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1

The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish  

E-print Network

FA124 The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Introduction Aquarium keeping is amongst-2005). Pet industry surveys have estimated the aquarium industry worth over $1,000 million USD (e.g., Cato

Watson, Craig A.

2

Unmonitored trade in marine ornamental fishes: the case of Indonesia’s Banggai cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of coral reef fishes are collected each year for sale on the international aquarium market. Several marine ornamental species, including the Banggai cardinalfish, are biologically unsuitable for large-scale exploitation, yet their trade continues largely unmonitored. With little known about the Banggai cardinalfish or its trade, we interviewed trade participants from north and central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to document the organization,

K. E. Lunn; M.-A. Moreau

2004-01-01

3

The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.  

PubMed

The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. PMID:17465152

Bruckner, A W

2005-05-01

4

Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

2012-01-01

5

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2013-01-01

6

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2010-01-01

7

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2012-01-01

8

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2011-01-01

9

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2014-01-01

10

Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.  

PubMed

Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. PMID:25447914

Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

2015-01-25

11

The molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.  

PubMed

Iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. They may have originated in tropical Asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. Consequently, MCP, ATPase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had been imported from Asia. There was almost complete homology (99.95%) over 4,527 bp between Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV) and an iridovirus (DGIV) present in dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) that had died in aquarium shops in Australia in 2004, and very high homology with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) (99.9%). These viruses are most likely to be a single species within the genus Megalocytivirus and probably have a common geographic origin. Primers for genus-specific PCR and for rapid discrimination of MCIV/DGIV/ISKNV and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), a notifiable pathogen, were developed. These were used in a survey to determine that the prevalence of DGIV infection in diseased gourami in retail aquarium shops in Sydney was 22% (95% confidence limits 15-31%). The global trade in ornamental fish may facilitate the spread of Megalocytivirus and enable emergence of disease in new host species in distant biogeographic regions. PMID:16697343

Go, Jeffrey; Lancaster, Malcolm; Deece, Kylie; Dhungyel, Om; Whittington, Richard

2006-01-01

12

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

13

Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2005-01-01

14

Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2012-12-21

15

Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment.  

PubMed

Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort and the future expression of a sexually selected ornament, we manipulated the parental effort of males by changing their brood sizes. We found that parents provisioned experimentally enlarged broods more often than reduced broods. As predicted by life-history theory, the change in parental effort had a significant effect on the relative plumage ornamentation of males in the subsequent year: males with reduced broods significantly increased in plumage brightness. Moreover, this change in plumage coloration had a direct effect on the timing of breeding in the following season: males that displayed brighter plumage in the year following the manipulation mated with females that initiated egg laying earlier in the season. These data indicate that male bluebirds must trade-off conserving energy for production of future ornamentation versus expending energy for current reproduction. PMID:17148168

Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

2005-06-22

16

Male eastern bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment  

PubMed Central

Life-history theory proposes that organisms must trade-off investment in current and future reproduction. Production of ornamental display is an important component of reproductive effort that has rarely been considered in tests of allocation trade-offs. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet-blue plumage that is correlated with mate acquisition and male competitive ability. To investigate trade-offs between current reproductive effort and the future expression of a sexually selected ornament, we manipulated the parental effort of males by changing their brood sizes. We found that parents provisioned experimentally enlarged broods more often than reduced broods. As predicted by life-history theory, the change in parental effort had a significant effect on the relative plumage ornamentation of males in the subsequent year: males with reduced broods significantly increased in plumage brightness. Moreover, this change in plumage coloration had a direct effect on the timing of breeding in the following season: males that displayed brighter plumage in the year following the manipulation mated with females that initiated egg laying earlier in the season. These data indicate that male bluebirds must trade-off conserving energy for production of future ornamentation versus expending energy for current reproduction. PMID:17148168

Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

2005-01-01

17

Imported ornamental fish are colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about the overuse of antibiotics in the ornamental fish industry and its possible effect on the increasing drug resistance in both commensal and pathogenic organisms in these fish. The aim of this study was to carry out an assessment of the diversity of bacteria, including pathogens, in ornamental fish species imported into North America and to assess their antibiotic resistance. Kidney samples were collected from 32 freshwater ornamental fish of various species, which arrived to an importing facility in Portland, Oregon from Colombia, Singapore and Florida. Sixty-four unique bacterial colonies were isolated and identified by PCR using bacterial 16S primers and DNA sequencing. Multiple isolates were identified as bacteria with potential to cause disease in both fish and humans. The antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate was performed for nine different antibiotics. Among them, cefotaxime (16% resistance among isolates) was the antibiotic associated with more activity, while the least active was tetracycline (77% resistant). Knowing information about the diversity of bacteria in imported ornamental fish, as well as the resistance profiles for the bacteria will be useful in more effectively treating clinical infected fish, and also potential zoonoses in the future. PMID:23294440

Rose, S; Hill, R; Bermudez, L E; Miller-Morgan, T

2013-06-01

18

Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

SoutheastAsia is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree ofendemism in both flora and fauna. Many freshwater fish specieshave been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. As thepopulation in South East Asia increases, vast tracts of forestsare cleared for agricultural, industrial and urbanizationpurposes. To conserve and sustainably exploit the wild fishpopulation, measures should be adopted to protect this

Peter K. L. Ng; H. H. Tan

1997-01-01

19

Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. in ornamental fish in Italy.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. in freshwater and marine ornamental fish was studied in Italy from June 2002 to May 2005. Two surveys were carried out, one of aquarium fish sent to the Laboratory for diagnosis, and the other of prevalence of infection by mycobacteria in ornamental fish imported into Italy. Bacterial isolation was carried out from the spleen, kidney and liver, and the isolates were subsequently identified by biochemical tests. In the first survey, 387 fish were examined and Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 181 (46.8%) fish. In the second survey 127 batches of ornamental fish from different countries were examined. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 38 (29.9%) batches. The following species were found: M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. marinum, M. gordonae, M. nonchromogenicum and M. interjectum. There was a high prevalence of infection independent of the presence of macroscopic lesions. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. chelonae were more prevalent than M. marinum in the samples examined. PMID:18471099

Zanoni, R G; Florio, D; Fioravanti, M L; Rossi, M; Prearo, M

2008-06-01

20

Development of Captive Breeding Techniques for Marine Ornamental Fish: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly popular aquarium hobby is fueling the rapid growth of the aquatic ornamental industry, particularly the trade of marine ornamental species. However, currently there is a heavy reliance on wild caught marine ornamentals to satisfy consumer demand. As public awareness of the plight of marine ecosystems grows, the often destructive and unmanaged exploitation of coral reefs for the marine

Jonathan A. Moorhead; Chaoshu Zeng

2010-01-01

21

The Horticultural Trade and Ornamental Plant Invasions in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental horticulture has been recognized as the main pathway for plant invasions worldwide. We examined the link between propagule pressure created by the presence of ornamental plants in the market and their ability to escape from cultivation and establish in the wild. A random sample of 534 non-native ornamental species on sale in nineteenth century Britain showed that 27% of

KATHARINA DEHNEN-SCHMUTZ; JULIA TOUZA; CHARLES PERRINGS; MARK WILLIAMSON

2007-01-01

22

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

23

The Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to examine the interdependence of global trade in the context of the economic and social aspects of fisheries and aquaculture. When studying global interdependence within a science literacy context the purpose is not to promote any particular view of how nations should work together or to suggest what the balance between national interests and global ones should be for the United States or any other nation. Rather, students need to become aware of the growing number of ways in which each nation is part of a larger political, economic, military, environmental, biological, and technological system.

Science Netlinks;

2000-12-06

24

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH  

E-print Network

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH dispersal distances in the Red Sea 12 Chapter 3 Comparative genetic population structure of two reef fishes and the demographic connectivity in the endemic fish species of the Red Sea Larabicus quadrilineatus, and in the two

25

High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which ornamental fish and their carriage water harbour antibiotic resistant bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Methods: 129 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm water and coldwater ornamental fish species were screened for r...

26

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)  

PubMed Central

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-01-01

27

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? - an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus).  

PubMed

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts' own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-11-01

28

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

29

Characterization of Streptococcus iniae isolated from ornamental cyprinid fishes and development of challenge models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus iniae was isolated from red-tail black shark(RTB shark) Epalzeorhynchos bicolor, and rainbow shark, E. erythrurus (fam: Cyprinidae), obtained from a local freshwater ornamental fish farm in Hillsborough county (FL). Darkening of the skin and lethargy were the first signs observed in infected sharks. Hemorrhages were observed on the ventral side of the body, on the head, and at the

Riccardo Russo; Hugh Mitchell; Roy P. E. Yanong

2006-01-01

30

Characterization of Microbiota Composition and Presence of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Carriage Water of Ornamental Fish  

PubMed Central

International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1–2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25084116

Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

2014-01-01

31

Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

FA-117 Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, ornamental fish are predominantly farmed in earthen ponds. Once fish reach marketable size and are ready and physical damage during harvesting (see UF IFAS Circular 919 Stress-Its Role in Fish Disease). Overall, col

Watson, Craig A.

32

A trade-off between reproduction and a condition-dependent sexually selected ornament in the house sparrow Passer domesticus.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive effort was manipulated in a free-living population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to investigate the trade-off between reproductive investment and the expression of a condition-dependent sexually selected ornament. Phenotypic plasticity in the expression of this trait was related to the experimentally manipulated size of the brood reared by a male. Males that invested more in current reproduction subsequently became more attractive to females in this population as they showed a preference for males with smaller badges. This supports the argument that direct benefits are a primary focus for mate choice by females. Trade-offs between reproductive effort and the expression of sexual ornaments are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation in both sexual ornaments and life-history traits. PMID:10885516

Griffith, S C

2000-01-01

33

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

34

Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.  

PubMed

International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

Ababouch, Lahsen

2006-01-01

35

Morphology and distribution of granulomatous inflammation in freshwater ornamental fish infected with mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis in fish is a chronic progressive ubiquitous disease caused by Mycobacterium marinum, M. gordonae and M. fortuitum in most cases. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and distribution of lesions in 322 freshwater ornamental fish across 36 species. Granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed by gross examination and histopathology testing in 188 fish (58.4%); acid-fast rods (AFR) were determined in only 96 (51.1%) fish from 19 species after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The most often affected organs with AFR were the kidney (81.2%), digestive tract (54.1%), liver (48.2%), spleen (45.9%) and skin (21.2%); sporadically, AFR were found in the branchiae (9.4%) and gonads (4.7%). In 14 randomly selected fish originating from four different fish tanks, the distribution of mycobacterial infection was studied by culture examination of the skin, gills, muscle tissue, digestive tract, liver, spleen and kidney. In 12 fish, the species M. marinum, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. triviale, and M. avium subsp. hominissuis (serotypes 6 and 8 and genotype IS901- and IS1245+) were detected; mixed infection caused by different mycobacterial species was documented in five of them. PMID:21091722

Novotny, L; Halouzka, R; Matlova, L; Vavra, O; Bartosova, L; Slany, M; Pavlik, I

2010-12-01

36

Iridovirus disease in two ornamental tropical freshwater fishes: African lampeye and dwarf gourami.  

PubMed

Many species of ornamental freshwater fishes are imported into Japan from all over the world. We found African lampeye Aplocheilichthys normani and dwarf gourami Colisa lalia suffering from an iridovirus infection just after being imported by tropical fish wholesalers from Singapore. African lampeye were cultured on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra and dwarf gourami were cultured in Malaysia before export. Diseased fishes displayed distinct histopathological signs of iridovirus infection: systemic appearance of inclusion body-bearing cells, and necrosis of splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles (African lampeye:180 to 200 nm in edge to edge diameter; dwarf gourami: 140 to 150 nm in diameter) in an inclusion body within the cytoplasm of inclusion body-bearing cells as well as in the cytoplasm of necrotized cells. Experimental infection with an iridovirus isolate from African lampeye (ALIV) revealed pathogenicity of ALIV to African lampeye and pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from ALIV and an iridovirus isolate from dwarf gourami (DGIV) using iridovirus-specific primers were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequence of PCR products derived from ALIV (696 base pairs) and DGIV (701 base pairs) had 95.3% identity. These results indicate that ALIV and DGIV have a single origin. PMID:12033703

Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Miyata, Masato; Miyazaki, Teruo

2002-04-01

37

Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.  

PubMed

For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish. PMID:1589426

Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

1992-01-01

38

Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.  

PubMed

Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg?¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ? 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ? 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ? 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the treated groups and the present work concluded that, the Phthalate derivatives from I. coccinea helps to stimulate the immune system against A. hydrophila challenge in C. auratus. PMID:24380832

Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

2014-02-01

39

Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

2012-01-01

40

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden  

PubMed Central

Abstract The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11?29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3?8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

Khalaf, Maroof A.; Abdallah, Mohamed

2014-01-01

41

Red fish, blue fish: trade-offs between pigmentation and immunity in Betta splendens  

E-print Network

Red fish, blue fish: trade-offs between pigmentation and immunity in Betta splendens Ethan D School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA Carotenoid pigments response, pteridines, sexual selection. [Behav Ecol 18:1139­1145 (2007)] Pigment-based colors are common

Ardia, Dan

42

Artificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes  

E-print Network

yet be produced in aquaculture (Martin Moe of Green Turtle Publications, personal communication industry, at least for the foreseeable future. Therefore, alternative harvesting and management approaches in the man- agement and augmentation of the marine ornamental industry. One vision (spear- headed by Craig A

Osenberg, Craig W.

43

The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade  

PubMed Central

The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). The rise of trepang fishing in the 17th century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20th century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1) a strong influence of international markets, (2) the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3) the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions. PMID:20613871

Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.

2010-01-01

44

Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2013-01-01

45

Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  

PubMed

Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

46

ORIGINAL PAPER The aquarium trade as a potential source of fish  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The aquarium trade as a potential source of fish introductions in southwestern+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract The aquarium trade has been identified as an important vector of aquatic and Portugal. As in previous studies, the diversity of fishes in the aquarium trade was vast, with a total

García-Berthou, Emili

47

A Review on Marine Ornamental Invertebrates  

E-print Network

Abstract: Enormous data are available on trade, breeding and larval rearing, nutritional and growth studies and aquarium keeping of the ornamental invertebrates from other countries. In India, studies on ornamental invertebrates are not available. The studies related with the biodiversity of ornamental invertebrates are not available from global level. This paper reviewed the research work on marine ornamental invertebrates. Several research papers have published on aspects related to trade, breeding and larval rearing, nutrition and growth. However, studies on resource evaluation and aquarium keeping are very scarce. Little or no information is generated on the ornamental invertebrates of India. Apart from the resource assessment and aquarium keeping, the trade, breeding, larval rearing, nutritional and growth studies are reviewed in detail. This review is a preliminary attempt to assemble background information for future workers on marine ornamental invertebrates. Key words: Marine ornamental invertebrates Resources Trade Breeding and larval rearing Nutrition and growth studies and aquarium keeping

K. Balaji; G. Thirumaran; R. Arumugam; K. P. Kumaraguruvasagam; P. Anantharaman

48

Distribution of mycobacteria in clinically healthy ornamental fish and their aquarium environment.  

PubMed

Some mycobacterial species (particularly Mycobacterium marinum) found in aquarium environments may cause chronic diseases in fish and cutaneous infections in humans, the so-called 'fish tank granuloma'. The presence and distribution of mycobacterial species in clinically healthy aquarium fish and their environment has not been adequately explored. The present study analysed the occurrence of mycobacteria in a decorative aquarium (Brno, South Moravia) and in five aquaria of a professional fish breeder (Bohumin, North Moravia). After Ziehl-Neelsen staining, acid-fast rods (AFR) were observed in six (14.3%) and mycobacteria were detected by culture in 18 (42.9%) of 42 tissue samples from 19 fish. Sixty-five samples of the aqueous environment from all six aquaria were examined; AFR were found in 16 (24.6%) and mycobacteria were detected by culture in 49 (75.4%) samples. Forty-one (70.7%) of 58 selected mycobacterial isolates were identified biochemically as follows: M. fortuitum, M. flavescens, M. chelonae, M. gordonae, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. diernhoferi, M. celatum, M. kansasii and M. intracellulare. The clinically important species for humans and fish, M. marinum, was not detected. Mycobacterium kansasii was isolated from one sample of the aquarium environment from North Moravia, which is a region of the Czech Republic with endemic incidence of M. kansasii in water. The incidence of other conditionally pathogenic mycobacterial species in healthy fish and in all investigated constituents of the aquarium environment including snails and crustaceans used for fish feeding, was quite high. Accordingly, mycobacterial species from aquarium environments may serve as a possible source of infection for both aquarium fish and immunodeficient fish handlers. PMID:16866922

Beran, V; Matlova, L; Dvorska, L; Svastova, P; Pavlik, I

2006-07-01

49

Impacts of the live reef fish trade on populations of coral reef fish off northern Borneo  

PubMed Central

The live reef fish trade (LRFT) is one of the greatest but least-quantified sources of fishing pressure for several species of large coral reef fish across the Indo-Pacific. For the first time we quantify the localized impact of the LRFT. We collected data from three LRFT traders in northern Borneo, which yielded information on daily fishing effort and the species and mass of all fishes sold every day by individual fishers or vessels over 2, 3 and 8 years. Total monthly catch and relative abundance (catch-per-unit-effort) declined significantly in several species, including the most valuable species the Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, estimated changes of ?98 and ?78% over 8 years in catch and relative abundance, respectively) and lower-value bluelined groupers (Plectropomus oligocanthus: ?99 and ?81%) and Epinephelus groupers (?89 and ?32%). These severe declines were rapid, species-specific and occurred in the first 2–4 years of the dataset and are, we believe, directly attributable to the LRFT. This has crucial implications for future data collection and monitoring if population collapses in other parts of the LRFT and similar wildlife trades are to be successfully detected. PMID:17251096

Scales, Helen; Balmford, Andrew; Manica, Andrea

2007-01-01

50

First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region. PMID:24252956

Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

2013-01-01

51

Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2012-01-01

52

Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health.  

