamental plants are grown around the world for their esthetic value, and form an important part of the agricultural economy in a large number of countries; ornamentals are also often one of the highest-valued crops that can be raised per unit area of production space. Increasing levels of internat...

96

Monitoring the chain of custody to reduce delayed mortality of net-caught fish in the aquarium trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information obtained from hobby magazines and from informants in the aquarium trade during the mid- 1980s indicated that marine aquarium fish had high acute mortality (50%) on the reef due to capture with cyanide, and had 30% mortality on average at each step of the chain of custody — from the village level, through export facilities, to import facilities, and

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand P. Cruz

2005-01-01

97

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

98

Preparation of Ornamental Fish for Shipping1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

they are harvested through shipment affects their overall quality. Quality of marketable fish is directly related steps in the harvesting, grading, and transport of fish, proper care and planning when preparing In a typical Florida production setting, harvested orna- mental fish are brought in from ponds and placed

Watson, Craig A.

99

Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a\\u000a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of\\u000a birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these\\u000a to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses,

Francois Mougeot

2008-01-01

100

Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish.  

PubMed

Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied. PMID:19629523

Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán

2009-10-01

101

Ornamental expression of red fluorescent protein in transgenic founders of white skirt tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi).  

PubMed

Although the transgenic technology has been successfully used to generate fluorescent zebrafish and medaka for ornamental purposes, the practicability of the technology has not been demonstrated in other ornamental fish species. In the present study, we have tested the transgenic technology in a bona fide ornamental fish species, the white skirt tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi). First, its embryonic development was briefly described. Second, we successfully introduced an rfp (red fluorescent protein) gene construct driven by a strong muscle-specific mylz2 promoter from the zebrafish into the white skirt tetra and demonstrated muscle-specific expression of the RFP reporter protein. Importantly, the vivid red fluorescent color was prominently visible in adult transgenic founders under the normal daylight, like the currently marketed red fluorescent transgenic zebrafish. Thus, our current study demonstrated the feasibility of using the well-characterized zebrafish mylz2 promoters to produce useful fluorescent ornamental fish in other fish species by the transgenic technology. PMID:18449602

Pan, Xiufang; Zhan, Huiqing; Gong, Zhiyuan

2008-01-01

102

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ornamentation in relation to the total fiber weight of the principal fiber or blend of fibers is shown; as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation....

2011-01-01

103

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...statement showing such fact; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive...Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where...

2012-01-01

104

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...statement showing such fact; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive...Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where...

2013-01-01

105

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...statement showing such fact; as for example: 60% Cotton 40% Rayon Exclusive of Ornamentation; or All Cotton Exclusive...Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where...

2014-01-01

106

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...wildlife control, and over-winterization storage facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged ornamental...

2011-01-01

107

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...wildlife control, and over-winterization storage facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged ornamental...

2014-01-01

108

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...wildlife control, and over-winterization storage facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged ornamental...

2010-01-01

109

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...wildlife control, and over-winterization storage facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged ornamental...

2012-01-01

110

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...wildlife control, and over-winterization storage facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged ornamental...

2013-01-01

111

Sexual networks in Uganda: mixing patterns between a trading town, its rural hinterland and a nearby fishing village.  

PubMed

The study was based in south-west Uganda where significant differences in HIV prevalence have been found between urban and rural areas. Longitudinal data collected in a diary format was used to determine the extent to which high-risk men and women living in a truck stop/trading town had sexual contact with people from surrounding rural areas and a nearby fishing village. Study participants were 143 men, 75 of whom were resident in the town, 40 in a fishing village and 28 in rural areas, and 81 women, of whom 47 were resident in the town, 25 in the fishing village and 9 in a rural area. During 1687 man weeks the 143 men made 3149 trips and had 5189 sexual contacts. Ninety-two per cent of these sexual contacts occurred in the man's current place of residence and 21% were with a new partner. The 81 women participated for 1280 women weeks during which they recorded 6378 sexual contacts. Women who lived in the fishing village and the rural area had around 90% of their contacts with local men while those who lived in the town fell into 3 categories: women who charged a relatively high price for commercial sex had only 11% of contacts with men living in the town, while those who charged a tenth of the price had 71% of contacts with town men. The small number of women who fell into an intermediate category, in terms of price, had sexual contact with a wide variety of men. These findings show that there is little scope for HIV infection to spread between different residential or occupational groups. This may help to explain how large differences in HIV seropositivity between neighbouring localities can be maintained for long periods, despite considerable social and economic mixing between groups and high levels of sexual partner change within groups. PMID:9259497

Pickering, H; Okongo, M; Ojwiya, A; Yirrell, D; Whitworth, J

1997-08-01

112

Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

2007-01-01

113

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Ms. Hunter

2009-07-07

114

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

cory jones

2009-09-28

115

Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).  

PubMed

1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

2011-05-01

116

WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN  

E-print Network

AND OIL Introduc tion . North America .. Canada . . · The Industry Prices and Costs . Foreign TradeWORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959

117

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

118

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disclosed where the percentage of the ornamentation in relation to the total fiber weight of the principal fiber or blend of fibers is shown; as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100%...

2010-01-01

119

16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling...16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...showing such fact; as for example: 50% Wool 25% Recycled Wool 25% Cotton...

2011-01-01

120

16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling...16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...showing such fact; as for example: 50% Wool 25% Recycled Wool 25% Cotton...

2012-01-01

121

16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling...16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...showing such fact; as for example: 50% Wool 25% Recycled Wool 25% Cotton...

2013-01-01

122

16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling...16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...showing such fact; as for example: 50% Wool 25% Recycled Wool 25% Cotton...

2014-01-01

123

16 CFR 300.16 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling...16 Ornamentation. (a) Where the wool product contains fiber ornamentation...showing such fact; as for example: 50% Wool 25% Recycled Wool 25% Cotton...

2010-01-01

124

Viability selection against highly-ornamented males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Variation in ornamental traits, such as plumage coloration, is maintained by the opposing forces of sexual selection (increased ornamentation) and natural selection (decreased ornamentation). Organisms: A wild population of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) in northwestern Oregon which has been the subject of longitudinal population studies since 1988. Methods: We necropsied 47 adult birds recovered dead in 2002. We measured

Amber J. Keyser; Lynn M. Siefferman

2005-01-01

125

Diversification of a food-mimicking male ornament via sensory drive.  

PubMed

The evolutionary divergence of sexual signals is often important during the formation of new animal species, but our understanding of the origin of signal diversity is limited [1, 2]. Sensory drive, the optimization of communication signal efficiency through matching to the local environment, has been highlighted as a potential promoter of diversification and speciation [3]. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a tropical fish in which males display a flag-like ornament that elicits female foraging behavior during courtship. We show that the shape of the male ornament covaries with female diet across natural populations. More specifically, natural populations in which the female diet is more dominated by ants exhibit male ornaments more similar to the shape of an ant. Feeding experiments confirm that females habituated to a diet of ants prefer to bite at male ornaments from populations with a diet more dominated by ants. Our results show that the male ornament functions as a "fishing lure" that is diversifying in shape to match local variation in female search images employed during foraging. This direct link between variation in female feeding ecology and the evolutionary diversification of male sexual ornaments suggests that sensory drive may be a common engine of signal divergence. PMID:22795697

Kolm, Niclas; Amcoff, Mirjam; Mann, Richard P; Arnqvist, Göran

2012-08-01

126

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

2009-01-01

127

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

128

Agricultural Sciences WoodyOrnamental  

E-print Network

Biological Controls 11 Video/DVD on Biological Control 11 Invasive Arthropod Pests of Woody Ornamental Plants 11 Tree-Age (Emamectin Benzoate)--Insecticide (Injection Treatment) for Management of Emerald Ash a Management Strategy 5 Methods of Control 6 References 6 Growing Degree Days 6 Insects and Mites Destructive

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

129

Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

Still, Steven

130

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0000-00-00

131

Department of Entomology Landscape & Ornamentals  

E-print Network

Department of Entomology Landscape & Ornamentals E-111-W PURDUE EXTENSION FUNGUS GNATS AND SHORE Entomologist Fungus gnat adult Fungus gnat and shore fly adults are commonly found hovering about the surface of greenhouse plants and potting media. Both fungus gnats and shore flies thrive in moist conditions, especially

Ginzel, Matthew

132

Ex situ Culture of Colonial Marine Ornamental Invertebrates: Concepts for Domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide market for ornamental saltwater invertebrates supplies the needs of millions of aquarium hobbyists, as well as for public exhibition (zoos, aquaria), universities, and research institutions. The large-scale continuous collection of marine organisms is responsible, in many places, for the destruction of habitats, including coral reefs. The perceived expansion of the animal trade further threatens these fragile habitats. In

Baruch Rinkevich; Shai Shafir

2000-01-01

133

Assortative mating by multiple ornaments in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In positive assortative mating, individuals of similar phenotype mate together more frequently than expected by chance. Assortative mating by a variety of qualities, including ornamentation, is well documented in birds. Studies of assortative mating by ornaments have focused on single, highly conspicuous ornaments, but many species of birds possess multiple ornaments in both sexes. We compared ornament expressions between mates

Jodie M. Jawor; Susan U. Linville; Sara M. Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2003-01-01

134

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Control of Ornamental Diseases 4-1  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Control of Ornamental Diseases 4-1 Control of Ornamental Diseases Chuan Hong, Extension Plant Pathologist, Hampton Roads AREC Overview Home gardens to avoid and control disease problems in home gardens. General Cultural Controls Many pathogens attack

Liskiewicz, Maciej

135

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2010-01-01

136

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2011-01-01

137

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2013-01-01

138

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2012-01-01

139

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2014-01-01

140

Is UV ornamentation an amplifier in swordtails?  

PubMed

Do distinct male morphs use the same ornaments in different ways? Female preference for UV ornamentation and male activity was examined in two different male size classes of the swordtail Xiphophorus nigrensis: intermediate and large. UV ornamentation is preferred by females for both size classes, while high male activity is not. Large males have significantly greater intensity and saturation of UV reflectance for several body regions. Despite this difference in signal strength, intermediate sized males garnered a greater gain in female attention for UV ornamentation relative to large males. The differential payoff may be a result of different interactions between ornamentation and activity between the size classes. Females show significant preference for UV-ornamented intermediate males only when they are more active than their rival and not when the UV-ornamented male is less active, indicating that behavior might serve as an amplifier of UV ornamentation in this class. Meanwhile, large males gain from their UVornamentation only when they are less active than their rival, failing to support behavior as an amplifier for UV ornamentation in this size class. This interaction between size class and activity is significant, and suggests that UV and/or behavior play different roles for alternative male morphs competing for female attention. PMID:18248249

Cummings, Molly E; García de León, Francisco J; Mollaghan, Diane M; Ryan, Michael J

2006-01-01

141

76 FR 13602 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Board) by the Lincoln Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 59, requesting...to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C...products (duty rate ranges from duty-free to 48%). FTZ procedures...

2011-03-14

142

76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 266-Dane County, WI; Application for Subzone, Cabela's Inc. (Hunting, Fishing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by Dane County...to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C...products (duty rate ranges from duty-free to 48%). FTZ procedures...

2011-03-11

143

76 FR 13354 - Foreign-Trade Zone 229-Charleston, WV; Application for Subzone; Cabela's Inc.; (Hunting, Fishing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the West Virginia...to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C...products (duty rate ranges from duty-free to 48%). FTZ procedures...

2011-03-11

144

Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).  

PubMed

Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. PMID:22036614

Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

2012-02-01

145

Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?  

PubMed Central

Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

2010-01-01

146

Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse. PMID:20027312

Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

2009-01-01

147

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

148

Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries to Manage Areas for Farming Coral Reef Fish and Invertebrates for the Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef fish, corals, and other marine invertebrate species associated with coral reefs need to be managed in a sustainable manner to halt destructive fishing in the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. As part of the Coastal Communities Empowerment Project, the International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) plans to implement Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs) to help manage municipal waters; while

Peter J. Rubec; Vaughan R. Pratt; Ferdinand Cruz

2001-01-01

149

Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)  

PubMed Central

Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

2014-01-01

150

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

151

Hinder the observer in the carrying out of their duties Y / N / USell / trade fish at sea  

E-print Network

that an event not be reported Dumping of industrial, agricultural or domestic waste Sell or possess of any equipment (e.g. scuba), harpoon or dangerous fishing weapon (except as a safety precaution) Request

152

Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

153

Simple ecological trade-offs give rise to emergent cross-ecosystem distributions of a coral reef fish  

PubMed Central

Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24–47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77–100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change. PMID:21072542

Grol, Monique G. G.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Layman, Craig A.

2010-01-01

154

I'll Trade You a Bag of Chips, Two Cookies, and $60,000 for Your Tuna Fish Sandwich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduces concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.

155

I'll Trade You a Bag of Chips, Two Cookies, and $60,000 for Your Tuna Fish Sandwich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.

156

Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to surplus catches becoming tradable commodities. Today, global export fish commodities, including

Mimi E. Lam; Tony J. Pitcher

2012-01-01

157

Gonadal development in a giant threatened reef fish, the humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, and its relationship to international trade.  