PubMed

Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2012-04-01

53

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

54

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

55

The benefits and risks of aquacultural production for the aquarium trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of animals for the aquarium hobbyist trade is a rapidly growing sector of the aquacultural industry, and it will continue to become more important as restrictions are placed on collecting animals for the wild. Currently, approximately 90% of freshwater fish traded in the hobbyist industry are captively cultured. However, for marine ornamentals, the reverse is true as only a

Michael Tlusty

2002-01-01

56

Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs  

PubMed Central

Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

2014-01-01

57

Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 15 2005 Foundation for Environmental Conservation doi:10.1017/S0376892905002481 Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America  

E-print Network

-food fisheries, syngnathids, traditional Chinese medicine INTRODUCTION Little is known about the extensive trades in fishes for non-food purposes such as traditional medicines, curiosities, research and ornamental display: 4 October 2005 SUMMARY Seahorses (genus Hippocampus) are traded globally for use in traditional

Baum, Julia K.

58

Use of propofol as an anesthetic and its efficacy on some hematological values of ornamental fish Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the level of anesthesia attained in Carassius auratus using a propofol bath administration and using values of haematological profile of blood and examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of propofol for gold fish were found 96 h LC50 6.353 mg/L, 96 h LC1 2.966 mg/L and 96 h LC99 13.609 mg/L. Time to induce anesthesia in propofol experiment was significantly higher than Clove oil (p??0.05). MCHC (%) level of propofol experiment (13.93?±?1.36) showed significant (p?

Gholipourkanani, Hosna; Ahadizadeh, Samaneh

2013-12-01

59

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

60

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish.  

PubMed

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics--herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Levin, Philip S

2014-01-01

61

Life history trade-offs and community dynamics of small fishes in a seasonally pulsed wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.

2005-01-01

62

Biomechanical trade-offs bias rates of evolution in the feeding apparatus of fishes  

PubMed Central

Morphological diversification does not proceed evenly across the organism. Some body parts tend to evolve at higher rates than others, and these rate biases are often attributed to sexual and natural selection or to genetic constraints. We hypothesized that variation in the rates of morphological evolution among body parts could also be related to the performance consequences of the functional systems that make up the body. Specifically, we tested the widely held expectation that the rate of evolution for a trait is negatively correlated with the strength of biomechanical trade-offs to which it is exposed. We quantified the magnitude of trade-offs acting on the morphological components of three feeding-related functional systems in four radiations of teleost fishes. After accounting for differences in the rates of morphological evolution between radiations, we found that traits that contribute more to performance trade-offs tend to evolve more rapidly, contrary to the prediction. While ecological and genetic factors are known to have strong effects on rates of phenotypic evolution, this study highlights the role of the biomechanical architecture of functional systems in biasing the rates and direction of trait evolution. PMID:21993506

Holzman, Roi; Collar, David C.; Price, Samantha A.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Thomson, Robert C.; Wainwright, Peter C.

2012-01-01

63

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

64

Virus diseases of ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ornamental plants are grown around the world for their esthetic value, and form an important part of the agricultural economy in a large number of countries; ornamentals are also often one of the highest-valued crops that can be raised per unit area of production space. Increasing levels of internat...

65

Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

Loewen, Curtis E.

1974-01-01

66

MARINE ORNAMENTALS 2001 Industry Survey  

E-print Network

MARINE ORNAMENTALS 2001 Industry Survey RESULTS #12;Introduction to Marine Ornamentals 2001 Survey Results 1.0 Survey Purpose Marine Ornamentals 2001 (MO 01) Conference and its predecessor, Marine and environmentally sustainable future for all stakeholders in the marine ornamentals industry. As with the previous

Watson, Craig A.

67

WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN  

E-print Network

WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

68

Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation  

E-print Network

the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal bacteria-induced damage. Keywords: Anas platyrhynchos; bacteria; sexual selection; sperm; sexually from mallard ducks (Anas platyr- hynchos). Additionally, to test the hypothesis that sexual ornament

Richner, Heinz

69

Of fish and whales: the credibility of threats in international trade disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In protection of fisheries resources, whales, and other marine mammals, the US has used the threat of trade sanctions to force changes in environmental policies of other nations. Nations threatened with trade action must assess the credibility of a threat to impose substantial costs on the economy. The credibility of a threat will depend on the ability to divert sanctioned

Daniel V. Gordon; Rögnvaldur Hannesson; William A. Kerr

2001-01-01

70

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where the fiber ornamentation exceeds five per centum, it shall be included in the statement of...

2010-01-01

71

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where the fiber ornamentation exceeds five per centum, it shall be included in the statement of...

2013-01-01

72

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where the fiber ornamentation exceeds five per centum, it shall be included in the statement of...

2012-01-01

73

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

...as for example: 70% Nylon 30% Acetate Exclusive of 4% Metallic Ornamentation; or 100% Rayon Exclusive of 3% Silk Ornamentation. (b) Where the fiber ornamentation exceeds five per centum, it shall be included in the statement of...

2014-01-01

74

Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

2001-01-01

75

Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

International trade is an important mechanism for global non-indigenous species introductions, which have had profound impacts on the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems including the Laurentian Great Lakes. The best-documented vector by which non-indigenous species have entered the Great Lakes is ballast water discharged by transoceanic ships. A variety of potential alternative vectors exist, including the intentional release of aquarium or

Ian C. Duggan; Nathalie M. N. Bergeron; Anthony Ricciardi; Hugh J. Macisaac

2005-01-01

76

Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

2007-01-01

77

Current Status of Sperm Cryopreservation in Biomedical Research Fish Models: Zebrafish, Medaka, and Xiphophorus*  

PubMed Central

Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamental fish trade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the needs and opportunities for future research and application of cryopreservation in aquarium fish. First, we summarize the basic biological characteristics regarding natural habitat, testis structure, spermatogenesis, sperm morphology, and sperm physiology. Second, we compare protocol development of sperm cryopreservation. Third, we emphasize the importance of artificial fertilization in sperm cryopreservation to evaluate the viability of thawed sperm. We conclude with a look to future research directions for sperm cryopreservation and the application of this technique in aquarium species. PMID:18691673

Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

2009-01-01

78

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

79

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five...

2011-01-01

80

7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled environment...prevention, growing medium, fertilization, irrigation, insect and...facilities. (e) An ornamental plant having any value as an ornamental plant, or a damaged...

2010-01-01

81

Viability selection against highly-ornamented males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Variation in ornamental traits, such as plumage coloration, is maintained by the opposing forces of sexual selection (increased ornamentation) and natural selection (decreased ornamentation). Organisms: A wild population of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) in northwestern Oregon which has been the subject of longitudinal population studies since 1988. Methods: We necropsied 47 adult birds recovered dead in 2002. We measured

Amber J. Keyser; Lynn M. Siefferman

2005-01-01

82

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

2009-01-01

83

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0000-00-00

84

Opportunities for public aquariums to increase the sustainability of the aquatic animal trade.  

PubMed

The global aquatic pet trade encompasses a wide diversity of freshwater and marine organisms. While relying on a continual supply of healthy, vibrant aquatic animals, few sustainability initiatives exist within this sector. Public aquariums overlap this industry by acquiring many of the same species through the same sources. End users are also similar, as many aquarium visitors are home aquarists. Here we posit that this overlap with the pet trade gives aquariums significant opportunity to increase the sustainability of the trade in aquarium fishes and invertebrates. Improving the sustainability ethos and practices of the aquatic pet trade can carry a conservation benefit in terms of less waste, and protection of intact functioning ecosystems, at the same time as maintaining its economic and educational benefits and impacts. The relationship would also move forward the goal of public aquariums to advance aquatic conservation in a broad sense. For example, many public aquariums in North America have been instrumental in working with the seafood industry to enact positive change toward increased sustainability. The actions include being good consumers themselves, providing technical knowledge, and providing educational and outreach opportunities. These same opportunities exist for public aquariums to partner with the ornamental fish trade, which will serve to improve business, create new, more ethical and more dependable sources of aquatic animals for public aquariums, and perhaps most important, possibly transform the home aquarium industry from a threat, into a positive force for aquatic conservation. PMID:22549966

Tlusty, Michael F; Rhyne, Andrew L; Kaufman, Les; Hutchins, Michael; Reid, Gordon McGregor; Andrews, Chris; Boyle, Paul; Hemdal, Jay; McGilvray, Frazer; Dowd, Scott

2013-01-01

85

Assortative mating by multiple ornaments in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In positive assortative mating, individuals of similar phenotype mate together more frequently than expected by chance. Assortative mating by a variety of qualities, including ornamentation, is well documented in birds. Studies of assortative mating by ornaments have focused on single, highly conspicuous ornaments, but many species of birds possess multiple ornaments in both sexes. We compared ornament expressions between mates

Jodie M. Jawor; Susan U. Linville; Sara M. Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2003-01-01

86

Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?  

PubMed Central

Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

2010-01-01

87

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2010-01-01

88

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2013-01-01

89

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2012-01-01

90

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2014-01-01

91

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2011-01-01

92

Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse. PMID:20027312

Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

2009-01-01

93

A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions of non-native species in marine ecosystems can be ecologically damaging and economically costly. Identifying 'hot-spots' of non-native species and their sources of introduction is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of invasion quarantine programs. We use a large spatially explicit marine fish database to show that there are a surprising number of non-native fishes on the reefs of southeast Florida,

Brice X. Semmens; Eric R. Buhle; Anne K. Salomon; Christy V. Pattengill-Semmens

2004-01-01

94

I'll Trade You a Bag of Chips, Two Cookies, and $60,000 for Your Tuna Fish Sandwich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.

2010-12-03

95

I'll Trade You a Bag of Chips, Two Cookies, and $60,000 for Your Tuna Fish Sandwich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduces concept of supply and demand for fishery resources, using tuna as an example. Provides background information and creates scenarios for student participation, role playing first as a consumer purchasing increasingly expensive fish, then as a fisherman trying to catch and sell fish. Through two online graphing exercises, students see how demand, supply and price are linked. Discussion questions tackle impacts of declining fisheries on the equation. Assessment and extension activities are offered.

96

FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL PLANT PHYTOSANITARY WORKING GROUP  

E-print Network

FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL PLANT PHYTOSANITARY WORKING GROUP Prepared by Brett Hurley Pests and diseases of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has recently established a Forest and Ornamental Plant national forest protection strategy for South Africa. The FOP PWG provides a technical forum to discuss

97

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

98

Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

99

Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

NONE

1995-07-01

100

Treatment of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage ofIchthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1–11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5-

Günter Schmahl; Silke Ruider; Heinz Mehlhorn; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

1992-01-01

101

Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)  

PubMed Central

Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

2014-01-01

102

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

103

Drought responses of six ornamental herbaceous perennials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although low water use landscaping is becoming common in arid regions, little is known about drought tolerance and drought responses of many ornamental plants, especially herbaceous perennials. Drought responses were assessed for six herbaceous ornamental landscape perennials in a 38l pot-in-pot system in northern Utah over a 2-year period. The first year was an establishment period. During the second year,

Nickolee Zollinger; Roger Kjelgren; Teresa Cerny-Koenig; Kelly Kopp; Rich Koenig

2006-01-01

104

Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

Mougeot, Francois

2008-02-01

105

Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2  

E-print Network

VM114 Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2 1. This document is VM114, one of a series Introduction For many years water quality has been the most important limitation to fish production. Advances. Most successfully reared ornamental fish are omnivores, and these are the species that have adapted

Watson, Craig A.

106

Invasive Plant Species and the Ornamental Horticulture Industry  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Invasive Plant Species and the Ornamental Horticulture Industry Alex X. Niemiera the various fundamental biological factors of plant invasion, as well as the environmental impacts to mitigate its role in dispersing invasive, nonnative plant species. Keywords Ornamental horticulture

Von Holle, Betsy

107

Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

108

Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORNAMENTAL traits such as colourful bird plumage were the prime motivation for Darwin's theory of sexual selection1. Other evolutionary mechanisms could also select for ornamental traits2-6, but such mechanisms have received far less attention, and empirical evidence for their existence is weak. Here we show that parental choice selects for the bizarre ornamental plumes of newly hatched American coot (Fulica

Bruce E. Lyon; John M. Eadie; Linda D. Hamilton

1994-01-01

109

Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

Hartman, John R.; And Others

110

IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Trial Report  

E-print Network

Narrative Summary: Salvia nemorosa `May Night' plants growing in 1-gallon containers received two for the Salvia nemorosa `May Night' plants treated with Sedgehammer were significantly higher than the controls damage on Salvia nemorosa `May Night' and should not be used "over the top". #12;IR-4 Ornamental

Lieth, J. Heinrich

111

Producing potted ornamental ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum (Smith)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed and vegetatively propagated ohelo plants can be grown for potted ornamental and berry production in the nursery. With measured irrigation and fertilizers, ohelo can be maintained in six inch (15 cm) or one gallon (3.4 liter) pots for at least two years. For the first two weeks after field pla...

112

Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

113

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

114

New ornamental Jatropha hybrids through interspecific hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization has been successful between two economically important species of Jatropha, viz., J. curcas and J. integerrima. The interspecific hybrids exhibited morphological intermediacy for various vegetative characteristics but produced flowers with three distinct colours. Backcrossing of the F1 hybrids resulted in a number of flower colours varying from dark pink through green to white enhancing the ornamental value of

M. Sujatha; A. J. Prabakaran

2003-01-01

115

Management of tobamoviruses in ornamental production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and other tobamovirus species infect a wide range of ornamental plants. Many tobamoviruses cause similar symptoms in certain hosts, yet cause symptomless infections in other hosts and/or cultivars. Tobamovirus virions are extremely stable and can remain infectious for ye...

116

Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish  

PubMed Central

Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

2001-01-01

117

Forest-product Trade in a Lowland Filipino Village1  

E-print Network

: rattan, gums, latexes, oils, resins, medicinal plants, wild foods. and ornamentals (Cobban, 1968 is difficult to exaggerate. In addition to providing food, medicine, and the raw materials needed for home, by the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 #12;Forest-product trade is well documented among

Belsky, Jill M.

118

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornaments may advertise genetic benefits to females choosing mates. These benefits may come in the form of genes for resistance to parasites and disease. Thus, females that prefer more ornamented males as mates may receive genes for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is the only species to date in which a male

Julia C. Garvin; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Douglas A. Steeber; D. Hasselquist

2007-01-01

119

Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

Wilson, Aubry

120

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornaments may advertise genetic benefits to females choosing mates. These benefits may come in the form of genes for resistance to parasites and disease. Thus, females that prefer more ornamented males as mates may receive genes for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is the only species to date in which a male

Julia C. Garvin; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Douglas A. Steeber; Dennis Hasselquist

2008-01-01

121

Cellular respiration: the nexus of stress, condition, and ornamentation.  

PubMed

A fundamental hypothesis for the evolution and maintenance of ornamental traits is that ornaments convey information to choosing females about the quality of prospective mates. A diverse array of ornaments (e.g., colors, morphological features, and behaviors) has been associated with a wide range of measures of individual quality, but decades of study of such indicator traits have failed to produce general mechanisms of honest signaling. Here, I propose that efficiency of cellular respiration, as a product of mitochondrial function, underlies the associations between ornamentation and performance for a broad range of traits across taxa. A large biomedical literature documents the fundamental biochemical links between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the process of metabolism, the function of the immune system, the synthesis of proteins, and the development and function of the nervous system. The production of virtually all ornaments whose expressions have been demonstrated to be condition-dependent is directly affected by the efficiency of cellular respiration, suggesting that the signaling of respiratory efficiency may be the primary function of such traits. Furthermore, the production of ornaments links to stress-response systems, including particularly the neuroendocrine system, through mitochondrial function, thereby makes ornamental traits effective signals of the capacity to withstand environmental perturbations. The identification of a unifying mechanism of honest signaling holds the potential to connect many heretofore-disparate fields of study related to stress and ornamentation, including neuroendocrinology, respiratory physiology, metabolic physiology, and immunology. PMID:24791751

Hill, Geoffrey E

2014-10-01

122

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

123

Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

2011-01-01

124

Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

2011-01-01

125

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

126

THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS  

PubMed Central

Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

127

Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornamentation in socially monogamous birds has been shown to provide information to potential mates on aspects of condition and behaviour. We studied female ornamentation in the socially monogamous, biparental northern cardinal to determine whether expressions of multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of female condition and behaviour. Expressions of the ornamental red-orange bill, red underwing feathers, head crest and blackish

Jodie M Jawor; Nick Gray; Sara M Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2004-01-01

128

Parasitism of Woody Ornamentals by Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne hapla is the dominant root-knot nematode found in Tennessee woody ornamental nurseries. In greenhouse tests, M. hapla produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of Abelia x grandiflora, Comus florida, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, Photinia x fraseri, Spiraea x bumalda, Spiraea x vanhouttei, and Viburnum carlesii. Galls on H. grandiflora and V. carlesii were mostly large and fusiform. Galls on C. florida were spherical and usually terminal, whereas those on the other species were minute. Lateral roots grew from galls on all susceptible plants. Two Acer spp., two Buxus spp., three llex spp., five Prunus spp., three Rhododendron spp., Euonymus alata, Ligustrum sinense, Magnolia x soulangiana, Nandina domestica, and nine conifer species were nonhosts or very poor hosts. PMID:19290273

Bernard, E. C.; Witte, W. T.

1987-01-01

129

Ornament is dangerous : a wildfire hazard center for Los Angeles  

E-print Network

There is no such thing as an unadorned building. While the the role and relevance of ornament in architecture has been criticized for centuries, its position has been, for the most part, supported as essential to architecture. ...

Trimble, Matthew Alexander

2008-01-01

130

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of General Stilwell and associated personnel, evenly spaced across the entire face of the mantlepiece. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

131

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

132

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

133

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

134

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

135

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

136

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

137

Screening ornamentals for their potential as As Accumulator Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arsenic-based pesticides, herbicides and insecticides are used in horticultural operations resulting in soil contamination around greenhouse structures. Phytoremediation and phytostabilization are two techniques for treating arsenic (As) contaminated soil. Several ornamental plant species, Iris (Ir...

138

Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow 'bib'. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C; Haussmann, Mark F

2011-06-23

139

Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow ‘bib’. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C.; Haussmann, Mark F.

2011-01-01

140

Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows  

PubMed Central

Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Barta, Zoltán

2010-01-01

141

Trading Post  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wake of COP-4, Resources for the Future (RFF) (described in the August 28, 1998 Scout Report) has posted Webpages on climate change negotiations. One of these, Trading Post, is "a resource for the analysis and reporting of research and writings on 'flexibility mechanisms' -- the Clean Development Mechanism, emissions trading, and Joint Implementation (or activities implemented jointly) -- authorized by the Kyoto Protocol."

142

Ornamental plants as sinks and bioindicators.  

PubMed

Mitigation of urban air pollution is a big challenge, especially for the metropolitan cities of the world. In an Indian metropolis like Delhi, even after the implementation of several control policies, no such remarkable change has been observed in its air quality. Globally, afforestation or greenbelt development is an effective and well-recognized pollution abatement process. The aim of our present study was to examine the biochemical response of some naturalized ornamental plant species, viz. Dracaena deremensis, Tagetes erecta, Rosa indica and Dianthus caryophyllus. During experimental study, plants were kept at selected sites which were categorized in terms of traffic density (emission source) and vegetative pattern during winter months for 120 days. Four biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH, relative water contents along with Air Pollution Tolerance Indices were determined from foliar samples at each selected site. D. deremensis and T. erecta were classified under tolerant while R. indica and D. caryophyllus were marked as in sensitive category. Based on the sensitivity of selected plant species, it has been recommended that D. deremensis and T. erecta may be used as sinks for the abatement of air pollution at highly polluted sites whereas R. indica and D. caryophyllus can be used as bioindicators. PMID:24617064

Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

2013-01-01

143

A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

2013-11-01

144

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

145

Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.  

PubMed

In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination. PMID:22610632

Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

2012-01-01

146

Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi)  

PubMed Central

Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and the different mode of inheritance of the two black patterns associated with them. Identifying the genetic basis of color and color patterns in Koi will promote the production of this valuable ornamental fish. Furthermore, given the rich variety of colors and patterns, Koi serves as a good model to unravel pigmentation genes and their phenotypic effects and by that to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of colors also in natural populations. PMID:23355846

Bar, Ido; Kaddar, Ethan; Velan, Ariel; David, Lior

2013-01-01

147

Introduction Tropical fish-keeping is the second  

E-print Network

growth has been especially prevalent for the estab- lishment of "artificial reef" aquariums, which and breakthroughs in the care of such species. Marine aquariums in particular rely primarily on live specimens (fish, and also live rock, and live sand) for commercial use, primarily as ornamentals for the aquarium market

148

Culture of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science  

E-print Network

Culture of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science Martin A. Moe, Jr. A Survey of Marine Ornamentals: For love, for money and for science Martin A. Moe, Jr. A Survey: Presentation Commercial Results ................................................................. 33 Science Results

Watson, Craig A.

149

South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices 1  

E-print Network

ABE 369 South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management.... 2 water quantity and quality historically experienced periods of extended droughts which threaten production capabilities thus making water

Migliaccio, Kati White

150

Reuse of ornamental rock-cutting waste in aluminous porcelain.  

PubMed

Large amounts of solid wastes are discarded in the ornamental rocks industry. This work investigates the incorporation of ornamental rock-cutting waste as a raw material into an aluminous porcelain body, replacing natural feldspar material by up to 35 wt.%. Formulations containing rock-cutting waste were pressed and sintered at 1350 °C. The porcelain pieces were tested to determine their properties (linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, mechanical strength, and electrical resistivity). Development of the microstructure was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results showed that ornamental rock-cutting waste could be used in aluminous porcelains, in the range up to 10 wt.%, as a partial replacement for traditional flux material, resulting in a valid route for management of this abundant waste. PMID:21074931

Silva, M A; Paes, H R; Holanda, J N F

2011-03-01

151

Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.  

PubMed

From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

2014-08-01

152

Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes  

PubMed Central

From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

2014-01-01

153

Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. The remaining plants were intermediate in response. The identification of additional M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in nematode management in nurseries and landscapes. PMID:19277187

LaMondia, J. A.

1996-01-01

154

Cosmic Ornament of Gas and Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] 4-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Silicon Gas Figure 2 Argon Figure 3 Dust Collection Figure 4

This beautiful bulb might look like a Christmas ornament but it is the blown-out remains of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Called Cassiopeia A, this supernova remnant is located about 10,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way galaxy. The remains are shown here in an infrared composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Silicon gas is blue and argon gas is green, while red represents about 10,000 Earth masses worth of dust. Yellow shows areas where red and green overlap.

The fact that these two features line up (as seen in yellow in the combined view) tells astronomers that the dust, together with the gas, was created in the explosion. This is the best evidence yet that supernovae are a significant source of dust in the early universe something that was postulated before, but not proven. Dust in our young universe is important because it eventually made its way into future stars, planets and even people.

In figure 1, the upper left panel is a composite made up of three infrared views shown in the remaining panels. The bottom left view (figure 3) shows argon gas (green) that was synthesized as it was ejected from the star. The upper right panel (figure 2) shows silicon gas (blue) deep in the interior of the remnant. This cooler gas, called the unshocked ejecta, was also synthesized in the supernova blast. The bottom right view (figure 4) shows a collection of dust (red), including proto-silicates, silicate dioxide and iron oxide.

The data for these images were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light apart to reveal the fingerprints of molecules and elements. In total, Spitzer collected separate 'spectra' at more than 1,700 positions across Cassiopeia A. Astronomers then created maps from this massive grid of data, showing the remnant in a multitude of infrared colors.

2007-01-01

155

The Political Trade-offs of Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

Bosshardt, William

1996-01-01

156

Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

157

Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

158

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET CONSERVE* SC TURF AND ORNAMENTAL  

E-print Network

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET CONSERVE* SC TURF AND ORNAMENTAL INSECT CONTROL Emergency Phone: 800. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice. #12;MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET CONSERVE effects, which could occur if this material is not handled in the recommended manner. EYE: May cause

Alpay, S. Pamir

159

IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form  

E-print Network

. The above-ground parts of all plants treated with 4X V-10142 appeared dead by the end of the 10-week-ground parts of all plants treated with V-10142 appeared dead by the end of the 10-week experiment. Because over the top to selected woody ornamental plants (May 2008 trials) Protocol #: 08-010 Narrative Summary

Lieth, J. Heinrich

160

Identification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation  

E-print Network

Identification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation Jia-Nv Liu Ã? in remedying contaminated soils. Thus, cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Calendula) on their Cd phytoremediation capacity under the chemically enhanced experiment was further investigated

Ma, Lena

161

Developmental perspective on the evolution of sexual ornaments  

E-print Network

the evolutionary continuum of the mech- anisms by which sexual selection operates, the consequences of sexual ornamentation. Keywords: integration, modularity, sexual displays, sexual selection, signals selection pressures on the design of the sexual trait. Whereas the ultimate target of external selection

Badyaev, Alex

162

Chic chicks: the evolution of chick ornamentation in rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over access to food has led to the evolution of a variety of exaggerated visual and vocal displays in altricial nestling birds. Precocial chicks that are fed by their parents also vary widely in appearance ranging from those with inconspicuous coloration to those with brightly colored bills, fleshy parts, and plumes. These ornaments are lost by the end of

Elizabeth A. Krebs; David A. Putland

2004-01-01

163

An Analysis of Tasks Performed in the Ornamental Horticulture Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the result of a detailed task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. Nine types of horticulture businesses identified were: (1) retail florists, (2) farm and garden supply store, (3) landscape services, (4) greenhouse production, (5) nursery production, (6) turf production, (7) arborist…

Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

164

Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO)  

E-print Network

is an opportunity to earn CEUs for the following pesticide licenses or categories: Limited Lawn & Ornamental. For renewal CEUs only, participants can attend until the lunch break to earn 4 CEUs. If you need to test for Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance (LCLM), you must attend all day to earn the 6 CEUs required

Florida, University of

165

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat?  

E-print Network

Do male ornaments signal immunity in the common yellowthroat? Julia C. Garvin,a Peter O. Dunn for enhanced immune system function for their offspring. The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas-sibs (at least in colder years). To investigate whether male mask size signals superior immune function, we

Dunn, Peter O.

166

IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form  

E-print Network

was noted for height, width or volume increase (Tables 2 and 6a, Figure 2a). Biathlon can be considered safe scale ranging from 0 (no injury) to 10 (complete kill) (Table 5). Plant height and width were measured at week 0 (September 24, 2009) and week 10 (December 3, 2009). Plant height (cm) was #12;IR-4 Ornamental

Lieth, J. Heinrich

167

IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form  

E-print Network

. The growth was dramatically effected by the herbicide treatment. While the height increase shows some plant so that height increases were not due to changes in stem elongation, but rather due to layering to height increase or width increase (Tables 2 and 6b, Figure 2b). #12;IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program

Lieth, J. Heinrich

168

Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?  

PubMed Central

Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L.; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P.

2014-01-01

169

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

170

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

171

[Sporogenesis, sporoderm and mature spore ornamentation in Lycopodiaceae].  

PubMed

Studies on reproductive aspects, spore morphology and ultrastructure of Lycopodiaceae are not very common in the scientific literature, and constitute essential information to support taxonomic and systematic relationships among the group. In order to complete existing information, adding new and broader contributions on these topics, a comparative analysis of the sporogenesis ultrastructure, with emphasis on cytological aspects of the sporocyte coat development, tapetum, monoplastidic and polyplastidic meiosis, sporoderm ontogeny and ornamentation of the mature spores, was carried out in 43 taxa of eight genera of the Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (including Phlegmariurus), Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea and Pseudolycopodiella growing in the Andes of Colombia and the Neotropics. For this study, the transmission elec- tron microscopy (TEM) samples were collected in Cauca and Valle del Cauca Departments, while most of the spores for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were obtained from herbarium samples. We followed standard preparation procedures for spore observation by TEM and SEM. Results showed that the sporocyte coat is largely composed by primary wall components; the sporocyte develop much of their metabolic activity in the production of their coat, which is retained until the spores release; protective functions for the diploid cells undergoing meiosis is postulated here for this layer. The abundance of dictyosomes in the sporocyte cytoplasm was related to the formation and development of the sporocyte coat. Besides microtubule activity, the membrane of sporocyte folds, associated with electrodense material, and would early determine the final patterns of spore ornamentation. Monoplastidic condition is common in Lycopodium s.l., whereas polyplastidic condition was observed in species of Huperzia and Lycopodiella s. l. In monoplastidic species, the tapetum presents abun- dant multivesicular bodies, while in polyplastidic species, the secretory activity of the tapetum is less intense. Sporoderm development is centripetal, exospore is the first formed layer, then the endospore and, if present, perispore is the final deposited layer. Adult spores of the Lycopodiaceae showed two patterns of ornamentation: negative or caviform (foveolate spores) and positive or muriform ornamentation, the latter with two subtypes (rugate and reticulate spores). The spores of Huperzia are characteristically foveolate, the rugate spores were found in a few species of Huperzia and in all of the Lycopodiella s. l. taxa studied, while Lycopodium s.l. spores bear reticulate ornamentation. Numerous ornamentation traits are diagnostic at the specific level. The types of ornamentation found do not support the recent extreme fragmentation of the family in several genera, but could match, a priori, with the idea of three subfamilies. The findings of sporogenesis, extremely similar in all taxa studied, point more to consider fewer genera, more comprehensive, than the recent, marked splitting of the family. PMID:25412543

Rincon Baron, Edgar Javier; Rolleri, Cristina Hilda; Passarelli, Lilian M; Espinosa Matías, Silvia; Torres, Alba Marina

2014-09-01

172

Introgressive hybridization between color morphs in a population of cichlid fishes twelve years after human-induced secondary admixis.  

PubMed

In the extremely species-rich haplochromine cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes, prezygotic isolation between closely related species is often maintained by color-assortative mating. In 1998, local fisherman working for the ornamental fish trade released different color morphs of the cichlid genus Tropheus into a small harbor basin in the southern part of Lake Tanganyika. This artificial amalgamation of color morphs provides a unique possibility to study mating patterns in cichlids in a natural environment over time. In a precursor study, we analyzed genotypes and phenotypes of almost 500 individuals sampled between 1999 and 2001 and uncovered a marked degree of color-assortative mating, which depended on the level of color pattern dissimilarity between morphs. Twelve years after introduction of nonindigenous morphs, we again sampled Tropheus individuals from the harbor basin and an adjacent, originally pure population and analyzed phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and 9 microsatellite loci) to assess the current status of the admixed population. Principal component analyses of color score data and population assignment tests demonstrate an increasing level of introgressive hybridization between morphs but also some ongoing color-assortative mating within morphs. The observed mating pattern might have been influenced by fluctuating environmental conditions such as periodic algal blooms or increased sedimentation causing turbid conditions in an otherwise clear lake. PMID:22563125

Egger, Bernd; Sefc, Kristina M; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter

2012-07-01

173

The state of research on chondrichthyan fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a decade has passed since the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) first alerted the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the urgent need to establish programs for collecting biological and trade data and for managing the impacts of fishing on shark populations. By 2000, FAO had developed the International Plan of Action for the

Terence I. Walker; Lead Essay

2007-01-01

174

Principles of plant health management for ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Economic, environmental, and technological influences complicate the task of achieving disease-free products in the ornamentals industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a cornerstone of floriculture and nursery crop production: strategies include sanitation, clean stock, host resistance, and control through biological, cultural, environmental, chemical, and regulatory means. Sanitation measures and cultural controls must keep pace with new production technologies. Clean stock programs are used for many crops that are propagated vegetatively. Breeding, selection, and biotechnology provide crops resistant to pathogens. Offshore production for economic competitiveness can introduce pathogens that make regulatory programs necessary. New biocontrol and chemical products continue to improve control while meeting the requirement for minimal environmental impact. Continual introduction of new crops and new production technologies creates new opportunities for pathogens to exploit, such that new disease management tactics must be discovered and old ones rediscovered to achieve optimum health management for ornamentals. PMID:16078880

Daughtrey, Margery L; Benson, D Michael

2005-01-01

175

Response of Perennial Herbaceous Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Sixty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals in 56 genera were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Plants were rated susceptible or resistant based on the number of galls present on the root system. Thirty-six percent had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. Thirty percent of the plants tested did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated resistant. The remaining 34 percent were intermediate in response. Variation in response to M. hapla was observed within plant genera and species. The identification of M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in management of this nematode in landscapes and production fields. PMID:19277335

LaMondia, J. A.