PubMed

An opportunity arose to obtain humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus specimens between 2006 and 2009 from Indonesia, the major source and exporting country of this species, making study on its early gonad development possible for the first time. Protogynous hermaphroditism, previously proposed for this species, was confirmed in this study. Based on histological examination of 178 specimens, mainly <500 mm total length (L(T)) and ranging from 208 to 1290 mm L(T) (119.1 g to 43.0 kg whole body mass), the minimum body sizes for female and male sexual maturation were determined to be 650 and 845 mm L(T), respectively. Primary male development through juvenile sexual differentiation was not detected. A unique blind pouch, with a possible sperm storage function and associated with the testis, was reported for the first time in the Labridae. In Hong Kong retail markets, the global trading centre for this valuable species, live C. undulatus on sale for food were dominated by body sizes <500 mm L(T) between 1995 and 2009, reflecting an international trade largely focused on juveniles. In consideration of these findings, and given the threatened status of this species, management for C. undulatus capture and trade nationally and internationally are discussed with recommendations for ensuring sufficient spawning biomass in exploited populations and for sustainable trade. PMID:20701649

Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y; Liu, M; Suharti, S

2010-08-01

158

Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

Mougeot, Francois

2008-02-01

159

Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

NONE

1995-07-01

160

Complexity and integration in sexual ornamentation: an example with carotenoid and melanin plumage pigmentation  

E-print Network

Complexity and integration in sexual ornamentation: an example with carotenoid and melanin plumage; melanins; modularity; sexual ornaments. Abstract Sexual ornaments often consist of several components mexicanus and common redpoll, Carduelis flammea) and a species with melanin-based sexual ornamentation

Badyaev, Alex

161

Ornaments Reveal Resistance of North European Cultures to the Spread of Farming  

PubMed Central

The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow. PMID:25853888

Rigaud, Solange; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian

2015-01-01

162

Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

163

Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

2012-01-01

164

Tenisons, M; Zeps, D. Ornamental Sign Language In The First Order Tracery Belts 1 ORNAMENTAL SIGN LANGUAGE  

E-print Network

Tenisons, M; Zeps, D. Ornamental Sign Language In The First Order Tracery Belts 1 ORNAMENTAL SIGN sign language of first order where principles of sieve displacement, of asymmetric building blocks...............................................................................9 Sign language alphabet

Boyer, Edmond

165

Mutual ornamentation, age, and reproductive performance in the European starling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental traits expressed in both sexes are widespread among birds. Many studies have indicated that male ornaments develop through sexual selection. Female ornaments may be correlated effects of selection on males or have signaling functions in their own right. In the facultatively polygynous starling Sturnus vulgaris, both sexes possess iridescent throat feathers, which are actively displayed during courtship by males.

Jan Komdeur; Margot Oorebeek; Thijs van Overveld; Innes C. Cuthill

2005-01-01

166

Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORNAMENTAL traits such as colourful bird plumage were the prime motivation for Darwin's theory of sexual selection1. Other evolutionary mechanisms could also select for ornamental traits2-6, but such mechanisms have received far less attention, and empirical evidence for their existence is weak. Here we show that parental choice selects for the bizarre ornamental plumes of newly hatched American coot (Fulica

Bruce E. Lyon; John M. Eadie; Linda D. Hamilton

1994-01-01

167

Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

Hartman, John R.; And Others

168

Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2  

E-print Network

VM114 Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2 1. This document is VM114, one of a series Introduction For many years water quality has been the most important limitation to fish production. Advances. Most successfully reared ornamental fish are omnivores, and these are the species that have adapted

Watson, Craig A.

169

Influence of ozone on selected woody ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia,

F. A. Wood; J. B. Coppolino

1971-01-01

170

Ornamental Horticulture. A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide for a 2-year ornamental horticulture course contains six functional units, each with several sub-units, and six horizontal supportive units. Each unit includes behavioral objectives, learning activities, topic…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

171

Ornamental Horticulture: Program Planning Guide: Volume 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program planning guide for ornamental horticulture was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of arboriculture, floriculture, greenhouse operation and management,…

Ross, Roger R.; Stitt, Thomas R.

172

Outlines of Courses in Ornamental Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to suggest subject matter content of courses or programs in ornamental horticulture for high school and postsecondary vocational-technical programs, this curriculum guide was prepared by staff members of the Agricultural Education Department at the Pennsylvania State University, and tested in a workshop with vocational agriculture…

Richards, F. L.

173

Ultraviolet Colour Vision and Ornamentation in Bluethroats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV\\/violet ornament in

Staffan Andersson; Trond Amundsen

1997-01-01

174

Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

175

Producing potted ornamental ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum (Smith)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed and vegetatively propagated ohelo plants can be grown for potted ornamental and berry production in the nursery. With measured irrigation and fertilizers, ohelo can be maintained in six inch (15 cm) or one gallon (3.4 liter) pots for at least two years. For the first two weeks after field pla...

176

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

177

Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish  

PubMed Central

Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

2001-01-01

178

Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance  

PubMed Central

Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained.

Amundsen, CR; Gjøen, HM; Larsen, B; Egeland, ES

2015-01-01

179

How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny  

PubMed Central

Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations. PMID:24884492

2014-01-01

180

From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In potentiometric techniques, pH measurements require a costly and fragile accessory: the glass electrode. A glass electrode is difficult to make because the wall of the sensing glass bulb must be very thin, and glass of special composition is required. Although the glass bulb may be made by a skilled glazier, we choose a more impressive and simple way. The glass bulb can be made from a Christmas-tree ornamental ball.

da Rocha, Rogério T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Do Lago, Claudimir L.

1995-12-01

181

MFR PAPER 1299 Ornamental Fish: Diseases and Problems  

E-print Network

specifically to detect the possible presence of Salmonella typh- osa; F) Selenite-brilliant green broth randomly selected individuals were cultured for detection of possible bac- teremia. This was accomplished medium for detection of fas- tidious organisms as well as common organisms; B) Ordall's agar was selected

182

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...satisfied, assistance will be provided to producers for eligible NAP aquaculture crop losses that are the direct result of drought. [67 FR 12448, Mar. 19, 2002, as amended at 78 FR 21019, Apr. 9,...

2014-01-01

183

Microencapsulation of Fish Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade\\u000a in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas\\u000a of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to

Christiaan M. Beindorff; Nicolaas Jan Zuidam

184

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds 4-89  

E-print Network

reservoir in the soil. Hoeing or hand pulling weeds controls annu- als weeds, but will not control creeping in the soil over time. Remove any weeds from ornamental plants that will be planted into the landscape. Avoid weeds like bermudagrass, quackgrass, yellow nutsedge, and other creeping perennials need repeated

Liskiewicz, Maciej

185

Research on Exotic Scarabs in Ornamental Nurseries in Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) such as Anomala orientalis and Rhizotrogus majalis are serious pests of ornamental nursery crops in northern Ohio. The larval stage of these insects feed on the roots of ornamental trees often stunting or killing their hosts. The biology, life history, and m...

186

Importance of genetic transformation in ornamental plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the economically important ornamental plants are cut flowers, which are produced by vegetative propagation. For many years, new varieties of ornamental plants have been produced by cross-hybridization and mutation breeding techniques, separately or in combination. Similar to mutation breeding, genetic transformation would also be a useful way of making a one-point improvement of a trait in original cultivars

Michio Shibata

187

Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

Wilson, Aubry

188

Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

189

Identification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation  

E-print Network

Identification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation Jia-Nv Liu Ã?) on their Cd phytoremediation capacity under the chemically enhanced experiment was further investigated agents. In conclusion, the two ornamental plants are promising to be used for phytoremediation. Keywords

Ma, Lena

190

User Driven Two-Dimensional Computer-Generated Ornamentation  

E-print Network

principles and aesthetics. Ornamental drawings both historically and presently play critical roles in all things from art to architecture, and when computers handle the repetition and overall structure and aesthetics. Ornamental drawings both historically and presently play critical roles in all things from

Wood, Zoë J.

191

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornaments may advertise genetic benefits to females choosing mates. These benefits may come in the form of genes for resistance to parasites and disease. Thus, females that prefer more ornamented males as mates may receive genes for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is the only species to date in which a male

Julia C. Garvin; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Douglas A. Steeber; Dennis Hasselquist

2008-01-01

192

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornaments may advertise genetic benefits to females choosing mates. These benefits may come in the form of genes for resistance to parasites and disease. Thus, females that prefer more ornamented males as mates may receive genes for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is the only species to date in which a male

Julia C. Garvin; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Douglas A. Steeber; D. Hasselquist

2007-01-01

193

Cellular respiration: the nexus of stress, condition, and ornamentation.  

PubMed

A fundamental hypothesis for the evolution and maintenance of ornamental traits is that ornaments convey information to choosing females about the quality of prospective mates. A diverse array of ornaments (e.g., colors, morphological features, and behaviors) has been associated with a wide range of measures of individual quality, but decades of study of such indicator traits have failed to produce general mechanisms of honest signaling. Here, I propose that efficiency of cellular respiration, as a product of mitochondrial function, underlies the associations between ornamentation and performance for a broad range of traits across taxa. A large biomedical literature documents the fundamental biochemical links between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the process of metabolism, the function of the immune system, the synthesis of proteins, and the development and function of the nervous system. The production of virtually all ornaments whose expressions have been demonstrated to be condition-dependent is directly affected by the efficiency of cellular respiration, suggesting that the signaling of respiratory efficiency may be the primary function of such traits. Furthermore, the production of ornaments links to stress-response systems, including particularly the neuroendocrine system, through mitochondrial function, thereby makes ornamental traits effective signals of the capacity to withstand environmental perturbations. The identification of a unifying mechanism of honest signaling holds the potential to connect many heretofore-disparate fields of study related to stress and ornamentation, including neuroendocrinology, respiratory physiology, metabolic physiology, and immunology. PMID:24791751

Hill, Geoffrey E

2014-10-01

194

Genetic modification; the development of transgenic ornamental plant varieties.  

PubMed

Plant transformation technology (hereafter abbreviated to GM, or genetic modification) has been used to develop many varieties of crop plants, but only a few varieties of ornamental plants. This disparity in the rate and extent of commercialisation, which has been noted for more than a decade, is not because there are no useful traits that can be engineered into ornamentals, is not due to market potential and is not due to a lack of research and development activity. The GM ornamental varieties which have been released commercially have been accepted in the marketplace. In this article, progress in the development of transgenic ornamentals is reviewed and traits useful to both consumers and producers are identified. In considering possible factors limiting the release of genetically modified ornamental products it is concluded that the most significant barrier to market is the difficulty of managing, and the high cost of obtaining, regulatory approval. PMID:22537268

Chandler, Stephen F; Sanchez, Cory

2012-10-01

195

Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

2011-01-01

196

Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage  

PubMed Central

A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

197

Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

2014-12-01

198

Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. PMID:25082298

Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

2014-12-01

199

Ultraviolet colour vision and ornamentation in bluethroats  

PubMed Central

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300–400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV/violet ornament in bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica. In an outdoor aviary at the breeding grounds, 16 females were each presented with a unique pair of males of equal age. In UVR (UV reduction) males, sunblock chemicals reduced only the UV reflectance and thereby the spectral shape (colour) of the throat ornament. In NR (neutral reduction) males, an achromatic pigment in the same base solvent (preen gland fat) was used for a corresponding but uniform brightness reduction. Both colour and brightness effects were invisible to human eyes, and were monitored by spectrometry. In 13 of the 16 trials, the female associated most with the NR male, a preference that implies that UV colour vision is used in mate choice by female bluethroats. Reflectance differences between one-year-old and older males were significant only in UV, suggestive of a UV colour cue in age-related mate preferences.

Andersson, S.; Amundsen, T.

1997-01-01

200

Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation throughout the lifetime  

E-print Network

Context-dependent sexual advertisement: plasticity in development of sexual ornamentation, USA Introduction Female mate choice often favours sexual ornaments and displays that reliably indicate elaboration of sexual ornamentation in males is thought to increase the cost of ornament production and thus

Badyaev, Alex

201

Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornamentation in socially monogamous birds has been shown to provide information to potential mates on aspects of condition and behaviour. We studied female ornamentation in the socially monogamous, biparental northern cardinal to determine whether expressions of multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of female condition and behaviour. Expressions of the ornamental red-orange bill, red underwing feathers, head crest and blackish

Jodie M Jawor; Nick Gray; Sara M Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2004-01-01

202

The handicap process favors exaggerated, rather than reduced, sexual ornaments.  

PubMed

Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-09-01

203

THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS  

PubMed Central

Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

204

50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An importer, entering for consumption fish or fish products regulated under this subpart from any ocean area into the United States, or an exporter exporting or re-exporting such product, must possess a valid trade permit issued under this...

2010-10-01

205

Fishing in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting magazine from the European Commission covers diverse topics related to (but not exclusive of) the fishing industry (in .pdf format). The current issue of the magazine includes a piece from the Trade Union of Fish Merchants; the story of an expanding fishing village; the discovery of the Patagonian toothfish, a potentially threatened species; and a discussion of Total Allowable Catches for the year 2000.

206

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

207

Parasitism of Woody Ornamentals by Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne hapla is the dominant root-knot nematode found in Tennessee woody ornamental nurseries. In greenhouse tests, M. hapla produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of Abelia x grandiflora, Comus florida, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, Photinia x fraseri, Spiraea x bumalda, Spiraea x vanhouttei, and Viburnum carlesii. Galls on H. grandiflora and V. carlesii were mostly large and fusiform. Galls on C. florida were spherical and usually terminal, whereas those on the other species were minute. Lateral roots grew from galls on all susceptible plants. Two Acer spp., two Buxus spp., three llex spp., five Prunus spp., three Rhododendron spp., Euonymus alata, Ligustrum sinense, Magnolia x soulangiana, Nandina domestica, and nine conifer species were nonhosts or very poor hosts. PMID:19290273

Bernard, E. C.; Witte, W. T.

1987-01-01

208

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

209

Environmental Horticulture Department Ornamental Plant Identification and Use  

E-print Network

. 2003. Ornamental Tropical Shrubs. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, FL. Meerow, A.W. 1992. Betrock's Guide. .Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, Fla. Nelson, G. 1994. The Trees of Florida. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota

Watson, Craig A.

210

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other...

2010-04-01

211

Ornament is dangerous : a wildfire hazard center for Los Angeles  

E-print Network

There is no such thing as an unadorned building. While the the role and relevance of ornament in architecture has been criticized for centuries, its position has been, for the most part, supported as essential to architecture. ...

Trimble, Matthew Alexander

2008-01-01

212

Screening ornamentals for their potential as As Accumulator Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arsenic-based pesticides, herbicides and insecticides are used in horticultural operations resulting in soil contamination around greenhouse structures. Phytoremediation and phytostabilization are two techniques for treating arsenic (As) contaminated soil. Several ornamental plant species, Iris (Ir...