1995-01-01

176

Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

2008-10-01

177

Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation  

PubMed Central

Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

178

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

2013-08-01

179

Accumulation of dietary carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherol in the internal tissues of a bird: a hypothesis for the cost of producing colored ornaments.  

PubMed

Carotenoid-based ornaments may have evolved as a consequence of their costs of production, which would assure the reliability of the traits as signals of individual quality. Different costs due to carotenoid allocation to the signal have been proposed, considering the scarcity of these pigments at the environment (ecological cost) and their physiological properties that would trade against the maintenance of the organism. Carotenoids of many red ornaments (ketocarotenoids) are often the result of biotransformation of those pigments abundant in the diet (usually lutein and zeaxanthin). Some authors have suggested that such a conversion implies a cost relevant for signaling because it requires high levels of antioxidant vitamins in the tissues where biotransformation takes place. We explore this hypothesis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) by analyzing ketocarotenoids in the ornaments (bare parts) and carotenoids, vitamin A in different forms (free and esterified) and vitamin E in blood, liver and fat. Ketocarotenoids in ornaments (astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone) were not found in internal tissues, suggesting that they were directly transformed in the bare parts. However, ketocarotenoid levels where positively correlated with the levels of their precursors (zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively) in internal tissues. Interestingly, ketocarotenoid levels in bare parts negatively and positively correlated with vitamin A and E in the liver, respectively, the same links only being positive in blood. Moreover, retinyl and zeaxanthin levels in liver were negatively related. We hypothesize that storing substrate carotenoids in the main storage site (the liver) implies a cost in terms of regulating the level of vitamin A. PMID:25421097

García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

2014-11-25

180

Essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of essays on the effect of trade costs on international trade. Chapter 1 derives and empirically examines how factor proportions determine the structure of commodity trade when international ...

Romalis, John

2001-01-01

181

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks  

PubMed Central

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

2014-01-01

182

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.  

PubMed

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

2014-01-01

183

TCC Trade Agreements Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Department of Commerce to aid US exporters, the Trade Compliance Center (TCC) provides access to more than 200 trade documents via the Trade Related Agreements Database (TARA). US Trade Agreements may be browsed by country signatory, issue, or agreement title, or searched by keyword with the benefit on an online thesaurus. In addition, the TCC provides a related database of Market Access Information with searchable country commercial guides, reports on economic policy and trade practices, and national trade estimate reports.

1998-01-01

184

The commercial seed trade: An early disperser of weeds in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds, bulbs, and cuttings of exotic plant species, including plants cultivated exclusively as ornamentals, were being advertised\\u000a for sale in printed circulars in the United States by 1800. By the end of the 19th century seed trade catalogs were prolific\\u000a and often listed dozens of exotic species that were already naturalized in the U.S. or new introductions from foreign suppliers.

Richard N. Mack

1991-01-01

185

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

186

Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations  

E-print Network

348 Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in Amer- ican goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which

Murphy, Troy G.

187

Technology, Geography, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium. It delivers simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, to comparative advantage (promoting trade), and to geographic barriers (resisting it). We estimate the parameters with data on bilateral trade in manufactures, prices, and geography from 19 OECD countries in 1990. We

Jonathan Eaton; Samuel Kortum

2002-01-01

188

Does Trade Cause Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining the correlation between trade and income cannot identify the direction of causation between the two. Countries' geographic characteristics, however, have important effects on trade and are plausibly uncorrelated with other determinants of income. This paper, therefore, constructs measures of the geographic component of countries' trade and uses those measures to obtain instrumental variables estimates of the effect of trade

Jeffrey A. Frankel; David Romer

1999-01-01

189

Pathogenicity and Virulence of the Two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to Woody Ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody hosts. A range of woody ornamental plant species, including Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Acer

J. C. Goud; A. J. Termorshuizen

2002-01-01

190

Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

191

Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

Nichols, Lester P.

192

Decorative Ornament on Facade of Sino-Portuguese Building in Phuket Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research was to study the decorative ornaments shown on the facade of Sino-Portugese building in Phuket province as well as their implications and symbolic representations. Data was collected by means of photography, observation, interview, documentary research, and drawing. It was found that the decorative ornaments were created roughly between the late 19th and early 20th century.

Punya Tepsing; Woothi Wattanasin

193

Turf and Ornamental Research Manager Job Description 2013 Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

products and new concepts that are focused on the unmet needs and market opportunities. ResearchTurf and Ornamental Research Manager ­ Job Description 2013 Page 1 of 2 SePRO CORPORATION JOB DESCRIPTION Job Title: Turf and Ornamental Research Manager Department Name: Research

Mazzotti, Frank

194

Developing of Stage Ornament Creation for Enhancing Economic Value Added in Isan Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Several communities in northeast Thailand are crea tive and productive sources of stage ornaments but they cannot expand t heir markets according to the changes of customer requirements. Approach: This research aimed to investigate 3 point. (1) To investigate the background of stage ornament creation in Isan (northeast) comm unity in the past. (2) To investigate the situation

Pattamawadee Chansuwan; Suphanni Luaboonchu; Terdchai Pantachi

2009-01-01

195

A compendium of ornamental germplasm cultivar releases from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We provide an overview of the past and current ornamental cultivar development at the National Germplasm Repository (NPGR) in Miami, FL. During the past six years several cultivars of ornamental plants have been released: Polygala ymirtifolia ‘Chapman Field’, D. iridioides ‘Amatola’, improved germp...

196

Cranial ornamentation and ontogenetic status of Homalocephale calathocercos (Ornithischia: Pachycephalosauria) from the Nemegt Formation, Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cranial roof ornamentation and the degree of neurocentral closure in the holotype of the pachycephalosaurian dinosaur Homalocephale calathocercos is described in detail for the first time in order to assess its ontogenetic status and taxonomic validity. The parietosquamosal ornamentation consists of five primary nodes along the posterior margin of the skull roof on each side of the midline. The

David C. Evans; Caleb Marshall Brown; Michael J. Ryan; Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar

2011-01-01

197

Evaluating Sterility of A Late-flowering Ornamental Tung Oil Tree (Aleurites fordii)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We recently identified an Aleurites fordii seedling with ornamental potential that shows late flowering, approximately 4 weeks delayed, and does not produce normal drupes, which are toxic and a nuisance to lawn mowers since they are large (5-8 cm) and heavy. The ornamental and landscape industries c...

198

Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis have striking ultraviolet (UV)-blue coloration on their heads, backs, rumps, wings, and tails and bold chestnut coloration on their breasts. These colored areas are ornaments that correlate with pairing date and reproductive effort, and thus probably influence the choice of mates by females. Such ornaments are expected to increase in color with age and body

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill; F. Stephen Dobson

2005-01-01

199

Transgenic Fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

200

Trade and Transboundary Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how national income and trading opportunities interact to determine the level and incidence of world pollution. The authors find that free trade raises world pollution if incomes differ substantially across countries; if trade equalizes factor prices, human-capital-abundant countries lose from trade, while human-capital-scarce countries gain; international trade in pollution permits can lower world pollution even when governments'

Brian R. Copeland; M Scott Taylor

1995-01-01

201

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

Tullos, Desiree

202

Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria  

PubMed Central

Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

Yovkova, Mariya; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

2013-01-01

203

Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

Yovkova, Mariya; Petrovi?-Obradovi?, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

2013-01-01

204

The size of a melanin-based plumage ornament correlates with glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in the skin of that ornament.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT) play crucial roles in many physiological processes. CORT's actions are primarily mediated via binding to two receptors (glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs)) in different target tissues. CORT receptors can be independently regulated from circulating hormone titres, from tissue to tissue and even within different regions of the same tissue type. Increasing evidence has shown relationships between circulating CORT and melanin-based pigmentation in skin and feathers, yet to our knowledge, there have been no studies of CORT receptors in the skin of melanized ornaments. Male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) have a black, melanized bib, and evidence suggests that bib size is an important intraspecific signal. We examined the relationship between bib area and tissue sensitivity to CORT by quantifying GR and MR in bib skin and in adjacent paler-feathered belly skin (as a control tissue) at different life-history stages using radioligand binding assays. Males with larger bibs relative to their life-history stage had less GR in bib skin, but not belly skin, than males with smaller bibs. These results suggest a connection between the size of a melanin-based ornament and the underlying tissue's responsiveness to CORT. PMID:24026346

Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

2013-10-23

205

The size of a melanin-based plumage ornament correlates with glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in the skin of that ornament  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT) play crucial roles in many physiological processes. CORT's actions are primarily mediated via binding to two receptors (glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs)) in different target tissues. CORT receptors can be independently regulated from circulating hormone titres, from tissue to tissue and even within different regions of the same tissue type. Increasing evidence has shown relationships between circulating CORT and melanin-based pigmentation in skin and feathers, yet to our knowledge, there have been no studies of CORT receptors in the skin of melanized ornaments. Male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) have a black, melanized bib, and evidence suggests that bib size is an important intraspecific signal. We examined the relationship between bib area and tissue sensitivity to CORT by quantifying GR and MR in bib skin and in adjacent paler-feathered belly skin (as a control tissue) at different life-history stages using radioligand binding assays. Males with larger bibs relative to their life-history stage had less GR in bib skin, but not belly skin, than males with smaller bibs. These results suggest a connection between the size of a melanin-based ornament and the underlying tissue's responsiveness to CORT. PMID:24026346

Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

2013-01-01

206

Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans.  

PubMed

Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes. PMID:25091549

Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

2014-10-01

207

Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

2014-10-01

208

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS  

E-print Network

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS David S. Jacks Christopher M Nottingham GEP Trade Costs Conference. Finally, Jacks gratefully acknowledges the Social Sciences that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. #12;Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs

Hickman, Mark

209

The Triangular Trade Route  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the Triangular Trade Route? After completeing this project, you should be able to explain the Triangular Trade Route in detail. These details should include the reason for trade, the countries involved, and the main goods that were traded. Getting Started: Each number will give you instructions. Follow the instructions, answering the questions on a loose leaf sheet of paper. Your answers will be collected. 1. What do you already know about trade? Answer this question in your own words. There is no right or wrong answer. 2. Have you ever traded ...

Caldwell, Ms.

2009-07-07

210

Jewellery- and ornament-related injuries in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers in Canada. Few publications have addressed injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children. OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms and the incidence of injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children and teenagers, to identify children at high risk for these type of injuries and to recommend specific injury prevention strategies. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a Canadian database (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) of a tertiary paediatric centre. All patients between zero and 18 years of age who were diagnosed in the emergency department with jewellery- and ornament-related injuries during a 10-year period (1997 to 2006) were identified. Patients were categorized according to six age groups (younger than one year of age; one to two years of age; two to four years of age; five to nine years of age; 10 to 14 years of age, and 15 to 18 years of age). For each case, the context and the mechanism of injury were investigated. RESULTS: From a total of 150,771 reported injury cases, 380 (0.25%) were jewellery related. Unlike with most trauma, girls predominate in this kind of injury (n=288; 75.8% of cases). Over one-half of cases (58.1%) were reported for children four years of age or younger. Emergency physicians reported the presence of jewellery as a foreign body in a natural orifice (mouth, nose, ear or genitourinary tract) in 308 cases (81%). No case of intestinal obstruction, strangulation or death was reported. Eleven cases (2.9%) required emergency hospitalization, all for endoscopic evaluation of a foreign body in the airway or in the digestive tract. In the adolescent group, five cases of injuries secondary to piercing were reported. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that, although jewellery-related injuries are relatively infrequent, some can cause severe injuries that could compromise patients’ health. As a primary prevention strategy, doctors and health professionals working with children should make parents and caregivers aware of the possibility of trauma in children wearing or playing with jewellery, especially in the zero- to four-year-old group requiring closer supervision. Specific anticipatory guidance concerning piercing may be helpful to adolescents. PMID:22131862

Boisclair, S; Rousseau-Harsany, E; Nguyen, BH

2010-01-01

211

Carotenoid-Based Ornaments of Female and Male American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) Show Sex-Specific Correlations with Immune Function and Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conspicuous ornamentation has been linked to immunological and physiological condition in males of many species. In species where both sexes are ornamented, it is unclear whether the signal content of ornaments differs between males and females. We examined the immunological and physiological correlates of carotenoid-based bill and plumage ornamentation in American goldfinches Spinus tristis, a species in which bright orange

Ryan J. Kelly; Troy G. Murphy; Keith A. Tarvin; Gary Burness

2012-01-01

212

Female butterflies prefer males bearing bright iridescent ornamentation.  

PubMed

Butterflies are among nature's most colorful animals, and provide a living showcase for how extremely bright, chromatic and iridescent coloration can be generated by complex optical mechanisms. The gross characteristics of male butterfly colour patterns are understood to function for species and/or sex recognition, but it is not known whether female mate choice promotes visual exaggeration of this coloration. Here I show that females of the sexually dichromatic species Hypolimnas bolina prefer conspecific males that possess bright iridescent blue/ultraviolet dorsal ornamentation. In separate field and enclosure experiments, using both dramatic and graded wing colour manipulations, I demonstrate that a moderate qualitative reduction in signal brightness and chromaticity has the same consequences as removing the signal entirely. These findings validate a long-held hypothesis, and argue for the importance of intra- versus interspecific selection as the driving force behind the exaggeration of bright, iridescent butterfly colour patterns. PMID:17284412

Kemp, Darrell J

2007-04-22

213

Fish and Seafood Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada serves up market information on fish and seafood at this site. The site contains fact sheets on a few of the 120 species of fish and shellfish taken commercially from Canadian waters. Pitched at seafood-loving consumers/ buyers, the fact sheets include distribution information, identification tips, nutritional profiles, product forms, preparation techniques, markets, and suppliers. An interesting component of the site is the searchable Suppliers Directory, in which users may search for suppliers by product name. The site also offers statistics highlighting Canada's seafood trade performance (exports and imports) for the year 2000. An events calendar lists upcoming seafood shows. For anyone interested in the market forces driving marine resource extraction in Canada (or anywhere else, for that matter), this site will be an interesting eye-opener.

214

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

215

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

216

Multiple mating and sequential mate choice in guppies: females trade up.  

PubMed Central

The trade-up hypothesis outlines a behavioural strategy that females could use to maximize the genetic benefits to their offspring. The hypothesis proposes that females should be more willing to accept a mate when the new male encountered is a superior genetic source to previous mates. We provide a direct test of the trade-up hypothesis using guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and evaluate both behavioural and paternity data. Virgin female guppies were presented sequentially with two males of varying attractiveness, and their responsiveness to each male was quantified. Male attractiveness (ornamentation) was scored as the amount of orange coloration on their body. Females were generally less responsive to second-encountered males, yet responsiveness to second males was an increasing function of male ornamentation. These attractive second males also sired a greater proportion of the offspring. There was an overall tendency for last-male advantage in paternity, and this advantage was most exaggerated when the second male was more ornamented than the first. Finally, we found that our estimate of relative sperm number did not account for any significant variation in paternity. Our results suggest that female guppies may use pre-copulatory mechanisms to maximize the genetic quality of their offspring. PMID:12908984

Pitcher, Trevor E; Neff, Bryan D; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

2003-01-01

217

Properties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish RP Hedrick TS McDowell  

E-print Network

mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), indicated the former species was susceptible although-chat (Ictalurus punctatus) et la truite arc- en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a indiqué que seule cette dernière y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update

2003-10-13

219

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

220

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

221

Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

222

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

223

77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...

2012-02-03

224

78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...