213

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

214

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

215

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

216

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

217

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of General Stilwell and associated personnel, evenly spaced across the entire face of the mantlepiece. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

218

Stone wall and ornamental iron fence extending along Gray's Ferry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Stone wall and ornamental iron fence extending along Gray's Ferry Avenue between the north and south gate lodges, looking southwest. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

219

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

220

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

221

Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow ‘bib’. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C.; Haussmann, Mark F.

2011-01-01

222

Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow 'bib'. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C; Haussmann, Mark F

2011-06-23

223

Low Cost Fish Fed for Aquarium Fish: a Test Case Using Earthworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive trial was undertaken to assess the effect of various types of feed on biomass conversion rate as well as on ovary weight in Kolisa Kholisa, a fish for food and ornamental use. Three groups of Juvenile fishes (3.0±0.015 g; 10.00±0.75 mm) were fed with three different types of feed. The special prepared food (SPF) made with dried earthworm

D. Chakrabarty; S. K. Das

224

Ornamental plants as sinks and bioindicators.  

PubMed

Mitigation of urban air pollution is a big challenge, especially for the metropolitan cities of the world. In an Indian metropolis like Delhi, even after the implementation of several control policies, no such remarkable change has been observed in its air quality. Globally, afforestation or greenbelt development is an effective and well-recognized pollution abatement process. The aim of our present study was to examine the biochemical response of some naturalized ornamental plant species, viz. Dracaena deremensis, Tagetes erecta, Rosa indica and Dianthus caryophyllus. During experimental study, plants were kept at selected sites which were categorized in terms of traffic density (emission source) and vegetative pattern during winter months for 120 days. Four biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH, relative water contents along with Air Pollution Tolerance Indices were determined from foliar samples at each selected site. D. deremensis and T. erecta were classified under tolerant while R. indica and D. caryophyllus were marked as in sensitive category. Based on the sensitivity of selected plant species, it has been recommended that D. deremensis and T. erecta may be used as sinks for the abatement of air pollution at highly polluted sites whereas R. indica and D. caryophyllus can be used as bioindicators. PMID:24617064

Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

2013-01-01

225

Are Non-Native Plants Perceived to Be More Risky? Factors Influencing Horticulturists' Risk Perceptions of Ornamental Plant Species  

PubMed Central

Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195

Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael

2014-01-01

226

Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.  

PubMed

Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195

Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael

2014-01-01

227

Trading Post  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wake of COP-4, Resources for the Future (RFF) (described in the August 28, 1998 Scout Report) has posted Webpages on climate change negotiations. One of these, Trading Post, is "a resource for the analysis and reporting of research and writings on 'flexibility mechanisms' -- the Clean Development Mechanism, emissions trading, and Joint Implementation (or activities implemented jointly) -- authorized by the Kyoto Protocol."

228

Effect of stress on female-specific ornamentation.  

PubMed

Signal honesty is theorized to be maintained by condition-dependent trait expression. However, the mechanisms mediating the condition dependence of sexually selected traits are often unknown. New work suggests that elevated glucocorticoid levels during physiological stress may play a role in maintaining signal honesty. Here, we experimentally examine the effect of both chronic and acute stress on the expression of the condition-dependent ornamentation of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus. Females were stressed either chronically via corticosterone implants or relatively acutely via autotomy, were sham manipulated or were left unmanipulated. Both stressors resulted in elevations in corticosterone within physiologically relevant levels, though the implants resulted in significantly higher levels than did autotomy. Corticosterone-implanted females were less likely to produce a clutch of eggs, but those individuals that did reproduce had reproductive output similar to that of females from other treatment groups. Compared with females in other groups, the corticosterone-implanted females tended to develop smaller ornaments that had less UV and orange-to-red wavelength reflectance relative to medium wavelength reflectance. The sex steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol were correlated to corticosterone levels, but did not appear to underlie the effect on ornament expression; of the steroids measured, only corticosterone levels were negatively related to ornament size and coloration. Thus, the condition-dependent ornamentation of female lizards is sensitive to chronic elevations in stress hormones, supporting their importance in the maintenance of signal honesty. PMID:23531828

Weiss, Stacey L; Mulligan, Emily E; Wilson, Dawn S; Kabelik, David

2013-07-15

229

South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices 1  

E-print Network

ABE 369 South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management.... 2 water quantity and quality historically experienced periods of extended droughts which threaten production capabilities thus making water

Migliaccio, Kati White

230

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

2009-01-01

231

Variable sexual ornaments in scarlet-tufted malachite sunbirds ( Nectarinia johnstoni) on Mount Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to be elaborated by sexual selection, sexual ornaments must vary perceptibly and genetically among individuals in natural populations. Rather little is known about ornament variation in monogamous species, in which sexual selection should act more weakly than in polygynous species. We report phenotypic variation in feather ornament size (elongated tails and pectoral tufts) and body size in the

Matthew R. Evans; Phoebe Barnard

1995-01-01

232

Carotenoid ornamentation of adult male Common Redpolls predicts probability of dying in a salmonellosis outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Conditional handicap models of sexual selection predict that ornamentation should be positively associated with an individual's ability to withstand challenges to their health. 2. We assessed whether levels of carotenoid ornamentation were related to the pro- bability of adult male Common Redpolls, Carduelis flammea , dying in a salmonellosis epidemic by comparing the ornamentation of surviving adult male

H. VAN OORT; R. D. DAWSON

2005-01-01

233

Cosmic Ornament of Gas and Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] 4-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Silicon Gas Figure 2 Argon Figure 3 Dust Collection Figure 4

This beautiful bulb might look like a Christmas ornament but it is the blown-out remains of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Called Cassiopeia A, this supernova remnant is located about 10,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way galaxy. The remains are shown here in an infrared composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Silicon gas is blue and argon gas is green, while red represents about 10,000 Earth masses worth of dust. Yellow shows areas where red and green overlap.

The fact that these two features line up (as seen in yellow in the combined view) tells astronomers that the dust, together with the gas, was created in the explosion. This is the best evidence yet that supernovae are a significant source of dust in the early universe something that was postulated before, but not proven. Dust in our young universe is important because it eventually made its way into future stars, planets and even people.

In figure 1, the upper left panel is a composite made up of three infrared views shown in the remaining panels. The bottom left view (figure 3) shows argon gas (green) that was synthesized as it was ejected from the star. The upper right panel (figure 2) shows silicon gas (blue) deep in the interior of the remnant. This cooler gas, called the unshocked ejecta, was also synthesized in the supernova blast. The bottom right view (figure 4) shows a collection of dust (red), including proto-silicates, silicate dioxide and iron oxide.

The data for these images were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light apart to reveal the fingerprints of molecules and elements. In total, Spitzer collected separate 'spectra' at more than 1,700 positions across Cassiopeia A. Astronomers then created maps from this massive grid of data, showing the remnant in a multitude of infrared colors.

2007-01-01

234

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

235

Allozyme revealed substantial genetic diversity between hatchery stocks of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, in the province of Nakornpathom, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to quantify genetic variation within and between stocks of hatchery reared Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, which is an economically important ornamental fish in Thailand. Our preliminary study showed that a natural population of Siamese fighting fish had average number of alleles\\/locus of 1.5, 45.5% polymorphic loci and Ho=0.065. Fourteen stocks of Siamese fighting fish comprising

Oamduen Meejui; Srijanya Sukmanomon; Uthairat Na-Nakorn

2005-01-01

236

Ornamental Annual Plants and Their Uses. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with ornamental annual plants and their uses. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 254 slides illustrating 97 different plants. At least two slides are provided for each plant: one shows the growth habits of the…

Still, Steven

237

Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

238

Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2)

Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza; Antonio M. Gascó; José M. Gascó; Francisca Guerrero

2005-01-01

239

Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?  

PubMed Central

Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L.; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P.

2014-01-01

240

Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

241

Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland

2004-01-01

242

Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

243

Evaluation of Cuphea Species for Traits of Ornamental Value  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of cuphea species and clones, particularly in the Cuphea taxonomic sections Heterodon and Melvilla, with various ornamental traits were evaluated under environmental conditions prevalent in the Gulf South. Conditions include full sun and overhead irrigation typical of container production ...

244

Pacific area wide program for methyl bromide alternatives – Ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the past 5 years the following field trials have been conducted as part of the Pacific Area-Wide program for cut flowers and ornamentals using various combinations of 1, 3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and metam: 1) Drip demonstration trial with field-grown calla lilies at Golden State Bulb ...

245

Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

246

[Sporogenesis, sporoderm and mature spore ornamentation in Lycopodiaceae].  

PubMed

Studies on reproductive aspects, spore morphology and ultrastructure of Lycopodiaceae are not very common in the scientific literature, and constitute essential information to support taxonomic and systematic relationships among the group. In order to complete existing information, adding new and broader contributions on these topics, a comparative analysis of the sporogenesis ultrastructure, with emphasis on cytological aspects of the sporocyte coat development, tapetum, monoplastidic and polyplastidic meiosis, sporoderm ontogeny and ornamentation of the mature spores, was carried out in 43 taxa of eight genera of the Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (including Phlegmariurus), Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea and Pseudolycopodiella growing in the Andes of Colombia and the Neotropics. For this study, the transmission elec- tron microscopy (TEM) samples were collected in Cauca and Valle del Cauca Departments, while most of the spores for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were obtained from herbarium samples. We followed standard preparation procedures for spore observation by TEM and SEM. Results showed that the sporocyte coat is largely composed by primary wall components; the sporocyte develop much of their metabolic activity in the production of their coat, which is retained until the spores release; protective functions for the diploid cells undergoing meiosis is postulated here for this layer. The abundance of dictyosomes in the sporocyte cytoplasm was related to the formation and development of the sporocyte coat. Besides microtubule activity, the membrane of sporocyte folds, associated with electrodense material, and would early determine the final patterns of spore ornamentation. Monoplastidic condition is common in Lycopodium s.l., whereas polyplastidic condition was observed in species of Huperzia and Lycopodiella s. l. In monoplastidic species, the tapetum presents abun- dant multivesicular bodies, while in polyplastidic species, the secretory activity of the tapetum is less intense. Sporoderm development is centripetal, exospore is the first formed layer, then the endospore and, if present, perispore is the final deposited layer. Adult spores of the Lycopodiaceae showed two patterns of ornamentation: negative or caviform (foveolate spores) and positive or muriform ornamentation, the latter with two subtypes (rugate and reticulate spores). The spores of Huperzia are characteristically foveolate, the rugate spores were found in a few species of Huperzia and in all of the Lycopodiella s. l. taxa studied, while Lycopodium s.l. spores bear reticulate ornamentation. Numerous ornamentation traits are diagnostic at the specific level. The types of ornamentation found do not support the recent extreme fragmentation of the family in several genera, but could match, a priori, with the idea of three subfamilies. The findings of sporogenesis, extremely similar in all taxa studied, point more to consider fewer genera, more comprehensive, than the recent, marked splitting of the family. PMID:25412543

Rincon Baron, Edgar Javier; Rolleri, Cristina Hilda; Passarelli, Lilian M; Espinosa Matías, Silvia; Torres, Alba Marina

2014-09-01

247

Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes  

PubMed Central

From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

2014-01-01

248

Carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird ( Turdus merula )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parasites depress the expression of the carotenoid-based colour displays of their hosts, and it has been hypothesized that animals face a trade-off in carotenoid allocation between immune functions and 'degree of ornamentation'. While numerous correlative studies suggest that parasite infection decreases the intensity of carotenoid-based colour displays, the existence of this trade-off has never been demonstrated experimentally in a

R. Baeta; B. Faivre; S. Motreuil; M. Gaillard; J. Moreau

2008-01-01

249

The effects of mixed-species assemblage on the behaviour and welfare of fish held in home aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is growing scientific research into the welfare of fish held under aquaculture conditions, there has been little research into the welfare of ornamental fish kept in home aquaria. With the ever increasing popularity of home aquaria, there is now an urgent need to address our current lack of knowledge regarding welfare of mixed-species assemblages. Here we investigated the

Katherine A. Sloman; Louise Baldwin; Stanley McMahon; Donna Snellgrove

250

Trade Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human trafficking is an old, but increasingly complex, phenomenon. In an age of globalization and transnationalism, demand for cheap labour and services fuels a trade deeply rooted in different cultural and historical contexts. Human traffickers share those roots with their respective diasporas the world over. This paper examines the case for an empirical investigation, and gender-sensitive analysis, of the connections

Jackie Turner; Liz Kelly

2009-01-01

251

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

252

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

253

Introgressive hybridization between color morphs in a population of cichlid fishes twelve years after human-induced secondary admixis.  

PubMed

In the extremely species-rich haplochromine cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes, prezygotic isolation between closely related species is often maintained by color-assortative mating. In 1998, local fisherman working for the ornamental fish trade released different color morphs of the cichlid genus Tropheus into a small harbor basin in the southern part of Lake Tanganyika. This artificial amalgamation of color morphs provides a unique possibility to study mating patterns in cichlids in a natural environment over time. In a precursor study, we analyzed genotypes and phenotypes of almost 500 individuals sampled between 1999 and 2001 and uncovered a marked degree of color-assortative mating, which depended on the level of color pattern dissimilarity between morphs. Twelve years after introduction of nonindigenous morphs, we again sampled Tropheus individuals from the harbor basin and an adjacent, originally pure population and analyzed phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and 9 microsatellite loci) to assess the current status of the admixed population. Principal component analyses of color score data and population assignment tests demonstrate an increasing level of introgressive hybridization between morphs but also some ongoing color-assortative mating within morphs. The observed mating pattern might have been influenced by fluctuating environmental conditions such as periodic algal blooms or increased sedimentation causing turbid conditions in an otherwise clear lake. PMID:22563125

Egger, Bernd; Sefc, Kristina M; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter

2012-07-01

254

Response of Perennial Herbaceous Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Sixty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals in 56 genera were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Plants were rated susceptible or resistant based on the number of galls present on the root system. Thirty-six percent had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. Thirty percent of the plants tested did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated resistant. The remaining 34 percent were intermediate in response. Variation in response to M. hapla was observed within plant genera and species. The identification of M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in management of this nematode in landscapes and production fields. PMID:19277335

LaMondia, J. A.