2013-04-22

225

From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

Winans, Linda

1988-01-01

226

Experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments\\u000a exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail\\u000a length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen

Nicola Saino; José Javier Cuervo; Marco Krivacek; Florentino de Lope; Anders Pape Møller

1997-01-01

227

Sexual ornamentation, condition, and immune defence in the house sparrow Passer domesticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female mate preferences for extreme male ornaments may arise and be maintained because males signal their ability to raise\\u000a an immune defence against parasites by the size of their ornaments. The bursa of Fabricius is an organ involved in antibody\\u000a synthesis in young birds, but regresses before sexual maturity. The relationship between badge size, condition, and immune\\u000a defence was investigated

A. P. Møller; R. T. Kimball; J. Erritzøe

1996-01-01

228

Women Ornament Themselves for Intrasexual Competition near Ovulation, but for Intersexual Attraction in Luteal Phase  

PubMed Central

The present study examined women's attentional bias toward ornamental objects in relation to their menstrual phase as well as to motivations of intersexual courtship or intrasexual competition. In Experiment 1, 33 healthy heterosexual women were tested in a bias-assessment visual cuing task twice: once on a high-fertility day (during the ovulatory phase) and once on a low-fertility day (during the luteal phase). They paid greater attention to pictures of ornamental objects than to pictures of non-ornamental objects near ovulation, but not during the luteal phase, suggesting an ornamental bias during the high-fertility phase. In Experiment 2, before the visual cuing task, 40 participants viewed 10 same-sex or opposite-sex facial photographs with either high or low attractiveness as priming tasks to activate the intrasexual competition or intersexual courtship motives. Results showed that women's ornamental bias was dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high-fertility day when the subjects were primed with high-attractive same-sex images (intrasexual competition) and was observed on the low-fertility day when they were primed with high-attractive opposite-sex photographs (intersexual courtship). In conclusion, the present findings confirm the hypothesis that, during the high-fertility phase, women have an attentional bias toward ornamental objects and further support the hypothesis that the ornamental bias is driven by intrasexual competition motivation near ovulation, but driven by intersexual courtship motivation during the luteal phase. PMID:25180577

Zhuang, Jin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Xi

2014-01-01

229

Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally\\u000a along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants\\u000a in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular\\u000a species reflects

Llewellyn C. Foxcroft; David M. Richardson; John R. U. Wilson

2008-01-01

230

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

231

Parasitic infections in live freshwater tropical fishes imported to Korea.  

PubMed

We examined 15 species of ornamental tropical fishes originating from Southeast Asia to determine the cause of losses among 8 fish farms in Korea. A total of 351 individuals belonging to 5 different families (1 species of Characidae, 6 of Cichlidae, 3 of Cyprinidae, 1 of Heleostomatidae, and 4 of Poecilidae) were collected for the purpose of detecting metazoan and protozoan parasites. Parasites were fixed and stained using routine methods, and identified. We found 3 ciliates, 2 monogeneans, 1 nematode, and 1 copepod from 7 host species. Of these, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common parasite in our study, and together with Trichodina sp., caused mass mortality of Sumatra barb Puntius tetrazona at 1 farm. We also found Camallanus cotti and Tetrahymena corlissi from guppies Poecilia reticulata, both for the first time in Korea. Farmers consider these 2 pathogens to be the most serious ones in Korea. Gussevia asota from oscar Astronotus ocellatus, and Gyrodactylus bullatarudis from platy Xiphophorus maculatus were also found in Korea for the first time. We believe that appropriate quarantine practices for tropical ornamental fishes should be introduced because the failure to require and implement quarantines has already resulted in the accidental introduction of exotic parasites to fish farms, and because these parasites can cause further economic losses if they become established in the wild. PMID:12542094

Kim, Jeong-Ho; Hayward, Craig James; Joh, Seong-Joon; Heo, Gang-Joon

2002-11-22

232

Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 ?g L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia

2015-02-01

233

Vegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding.  

PubMed

Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk. PMID:25387455

Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

2014-11-12

234

Downy mildews on ornamental plants and their control.  

PubMed

Among downy mildews occurring on ornamentals in Poland the most dangerous are downy mildew of rose and downy mildew of German statice (Tartarian statice). Downy mildew of rose caused by Peronospora sparsa Berk. is a serious threat to commercial cultivation of cut roses, especially grown under plastic tunnels. Peronospora statices Lobik casual agent of German statice downy mildew can causes the total losses in the second year of statice cultivation more than 70%. Both pathogens are very difficult to control. Effectiveness of azoxystrobine, cymoxanil + famoxate, mancozeb, phosethyl aluminium, phosethyl aluminium + fenamidone, propamocarb in the control of P. sparsa and P. statices was presented. In the control of statice downy mildew none of tested compounds was able to control satisfactory the pathogen. Relatively the best results were obtained with mixture of fenamidone (88 microg/cm3) and phosethyl AL (1334 microg/cm3). In the control of rose downy mildew, the best results were obtained with phosethyl Al at concentration 1600 microg/cm3. PMID:17390852

Skrzypczak, C

2006-01-01

235

In vitro propagation of ornamental myrtus (Myrtus communis).  

PubMed

The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization. PMID:20099108

Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco

2010-01-01

236

British Trade International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.

237

Trade in health services.  

PubMed Central

In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

Chanda, Rupa

2002-01-01

238

The Trade Card Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Author and collector Ben Crane maintains The Trade Card Place for "all who are interested in Victorian Trade Cards used to advertise American goods and services during the late 1800s." Although the site is geared toward collectors, hosting dealer, collector, and organization directories for the potential Victorian Trade Card buyer, advertising students may also be interested, as Crane includes articles on trade card history and, in his Victorian Scrapbook archive, has posted thumbnail images of cards on subjects ranging from beverages and clothing to toys and tobacco.

239

SICE: Foreign Trade Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SICE (Foreign Trade Information System) is the "information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS)." It provides information and trade documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. The available documents are divided into categories such as Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) process, Trade Agreements, Investment Treaties, and Dispute Settlement. The Dispute Settlement section contains all of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel reports from 1948 to 1994. The site also contains a quantitative trade data section with links to data on tariffs, trade flows and national statistical agencies. Spanish, Portuguese and French versions of the site are available.

240

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

241

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

242

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

243

74 Fisheries vol 36 no 2 february 2011 www.fisheries.org ABSTRACT: The aquarium trade moves thousands of species around the  

E-print Network

74 Fisheries · vol 36 no 2 · february 2011 · www.fisheries.org ABSTRACT: The aquarium trade moves human population present ample opportunities for the introduction and establishment of aquarium trade=124) species currently in the aquarium trade is vast. Pet stores import thousands of fish every month

Olden, Julian D.

244

Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.  

PubMed

World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

2012-01-01

245

Fish Is Food - The FAO’s Fish Price Index  

PubMed Central

World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations–which compiles prices for other major food categories–has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F.; Smith, Martin D.; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

2012-01-01

246

Differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in vertebrates: A comparative histological study among the Crocodylomorpha.  

PubMed

Bone ornamentation, that is, hollow (pits and grooves) or protruding (ridges) repetitive reliefs on the surface of dermal bones, is a frequent, though poorly studied and understood, feature in vertebrates. One of the most typical examples of this characteristic is given by the Crurotarsi, a taxon formed by the crocodilians and their closest allies, which generally display deep ornamentation on skull roof and osteoderms. However, the ontogenetic process responsible for the differentiation and development of this character remains controversial. This study was conducted to settle the question on histological and microanatomical evidence in several crurotarsan taxa. Observational and experimental data in extant and extinct crocodyliforms show that bone ornamentation is initially created, and later maintained during somatic growth (that is indefinite in crocodilians), by a complex process of bone remodeling comprising local resorption of superficial bone cortices, followed by partial reconstruction. The superficial reliefs of crocodilian dermal bones are thus permanently modified through pit enlargement, drift, stretching, shrinking, or complete filling. Ridges are also remodeled in corresponding ways. These processes allow accommodation of unitary ornamental motifs to the overall dimensions of the bones during growth. A parsimony optimization based on the results of this study, but integrating also published data on bone histology in non-crocodyliform crurotarsans and some non-crurotarsan taxa, suggests that the peculiar mechanism described above for creating and maintaining bone ornamentation is a general feature of the Crurotarsi and is quite distinct from that attributed by previous authors to other vertebrates. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488816

de Buffrénil, V; Clarac, F; Fau, M; Martin, S; Martin, B; Pellé, E; Laurin, M

2014-12-01

247

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

2013-01-01

248

Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.  

PubMed

Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

2014-12-01

249

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat  

PubMed Central

Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male–male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male–male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male–male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male–male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

2005-01-01

250

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

Melanin-based ornaments often function as signals in male-male competition, whereas carotenoid-based ornaments appear to be important in female mate choice. This difference in function is thought to occur because carotenoid pigments are more costly to produce than melanins and are thus more reliable indicators of male quality. We examined the role of melanin- and carotenoid-based ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic passerine. Males display a black facial mask produced by melanin pigmentation and a bright yellow bib (throat, breast and belly) produced by carotenoid pigmentation. In controlled aviary experiments, mask size was the best predictor of both male-male competition and female mate choice, and, therefore, mask size may be regarded as an ornament of dual function. These dual functions may help to maintain the reliability of mask size as an indicator of male quality, despite the potentially low cost of production. The size of the bib was unrelated to male-male competition or female choice, but there was a tendency for females to prefer males with more colourful bibs. We propose that the black mask is important in competition for territories with other males and for attracting females. Our results highlight the need for more studies of the mechanisms of sexual selection in species with ornaments composed of different pigment types. PMID:16024373

Tarof, Scott A; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A

2005-06-01

251

Sexual selection, multiple male ornaments, and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat.  

PubMed

In many animals, sexual selection has resulted in complex signaling systems in which males advertise aspects of their phenotypic or genetic quality through elaborate ornamentation and display behaviors. Different ornaments might convey different information or be directed at different receivers, but they might also be redundant signals of quality that function reliably at different times (ages) or in different contexts. We explored sexual selection and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler with two prominent plumage ornaments--a melanin-based, black facial "mask" and carotenoid-based, UV-yellow "bib." In a three-year study, variance among males in the number of social (M(w)) and extra-pair (M(e)) mates generated strong sexual selection on mask and bib attributes. Some traits (mask size, bib yellow brightness) were correlated with male age and did not experience selection beyond age-related increases in M(w) and M(e). Other traits showed age-specific (bib size) or age-reversed (ultraviolet brightness) patterns of selection that paralleled changes in the information-content of each ornament. The components of male fitness generating selection in young versus old males were distinct, reflecting different sources of variation in male fertilization success. Age- and context-dependent changes in the strength, direction, and target of selection may help explain the maintenance of multiple ornaments in this and other species. PMID:19863585

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Morin, Douglas F; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A; Tsang, Susan M

2010-04-01

252

Sexual selection, natural selection and the evolution of dimorphic coloration and ornamentation in agamid lizards.  

PubMed Central

Both sexual selection and natural selection can influence the form of dimorphism in secondary sexual traits. Here, we used a comparative approach to examine the relative roles of sexual selection and natural selection in the evolution of sexually dimorphic coloration (dichromatism) and ornamentation in agamid lizards. Sexual dimorphism in head and body size were used as indirect indicators of sexual selection, and habitat type (openness) as an index of natural selection. We examined separately the dichromatism of body regions "exposed to" and "concealed from" visual predators, because these body regions are likely to be subject to different selection pressures. Dichromatism of "exposed" body regions was significantly associated with habitat type: males were typically more conspicuously coloured than females in closed habitats. By contrast, dichromatism of "concealed" body regions and ornament dimorphism were positively associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD). When we examined male and female ornamentation separately, however, both were positively associated with habitat openness in addition to snout-vent length and head SSD. These results suggest that natural selection constrains the evolution of elaborate ornamentation in both sexes as well as sexual dichromatism of body regions exposed to visual predators. By contrast, dichromatism of "concealed" body regions and degree of ornament dimorphism appear to be driven to a greater degree by sexual selection. PMID:15539350

Stuart-Fox, Devi M.; Ord, Terry J.

2004-01-01

253

Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences. PMID:12791170

Schilthuizen, Menno

2003-01-01

254

Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

2009-01-01

255

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

256

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

257

Teaching With Trade Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project provides the why as well as tips and techniques for incorporating trade books in the middle school math and science classroom. In addition, lessons ideas and descriptions of specific trade books are provided.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2010-05-01

258

Theory of International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book expounds trade theory emphasizing that a trading equilibrium is general rather than partial, and is often best modelled using dual or envelope functions. This yields a compact treatment of standard theory, clarifies some errors and confusions, and produces some new departures. In particular, the book (i) gives unified treatments of comparative statics and welfare, (ii) sheds new light

Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

1980-01-01

259

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

260

Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

261

Recurrent origin of a sexually selected trait in Xiphophorus fishes inferred from a molecular phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

DARWIN1 believed that sexual selection accounts for the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments, such as the sword-like caudal fin extensions of male fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, that appear detrimental to survival. Swordtails continue to feature prominently in empirical work and theories of sexual selection; the pre-existing bias hypothesis has been offered as an explanation for the evolution of swords

Axel Meyer; Jean M. Morrissey; Manfred Schartl

1994-01-01

262

Parvalbumin characteristics in the sonic muscle of a freshwater ornamental grunting toadfish (Allenbatrachus grunniens).  

PubMed

The grunting toadfish, Allenbatrachus grunniens, is an ornamental fish in freshwater aquariums, and it has the ability to produce sounds. The sonic muscle of the toadfish is the fastest vertebrate muscle ever measured, and the rates of Ca(2+) transport and cross-bridge dissociation are also the fastest. Parvalbumins (PAs) are Ca(2+)-binding proteins that help in muscle relaxation in vertebrates. Several PA isoforms have been identified in variable ratios in different muscle types. Both male and female grunting toadfish have intrinsic sonic muscles attached to their swim bladders, but no significant difference in morphology between male and female sonic muscles has been observed. In this study, we used SDS-PAGE and western blotting to characterize the total PA expression and to identify the PAs from the sonic muscle and the white body muscle of A. grunniens. Although the total PA concentrations were similar in sonic and white muscles, there were differences in the isoform percentages. Two and four PA isoforms were identified from sonic muscle and white muscle, respectively. The estimated sizes of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the sonic muscle of the grunting toadfish were 10, 10.5, and 10.5 kDa, respectively, and the isoelectric points of PA1, PA2, and PA3 in the grunting toadfish were 4.77, 4.58, and 4.42, respectively. In the sonic muscle, the primary PA isoform was PA1, which comprised more than 94 % of total PA, whereas PA2 comprised only 5 % of the total PA content. In contrast, in white muscle, the primary isoform was PA2, which comprised 58 % of the total PA. Both PA1 (with PA1a) and PA3 represented approximately 20 % of the total PA in white muscle. These results indicate that there is no positive correlation between a high PA content and the speed of muscle relaxation; however, PA1 might have the greatest effect on the relaxation of the grunting toadfish's sonic muscle. PMID:22744796

Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Hsieh, Fu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Shiea, Jentaie; Mok, Hin-Kiu

2013-04-01

263

Fish Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast contains three fish tales. First discussed is the fact that researchers have found that much of the fish sold as red snapper in the United States may actually be something else. The show explores the unusual behavior of the midshipman fish, which hums to attract a mate. New research indicates a connection between the hormone levels in the female of the species and its ability to hear the humming males. Finally, the show discusses jellyfish, and whether jelly blooms have an environmental significance.

264

Do sexual ornaments demonstrate heightened condition-dependent expression as predicted by the handicap hypothesis?  

PubMed Central

The handicap hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that sexual ornaments have evolved heightened condition-dependent expression. The prediction has only recently been subject to experimental investigation. Many of the experiments are of limited value as they: (i) fail to compare condition dependence in sexual ornaments with suitable non-sexual trait controls; (ii) do not adequately account for body size variation; and (iii) typically consider no stress and extreme stress manipulations rather than a range of stresses similar to those experienced in nature. There is also a dearth of experimental studies investigating the genetic basis of condition dependence. Despite the common claim that sexual ornaments are condition-dependent, the unexpected conclusion from our literature review is that there is little support from well-designed experiments. PMID:15255094

Cotton, Samuel; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2004-01-01

265

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators.

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M.; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

266

Lifetime fitness and age-related female ornament signalling: evidence for survival and fecundity selection in the pied flycatcher.  