1995-01-01

255

Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

2008-10-01

256

Identification and chemical enhancement of two ornamental plants for phytoremediation.  

PubMed

With an increase in the contamination of urban areas, more and more attention has been paid to the role of ornamental plants in remedying contaminated soils. Thus, cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea as ornamental plants under the concentration gradient experiment with single Cd, as well as the effect of ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on their Cd phytoremediation capacity under the chemically enhanced experiment was further investigated. It was showed that they had strong tolerance and accumulation capacity of Cd under single Cd treatments, thus they had great potential to be used for Cd contaminated soil remediation. Furthermore, under chemically enhanced treatments, the great efficiency was found through applying EGTA and SDS, they could not only increase the dry biomass of the plants, but also promote the Cd accumulation in shoots and roots. Particularly, Althaea rosea can be regarded as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator through applying chemical agents. In conclusion, the two ornamental plants are promising to be used for phytoremediation. PMID:18292957

Liu, Jia-Nv; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

2008-03-01

257

Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation  

PubMed Central

Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

258

77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

2012-05-10

259

77 FR 15039 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

2012-03-14

260

76 FR 15941 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Sixth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

2011-03-22

261

78 FR 55676 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

2013-09-11

262

19 CFR 205.3 - Investigations under sections 131 and 503 of the Trade Act of 1974.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the United States Trade Representative...modification of United States duties, or...respectively, the Commission shall initiate...mining, fishing, labor...or from the United States Trade Representative...section 102, the Commission shall...

2013-04-01

263

19 CFR 205.3 - Investigations under sections 131 and 503 of the Trade Act of 1974.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the United States Trade Representative...modification of United States duties, or...respectively, the Commission shall initiate...mining, fishing, labor...or from the United States Trade Representative...section 102, the Commission shall...

2010-04-01

264

19 CFR 205.3 - Investigations under sections 131 and 503 of the Trade Act of 1974.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the United States Trade Representative...modification of United States duties, or...respectively, the Commission shall initiate...mining, fishing, labor...or from the United States Trade Representative...section 102, the Commission shall...

2012-04-01

265

19 CFR 205.3 - Investigations under sections 131 and 503 of the Trade Act of 1974.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the United States Trade Representative...modification of United States duties, or...respectively, the Commission shall initiate...mining, fishing, labor...or from the United States Trade Representative...section 102, the Commission shall...

2014-04-01

266

19 CFR 205.3 - Investigations under sections 131 and 503 of the Trade Act of 1974.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the United States Trade Representative...modification of United States duties, or...respectively, the Commission shall initiate...mining, fishing, labor...or from the United States Trade Representative...section 102, the Commission shall...

2011-04-01

267

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED `STATES FISH COMMISSION. 59 not bcen taken from the woods, but from humi(l meadow$, because the  

E-print Network

is the real cause of the eruption. Our aiicestors, who eugagecl in carp culture more than we (lo, knew considered as ornaments, will be of some use. Iu COIICIUS~O~I,I liare to state that fish-culture-bladders intended for isinglass or fish-glue. The bladders are also used as an article of food, especially in Spain

268

The commercial seed trade: An early disperser of weeds in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds, bulbs, and cuttings of exotic plant species, including plants cultivated exclusively as ornamentals, were being advertised\\u000a for sale in printed circulars in the United States by 1800. By the end of the 19th century seed trade catalogs were prolific\\u000a and often listed dozens of exotic species that were already naturalized in the U.S. or new introductions from foreign suppliers.

Richard N. Mack

1991-01-01

269

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

2011-04-01

270

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.  

PubMed

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

2014-01-01

271

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks  

PubMed Central

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

2014-01-01

272

The state of research on chondrichthyan fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a decade has passed since the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) first alerted the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the urgent need to establish programs for collecting biological and trade data and for managing the impacts of fishing on shark populations. By 2000, FAO had developed the International Plan of Action for the

Terence I. Walker; Lead Essay

2007-01-01

273

Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations  

E-print Network

348 Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in Amer- ican goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which

Murphy, Troy G.

274

Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.), many of which are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered on the IUCN Red List, are traded worldwide as souvenirs, aquarium fish and, primarily, for use in traditional medicines. Given concern over the sustainability of this trade, the genus was added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Jana M. McPherson; Amanda C. J. Vincent

2004-01-01

275

Does female feeding motivation affect the response to a food-mimicking male ornament in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei?  

PubMed

Female response to various aspects of male trait morphology and the effect of female feeding motivation were investigated in the swordtail characin Corynopoma riisei, a species where males are equipped with a flag-like food-mimicking ornament that grows from the operculum. Unfed females responded more strongly to the male ornament and showed a stronger preference for larger ornaments than did fed females. Females were shown not to discriminate between artificial male ornaments of either undamaged or damaged shape. PMID:23902310

Amcoff, M; Kolm, N

2013-08-01

276

One Fish Two Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

Hoffman, Michele

1998-01-01

277

The antibacterial screening of some common ornamental plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The freeze-dried powders, methanol extracts and the marcs of various parts of 57 ornamental plants were tested againstStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris andPseudomonas aeruginosa using the tube dilution and plate diffusion methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Nineteen plants showed activity against at least one of the test organisms. These plants were:Aphelandra squarrosa cv. dania,Arisaema triphyllum, Begonia hyb. C. P. Raffill,Begonia

Frank C. Roia; Robert A. Smith

1977-01-01

278

The Sun and solar eclipses in traditional Romanian ornamental patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various ornamental shapes, such as the wheel, the rhombus, the broken cross, and the radiant triangle, which can be seen on popular costumes, domestic objects as well as in architecture, represent solar symbols with a clear apotropaic function whose origins may be detected on the Neolithic clay plates from Jevdet Nasr (Iraq), Knosos (Greece) and Tartaria (Romania). In the North-East of Romania the occurrence of such motifs is extremely frequent especially in traditional architecture. The Triple-Rayed Sun intersected by two lateral arcs is a remarkable adornment of this kind that seems to suggest the representation of an eclipse.

Olenici, Dimitrie; Olenici, Maria

2011-06-01

279

Essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of essays on the effect of trade costs on international trade. Chapter 1 derives and empirically examines how factor proportions determine the structure of commodity trade when international ...

Romalis, John

2001-01-01

280

Culture of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science  

E-print Network

Culture of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science Martin A. Moe, Jr. A Survey of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science Martin A. Moe, Jr. A Survey: Presentation of scientists, commercial breeders and marine aquarium hobbyists is to make this information immediately

Watson, Craig A.

281

Signaling efficacy drives the evolution of larger sexual ornaments by sexual selection.  

PubMed

Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

282

Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

Nichols, Lester P.

283

Pathogenicity and Virulence of the Two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to Woody Ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody hosts. A range of woody ornamental plant species, including Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Acer

J. C. Goud; A. J. Termorshuizen

2002-01-01

284

SYNTHETIC SOIL AGGREGATES AS A POTTING MEDIUM FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANT PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aggregates (SA) were developed as alternative potting media for ornamental plant production. Four different types of SA were developed from low productive acidic soil and paper waste with adding different types of compost amendments. Compost amendments used in the experiment were cattle manure compost, chicken manure compost, and leaf manure compost. Popular ornamental plant french marigold (Tagetes patula) was

G. Y. Jayasinghe

2012-01-01

285

Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

286

Preliminary observations on the structure and ornamentation of the oosporangial wall in Chara (Charales, Chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilization of the oosphere in the order Charales results in the formation of an oosporangium whose highly resistant outer organic wall is frequently decorated or ornamented. Examination by the scanning electron microscope allows for the unambiguous interpretation of such surface features and reveals details of wall structure and ornamentation not described hitherto. In this study of the oosporangia of

David M. John; Jenny A. Moore; Dawn R. Green

1990-01-01

287

SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION  

PubMed Central

Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

288

Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis have striking ultraviolet (UV)-blue coloration on their heads, backs, rumps, wings, and tails and bold chestnut coloration on their breasts. These colored areas are ornaments that correlate with pairing date and reproductive effort, and thus probably influence the choice of mates by females. Such ornaments are expected to increase in color with age and body

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill; F. Stephen Dobson

2005-01-01

289

TCC Trade Agreements Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Department of Commerce to aid US exporters, the Trade Compliance Center (TCC) provides access to more than 200 trade documents via the Trade Related Agreements Database (TARA). US Trade Agreements may be browsed by country signatory, issue, or agreement title, or searched by keyword with the benefit on an online thesaurus. In addition, the TCC provides a related database of Market Access Information with searchable country commercial guides, reports on economic policy and trade practices, and national trade estimate reports.

290

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

291

Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may not accelerate industrialization and growth. This is because there are

Moritz Cruz

2008-01-01

292

Reuse of industrial wastewater for the irrigation of ornamental plants.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of experimental activities carried out for verifying the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater originated from textile (70%) and domestic (30%) activities for the irrigation of container-grown ornamental shrubs. Aspects that concern the refinery treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the effect of irrigation on some ornamental plant species were investigated. An experimental site consisting of a refinery treatment pilot plant (filtration and disinfection) and an agronomic experimental area was set-up. The combined treatment of PAA and UV, used for the disinfection, showed to be very effective for inactivation of E. coli with most of PAA and UV dose combinations able to assure total inactivation. The plants (Buxus, Photinia, Pistacia and Viburnum), sprinkle and drip irrigated with well water (WW), reclaimed wastewater (RW) and a water mixed (MW) between reclaimed wastewater and well water (1:1 by vol), showed interesting results. A similar growth among different treatments was achieved for Buxus and Pistacia, while Viburnum and Photinia plants showed a higher sensibility to MW and RW. Photinia, in particular, turned out to be very sensitive to sprinkle irrigation with the reclaimed water, while the drip irrigation had no such bad effects, as reported in previous works. PMID:18413949

Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F P; Coppini, E

2008-01-01

293

Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis  

PubMed Central

The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm³ soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

Inserra, R. N.; Dunn, R. A.; Vovlas, N.

1994-01-01

294

Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis.  

PubMed

The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm(3) soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

Inserra, R N; Dunn, R A; Vovlas, N

1994-12-01

295

Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria  

PubMed Central

Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

Yovkova, Mariya; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

2013-01-01

296

Is there an immunological cost to carotenoidbased ornamental coloration  

E-print Network

Originally it was proposed that dietary access alone might explain variation in expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Endler 1980; Kodric-Brown 1985; Hill 1990). By this idea, carotenoids are scarce in the environment, and only those individuals in the best condition gain access to sufficient carotenoids for maximum ornament display. To this idea of limited access was added the idea that parasites might negatively impact expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Milinski and Bakker 1990; Houde and Torio 1992; Zuk 1992). Indeed, from studies with poultry it is well established that coccidia (protozoan gut parasites) directly inhibit carotenoid absorption (Ruff et al. 1974; Augustine and Ruff 1983; Allen 1987, 1992; Tyczkowski et al. 1991). In several studies with species that have carotenoid-based ornamental display, it has been shown that parasites, including particularly coccidia, inhibit expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Milinski and Bakker 1990; Houde and Torio 1992; Brawner 1997; Thompson et al. 1997). It seems likely that parasite load and limited access to dietary carotenoids combine to determine color expression in many species of animals (Hill 1999). Carotenoids are used for more than integumentary colorants in animals. Some carotenoids, particularly betacarotene and related molecules, function as vitamin A precursors (Bauernfeind 1972). In addition, a variety of carotenoids, including both carotenoids that serve as vitamin A precursors and carotenoids that do not serve as vitamin A precursors, have been found to reduce the risk of infection

Geoffrey E. Hill

1999-01-01

297

Can too strong female choice deteriorate male ornamentation?  

PubMed Central

Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition. PMID:15306306

Morrell, Lesley J.; Kokko, Hanna

2004-01-01

298

Viral DNA sequences of genes encoding the ATPase and the major capsid protein of tropical iridovirus isolates which are pathogenic to fishes in Japan, South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Tropical iridovirus infection causes severe epizootic resulting in mass mortalities and large economic losses in freshwater\\u000a ornamental fishes cultured in Southeast Asian countries, in wild fish seedlings captured in South China Sea, and in marine\\u000a fishes farmed in Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. All of tropical iridovirus-infected fishes histopathologically showed the\\u000a systemic formation of inclusion body-bearing cells and necrosis of virus-infected

C. Sudthongkong; M. Miyata; T. Miyazaki

2002-01-01

299

FISH.FISH /l. RICHARDSON VIA HAND DELIVERY  

E-print Network

Office of ttle Secretary Secllary United States Inlemational Trade Comnis.:;,j·",-JFISH.FISH /l. RICHARDSON VIA HAND DELIVERY 30~ June 27, 20 14 Fi>h & Richard~oll P.C. ]0125 K Slrt documents in support of Macronix's request that the Comm.ission commence an Investigation pursuant

Baker, R. Jacob

300

Wild Populations of a Reef Fish Suffer from the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial fishery for coral reef fish for the aquarium trade has begun to change, at least in some parts of the world, from destructive methods such as cyanide and dynamite fishing to less-destructive methods such as hand-net fishing. However, data on the effects on wild populations of such relatively nondestructive methods is nonexistent. The Banggai cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni

Niclas Kolm; Anders Berglund

2003-01-01

301

City Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

Lange, Robert E.