PubMed

Ornaments displayed by females have often been denied evolutionary interest due to their frequently reduced expression relative to males, habitually attributed to a genetic correlation between the sexes. We estimated annual and lifetime reproductive success of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and applied capture-mark-recapture models to analyse annual survival rates in relation to the patterns of expression (absence/presence) of an ornament displayed by all males and a fraction of females. Overall, the likelihood of expressing the ornament increased nonlinearly with female age and was due to within-individual variation, not to the selective appearance or disappearance of ornament-related expression of phenotypes in the population. Accordingly, expressing the forehead patch in a given year did not influence survival probability. However, those females expressing the ornament at early ages (1-2 years old) enjoyed survival advantages throughout lifetime. Although ornamented females had higher lifetime fecundity and fledging success, their yearly reproductive performance, in terms of fledging productivity, decreased as they aged so that, late in life, ornamented females reared fewer offspring than nonexpressing females of the same age. In addition, both strategies (expressing vs. not expressing the trait) returned similar fitness payoffs in terms of recruited offspring. Our results support the hypothesis that fecundity and survival selection are involved in the displaying of this 'male' ornament by females. PMID:23638705

Potti, J; Canal, D; Serrano, D

2013-07-01

267

Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition- dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400 nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) that has sexually dimorphic UV-iridescent ornamentation, and we

Matthew L. M. Lim; Daiqin Li

2007-01-01

268

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

HEMP, PAUL E.

269

Lack of Nut Production in a Potentially Sterile, Late-flowering Ornamental Tung Oil Tree (Aleurites fordii)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We recently identified an Aleurites fordii seedling with ornamental potential that shows late flowering, approximately 4 weeks delayed, and does not produce normal drupes, which are toxic and a nuisance to lawn mowers since they are large (5-8 cm) and heavy. The ornamental and landscape industries c...

270

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Always read ingredient labels to identify fish ingredients. Salmon, tuna and halibut are the most common kinds ... Hake Halibut Herring Mahi Mahi Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Scrod Swordfish Sole Snapper Tilapia Trout Tuna Some ...

271

Designer Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

Hall, William R., Jr.

1990-01-01

272

Missouri Botanical Garden: Ornamental Plants from Russia and Adjacent States of the Former Soviet Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Tatyana Shulkina -- the former curator of living plant collections at the Komarov Botanical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia -- of the Missouri Botanical Garden, this site offers an exceptional look at the flora of Russia and the states representing the former Soviet Union. With incredible organization and phenomenal photos, the site is a great resource for those interested in the botany of the world. Sections of the site include: Ornamental Plants in their Natural Habitats, Ornamental Plants of Horticultural Value, Russian Landscaping Style, and more. Each area of the site includes a detailed look at the plants found there as well as a discussion of their uses.

273

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

274

Greenhouse gas emissions trading and the world trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme has the potential to bring parties into conflict with the WTO provisions in dealing with the initial allocation of permits, non-compliance with emissions targets, emissions trading system enlargement, and trade measures against non-members of an emissions trading club, and relates the discussion to joint implementation with developing countries. To our

ZhongXiang Zhang

1998-01-01

275

Trade in Value Added and the Valued Added in Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed two measures of value added flows between countries ‘Trade in value added’ accounts for value added of one country directly and indirectly embodied in final consumption of another country. ‘Value added in trade’ measures the value added embodied in gross trade flows. The paper shows that both measures result in the same overall net trade of a

Robert Stehrer

2012-01-01

276

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2014-01-01

277

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2013-01-01

278

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2012-01-01

279

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2011-01-01

280

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2010-01-01

281

A Good Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

Thiers, Naomi

1996-01-01

282

Trading forest carbon - OSU  

EPA Science Inventory

Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

283

Training European Trade Unionists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

1998-01-01

284

Galaxy Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of nine trading cards focuses on the three types of galaxies: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. Each card displays a color image of a galaxy on one side and describes the galaxy's type, its location within a constellation, and interesting facts on the other side. The Hubble Space Telescope card includes interesting facts, as well as suggestions for using the cards, such as educational games. The trading cards are available for download in PDF format.

285

Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

2009-02-21

286

Rare naturalization of an ornamental Tillandsia, Tillandsia ionantha, in southern Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report here the naturalization of a Mesonamerican bromeliad Tillandsia ionantha in Broward County, in southern Florida. This species is a popular ornamental bromeliad. A total of 63 clusters of plants were found on 31 Australia pine trees adjacent to a Mangrove forest at Anne Kobe Nature Center i...

287

Carotenoid Plasma Concentration, Immune Profile, and Plumage Ornamentation of Male Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids exert immunomodulating, immunostimu- lating, and antioxidant actions in mammals and are major deter- minants of coloration in animals. Honest advertisement models of sexual selection propose that male ornaments, including coloration, are reliable indicators of male quality. Because of their simultaneous effects on male coloration and immunity, carotenoids might mediate the hypothesized relationship between the expression of epigamic coloration and

Nicola Saino; Riccardo Stradi; Paola Ninni; Elena Pini; Anders Pape Møller

1999-01-01

288

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27 Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Peter and long-established trees and shrubs. More than 2,000 species of insects and mites may be encountered

Liskiewicz, Maciej

289

Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants (3.0 credits-requisites and other registration restrictions: General Plant Pathology 11:776:302 and/or Insect Biology 11 is to familiarize students with the common insect and disease problems that occur during the production

Chen, Kuang-Yu

290

Development and Efficient In Vitro Clonal Propagation of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hedychium species are multipurpose plants which are used as ornamentals, for making perfumes because of their scented flowers, and raw material for manufacturing paper. They are also used in ethnomedicine because of their antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, they are not generally suite...

291

Carotenoid-based ornamentation and status signaling in the house finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status signaling hypothesis (SSH) was devised primarily to explain the adaptive significance of avian ornamental coloration during the nonbreeding season. It proposes that conspicuous male plumage serves as an honest signal of social status within a population of birds. However, to date this hypothesis has been well tested and supported for only one type of plumage coloration, melanin-based coloration.

Kevin J. McGraw; Geoffrey E. Hill

2000-01-01

292

Sample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County  

E-print Network

Sample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County 1/4/2013 5969 Fern No Pathogen Found (blank) Manatee 2/14/2013 5989 Palm Root Rot Fusarium solani Orange 2) Highlands 2/20/2013 5997 Paurotis Palm No Pathogen Found (blank) Bradenton 2/25/2013 6003 Indian Hawthorne

Jawitz, James W.

293

Sample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample no. Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County  

E-print Network

1/6/2011 5001 Juniper Twig Dieback Pestalotiopsis sp./spp. Hillsborough 1/7/2011 5002 b Date Palm/14/2011 5063 Date Palm No Pathogen Found (blank) Hillsborough 3/25/2011 5076 Cherry Laurel No Pathogen FoundSample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample no. Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County

Jawitz, James W.

294

Chemical Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for Field-Grown Ornamental Crop Production in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of alternatives to methyl bromide for field-grown ornamental crops in the U.S. is particularly challenging because of the need to control rogues (off-varieties), limited availability of labeled materials, difficulty gluing wide sheets of virtually impermeable films for broadcast fumig...

295

Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these

H. P. Lim; Y. K. Fong

2005-01-01

296

Evaluation of inhaled and cutaneous doses of imidacloprid during stapling ornamental plants in tunnels or greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to assess dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to imidacloprid during manual operations with ornamental plants previously treated in greenhouses or tunnels. A total of 10 female workers, 5 in greenhouses and 5 in tunnels, were monitored for 3 or 5 consecutive days. Actual skin contamination, excluding hands, was evaluated using nine filter paper

Cristina Aprea; Liana Lunghini; Bruno Banchi; Antonio Peruzzi; Letizia Centi; Luana Coppi; Mirella Bogi; Enrico Marianelli; Mariella Fantacci; Pietro Catalano; Alessandra Benvenuti; Lucia Miligi; Gianfranco Sciarra

2009-01-01

297

Selecting an ornamental pepper banker plant for Amblyseius swirskii in floriculture crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preference of phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) was assessed on four cultivars of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates; Red Missile (RM), Masquerade (MA), Explosive Ember (EE), and Black Pearl (BP) for potential control of pestiferous insects in floriculture. Cultivar prefere...

298

Status of methyl bromide alternatives for ornamental crop production in Florida and California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phase-out of methyl bromide presents critical challenges to producers of cut-flowers and in-ground ornamentals. Work in California and Florida has included combinations of chemicals, various formulations, and application methods for registered compounds, including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ch...

299

Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

300

Combined water use of turf and woody ornamentals in an irrigated South Texas landscape  

E-print Network

are commonly used in potential ET based irrigation programs for turf but little in situ water use information exists for trees, shrubs, or ornamental plants. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the soil water dynamics within a multiple species...

Havlak, Roger Dale

2004-01-01

301

The study and application of corn straw organic growing substrate in ornamental nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of diminishing resources and increasing needs, every opportunity for recycling waste materials must be sought. Corn straw was fermented as a solid substrate for ornamental nurseries. The characteristics (nutrient content, pH and EC) of corn straw fermented substrate (CSFS) were measured and adjusted to adapt to the growth of the testing plants. We designed four kinds of

Xiaojuan Liu; Chuang Li; Ruzhen He; Qiusheng Yang

2011-01-01

302

Development of an Odor-Based Trap Tree Strategy for Ambrosia Beetles Infesting Ornamental Nurseries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic ambrosia beetles are increasingly being recognized as key pests of ornamental nursery stock, and Xylosandrus germanus is one of the most problematic species. Xylosandrus germanus has a wide host range, but deciduous trees are preferred over coniferous hosts. Xylosandrus germanus has an effici...

303

An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

Ideoka, Keith

304

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

305

Geographic variation in the function of ornaments in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used controlled aviary experiments to study the role of male ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic warbler. Previous aviary studies in Wisconsin, USA, indicated that males with larger black facial masks were dominant over males with smaller masks and preferred by females in mate choice experiments. In this study,

Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham; Corey R. Freeman-Gallant; Jonathan DeCoste

2008-01-01

306

Extraterritorial forays are related to a male ornamental trait in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous studies of extrapair paternity in birds, little is known about the behaviours that males and females use to seek (or avoid) extrapair copulations. We used radiotelemetry to examine the extrater- ritorial movements of both male and female common yellowthroats, Geothlypis trichas, in relation to male ornaments, particularly the black facial mask. We found that many males (62%) and

MARC C. P EDERSEN; PETER O. D UNN; LINDA A. W HITTINGHAM

2006-01-01

307

COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

DILLON, ROY D.

308

Plant Exploration in tropical forests of Puerto Rico to collect ornamental germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May, 2005, an ornamental plant exploration trip was conducted in remnant forests of Puerto Rico. The main focus of this collection trip was Tabebuia haemantha, a rare Puerto Rican endemic that has many features of interest to horticulture. It is a small-statured tree, evergreen, red-flowered an...

309

EXPLORING OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. SUGGESTIONS FOR…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

310

Ornamental plumage does not signal male quality in red-billed queleas.  

PubMed Central

Sexually selected ornaments often function as condition-dependent signals of quality (or 'indicators'). When ornamentation is costly, only high-quality individuals can afford to produce the most elaborate signals. The plumage ornamentation of male red-billed queleas, Quelea quelea, is an ideal candidate for an indicator because it is continuously variable, conspicuous, sexually dimorphic, is displayed only during breeding and is partially based on carotenoid pigmentation. However, I show here that quelea plumage is not an indicator because first, plumage colour is not correlated with physical condition or age; second, plumage colour is a genetically determined phenotype that is unresponsive to environmental variation; third, different plumage characters have bimodal distributions; fourth, plumage characters vary independently of one another; and finally, plumage colour is not correlated with reproductive success. To my knowledge, this is the first demonstration of non-condition dependence in colourful and sexually dimorphic breeding ornamentation. Instead, plumage variation may function as a sexually selected signal of individual identity among territorial males that nest in huge, densely packed and highly synchronized colonies. PMID:11413625

Dale, J

2000-01-01

311

Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

312

Response of ornamental sunflower cultivars ‘Sunbeam’ and ‘Moonbright’ to irrigation with saline wastewaters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore the possibility that saline wastewaters may be used to grow commercially acceptable floriculture crops, a study was initiated to determine the effects of salinity on two pollen-free cultivars of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). ‘Moonbright’ and ‘Sunbeam’ were grown in greenho...

313

Effects of arsenic on nutrient accumulation and distribution in selected ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Miami, Florida 95% of residential and 33% commercial soils exceed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection goals for cleanup of arsenic contamination. Ornamental plants have not been fully investigated as a mechanism for phytoremediation of low level As contaminated soil. This study eva...

314

Ironworker--Structural/Ornamental: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 40-2-06.4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graduate of the Ironworker-Structural/Ornamental apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (3) demonstrate the principles of drafting, how drawings originate and how to correctly interpret the information…

Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

2006-01-01

315

Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

316

Mechanosensory function for facial ornamentation in the whiskered auklet, a crevice-dwelling seabird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection has been the prevalent explanation for the evolution of birds' elaborate feather ornaments. An overlooked possibility is that feather appendages arose due to a naturally selected sensory function involving sensitivity to pressure or touch to facilitate obstacle avoidance either in flight or on land. Here, we show experimentally that elongated facial feather adornments of whiskered auklets (Aethia pygmaea),

Sampath S. Seneviratne; Ian L. Jones

2008-01-01

317

Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.  

PubMed

Marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. There is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. But problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. Since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. Bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clown fishes Amphiprion sebae and A. ocellaris were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ethanol and methanol extracts were highly inhibitory to the bacterial isolates when compared to other solvents. Ethanol extracts exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (75-250 microg ml(-1)) as compared to other extracts. The present finding revealed that the neem leaf extract significantly reduces the bacterial pathogens and their infection in marine ornamental fishes. PMID:21186711

Dhayanithi, N B; Kumar, T T Ajith; Kathiresan, K

2010-07-01

318

Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. PMID:25453953

Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

2015-01-01

319

Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.  

PubMed

Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

2010-03-01

320

[Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

2015-01-01

321

Global Trade and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

2005-01-01

322

Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

323

Three essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays in international trade. Chapter 1 explains how firm heterogeneity and market structure can distort the geography of international trade. By considering only the intensive margin ...

Chaney, Thomas

2005-01-01

324

Corporate governance and insider trading  

E-print Network

I investigate the relation between corporate governance and insider trading by corporate executives. Despite the general view that trade on non-public information adversely affects capital market participants, the impact ...

Rozanov, Konstantin A

2008-01-01

325

Trading Network Predicts Stock Price  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

2014-01-01

326

MONITORING THE AMBROSIA BEETLE COMPLEX IN ORNAMENTAL NURSERIES IN OHIO, TENNESSEE, AND VIRGINIA: INFLUENCE OF TRAP HEIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Scolytinae) are becoming increasing problems in ornamental tree nurseries. Xylosandrus crassiusculus has become especially worrisome to southeastern and Atlantic states. This species tends to attack healthy trees often killing their host. Management of ...

327

Chicago Board of Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Board of Trade offers a visitors center with an overview and history of CBOT, as well as a glossary of futures terminology. It also contains financial and agricultural market information and commentaries, agricultural contract information, a media page with news about upcoming contracts, and an education page that discusses course offerings at CBOT.

328

Trade-Secret Dispute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

Blumenstyk, Goldie

1994-01-01

329

Wheat: Science and Trade  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

330

Trading forest carbon  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

331

Trade Masonry Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

332

Syllabus in Trade Welding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

333

Building Trades II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains a curriculum guide, a set of lesson plans, a student manual, and a competency test packet for the Building Trades II course, the second year of a 2-year, 2-unit (350 hour) preemployment program for students in grades 11-12. This technical course is designed to develop the basic skills associated with builders. An additional…

Hamlin, Larry

334

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

335

17 CFR 37.406 - Trade reconstruction.  

... 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 37.406 Section 37.406...EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.406 Trade reconstruction. The swap execution facility...

2014-04-01

336

Lesson Plan on the US Trade Deficit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan explaining the concept of the balance of trade and the positives and negatives to a trade surplus and a trade deficit. Deals with the US trade deficit and its potential effects on the US economy.

Center for Strategic and International Studies

337

WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

E-print Network

WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE Qiang Dong Supervised by Professor Clark Thomborson's competitive world. International trade has received some academic attention as an application of Business Process Reengineering. A major issue in international trade is due to problems pertaining to mutual

Thomborson, Clark

338

Trade Liberalization and Cartel Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can reduced trade barriers promote a collusive understanding about not exporting into each others domestic markets? Reduced trade costs increase the short-run gains from starting exporting, but can also make the long-run punishment of such a strategy harsher. If collusion on prices is supported by a trigger strategy, a reduction in trade costs weakens competition in the sense that collusion

Kjell Erik Lommerud; Lars Sorgard

2001-01-01

339

South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

Crook, Shirley J.

340

Is sexual ornamentation an honest signal of male quality in the Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi)?  

PubMed

We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels. PMID:24386132

Yang, Chen; Wang, Jie; Fang, Yun; Sun, Yue-Hua

2013-01-01

341

Tolerance of Ornamental Succulent Plant Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milli) to Chromium and its Remediation.  

PubMed

The potential of an ornamental shrub Crown of thorns (Euphorbia milli) was evaluated for remediation of soil contaminated with Cr. The plant is one of the rare succulent ornamental shrubs with a slow to moderate growth rate and is capable of blooming almost year-round. The plant could tolerate well up to 75 mg of applied Cr and beyond that there was mortality of plants. Though the plant could not be classified as a hyperaccumulator, the plant was still very efficient in translocating Cr from roots to shoots as evident from the data on uptake and translocation efficiency values. The translocation efficiency of over 80% in our study demonstrates that a large proportion of Cr has been translocated to the harvestable biomass of the plant and therefore, this plant could be effectively recommended for the remediation of soils contaminated with low to medium level of contamination i.e., up to 50 mg/kg soil. PMID:25409249

Ramana, Sivakoti; Biswas, Ashis Kumar; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Ahirwar, Narendar Kumar; Subba Rao, Annangi

2015-01-01

342

Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissues of ornamental plants showing symptoms of leaf spot, crown and root rot. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., C. pseudomexicana sp. nov. and C. tunisiana sp. nov., were recognised. Calonectria mexicana and C. polizzii are newly reported for the African continent. Pathogenicity tests with all four Calonectria spp. showed that they are able to cause disease on seedlings of Callistemon spp., Dodonaea viscosa, Metrosideros spp. and Myrtus communis. PMID:22403477

Lombard, L; Polizzi, G; Guarnaccia, V; Vitale, A; Crous, P W

2011-12-01

343

Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.  

PubMed

Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

2014-10-01

344

Use of tristimulus colorimetry to measure ornamental color in little bluestem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium [Michx.] Nash)  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Horticulture USE OF TRISTIMULUS COLORIMETRY TO MEASURE ORNAMENTAL COLOR IN LITTLE BLUESTEM GRASS (SCHIZACHYRIUM SCOPARIUM [MICHX. ] NASH) A Thesis by JOHN... in response to specific conditions. They may also show a tolerances to these conditions, which may be manifested in minimal color variation. The objectives of this thesis were: This thesis follows the style of the Journal of the American Society...

Snowden, John Seward

2012-06-07

345

Fertilizer Concentration and Irrigation Method Affect Growth and Fruiting of Ornamental Pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of fertilizer concentration and irrigation method on growth of ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L. “Treasures Red”), a water-soluble fertilizer solution containing 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg L nitrogen (N) was applied, using subirrigation and hand-watering. Fertilizer concentrations of 200–400 mg L N resulted in an electrical conductivity (EC) gradient from the bottom (lowest EC) to the top (highest

Jong-Goo Kang; Marc W. van Iersel; Krishna S. Nemali

2004-01-01

346

Amendment of Fly Ash to Container Substrates for Ornamental Plant Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental plants are largely produced in containerized soilless substrates that generally consist of sphagnum peat, bark,\\u000a and other organic matter. Such substrates initially have a low pH (around 4.0) and limited amount of mineral nutrients. In\\u000a order to raise pH and increase fertility, commercial ground limestone and chemical fertilizers have to be incorporated into\\u000a the substrates. Fly ash, a coal

Jianjun Chen; Yuncong Li

347

The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants  

E-print Network

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edward NcWilliams Ten species of common ornamental plants (Alternanthera Bettzickiana Nichols. , Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. , Coleus Blumei Benth. , Collinia elegans Liebm. , Dracaena Godseffiana Sander. , Naranta bicolor... AND DISCUSSION 12 13 14 15 16 Influence of Salt Level on Plant Alternanthera Bettzickiana Bou alnvlllea spectabills Coleus Blumei Collinia elegans Dracaena Godseffiana Maranta bicolor N~ph o1 1t t Nerium Oleander Philodendron cordatum...

Apps, Gary Edward

1976-01-01

348

Age before beauty? Relationships between fertilization success and age-dependent ornaments in barn swallows.  

PubMed

When males become more ornamented and reproduce more successfully as they grow older, phenotypic correlations between ornament exaggeration and reproductive success can be confounded with age effects in cross-sectional studies, and thus say relatively little about sexual selection on these traits. This is exemplified here in a correlative study of male fertilization success in a large colony of American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Previous studies of this species have indicated that two sexually dimorphic traits, tail length and ventral plumage coloration, are positively correlated with male fertilization success, and a mechanism of sexual selection by female choice has been invoked. However, these studies did not control for potential age-related variation in trait expression. Here, we show that male fertilization success was positively correlated with male tail length but not with plumage coloration. We also show that 1-year-old males had shorter tails and lower fertilization success than older males. This age effect accounted for much of the covariance between tail length and fertilization success. Still, there was a positive relationship between tail length and fertilization success among older males. But as this group consisted of males from different age classes, an age effect may be hidden in this relationship as well. Our data also revealed a longitudinal increase in both tail length and fertilization success for individual males. We argue that age-dependent ornament expression and reproductive performance in males complicate inferences about female preferences and sexual selection. PMID:21949464

Lifjeld, Jan T; Kleven, Oddmund; Jacobsen, Frode; McGraw, Kevin J; Safran, Rebecca J; Robertson, Raleigh J

2011-09-01

349

Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a New Hybrid from Irrigation Reservoirs at Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Virginia  

PubMed Central

A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

2014-01-01

350

The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition  

PubMed Central

Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016

Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

2012-01-01

351

Spore ornamentation of Haplosporidium pickfordi Barrow, 1961 (Haplosporidia), a parasite of freshwater snails in Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

Spore ornamentation is increasingly recognized as a key character for species differentiation and genus assignment in the phylum Haplosporidia. Unfortunately, spore ornamentation is known for only a small number of described species so it is difficult to assign most species to genera with any confidence. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the presence and morphology of spore ornamentation of Haplosporidium pickfordi collected from the digestive gland of the snail Physella parkeri in Douglas Lake, Michigan. Spores possess filaments that are derived from the spore wall and originate from two separate areas at the posterior end of the spore. When spores are first isolated from host tissue, filaments are fused into a sheet that wraps around the spore, passing under the opercular lid. These filaments gradually unravel when spores are held in water and after about 14 d most filaments project freely from the posterior end of the spore. The number of filaments could not be determined with certainty, but appears to be approximately nine. Filaments are 100 nm in diam. and up to 50 microm in length. The presence of spore wall-derived filaments confirms the placement of the parasite in the genus Haplosporidium. PMID:11831770

Burreson, E M

2001-01-01

352

Phylogenetic Relationships of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Isolated from Landscape Ornamentals in Southern California.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that has been associated with a rise in incidence of diseased landscape ornamentals in southern California. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize strains isolated from ornamental hosts to understand their distribution and identity. Strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from ornamentals were characterized using a multiprimer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR). Based on RAPD-PCR and 16S-23S rDNA ISR, strains isolated from daylily, jacaranda, and magnolia clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi and caused oleander leaf scorch but not Pierce's disease symptoms in glasshouse assays on oleander and grape, respectively. This demonstrated both that our groupings based on genetic characterization were valid and that strains of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi are present in hosts other than oleander. Strains isolated from Spanish broom, cherry, and one strain isolated from western redbud clustered with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa members. Strains isolated from purple-leafed plum, olive, peach, plum, sweetgum, maidenhair tree, crape myrtle, and another western redbud strain clustered with members of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. All strains isolated from mulberry and one from heavenly bamboo formed a separate cluster that has not yet been defined as a subspecies. PMID:18943935

Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; de la Cerda, Karla A; Costa, Heather S; Cooksey, Donald A; Wong, Francis P

2007-07-01

353

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

354

Fish Biology Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 10: Fish Biology Introduction The effective management of fish populations requires knowledge of the growth rate of the fish. This requires determination of the age of fish to develop a relationship between the size and age of fish. For an inventory, this information provides insights to evaluate the potential

Jochem, Frank J.

355

Chemotherapy of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few agents on the market that control fish parasites. These are substances that are mainly used in other hosts; due to the different metabolism of fish, they often have only moderate effects on fish parasites. Therefore, the research and development of fish-specific antiparasitic compounds is needed to avoid the high losses suffered by commercial fish hatcheries. Drugs similar

Giinter Schmahl; Horst Taraschewski; Heinz Mehlhorn

1989-01-01

356

Gold package menu -Week 1 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.  

E-print Network

Gold package menu - Week 1 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal onion and fresh ginger Fish-Mackerel with crushed new potato, puy lentil, dill and Dijon mustard cream

Sussex, University of

357

Federation of International Trade Associations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring an annotated index of more than 2,500 world trade Websites, the Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA) homepage houses a wealth of resources for members and non-members of this organization. The FITA Website hosts a marketing database consisting of Export and Protocol reviews of over 80 countries, job postings, and a searchable database of international trade-related conferences and seminars. In conjunction with the "international trade webcast network" How to Conquer the World, FITA also includes a wide array of indexed and annotated interviews with leading international trade professionals, available in RealAudio format.

358

Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes  

PubMed Central

Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

2014-01-01

359

Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

Sefc, Kristina M; Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

2014-03-22

360

Fish Tales  

SciTech Connect

This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

McLerran, L.

2010-07-06

361

Trade and Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of electronic commerce (or “e-commerce”) is governed by the same basic principles of GATT, GATS, TRIPS and other WTO\\u000a agreements that apply to offline commerce. For example, it should not matter for purposes of trade analysis if a physician\\u000a delivers cross-border medical advice by letter, by telephone, or via the Internet. And a book that is ordered online from

Stewart Baker; Maury Shenk

362

Rocky Mountain Empirical Trade  

E-print Network

? Jose de Sousa, University of Paris Discussant: Li Zhou, University of Alberta 10:00 ­11:00 a.m. Carbon of Calgary 11:00 ­ 11:15 a.m. Break ­ Snacks and beverages provided 11:15 ­ 12:15 p.m. Trade Reforms, Foreign:00 ­ 3:15 p.m. Break ­ Beverages provided 3:15 ­ 4:15 p.m. Estimating Import Supply and Demand

Calgary, University of

363

LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

2001-01-01

364

Trade and Portuguese Immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript examines the link between trade and migration flows using a gravity model for the period 1995-2007 between Portugal and European Union countries. We also include in our sample the Portuguese speaking countries (PALOPS), i.e., ex-colonies. Globalization drives people to migrate, in some countries, immigration being more pronounced las in Portugal, in last decade, this country receiving foreign residents.

NUNO CARLOS LEITÃO; MARIUS SURUGIU; CAMELIA SURUGIU

2010-01-01

365

To "bee" or not to be-on some ornamental shrimp from Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong SAR, with descriptions of three new species.  

PubMed

Several atyid specimens were collected from hill streams in Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong during fieldtrips between 2004 and 2013. Some of these species, most of them also sold as ornamental pet shrimp in the international aquarium trade, proved to be new to science by morphological observation and analysis of mtDNA sequences. Three new species, Caridina logemanni n. sp., Caridina mariae n. sp. and Caridina conghuensis n. sp., all of them members of the so called Caridina serrata species group  (Cai & Ng 1999) are described in detail below. Caridina tumida Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is synonymised with Caridina venusta Wang, Liang & Li, 2008. Caridina meridionalis Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is moved to the genus Paracaridina Liang, Guo & Tang, 1999 and synonymised with Paracaridina zijinica Liang, 2002. New records for Caridina trifasciata Yam & Cai, 2003 and Caridina serrata Stimpson, 1860 are recorded. All species are compared to their morphologically closest congeners and the phylogenetic relationships between atyid shrimps from Southern China are shown.  PMID:25544138

Klotz, Werner; Von Rintelen, Thomas

2014-01-01

366

The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally,

Kathleen Schwerdtner Máñez; Sebastian C. A. Ferse; Sharyn Jane Goldstien

2010-01-01

367

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

368

2000 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the United States Trade Representative (USTR), this report "surveys significant foreign trade barriers to U.S. export." Created from information collected from government agencies including the USTR and the US Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, the report attempts to classify barriers in foreign trade into ten categories including import policies, government procedures, lack of intellectual property protection, and investment barriers. Reports on US trade relations with 55 countries, from the Arab League to Zimbabwe, are provided, giving succinct summaries of the outlined ten categories. Available in .pdf format only, the report may be downloaded by country or in its entirety.

369

Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh

Lone Gram; Hans Henrik Huss

1996-01-01

370

Carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird (Turdus merula)  

PubMed Central

Many parasites depress the expression of the carotenoid-based colour displays of their hosts, and it has been hypothesized that animals face a trade-off in carotenoid allocation between immune functions and ‘degree of ornamentation’. While numerous correlative studies suggest that parasite infection decreases the intensity of carotenoid-based colour displays, the existence of this trade-off has never been demonstrated experimentally in a host–parasite model. In this study, we used the blackbird (Turdus merula) and Isospora (an intestinal parasite) to assess whether this trade-off does indeed exist. Blackbirds were supplemented with carotenoids while simultaneously being exposed to parasites. Supplemented males circulated more carotenoids in the blood and developed more brightly coloured bills than unsupplemented males. In addition, supplementation slowed down the replication rate of parasites. Supplementation with carotenoids enabled infected birds to maintain their bill coloration, whereas birds that were infected but not supplemented showed reduced bill coloration. At the same time, infection slowed carotenoid assimilation in the blood. Overall, we demonstrated that bill colour reflects a bird's health, and that only males with a carotenoid-rich diet are capable of coping with costs associated with parasitic infection. Carotenoids are thus traded off between host physiological response to parasites and secondary sexual traits. Further investigations are required to determine the physiological mechanisms that govern this trade-off. PMID:18055388

Baeta, R; Faivre, B; Motreuil, S; Gaillard, M; Moreau, J

2007-01-01

371

Trade, Income Disparity and Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from the WTO "finds that trade liberalization helps poor countries to catch up with rich ones and that this faster economic growth helps to alleviate poverty." According to the highlighted findings, poor countries that have opened up to trade are economically converging at much faster rates than ones that haven't; the more open to trade a poor country is, the faster its living standard rises. The first chapter of this report offers an introduction and overview to poverty and trade issues, as well as an introduction to this study. Chapter two explores the links among "trade, economic growth, and income disparity." And the third chapter explains the ways in which being open to trade can benefit poor countries. The press release offers bulleted highlights to the report and provides the .pdf downloads for each of the report's three chapters.

372

FTA and agricultural products trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically estimates the changes of Agricultural Products trade structure effects under FTA shock based on endogenous treatment and differences-in-differences methods, take China-ASEAN Free Trade agreement as an instance. The results prove that the likelihood of an new RTA membership is enhanced by similarity of endowment structure and compensation of expenditure pattern, and also RTA accelerates the inter-industry trade

Zhenghu Yang; Zhan-ao Wang

2011-01-01

373

TradingCharts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the International DoubleClick Network, an affiliate of AltaVista, TradingCharts provides free financial charts on stock market prices, market indices, and money markets. Chart data are updated daily, and a written technical analysis of market movements is given with each chart output. NASDAQ, NYSE, CDN, NDX, and money market symbols may be entered in daily, weekly, or monthly terms at the homepage, and search and browse options are available for unknown symbols. In addition, a Personalized Chart Menu allows users to save charts for future reference while browsing.

374

Stopping the Torture Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from Amnesty International has been issued as part of the organization's larger campaign against torture launched in October 2000. The report examines the ballooning international trade in both traditional tools of torture (e.g., leg irons and shackles) as well as newer electro-shock devices and other "non-lethal" weapons. The report reveals how torturers have been trained through the transfer of military and security training and makes a number of recommendations to governments and corporations on methods they can pursue to eradicate torture. Users may download the report by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

375

Ecological analysis of world trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2013-01-01

376

Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.  

PubMed

Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood (K-NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC-K-NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets. PMID:25494520

Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

2014-12-01

377

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

378

77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

2012-12-04

379

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement...ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement...acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade Organization Government...

2012-10-01

380

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement...ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement...acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade Organization Government...

2011-10-01

381

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement...ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement...acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade Organization Government...

2013-10-01

382

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement...ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement...acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade Organization Government...