1979-01-01

302

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

303

Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations with Immune Function and Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conspicuous ornamentation has been linked to immunological and physiological condition in males of many species. In species where both sexes are ornamented, it is unclear whether the signal content of ornaments differs between males and females. We examined the immunological and physiological correlates of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in American goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which bright orange

Ryan J. Kelly; Troy G. Murphy; Keith A. Tarvin; Gary Burness

2012-01-01

304

Are Insider Trades Informative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine insider trading activities of all companies traded on the NYSE, AMEX, and Nasdaq during the 1975-95 period. In general, very little market movement is observed when insiders trade and when they report their trades to the SEC. Insiders in aggregate are contrarian investors. However, they predict market movements better than simple contrarian strategies. Insiders also seem to be

Josef Lakonishok; Inmoo Lee

2001-01-01

305

Technology, Geography, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium. It delivers simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, to comparative advantage (promoting trade), and to geographic barriers (resisting it). We estimate the parameters with data on bilateral trade in manufactures, prices, and geography from 19 OECD countries in 1990. We

Jonathan Eaton; Samuel Kortum

2002-01-01

306

Does Trade Cause Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining the correlation between trade and income cannot identify the direction of causation between the two. Countries' geographic characteristics, however, have important effects on trade and are plausibly uncorrelated with other determinants of income. This paper, therefore, constructs measures of the geographic component of countries' trade and uses those measures to obtain instrumental variables estimates of the effect of trade

Jeffrey A. Frankel; David Romer

1999-01-01

307

Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

2014-10-01

308

On the function of female ornaments: male bluethroats prefer colourful females  

PubMed Central

Female ornaments in animals with conventional sex roles have traditionally been considered non-functional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate choice experiments with bluethroats (Luscinia s. svecica), a passerine bird in which females vary considerably in coloration of an ornamental throat patch. In outdoor aviaries placed in prime breeding habitat, males were allowed to choose between a colourful and a drab female. We found that males associated more with, and performed more sexual behaviours towards, colourful females. Female coloration was not age-related, but correlated significantly with body mass and tarsus length. Thus, we have demonstrated both a male preference for female ornamentation, and a relationship between ornament expression and female body size, which may be indicative of quality. Our results refute the correlated response hypothesis and support the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected.

Amundsen, T.; Forsgren, E.; Hansen, L. T. T.

1997-01-01

309

Preventive control of aphids in ornamental plants with complementary parasitoids.  

PubMed

Biological control of aphids can be achieved with parasitoids. A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize aphids in a host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are used in organic or integrated pest management strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid against a given aphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently identified. By the time the aphids are spotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control over an increasing aphid population. Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on the crop treated. There was a need for a product controlling the largest possible spectrum of aphid species susceptibly present in ornamental crops. As the first step of development, an inventory of the aphid species attacking ornamental crops was made in various regions. A unique cocktail of parasitoids species (OrnaProtect) controlling all these aphids was then developed. OrnaProtect contains six different species of natural aphid enemies, and is able to control all commonly appearing aphids attacking ornamental crops. The fact of mixing different species not only covers the entire spectrum of aphids, but also contributes to prolonged hatching. To reinforce this long lasting emergence, mummies of different ages are mixed, older mummies (stored at low temperature) emerging earlier after release than young mummies. With that prolonged hatching dynamics, a release every two weeks assures a permanent presence of fresh adult parasitoids in the crop. The ready-to-use units of OrnaProtect contain an integrated feeding point which contributes to longevity and efficiency of the parasitoids. Its application in the crop is much faster than even any chemical treatment. Here, we show the results of trials made with OrnaProtect in 2011 on several crops (Hydrangea macrophylla, Solanum jasminoides, Argyranthemum frutescens and Osteospermum ecklonis). OrnaProtect controlled the aphids in all trials. In one trial, aphids were already present at the time of first release and a localized treatment on about ten plants, compatible with beneficial insects, was applied. After that, an excellent control of the aphids was achieved by the parasitoids. In the other trials, when used in a really preventive way (no aphid at the time of first release, the aphid population was immediately controlled and all plants could be sold as first quality plant without any insecticide treatment. PMID:23885420

Dassonville, N; Thielemans, T; Ruisinger, M; Rosemeyer, V

2012-01-01

310

Trade and Transboundary Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how national income and trading opportunities interact to determine the level and incidence of world pollution. The authors find that free trade raises world pollution if incomes differ substantially across countries; if trade equalizes factor prices, human-capital-abundant countries lose from trade, while human-capital-scarce countries gain; international trade in pollution permits can lower world pollution even when governments'

Brian R. Copeland; M Scott Taylor

1995-01-01

311

Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

312

Characterization of some Italian ornamental thyme by their aroma.  

PubMed

The aromatic profiles of five commercial thyme cultivars (T. vulgaris 'Silver Poise', T. vulgaris 'Erectus', T. vulgaris 'Faustini', T. x citriodorus 'Anderson's Gold', and T. x citriodorus 'Silver Queen'), cultivated in Italy, were defined both by their static headspaces (HS) and essential oils (EOs). In addition, a botanical garden sample of T. vulgaris was considered as reference material to evaluate the morphological and phytochemical differences from the selected market samples. Extractions of the volatile constituents of the different plant material were carried out by SPME (static headspace, HS) and hydrodistillation (HD) processes. GC-MS analysis provided the separation and identification of approximately 70 components in the HS samples and 50 in the hydrodistilled essential oils, accounting for more than 95% of the total. The typical main constituents of T. vulgaris were detected in all the EO samples, although qualitative and quantitative differences were found among the selected ornamental Thymus varieties. Thymol (50-55%) was the marker constituent for the three T. vulgaris cultivars, while geraniol (61-67%) characterized the essential oils of the two T. x citriodorus varieties. In all the analyzed essential oils, non-oxygenated (16-79%) and oxygenated (5-26%) monoterpenes were the typical volatile constituents. Specific target compounds (thymol, geraniol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) were selected to characterize the five thyme cultivars that are considered at present only as ornamental plants. A comparative evaluation of their EO quality was carried out in order to propose them as alternative sources of Italian raw plant material for industrial production. PMID:20334146

Bertoli, Alessandra; Sárosi, Szilvia; Bernáth, Jeno; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-02-01

313

Spotted Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spotted Fish model attempts to track the trait change [spot size] of a population of spotted fish in a pond with ample food supply with a constant number of predators. The predators in the pond are attracted to the fishes spots, and the chance of a fish being spotted and eaten by a predator is proportional to it`s spot size squared.

David Joiner

314

Transgenic Fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

315

The Triangular Trade Route  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the Triangular Trade Route? After completeing this project, you should be able to explain the Triangular Trade Route in detail. These details should include the reason for trade, the countries involved, and the main goods that were traded. Getting Started: Each number will give you instructions. Follow the instructions, answering the questions on a loose leaf sheet of paper. Your answers will be collected. 1. What do you already know about trade? Answer this question in your own words. There is no right or wrong answer. 2. Have you ever traded ...

Ms. Caldwell

2009-07-07

316

Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

317

Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally\\u000a along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants\\u000a in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular\\u000a species reflects

Llewellyn C. Foxcroft; David M. Richardson; John R. U. Wilson

2008-01-01

318

Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase  

PubMed Central

The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

2014-01-01

319

Experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments\\u000a exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail\\u000a length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen

Nicola Saino; José Javier Cuervo; Marco Krivacek; Florentino de Lope; Anders Pape Møller

1997-01-01

320

Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol\\/l potassium phosphate

P. Kavitha; P. Subramanian

321

Nodavirus infection in freshwater ornamental fish, guppy, Poicelia reticulata – comparative characterization and pathogenicity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Biochemical, genomic and serological studies were carried out to characterize a virus obtained from diseased guppy, Poicelia reticulata. The SDS-PAGE analysis of CsCl purified virus showed two distinct bands with molecular weight of 42?kDa and 110?kDa. A 1367\\u000a nucleotide region of the coat protein gene was sequenced, which includes one full open reading frame of 1017 nucleotides and\\u000a a region

A. Hegde; H. C. Teh; T. J. Lam; Y. M. Sin

2003-01-01

322

Trade Structure and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lederman and Maloney examine the empirical relationships between trade structure and economic growth, particularly the influence of natural resource abundance, export concentration, and intra-industry trade. They test the robustness of these relationships across proxies, control variables, and estimation techniques. The authors find trade variables to be important determinants of growth, especially natural resource abundance and export concentration. In contrast with

Daniel Lederman; William F. Maloney

2003-01-01

323

Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

324

Trade and Empire &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a new database of over 21,000 bilateral trade observations from 1870–1913 to assess the contemporaneous effects of empire on trade. Our analysis shows that belonging to an empire roughly doubled trade relative to those countries that were not part of an empire. The use of a common language, the establishment of currency unions, the monetisation of recently acquired

Kris James Mitchener; Marc Weidenmier

2008-01-01

325

Fish Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

326

Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.  

PubMed

B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

2008-01-01

327

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

328

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

329

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

330

Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants.  

PubMed

The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2) pine bark with 15% of sewage sludge compost, (3) pine bark with 30% of sewage sludge compost, (4) coconut fibre, (5) coconut fibre with 15% of sewage sludge compost and (6) coconut fibre with 30% of sewage sludge compost. Substrates were physically and chemically well characterized, and 75-cm plants were grown on them for one year. Plant and substrate status were periodically tested along the experiment. As biosolid recycling is the main objective of the present work, the mixtures with 30% of composted sewage sludge will be the most convenient substrate to use. For C. sempervirens and C. arizonica, a mixture between pine bark or coconut fibre and 30% of biosolid compost in volume gave the best results, but the lower cost of the pine bark than the coconut fibre substrate indicated the use of the PB+30% CSS. For P. pinea the research of new combinations between waste products is recommended to attain better results. PMID:15364091

Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gascó, Antonio M; Gascó, José M; Guerrero, Francisca

2005-01-01

331

Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

2007-02-01

332

Vegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

2015-02-01

333

Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 ?g L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

2015-02-01

334

Vegetative regeneration capacities of five ornamental plant invaders after shredding.  

PubMed

Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk. PMID:25387455

Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

2015-02-01

335

From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

Winans, Linda

1988-01-01

336

78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...

2013-04-22

337

77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...

2012-02-03

338

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

339

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

340

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update

2003-10-13

341

Fish Dishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

Derby, Marie

2003-01-01

342

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

2012-06-26

343

Developmental evolution of sexual ornamentation: model and a test of feather growth and pigmentation.  

PubMed

A tremendous diversity of avian color displays has stimulated numerous studies of natural and sexual selection. Yet, the developmental mechanisms that produce such diversification, and thus the proximate targets of selection pressures, are rarely addressed and poorly understood. In particular, because feathers are colored during growth, the dynamics of feather growth play a deterministic role in the variation in ornamentation. No study to date, however, has addressed the contribution of feather growth to the expression of carotenoid-based ornamentation. Here, we examine the developmental basis of variation in ornamental feather shapes in male house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus)-a species in which carotenoid displays are under strong natural and sexual selection. First, we use geometric morphometrics to partition the observed shape variation in fully grown feathers among populations, ages, degrees of elaboration, ornamental body parts, and individuals. Second, we use a biologically informed mathematical model of feather growth to predict variation in shape of ornamental feathers due to simulated growth rate, angle of helical growth of feather barbs, initial number of barb ridges, rate of addition of new barbs, barb diameter, and ramus-expansion angle. We find close concordance between among-individual variation in feather shape and hue of entire ornament, and show that this concordance can be attributed to a shared mechanism-growth rate of feather barbs. Predicted differences in feather shape due to rate of addition of barbs and helical angle of feather growth explained observed variation in ornamental area both among individuals and between populations, whereas differences in helical angle of growth and the number of barbs in the feather follicle explained differences in feather shape between ornamental parts and among males of different ages. The findings of a close association of feather growth dynamics and overall ornamentation identify the proximate targets of selection for elaboration of sexual displays. Moreover, the close association of feather growth and pigmentation not only can reinforce condition-dependence in color displays, but can also enable phenotypic and genetic accommodation of novel pigments into plumage displays providing a mechanism for the observed concordance of within-population developmental processes and between-population diversification of color displays. PMID:21672833

Badyaev, Alexander V; Landeen, Elizabeth A

2007-08-01

344

Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences. PMID:12791170

Schilthuizen, Menno

2003-01-01

345

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

2013-01-01

346

Sexual selection, multiple male ornaments, and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

In many animals, sexual selection has resulted in complex signaling systems in which males advertise aspects of their phenotypic or genetic quality through elaborate ornamentation and display behaviors. Different ornaments might convey different information or be directed at different receivers, but they might also be redundant signals of quality that function reliably at different times (ages) or in different contexts. We explored sexual selection and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler with two prominent plumage ornaments--a melanin-based, black facial "mask" and carotenoid-based, UV-yellow "bib." In a three-year study, variance among males in the number of social (M(w)) and extra-pair (M(e)) mates generated strong sexual selection on mask and bib attributes. Some traits (mask size, bib yellow brightness) were correlated with male age and did not experience selection beyond age-related increases in M(w) and M(e). Other traits showed age-specific (bib size) or age-reversed (ultraviolet brightness) patterns of selection that paralleled changes in the information-content of each ornament. The components of male fitness generating selection in young versus old males were distinct, reflecting different sources of variation in male fertilization success. Age- and context-dependent changes in the strength, direction, and target of selection may help explain the maintenance of multiple ornaments in this and other species. PMID:19863585

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Morin, Douglas F; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A; Tsang, Susan M

2010-04-01

347

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male-male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male-male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male-male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

2005-06-01

348

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat  

PubMed Central

Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male–male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male–male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male–male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male–male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

2005-01-01

349

Fish predation selects for reduced foraging activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of foraging activity for the growth\\/predation risk trade-off, studies that demonstrated predator-induced\\u000a survival selection on foraging activity under semi-natural conditions are relatively rare. Here, we tested for fish-induced\\u000a selection for reduced foraging activity in two larval Enallagma damselflies using a field enclosure experiment. Fish imposed considerable mortality in both damselfly species and survival\\u000a selection on foraging activity

Francis Strobbe; Mark A. McPeek; Marjan De Block; Robby Stoks

2011-01-01

350

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control for Commercial Applicators: Pest Control of Ornamental Plants; NCR 12, Lawn Diseases in the Midwest; NCR 26, Lawn Weeds and their Control. Manual 89.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the ornamental and turf pest control category. The text discusses pest control of ornamental plants, lawn diseases, and lawn weeds and their control. (CS)

Craig, W. S., Comp.; And Others

351

Trade Liberalisation and Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

352

British Trade International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.

353

Fish Safety and Quality from the Perspective of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major developments in the field of fish safety and quality have had a significant impact on international trade during the last few decades. Technological developments in fish handling and processing coupled with increasing consumer food safety and quality awareness have resulted in the adoption of HACCP-based systems and scientifically-based risk assessment methodologies. This is reflected in international regulatory framework of

Grímur Valdimarsson; Roland Cormier; Lahsen Ababouch

2004-01-01

354

A Note on Overfishing, Fishing Rights and Futures Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing a futures market for fishing rights would increase utility for risk averse fishermen. We use the EV model to analyze possible reductions in (expected) profits for futures trading that would make fishermen indifferent between the situation with and without futures markets. It is found that a futures market for fishing rights enables policy makers to pursue substantial cuts in

Erwin H. Bulte; Joost M. E. Pennings

1997-01-01

355

The International Trade Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

356

The Trade Card Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Author and collector Ben Crane maintains The Trade Card Place for "all who are interested in Victorian Trade Cards used to advertise American goods and services during the late 1800s." Although the site is geared toward collectors, hosting dealer, collector, and organization directories for the potential Victorian Trade Card buyer, advertising students may also be interested, as Crane includes articles on trade card history and, in his Victorian Scrapbook archive, has posted thumbnail images of cards on subjects ranging from beverages and clothing to toys and tobacco.

357

Trade in health services.  

PubMed Central

In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

Chanda, Rupa

2002-01-01

358

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

359

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird.  

PubMed

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators. PMID:21858505

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

360

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators.

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M.; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

361

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

HEMP, PAUL E.

362

Lifetime fitness and age-related female ornament signalling: evidence for survival and fecundity selection in the pied flycatcher.  

PubMed

Ornaments displayed by females have often been denied evolutionary interest due to their frequently reduced expression relative to males, habitually attributed to a genetic correlation between the sexes. We estimated annual and lifetime reproductive success of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and applied capture-mark-recapture models to analyse annual survival rates in relation to the patterns of expression (absence/presence) of an ornament displayed by all males and a fraction of females. Overall, the likelihood of expressing the ornament increased nonlinearly with female age and was due to within-individual variation, not to the selective appearance or disappearance of ornament-related expression of phenotypes in the population. Accordingly, expressing the forehead patch in a given year did not influence survival probability. However, those females expressing the ornament at early ages (1-2 years old) enjoyed survival advantages throughout lifetime. Although ornamented females had higher lifetime fecundity and fledging success, their yearly reproductive performance, in terms of fledging productivity, decreased as they aged so that, late in life, ornamented females reared fewer offspring than nonexpressing females of the same age. In addition, both strategies (expressing vs. not expressing the trait) returned similar fitness payoffs in terms of recruited offspring. Our results support the hypothesis that fecundity and survival selection are involved in the displaying of this 'male' ornament by females. PMID:23638705

Potti, J; Canal, D; Serrano, D

2013-07-01

363

SICE: Foreign Trade Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SICE (Foreign Trade Information System) is the "information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS)." It provides information and trade documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. The available documents are divided into categories such as Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) process, Trade Agreements, Investment Treaties, and Dispute Settlement. The Dispute Settlement section contains all of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel reports from 1948 to 1994. The site also contains a quantitative trade data section with links to data on tariffs, trade flows and national statistical agencies. Spanish, Portuguese and French versions of the site are available.

364

Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.

Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

2008-01-01

365

Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

PubMed

The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species. PMID:17943344

Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

2008-01-01

366

Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the\\u000a sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish\\u000a (Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect (Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive

Michael Tobler; Courtney M. Franssen; Martin Plath

2008-01-01

367

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

368

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) of ornamental plants from São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 25 aphid species were collected from 49 ornamental plant species in São Carlos-São Paulo, Brazil; 12 aphids were monophagous, four oligophagous and nine polyphagous. A total of 58 aphid-plant associations are recorded, 43 unknown from Brazil. Eucarazzia elegans (Ferrari, 1872) (Aphididae: Aphidinae: Macrosiphini) is recorded for the first time from Brazil, and Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. (Lauraceae) is recorded for the first time as host plant for Lizerius tuberculatus (E.E. Blanchard, 1939) (Drepanosiphidae: Drepanosiphinae: Lizeriini). We also describe the injuries caused by aphids to the ornamental plants. PMID:12298239

Peronti, Ana Lúcia B G; Sousa-Silva, Carlos Roberto

2002-03-01

369

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

370

78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-SATD-2013-N046...FXSC14300900000-134-FF09S00000] National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate...regarding existing stressors on fish, wildlife, plants, and their...illegal trade, and over-harvesting. Comments Regarding the...

2013-04-01

371

NOAA/NMFS Developments U.S.-Japan Fishery Trade Talks  

E-print Network

fish in our 200-mile Fishery Conservation Zone." Japan will modify the criteria for im- ports under its, were de- signed to increase the amounts and to broaden the type of fish exported to Japan fromNOAA/NMFS Developments U.S.-Japan Fishery Trade Talks Conclude on Cooperative Note The United

372

Red Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes By Chandra Shekhar  

E-print Network

-authors Yohey Terai and Norihiro Okada of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan analyzed the fishesRed Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes Two Fish By Chandra Shekhar ScienceNOW Daily News 1 October 2008 Beauty, as the saying goes, is in the eye of the beholder--and some fish have taken this idea

373

Introduction to International Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

Intercom, 1986

1986-01-01

374

Theory of International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book expounds trade theory emphasizing that a trading equilibrium is general rather than partial, and is often best modelled using dual or envelope functions. This yields a compact treatment of standard theory, clarifies some errors and confusions, and produces some new departures. In particular, the book (i) gives unified treatments of comparative statics and welfare, (ii) sheds new light

Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

1980-01-01

375

Teaching With Trade Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project provides the why as well as tips and techniques for incorporating trade books in the middle school math and science classroom. In addition, lessons ideas and descriptions of specific trade books are provided.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

376

Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

377

Language and Foreign Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

While language plays an important role in gravity models, there has been little attention to the channels through which a common language promotes bilateral trade. This work proposes separate series for a common language depending upon whether ease of communication facilitates trade through translation or the ability to communicate directly. The series related to direct communication is far more important

Jacques Melitza

2003-01-01

378

Language and foreign trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

While language plays an important role in gravity models, there has been little attention to the channels through which a common language promotes bilateral trade. This work proposes separate series for a common language depending upon whether ease of communication facilitates trade through translation or the ability to communicate directly. The series related to direct communication is far more important

Jacques Melitz

2008-01-01

379

Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

2011-03-01

380

Venomous Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Jonathan Bird Productions

2010-08-10

381

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Idaho PTV

2011-10-06

382

Fish oil  

MedlinePLUS

... children: Fish oil providing 17-26.8 mg/kg EPA and 7.3-11.5 mg/kg DHA for reducing symptoms. Maternal ingestion of fish ... pregnancy. For treating asthma: 17-26.8 mg/kg EPA and 7.3-11.5 mg/kg ...

383

Puffer fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.

Ibrahim Iujaz (None; )

2007-06-08

384

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

385

Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.

Dan Bunker

2010-01-01

386

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

387

Fish Kids  

MedlinePLUS

EPA's new Fish Kids site is a fun website that uses interactive stories and games to teach kids about fish advisories! It is designed for kids ages 8–12 and is best played with a teacher or parent who can help understand the more advanced topics.

388

Texture Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

Stone, Julie

2007-01-01

389

Ironworker--Structural/Ornamental: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 40-2-06.4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate of the Ironworker-Structural/Ornamental apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) demonstrate the principles of drafting, how drawings originate and how to correctly interpret the information…

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

2006-01-01

390

Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacterial Species from Ornamental Aquarium Plants  

PubMed Central

Ornamental aquarium plants were demonstrated to carry as many as 108 viable mesophilic bacteria per g. Gram-negative organisms predominated among the 19 genera of bacteria identified. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was readily isolated from 53% of the samples tested. PMID:180888

Trust, T. J.; Bartlett, Karen H.

1976-01-01

391

Origin and maintenance of mechanosensory feather ornaments Sampath S. Seneviratne*, Ian L. Jones 1  

E-print Network

Origin and maintenance of mechanosensory feather ornaments Sampath S. Seneviratne*, Ian L. Jones 1 1980), pursuit-deterrent (Murphy 2006) and mechano- sensory use for navigation (Seneviratne & Jones to navigate in under- ground rock crevices (Seneviratne & Jones 2008). These elaborate feather traits

Jones, Ian L.

392

Invading populations of an ornamental shrub show rapid life history evolution despite genetic  

E-print Network

highlight the potential for even genetically depauperate founding populations to adapt and evolve invasiveLETTER Invading populations of an ornamental shrub show rapid life history evolution despite genetic bottlenecks Katrina M. Dlugosch* and Ingrid M. Parker Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University

Linder, Tamás

393

Differential effects of endoparasitism on the expression of carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration.  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sexual dimorphisms in nature begs the question: Why are there so many signal types? One possibility is that ornamental traits convey different sets of information about the quality of the sender to the receiver. The colourful, pigmented feathers of male birds seem to meet the predictions of this hypothesis. Evidence suggests that carotenoid pigmentation reflects the nutritional condition of males during moult, whereas in many instances melanin pigmentation is a reliable indicator of social status. However, as of yet there have been no experimental tests to determine how these two ornament types respond to the same form of environmental stress. In this study, we tested the effect of endoparasitic infection by intestinal coccidians (Isospora sp.) on the expression of both carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration in captive male American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). We found that the carotenoid-based plumage and bill coloration of parasitized males was less saturated than that developed by unparasitized males, but that the brightness and size of melanin-based black caps did not differ between the groups. These findings provide the most robust empirical support to date for the notion that carotenoid and melanin ornaments reveal different information to conspecifics. PMID:11007328

McGraw, K J; Hill, G E

2000-01-01

394

Career Preparation in Ornamental Horticulture: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide in ornamental horticulture is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes five occupational subgroups: arboriculture, floriculture, landscape maintenance and establishment, nursery production, and turfgrass…

McGhee, Max B.

395

Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

Domenghini, Jacob Cody

2012-01-01

396

An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

Ideoka, Keith

397

Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

398

Development of an Odor-Based Trap Tree Strategy for Ambrosia Beetles Infesting Ornamental Nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as key pests of ornamental nursery stock, and Xylosandrus germanus is one of the most problematic species. Xylosandrus germanus has a wide host range, but deciduous trees are preferred over coniferous hosts. Xylosandrus germanus has an effici...

399

Optimizing ethanol-baited traps for monitoring damaging ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in ornamental nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. We tested different rates of commercially available pouch-style ethanol lures in bottle-traps to optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for ...

400

Potential Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Diseases in Ornamental Plant Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research is being done to evaluate uses of chlorine dioxide in ornamental plant production systems. Chlorine dioxide has been shown to control spread of Fusarium oxysporum during the hot water treatment of daffodils and should provide replacement of formaldehyde which was used in the past. By dipp...

401

July 22, 2011 Imprelis Herbicide Injury to Landscape Trees and Ornamentals  

E-print Network

1 July 22, 2011 Imprelis Herbicide Injury to Landscape Trees and Ornamentals Who is making of Indiana. As such OISC is responsible for registering pesticide products, including herbicides, for sale primarily observed on properties where a newly registered turf herbicide Imprelis has been applied

Pittendrigh, Barry

402

Fear, food and sexual ornamentation: plasticity of colour development in Trinidadian guppies  

PubMed Central

The evolution of male ornamentation often reflects compromises between sexual and natural selection, but it may also be influenced by phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the developmental plasticity of male colour ornamentation in Trinidadian guppies in response to two environmental variables that covary in nature: predation risk and food availability. We found that exposure to chemical predator cues delayed the development of pigment-based colour elements, which are conspicuous to visual-oriented predators. Predator cues also reduced the size of colour elements at the time of maturity and caused adult males to be less colourful. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first example of a plastic reduction in the development of a sexually selected male ornament in response to predator cues. The influence of predator cues on ornamentation probably affects individual fitness by reducing conspicuousness to predators, but could reduce attractiveness to females. Reduced food availability during development caused males to delay the development of colour elements and mature later, probably reflecting a physiological constraint, but their coloration at maturity and later in adulthood was largely unaffected, suggesting that variation in food quantity without variation in quality does not contribute to condition dependence of the trait. PMID:23466982

Ruell, E. W.; Handelsman, C. A.; Hawkins, C. L.; Sofaer, H. R.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Angeloni, L.

2013-01-01

403

Development and Efficient In Vitro Clonal Propagation of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychium species are multipurpose plants which are used as ornamentals, for making perfumes because of their scented flowers, and raw material for manufacturing paper. They are also used in ethnomedicine because of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, they are not generally suite...

404

Effect of different ornamental pepper pollen on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...

405

Application of Marine Foodfish Techniques in Marine Ornamental Aquaculture: Reproduction and Larval First Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of the marine ornamental industry is being threatened by environmental pressures that are severely degrading the health of coral reef ecosystems. There is now a compelling need to practice resource conservation through the development of 'reef friendly' aquaculture technologies as an alternative to wild collection practices and to restore degraded wild populations. The commercial culture of marine

Anthony C. Ostrowski; Charles W. Laidley

2001-01-01

406

Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

407

Response of ornamental sunflower cultivars ‘Sunbeam’ and ‘Moonbright’ to irrigation with saline wastewaters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore the possibility that saline wastewaters may be used to grow commercially acceptable floriculture crops, a study was initiated to determine the effects of salinity on two pollen-free cultivars of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). ‘Moonbright’ and ‘Sunbeam’ were grown in greenho...

408

Effects of arsenic on nutrient accumulation and distribution in selected ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Miami, Florida 95% of residential and 33% commercial soils exceed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection goals for cleanup of arsenic contamination. Ornamental plants have not been fully investigated as a mechanism for phytoremediation of low level As contaminated soil. This study eva...

409

Elaborate ornaments are costly to maintain: evidence for high maintenance handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaborate secondary sexual traits, such as the ornamental plumage of birds, may be favored by female choice because they serve as honest indicators of male quality. Elaborate traits are thought to be honest signals because they are expensive to produce and increase predation risk. Here we investigate another potential cost of elaborate traits, i.e., the time and energy required to

Bruno A. Walther; Dale H. Clayton

2005-01-01

410

Testing newly introduced ornamental plants to the arid climate of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty five ornamental plants were introduced into the Ahmadi Bioremediated Soil Park to screen and closely monitor the growth performance of these new introductions under the local environmental conditions. Out of these 35 plant species, 15 were planted in both bioremediated and agricultural soils to assess their suitability for growing in bioremediated soils. Data on vegetative growth was recorded to

MK Suleiman; NR Bhat; Abdal; RR Bellen

2005-01-01

411

Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

412

CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING ETHEPHON FOR SUPPRESSING DWARF AND LEAFY MISTLETOE INFESTATIONS IN ORNAMENTAL LANDSCAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethephon ((2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid) is registered for use in controlling dwarf and leafy mistletoe infestations in ornamental trees. Practical use of ethephon (as Florel® at label rate) is limited to suppression of dwarf and leafy mistletoe spread. Ethephon at label rates causes ab- scission of aerial dwarf mistletoe shoots and partial abscission of leafy mistletoe shoots, but in either application

David H. Adams; Susan J. Frankel; John M. Lichter

1993-01-01

413

Using Task Data for Recruitment of Workers in Ornamental Horticulture: Report of a Field Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field test of using task data for recruitment of horticulture workers is the final phase of a larger task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. The field test is designed to obtain a realistic assessment of the potential of task checklists for recruitment, including: (1) employer acceptance attitudes toward…

Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

414

Secondary sexual ornamentation and non-additive genetic benefits of female mate choice.  

PubMed

Ornamental secondary sexual traits are hypothesized to evolve in response to directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates. Such mating preferences may themselves evolve partly because ornamentation indicates an individual's additive genetic quality (good genes). While mate choice can also confer non-additive genetic benefits (compatible genes), the identity of the most 'compatible' mate is assumed to depend on the choosy individual's own genotype. It is therefore unclear how choice for non-additive genetic benefits could contribute to directional mating preferences and consequently the evolution of ornamentation. In free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), individual males varied in their kinship with the female population. Furthermore, a male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, was negatively correlated with kinship such that males with larger repertoires were less closely related to the female population. After excluding close relatives as potential mates, individual females were on average less closely related to males with larger repertoires. Therefore, female song sparrows expressing directional preferences for males with larger repertoires would on average acquire relatively unrelated mates and produce relatively outbred offspring. Such non-additive genetic fitness benefits of directional mating preferences, which may reflect genetic dominance variance expressed in structured populations, should be incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:17374595

Reid, Jane M

2007-06-01

415

Kita and Kosmos: The Poetics of Ornamentation in Bosniac and Homeric Epic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milman Parry recorded detailed interviews with Bosniac singers of oral epic. Based on an analysis of these recordings, this article extends Parry's comparison of poetic form in Bosniac and Homeric epic to examine the internal aesthetic criteria of these traditions. The comparison hinges on the similarity of the Bosniac notion of kita, which refers to the ornamental, descriptive details of

David F. Elmer

2010-01-01

416

Kita and Kosmos: The Poetics of Ornamentation in Bosniac and Homeric Epic  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Milman Parry recorded detailed interviews with Bosniac singers of oral epic. Based on an analysis of these recordings, this article extends Parry's comparison of poetic form in Bosniac and Homeric epic to examine the internal aesthetic criteria of these traditions. The comparison hinges on the similarity of the Bosniac notion of kita, which refers to the ornamental, descriptive details of

David F. Elmer

2010-01-01

417

Air pollution research needs for herbaceous and ornamental plants, and for agriculturally generated pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of various air pollutants on economically important crops and ornamentals have been studied since before the turn of the century. Summaries of this effects research in Criteria Documents developed by the Environmental Protection Agency should be reviewed in light of differential regional sensitivity. These differences are associated with environmental parameters and distribution of pollutants. Many research efforts on air

W. W. Heck; O. C. Taylor; H. E. Heggestad

1972-01-01

418

Air Pollution Research Needs: Herbaceous and Ornamental Plants and Agriculturally Generated Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of various air pollutants on economically important crops and ornamentals have been studied since before the turn of the century.Summaries of this research on the effects of air pollutants, that have appeared in criteria documents developed by the Environmental Protection Agency, should be reviewed with respect to differences in plant susceptibility found in various regions of the country. These

W. W. Heck; O. C. Taylor; H. E. Heggestad

1973-01-01

419

Dietary mineral content influences the expression of melanin-based ornamental  

E-print Network

Dietary mineral content influences the expression of melanin-based ornamental coloration Kevin J develop bold patches of black or brown coloration that are derived from melanin pigments and serve melanin-based color signals are costly to produce. Studies that have manipulated crude aspects

McGraw, Kevin J.

420

Status of methyl bromide alternatives for ornamental crop production in Florida and California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phase-out of methyl bromide presents critical challenges to producers of cut-flowers and in-ground ornamentals. Work in California and Florida has included combinations of chemicals, various formulations, and application methods for registered compounds, including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ch...

421

Extraterritorial forays are related to a male ornamental trait in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous studies of extrapair paternity in birds, little is known about the behaviours that males and females use to seek (or avoid) extrapair copulations. We used radiotelemetry to examine the extrater- ritorial movements of both male and female common yellowthroats, Geothlypis trichas, in relation to male ornaments, particularly the black facial mask. We found that many males (62%) and

MARC C. P EDERSEN; PETER O. D UNN; LINDA A. W HITTINGHAM

2006-01-01

422

Geographic variation in the function of ornaments in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used controlled aviary experiments to study the role of male ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic warbler. Previous aviary studies in Wisconsin, USA, indicated that males with larger black facial masks were dominant over males with smaller masks and preferred by females in mate choice experiments. In this study,

Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Corey R. Freeman-Gallant; Jonathan DeCoste

2008-01-01

423

Hormones and honest signals: males with larger ornaments elevate testosterone more when challenged  

E-print Network

Hormones and honest signals: males with larger ornaments elevate testosterone more when challenged, investment in mating effort is mediated in part by the steroid hormone testosterone. In many species, experimentally elevated testosterone tends to increase behaviours related to mating, such as song and display

Casto, Joseph M.

424

Costs of bearing a sexually selected ornamental weapon in a fiddler crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Sexually selected structures with dual function of combat and display are likely to be honest signals of male quality to opponents and mates, but should be costly to produce and maintain. 2. Male fiddler crabs use a single greatly enlarged claw as both a weapon in agonistic contests with other males and an ornament to attract females for

BENGT J. ALLEN; JEFFREY S. LEVINTON

2007-01-01

425

Plant Exploration in tropical forests of Puerto Rico to collect ornamental germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May, 2005, an ornamental plant exploration trip was conducted in remnant forests of Puerto Rico. The main focus of this collection trip was Tabebuia haemantha, a rare Puerto Rican endemic that has many features of interest to horticulture. It is a small-statured tree, evergreen, red-flowered an...

426

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

Cott, A. E.; And Others

427

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11  

E-print Network

the main lateral roots at the soil line, even after some settling of the tree after transplanting. ScrapeHOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11 Diseases of Landscape Trees Mary Ann Hansen, Extension Plant Pathologist, Virginia Tech Overview Many diseases

Liskiewicz, Maciej

428

Ecological Risk Assessment and Regulation for Genetically-Modified Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classic plant breeding has increased the beauty and utility of ornamental plants, but biotechnology can offer completely new traits for plants used in homes and gardens. The creation of blue petal color in carnations and roses are examples where biotechnology has created novelty that conventional hybridization cannot match. However, all innovations have benefits and risks, and future commercialization of transgenic

Carol Auer

2008-01-01

429

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

430

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

431

Fair trade and ethical trade: are there moves towards convergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair trade and ethical trade have traditionally had quite different aims, scope and modalities, the former principally focused on terms of trade with small scale producers and the latter on working conditions in mainstream production. Global value chain analysis suggests that this coincided with different forms of governance in the chain: fair trade reflecting relational governance based on trust and

Sally Smith; Stephanie Barrientos

2005-01-01

432

17 CFR 37.400 - Core Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing. 37.400 Section 37...FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.400 Core Principle 4—Monitoring of trading and trade processing. The swap execution...

2014-04-01

433

Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds  

PubMed Central

Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

Ligon, Russell A.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

2010-01-01

434

Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.  

PubMed

Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

2010-03-01

435

Differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in vertebrates: A comparative histological study among the Crocodylomorpha.  

PubMed

Bone ornamentation, that is, hollow (pits and grooves) or protruding (ridges) repetitive reliefs on the surface of dermal bones, is a frequent, though poorly studied and understood, feature in vertebrates. One of the most typical examples of this characteristic is given by the Crurotarsi, a taxon formed by the crocodilians and their closest allies, which generally display deep ornamentation on skull roof and osteoderms. However, the ontogenetic process responsible for the differentiation and development of this character remains controversial. This study was conducted to settle the question on histological and microanatomical evidence in several crurotarsan taxa. Observational and experimental data in extant and extinct crocodyliforms show that bone ornamentation is initially created, and later maintained during somatic growth (that is indefinite in crocodilians), by a complex process of bone remodeling comprising local resorption of superficial bone cortices, followed by partial reconstruction. The superficial reliefs of crocodilian dermal bones are thus permanently modified through pit enlargement, drift, stretching, shrinking, or complete filling. Ridges are also remodeled in corresponding ways. These processes allow accommodation of unitary ornamental motifs to the overall dimensions of the bones during growth. A parsimony optimization based on the results of this study, but integrating also published data on bone histology in non-crocodyliform crurotarsans and some non-crurotarsan taxa, suggests that the peculiar mechanism described above for creating and maintaining bone ornamentation is a general feature of the Crurotarsi and is quite distinct from that attributed by previous authors to other vertebrates. J. Morphol. 276:425-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488816

de Buffrénil, V; Clarac, F; Fau, M; Martin, S; Martin, B; Pellé, E; Laurin, M

2015-04-01

436

Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. PMID:25453953

Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

2015-01-01

437

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2013-01-01

438

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2010-01-01

439

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2014-01-01

440

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2011-01-01

441

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2012-01-01

442

Fishing Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

1988-01-01

443

Training European Trade Unionists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

1998-01-01

444

Trading forest carbon - OSU  

EPA Science Inventory

Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

445

Liquidity and Trading Dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we build a model where the presence of liquidity constraints tends to magnify the economy's response to aggregate shocks. We consider a decentralized model of trade, where agents may use money or credit to ...

Guerrieri, Veronica

446

Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

447

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

448

Galaxy Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of nine trading cards focuses on the three types of galaxies: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. Each card displays a color image of a galaxy on one side and describes the galaxy's type, its location within a constellation, and interesting facts on the other side. The Hubble Space Telescope card includes interesting facts, as well as suggestions for using the cards, such as educational games. The trading cards are available for download in PDF format.

449

Fish Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... of cooked* seafood that contains little or no mercury, such as these types that are higher in ... not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating ...

450

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

451

Ornamental bill color rapidly signals changing condition Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Troy G. Murphy, Nancy Darling and Keith A. Tarvin  

E-print Network

553 Ornamental bill color rapidly signals changing condition Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Troy G. Murphy 43: 553­564, 2012 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2012.05774.x © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Avian Biology

Murphy, Troy G.

452

JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 119127. Copenhagen 2000 Patterns of variation in ornaments of Crested Auklets Aethia  

E-print Network

(correspondence), Department of Biology, Memorial Uni6ersity of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9 of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Many bird species display elaborate ornaments includ

Jones, Ian L.

453

76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...from both the Coral and Reef Fish FMPs with the result that they...aquarium trade species in the Reef Fish and the Coral FMPs to the jurisdiction...application of AMs in response to harvesting activities on a more island...ACLs and AMs for Caribbean reef fish, spiny lobster, and...

2011-09-26

454

Global Trade and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

2005-01-01

455

A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons.  

PubMed

Many male animals wield ornaments or weapons of exaggerated proportions. We propose that increased cellular sensitivity to signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway may be responsible for the extreme growth of these structures. We document how rhinoceros beetle horns, a sexually selected weapon, are more sensitive to nutrition and more responsive to perturbation of the insulin/IGF pathway than other body structures. We then illustrate how enhanced sensitivity to insulin/IGF signaling in a growing ornament or weapon would cause heightened condition sensitivity and increased variability in expression among individuals--critical properties of reliable signals of male quality. The possibility that reliable signaling arises as a by-product of the growth mechanism may explain why trait exaggeration has evolved so many different times in the context of sexual selection. PMID:22837386

Emlen, Douglas J; Warren, Ian A; Johns, Annika; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura Corley

2012-08-17

456

Is Sexual Ornamentation an Honest Signal of Male Quality in the Chinese Grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi)?  

PubMed Central

We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels. PMID:24386132

Yang, Chen; Wang, Jie; Fang, Yun; Sun, Yue-Hua

2013-01-01

457

Creativity and aggression as ornament and armament: Intersexual and intrasexual selection on men's mating behaviors.  

PubMed

In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that men respond to intersexual and intrasexual selection by facultatively choosing between weapon-like and ornament-like behaviors. In the first two studies, we manipulated intersexual and intrasexual selection by having male participants take part in a simulated dating game (Study 1) or imagine having a date (Study 2). In both studies, participants were told either that the target female would choose her date (intersexual) or that male suitors would nominate one another (intrasexual). Under the intersexual selection condition, men demonstrated increased creativity levels and decreased aggression levels, whereas the opposite pattern was observed under the intrasexual selection condition. Study 3 showed that individual differences in creativity and aggression as personality traits similarly predicted intrasexual and intersexual mating strategies, respectively. These extend existing evolutionary mating research by specifying the mechanism of intrasexual or intersexual selection in shaping men's weapon-like or ornament-like situational response and personality development. PMID:25812074

Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

2015-01-01

458

Tolerance of Ornamental Succulent Plant Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milli) to Chromium and its Remediation.  

PubMed

The potential of an ornamental shrub Crown of thorns (Euphorbia milli) was evaluated for remediation of soil contaminated with Cr. The plant is one of the rare succulent ornamental shrubs with a slow to moderate growth rate and is capable of blooming almost year-round. The plant could tolerate well up to 75 mg of applied Cr and beyond that there was mortality of plants. Though the plant could not be classified as a hyperaccumulator, the plant was still very efficient in translocating Cr from roots to shoots as evident from the data on uptake and translocation efficiency values. The translocation efficiency of over 80% in our study demonstrates that a large proportion of Cr has been translocated to the harvestable biomass of the plant and therefore, this plant could be effectively recommended for the remediation of soils contaminated with low to medium level of contamination i.e., up to 50 mg/kg soil. PMID:25409249

Ramana, Sivakoti; Biswas, Ashis Kumar; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Ahirwar, Narendar Kumar; Subba Rao, Annangi

2015-01-01

459

Efficient identification of ornamental peach cultivars using RAPD markers with a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.  

PubMed

One of the most important uses of DNA markers is cultivar identification. However, no DNA fingerprint analysis strategy is available for making DNA markers helpful in practical plant cultivar identification, especially for the identification of a large number of cultivars. We developed a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy for efficient identification of plant cultivars, from which a cultivar identification diagram (CID) of genotyped plant individuals can be constructed manually. This CID could be used as a reference for quick identification of plant cultivars of interest. We used 11-mer RAPD primers to amplify DNA samples of 32 ornamental peach genotypes; all the cultivars were well distinguished by fingerprints from 6 primers. The utility of this CID was verified by identification of three randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 32 ones that we selected. This CID generated will be useful for the identification of commercially important ornamental peach cultivars. PMID:24446285

Han, J; Wang, W Y; Leng, X P; Guo, L; Yu, M L; Jiang, W B; Ma, R J

2014-01-01

460

Characterization of ceramic ornaments of a theatre-like incense burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen Teotihuacan-style ornaments of an incense burner were studied. Ceramic pastes, pigments and mica were analyzed by\\u000a neutron activation, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Elemental (Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm,\\u000a Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U) and statistical analyses of ceramic-body data showed that these pieces were made from the same\\u000a raw

R. López-Valenzuela; J. A. López-Palacios; M. Jiménez-Reyes; G. Cataño; D. Tenorio

2010-01-01

461

Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata ‘Kwanzan’, P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana ‘Schubert’, commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue\\u000a culture through introduction

Anna Kalinina; Daniel C. W. Brown

2007-01-01

462

Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Verticillium dahliae Isolates from Woody Ornamentals in Belgian Nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of Verticillium dahliae were collected from affected trees (Acer spp., Tilia spp. and Robinia spp.) and soils in Belgian ornamental nurseries. Nitrate non-utilizing mutants were produced and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) were classified based on complementation tests with reference tester strains. Of the 30 isolates analysed, 12 were classified as VCG2B and 18 as VCG4B following the American classification.

Anne Chandelier; Frédéric Laurent; David Dantinne; Léonie Mariage; Michel Etienne; Marc Cavelier

2003-01-01

463

Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus, based on different types of molecular and morphological markers was constructed, using a F2 population of 144 plants. The map defines 14 linkage groups (LGs) and consists of 131 marker loci, including 125 molecular\\u000a DNA markers (76 RAPD, 3 RAPD combinations; 7 ISSR; 2 EST-SSR from Medicago

Sarika Gupta; Sashi Pandey-Rai; Suchi Srivastava; Subhas Chandra Naithani; Manoj Prasad; Sushil Kumar

2007-01-01

464

Trade remedy measures in the WTO and regional trade agreements   

E-print Network

Trade remedy measures (TRMs) in international economic law refer to antidumping measures, countervailing duties and safeguard measures. They are designed to respond to unfair trade practices or to compensate the negative ...

Huang, Yangyang

2013-07-03

465

Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a New Hybrid from Irrigation Reservoirs at Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Virginia  

PubMed Central

A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

2014-01-01

466

The Streptomyces violaceusniger clade: a home for Streptomycetes with rugose ornamented spores.  

PubMed

The taxonomic status of 16 strains received as Streptomyces hygroscopicus, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens, Streptomyces sparsogenes, Streptomyces sporoclivatus and Streptomyces violaceusniger was evaluated in a polyphasic study. Eleven of the organisms formed a distinct clade in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree with the type strains of Streptomyces asiaticus, Streptomyces cangkringensis, Streptomyces indonesiensis, Streptomyces javensis, Streptomyces malaysiensis, Streptomyces rhizosphaericus, Streptomyces yatensis and Streptomyces yogyakartensis, the members of this group produced rugose ornamented spores in spiral spore chains. The eleven strains were assigned to three established and four novel species, namely Streptomyces albiflaviniger sp. nov., Streptomyces demainii sp. nov., Streptomyces geldanamycininus sp. nov., Streptomyces griseiniger sp. nov., and Streptomyces hygroscopicus, Streptomyces melanosporofaciens and Streptomyces violaceusniger. It is also proposed that S. sporoclivatus becomes a subjective synonym of S. melanosporofaciens. S. sparsogenes NRRL 2940(T), which produced ridged ornamented spores in spiral spore chains, formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree and was readily distinguished from the other strains using a range of phenotypic properties. S. violaceusniger strains NRRL 8097, NRRL B-5799, NRRL 2834 and ISP 5182 fell outside the S. violaceusniger 16S rRNA gene clade and formed either smooth or ridged ornamented spores in either flexuous or spiral spore chains. These organisms were distinguished from one another and from their closest phylogenetic neighbors and were considered to merit species status as Streptomyces auratus sp. nov., Streptomyces phaeoluteichromatogenes sp. nov., Streptomyces phaeogriseichromatogenes sp. nov., and Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus sp. nov., respectively. PMID:17407000

Goodfellow, Michael; Kumar, Yashawant; Labeda, David P; Sembiring, Langkah

2007-08-01

467

The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition  

PubMed Central

Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016

Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

2012-01-01

468

[Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

2015-01-01

469

Rapid growth cost in “all-fish” growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between\\u000a growth rates and critical swimming speed (U\\u000a crit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce

DeLiang Li; CuiZhang Fu; Wei Hu; Shan Zhong; YaPing Wang; ZuoYan Zhu

2007-01-01

470

Trade Impacts of Selected Regional Trade Agreements in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an in-depth examination of the trade effects of three regional trade agreements (RTAs) – the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) -- in the agricultural sector. Results from a gravity model suggest that the creation of AFTA, COMESA and MERCOSUR have increased

Jane Korinek; Mark Melatos

2009-01-01

471

Consumer Preferences for Fair Trade Foods: Implications for Trade Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers are considering including stricter standards in international trade agreements. Using auctions to assess preferences, we find that the median consumer places no premium on fair trade foods produced under more stringent labor and environmental standards. This indicates that current trade policies may be preferable to U.S. consumers.

Matthew C. Rousu; Jay R. Corrigan

2008-01-01

472

Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.  

PubMed

Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

2014-10-01

473

Three essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays in international trade. Chapter 1 explains how firm heterogeneity and market structure can distort the geography of international trade. By considering only the intensive margin ...

Chaney, Thomas

2005-01-01

474

Responsible Trade Campaign Action Alert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sierra Club, an environmental group, argues that expansion of free trade "imperils our health and natural heritage." Recently, the debate over free trade has intensified in light of the failure of President Clinton to obtain fast-track authority from Congress. On September 17, 1997, President Clinton went against the liberals in his own party to request fast-track authority from Congress to negotiate new trade accords. The Senate approved the President's request for fast track on November 5, 1997 but the vote in the House was shelved when it appeared likely that fast-track would be defeated. The opponents of free-trade consist mainly of trade unions who are worried about the loss of jobs to countries with cheap labor, and environmentalists concerned about the effect of free trade on environmental standards. The supporters of free-trade are mainly businesses who see business potential in the larger market that would be created by expanding free trade.

1997-01-01

475

Trading Network Predicts Stock Price  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

2014-01-01

476

Corporate governance and insider trading  

E-print Network

I investigate the relation between corporate governance and insider trading by corporate executives. Despite the general view that trade on non-public information adversely affects capital market participants, the impact ...

Rozanov, Konstantin A

2008-01-01

477

Mutual fund trading and liquidity  

E-print Network

This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

2010-01-01

478

Karuk Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

479

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

480

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... vomiting diarrhea itchy, watery, or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child could have different reactions to different types of fish or react differently at different times. Some reactions ...

481

Maintenance Trades Guidelines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

Weidner, Theodore J.

2008-01-01

482

Syllabus in Trade Welding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

483

General Electric Trading Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The General Electric Trading Company (GETC) was launched in 1982 as a potential American sogoshosha through its double mission of: (1) exporting both its own and other companies' products, and (2) countertrading. However, an unfavorable international environment and a new corporate strategy under Chairman Jack Welch led to the abandonment of GETC's exporting task and to the downscaling of its

Joanne Hvala; Anne C Perry; Jean J Boddewyn

1990-01-01

484

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

485

Construction Trades Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

486

Chicago Board of Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Board of Trade offers a visitors center with an overview and history of CBOT, as well as a glossary of futures terminology. It also contains financial and agricultural market information and commentaries, agricultural contract information, a media page with news about upcoming contracts, and an education page that discusses course offerings at CBOT.

487

Trading forest carbon  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

488

Slave Trade Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Documenting the history of the slave trade during the past centuries is a monumental task, but the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is most certainly qualified for such an endeavor. Launched in 1999, the Slave Trade Archive Project was created in order to improve access to original documents related to the transatlantic slave trade and slavery across both hemispheres. Visitors to the project website will want to read some of the organizational documents, then proceed to the parts of the site where they can learn more about what is being done on a region-by-region basis to fulfill this mission. The site itself serves as a fine clearinghouse for information about the slave trade more generally, and includes sections that contain lists of external websites and multimedia archives available from other institutions. Some of these sites include the African Studies Collection at Indiana University and the Amistad Research Center at Tulane University. Overall, this is a great place to learn about the myriad of organizations that are working in tandem to preserve the documents related to this highly complex set of historical (and contemporary) processes and experiences.

2005-01-01

489

Construction Trades Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

490

Trade Masonry Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

491

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

492

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

493

To "bee" or not to be-on some ornamental shrimp from Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong SAR, with descriptions of three new species.  

PubMed

Several atyid specimens were collected from hill streams in Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong during fieldtrips between 2004 and 2013. Some of these species, most of them also sold as ornamental pet shrimp in the international aquarium trade, proved to be new to science by morphological observation and analysis of mtDNA sequences. Three new species, Caridina logemanni n. sp., Caridina mariae n. sp. and Caridina conghuensis n. sp., all of them members of the so called Caridina serrata species group  (Cai & Ng 1999) are described in detail below. Caridina tumida Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is synonymised with Caridina venusta Wang, Liang & Li, 2008. Caridina meridionalis Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is moved to the genus Paracaridina Liang, Guo & Tang, 1999 and synonymised with Paracaridina zijinica Liang, 2002. New records for Caridina trifasciata Yam & Cai, 2003 and Caridina serrata Stimpson, 1860 are recorded. All species are compared to their morphologically closest congeners and the phylogenetic relationships between atyid shrimps from Southern China are shown.  PMID:25544138

Klotz, Werner; Von Rintelen, Thomas

2014-01-01

494

Lesson Plan on the US Trade Deficit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan explaining the concept of the balance of trade and the positives and negatives to a trade surplus and a trade deficit. Deals with the US trade deficit and its potential effects on the US economy.

Center for Strategic and International Studies

495

Essays on trade, CO?, and the environment  

E-print Network

The first chapter of this thesis uses a general equilibrium model of trade and the environment to investigate two questions. First, how do the gains from trade compare against the environmental costs of trade? Trade can ...

Shapiro, Joseph S

2013-01-01

496

South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

Crook, Shirley J.

497

THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING WAS FOUNDED IN LONDON, ENGLAND IN 1873 BY THE REVEREND HENRY SOLLY TO PROMOTE THE VOCATIONAL AND FURTHER EDUCATION OF ARTISANS. NOT A TRADE UNION ORGANIZATION, IT INVOLVED SKILLED WORKERS OUTSIDE THE UNIONS AS WELL AS TRADE UNIONISTS. A SERIOUS CONFLICT BETWEEN SOLLY'S PATERNALISTIC PHILANTHROPY AND THE PRINCIPLES OF…

MCCANN, W.P.

498

Trade Liberalization and Cartel Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can reduced trade barriers promote a collusive understanding about not exporting into each others domestic markets? Reduced trade costs increase the short-run gains from starting exporting, but can also make the long-run punishment of such a strategy harsher. If collusion on prices is supported by a trigger strategy, a reduction in trade costs weakens competition in the sense that collusion

Kjell Erik Lommerud; Lars Sorgard

2001-01-01

499

Decision Support System for Risk Management in Aquatic Products Export Trade, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fishing industry not only acts as foreign exchange earner but also plays an important role in China’s economy. But with\\u000a the development of technology and liberalization of international trade, the foreign countries adopted in succession trade\\u000a barriers to limit China’s fishery product export, which had make China’s fishery product export disproportionated with fishery\\u000a products production. By the literature analysis,

Feng Wang; Xiaoshuan Zhang; Cheng Tan; Chuanli Zhuang; Zetian Fu

2007-01-01

500

Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used

Geoff L. Allan

2004-01-01