2010-10-01

383

Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates alternative methods for classifying individual trades as market buy or market sell orders using intraday trade and quote data. The authors document two potential problems with quote-based methods of trade classification: quotes may be recorded ahead of trades that triggered them, and trades inside the spread are not readily classifiable. These problems are analyzed in the context

Charles M. C. Lee; Mark J. Ready

1991-01-01

384

Does Foreign Trading Destabilize Local Stock Markets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of foreign trading on short term volatility and the cor- relation of local with world returns. I find that trading in general is associated with higher volatility, whether it is trading by foreign or domestic investors. However, controlling for total trading volume, foreign trading has no impact on volatility in developed countries, and only a

Tomas Dvorak

385

International Agricultural Trade Report November 16, 2012  

E-print Network

1 International Agricultural Trade Report November 16, 2012 Global Forest Product Trade Slows by the world's top economies appears to be taking a toll on demand, with no growth in forest product trade On Weak Demand From China and the EU Global Trade Stalls Despite a slow global economy last year, trade

386

Oil prices and the terms of trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of substantial terms of trade variability and unstable correlation patterns of trade prices with output and trade volumes has led some to suggest a break in the link between trade volumes and prices. We find that oil accounts for much of the variation in the terms of trade over the last twenty five years and its quantitative role

David K. Backus; Mario J. Crucini

2000-01-01

387

Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L  

PubMed Central

Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish. PMID:24028334

2013-01-01

388

Root-knot Nematode Problem of Some Winter Ornamental Plants and Its Biomanagement  

PubMed Central

A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode. PMID:19262861

Khan, Mujeebur Rahman; Khan, Shahana M.; Mohide, Faya

2005-01-01

389

Heritability and genetic correlation between the sexes in a songbird sexual ornament  

PubMed Central

The genetic correlation between the sexes in the expression of secondary sex traits in wild vertebrate populations has attracted very few previous empirical efforts of field researchers. In southern European populations of pied flycatchers, a sexually selected male ornament is also expressed by a proportion of females. Additive genetic variances in ornament size and expression, transmission mechanisms (autosomal vs Z-linkage) and maternal effects are examined by looking at patterns of familial resemblance across three generations. Size of the secondary sex trait has a genetic basis common to both sexes, with estimated heritability being 0.5 under an autosomal model of inheritance. Significant additive genetic variance in males was also confirmed through a cross-fostering experiment. Heritability analyses were only partially consistent with previous molecular genetics evidence, as only two out of the three predictions supported Z-linkage and lack of significant mother–daughter resemblance could be due to small sample sizes caused by limited female trait expression. Therefore, the evidence was mixed as to the contribution of the Z chromosome and autosomal genes to trait size. The threshold heritability of trait expression in females was lower, around 0.3, supporting autosomal-based trait expression in females. Environmental (birth date) and parental effects on ornament size mediated by the mother's condition after accounting for maternal and paternal genetic influences are also highlighted. The genetic correlation between the sexes did not differ from one, indicating that selection on the character on either sex entails a correlated response in the opposite sex. PMID:21081966

Potti, J; Canal, D

2011-01-01

390

Strategic Trade, Competitive Industries and Agricultural Trade Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary predictions of strategic-trade theory are not restricted to imperfectly competitive markets. Indeed, these predictions emerge in a natural three-country extension of the traditional theory of trade policy in competitive markets, once the theory is augmented to allow for politically motivated governments, so that the sign of export policy may be converted from tax to subsidy. This suggests that

Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

2001-01-01

391

Masonry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in masonry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

392

Fish availability in supermarkets and fish markets in New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in fish consumption, contaminant loads in edible fish, and the risk from consuming fish. Both the benefits and the risks from eating fish are publicized. Most of this attention has focused on recreational anglers and self-caught fish, although the vast majority of fish that people eat are purchased from commercial sources: fish markets and supermarkets. We

Joanna Burger; Alan H. Stern; Carline Dixon; Christopher Jeitner; Sheila Shukla; Sean Burke; Michael Gochfeld

2004-01-01

393

A fossil peronosporomycete oogonium with an unusual surface ornament from the Carboniferous of France.  

PubMed

A new fossil peronosporomycete from the upper Visean (Mississippian) of France occurs as a globose oogonium at the tip of a thin-walled hypha. The oogonium surface is prominently ornamented by densely spaced, long and subtle, straight or once to several times furcated thread-like extensions; many possess an opaque, bulb-like swelling at base. Antheridia adpressed to the oogonium are clavate and paragynous. This fossil represents only the third record of an unequivocal peronosporomycete from the Carboniferous, and thus provides important details about the evolutionary history of this group of organisms. PMID:20943155

Krings, Michael; Taylor, Thomas N; Galtier, Jean; Dotzler, Nora

2010-01-01

394

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

395

Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-03-01

396

WORKING PAPER N 2008 -52 Trade in services and trade in goods  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 52 Trade in services and trade in goods: Differences and complementarities Carolina Lennon JEL Codes: F12, F15, L8 Keywords: International trade in services, trade in goods, gravity ­ �COLE NORMALE SUP�RIEURE halshs-00586223,version1-15Apr2011 #12;Trade in Services and Trade in Goods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Trade Policies for Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 2000Members of the World Trade Organization have decided provisionally to exempt electronic delivery of products from customs duties. There is growing support for the decision to be made permanent. Is this desirable?Some countries in the World Trade Organization initially opposed WTO's decision to exempt electronic delivery of products from customs duties, out of concern for the revenue consequences. Others

Aaditya Mattoo; Ludger Schuknecht

1999-01-01

398

Trade polices for electronic commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some countries in the World Trade Organization initially opposed WTO's decision to exempt electronic delivery of products from customs duties, out of concern for the revenue consequences. Others supported the decision as a means of securing open trading conditions. The authors argue that neither the inhibitions nor the enthusiasm is fully justified. First, even if all delivery of digitizable media

Aaditya Mattoo; Ludger Schuknecht

2000-01-01

399

Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

Edenhofer, Ottmar

2014-08-01

400

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK,

Martin Junginger; Torjus Bolkesjø; Douglas Bradley; Paulo Dolzan; Jussi Heinimö; Bo Hektor; Øyvind Leistad; Erik Ling; Miles Perry; Erik Piacente; Frank Rosillo-Calle; Yves Ryckmans; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Birger Solberg; Erik Trømborg; Arnaldo da Silva Walter; Marc de Wit

2008-01-01

401

International nuclear trade and nonproliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book, the culmination of one phase of an ongoing international research project on nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation, is to explore the international political and economic dimensions of nuclear trade, especially as they pertain to the behavior of eleven emerging nuclear-supplier states. More specifically, the book sets forth a conceptual framework for analyzing international nuclear trade; details

1990-01-01

402

The Power Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts, and must then serve those customers by trading in a wholesale market. Brokers are challenged to maximize

Wolfgang Ketter; John Collins; Prashant Reddy; Christoph Flath; Mathijs Weerdt

2011-01-01

403

Trowel Trades: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by all trowel trade instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the trowel trades (masonry) program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

404

Standardized Curriculum for Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: building trades I and II. The eight units in building trades I are as follows: safety; measurement; tools, equipment, and hardware; building plans and blueprints; introduction to carpentry; introduction to plumbing; introduction to…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

405

Building Trades 1. Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to assist building trades instructors, this course outline to a prevocational building trades program for junior and senior high school students covers four occupational areas: carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electricity. Specific notes to the administrator and teacher and the course goals precede the four occupational units. Each unit…

Hill, Clair S.

406

Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms may be financed by their suppliers rather than by financial institutions. There are many theories of trade credit, but few comprehensive empirical tests. This article attempts to fill the gap. We focus on small firms whose access to capital markets may be limited and find evidence suggesting that firms use more trade credit when credit from financial institutions is

MITCHELL A. PETERSEN; RAGHURAM G. RAJAN

1997-01-01

407

Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

Knight, Richard Victor

408

Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

Veale, Sarah

1987-01-01

409

Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

Abstract Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this. PMID:24841434

Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

2014-05-19

410

Federal Trade Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The work of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been going on since 1914, and this site offers access to information about the agency's regulatory activities and public outreach programs, such as the National Do Not Call Registry program. From the homepage, visitors can file a complaint with the FTC, learn about the world of antitrust regulation, and read transcripts of their most recent hearings and workshops. The section dedicated to offering transcripts of recent conferences and roundtables is very helpful, and contains remarks and presentations given on such timely topics as "Perspectives on Marketing, Self-Regulation, and Childhood Obesity". The general public will definitely appreciate the section titled "Consumers", which contains edifying information about avoiding identify theft and vacation package scams. Finally, the site also contains much of this same material in Spanish.

411

Tools of the Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity offers kids a fun way to get firsthand knowledge of how archaeologists find lost sites. In Tools of the Trade, kids are given six cartoon frames, each illustrating a problem the archaeology team faced in locating a lost mission on St. Catherines Island. When kids select a frame, they are given details about the problem; they are then asked to pick which tool they think helped the team solve the problem. Each time they correctly identify a tool, they are given additional details of the story and the cartoon frame is "colored in." After correctly identifying the tools for all six cartoon frames, they have the option of printing a PDF of the full-color cartoon.

412

Victorian Trade Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can one know the history of the Victorian era? Through its architecture, its writings, its political leaders? Yes, yes, and yes. And a fourth "yes" to the world of trade cards. These quotidian items were used to promote everything from bromides to bicycles and the University of Iowa has this wonderful collection for those curious about such matters. First-time visitors might do well to start by looking over the ads for Clark's Cotton, which includes maudlin and interesting illustrations of boys playing with a kite, colorful birds and bicycle races. It's worth noting that visitors can also search all of the items here by keyword or creator. Visitors can also make their own themed collection for future reference and students of 19th century American culture will find much to enjoy here. The site is rounded out by a site of links to other relevant digital collections, including some from the Library of Congress.

413

Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants.  

PubMed

Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

2012-06-01

414

Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Punyasena, Surangi W.

2013-01-01

415

Evidence to Suggest That Teeth Act as Human Ornament Displays Signalling Mate Quality  

PubMed Central

Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value. PMID:22860076

Hendrie, Colin A.; Brewer, Gayle

2012-01-01

416

Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

2012-01-01

417

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. PMID:23448043

Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

2013-02-01

418

Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.  

PubMed

Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

2013-11-01

419

Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an alphabetical directory of "Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada"; followed by a directory of "International and Foreign Book Trade Associations" listed alphabetically by country. (AEF)

Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1999

1999-01-01

420

Morphology predicts suction feeding performance in centrarchid fishes.  

PubMed

Suction feeding fish differ in their capacity to generate subambient pressure while feeding, and these differences appear to relate to morphological variation. We developed a morphological model of force transmission in the fish head and parameterized it with measurements from individual fish. The model was applied to 45 individuals from five species of centrarchid fishes: Lepomis macrochirus, Lepomis punctatus, Lepomis microlophus, Micropterus salmoides and Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Measurements of epaxial cross-sectional area, epaxial moment arm, buccal area and buccal area moment arm were combined to estimate pressure generation capacity for individual fish. This estimation was correlated with pressure measured in fish feeding on elusive prey to test the model's ability to predict pressure generation from morphology. The model explained differences in pressure generation found among individuals (P<0.001, r2=0.71) and produced a realistic estimate of normalized muscle stress during suction feeding (68.5+/-6.7 kPa). Fish with smaller mouths, larger epaxial cross-sectional area and longer epaxial moments, such as L. macrochirus (bluegill sunfish), generated lower pressures than fish with larger mouths, smaller cross-sectional area and shorter moments, such as M. salmoides (largemouth bass). These results reveal a direct trade-off between morphological requirements of feeding on larger prey (larger mouth size relative to body depth) and the ability to generate subambient pressure while suction feeding on elusive prey. PMID:15472018

Carroll, Andrew M; Wainwright, Peter C; Huskey, Stephen H; Collar, David C; Turingan, Ralph G

2004-10-01

421

Ornamental Stones  

E-print Network

known, but certainly from the Eastern Desert. Ancient name: unknown.known, but certainly from the Eastern Desert. Ancient name: unknown.known, but probably from the Eastern Desert. Ancient name: unknown.

Harrell, James A.

2013-01-01

422

Environment and Trade: A Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme and the International Institute for Sustainable Development have joined forces to produce this handbook on environment and trade. Designed to "help us understand how trade can affect the environment, for better and for worse, and how environmental concern can work through the trading system, to foster or frustrate development, in both rich and poor countries," this resource attempts to synthesize the multiple pieces of this complex interaction. The handbook is available either as a .pdf document or as a continuously updated HTML version.

423

Trade and the environment: Discussion  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

Lutz, E.

1992-12-01

424

Strategic Trade, Competitive Industries and Agricultural Trade Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary predictions of strategic-trade theory are not restricted to imperfectly-competitive markets. Indeed, these predictions emerge in a natural three-country extension of the traditional theory of trade policy in competitive markets, once the theory is augmented to allow for politically-motivated governments, so that the sign of export policy may be converted from tax to subsidy. This suggest that the ongoing

Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

2000-01-01

425

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida  

E-print Network

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida JEFFREY E. HILL* AND CRAIG A. WATSON Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, Institute of Food eels on the aquaculture industry by analyzing the diets of Asian swamp eels that have invaded small

Watson, Craig A.

426

USING AND CARING FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE, CARE FOR, AND MAINTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

427

D ETECTING THE INFLUENCE OF ORNAMENTAL BERBERIS THUNBERGII VAR. ATROPURPUREA IN INVASIVE POPULATIONS OF BERBERIS THUNBERGII (BERBERIDACEAE) USING AFLP 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii DC.) is a widespread invasive plant that remains an important landscape shrub repre- sented by ornamental, purple-leaved forms of the botanical variety atropurpurea . These forms differ greatly in appearance from feral plants, bringing into question whether they contribute to invasive populations or whether the invasions represent self-sustain- ing populations derived from the initial introduction

Jessica D. Lubell; Mark H. Brand; Jonathan M. Lehrer; Kent E. Holsinger

428

SUBGROUP 16SRIII-F PHYTOPLASMA STRAINS IN AN INVASIVE PLANT, HERACLEUM SOSNOWSKYI, AND AN ORNAMENTAL, DICTAMNUS ALBUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytoplasma strains were detected in an aggressive and widespread, invasive plant species, Heracleum sosnowskyi (hogweed), and in an ornamental, Dictamnus albus (gas plant), exhibiting yellows disease symptoms in northern Lithuania. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNAs revealed that the strains, des...

429

EFFECT OF BASEMENT SUMP PUMP EFFLUENT ON THE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY OF URBAN BLACK ASH AND GREEN ASH ORNAMENTAL TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of basement sump pump effluent dis- charge in proximity to boulevards and ornamental trees was studied at several sites near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada throughout the summer of 1996. The growth, leaf petiole water potentials, and gas exchange of black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica) trees were measured at sites with and without nearby sump pump

Cameron G. Lait; Suomal Saelim; Janusz J. Zwiazek; Yao Zheng

2001-01-01

430

High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...

431

Red palm weevils threaten ornamental, date, and native palms in California. This invasive pest is native to Southeast  

E-print Network

These Invasive Species Facts? Invasive arthropod species are establishing in California at a rate of nine new species per year, or one every 40 days. Invasive pests cost California more than $3 billion per yearRed palm weevils threaten ornamental, date, and native palms in California. This invasive pest

Hoddle, Mark S.

432

10KC-1999-01 Methods for Extending the Freshness of Cut Flowers, Ornamental Trees, and Plant  

E-print Network

Cuttings The present invention describes a method for preserving the freshness of cut flowers, fruits10KC-1999-01 Methods for Extending the Freshness of Cut Flowers, Ornamental Trees, and Plant comprises treating freshly-harvested crops or the cut stem portion or leaves of the cut flowers, floral

Mohanty, Saraju P.

433

Contrasting patterns of selection on the size and coloration of a female plumage ornament in common yellowthroats.  

PubMed

Females often possess ornaments that appear smaller and duller than homologous traits in males. These ornaments may arise as nonfunctional by-products of sexual selection in males and cause negative viability or fecundity selection in females in proportion to the cost of their production and maintenance. Alternatively, female ornaments may function as signals of quality that are maintained by sexual or social selection. In a 4-year study of 83 female common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) and their 222 young, we found strong viability and fecundity selection on the yellow bib, a carotenoid-based plumage ornament that is a target of sexual selection in males. Females with larger bibs were older, larger and more fecund than females with smaller bibs. However, bib size positively covaried with bib total brightness and carotenoid chroma, aspects of bib coloration that were under negative viability and fecundity selection. Females with more colourful bibs laid fewer eggs in their first clutch, were more likely to suffer total brood loss due to predation and were less likely to return to the study area. Selection against bib coloration limits the value of bib size as a quality indicator in females and may constrain the elaboration of bib attributes in males. PMID:24731149

Freeman-Gallant, C R; Schneider, R L; Taff, C C; Dunn, P O; Whittingham, L A

2014-05-01

434

Laboratory virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to two ornamental plant pests, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and Stethobaris nemesis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control two important ornamental pests: 1) Corythucha ciliata, a native lace bug that attacks the foliage of sycamore trees, and 2) the recently described exotic pest, Stethobaris nemesis, a weevil that attacks amaryllis leave...

435

ISOLATION OF AN EFFECTIVE PROMOTER FROM CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS FOR EXPRESSION OF DISEASE RESISTANT GENES IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial diseases caused by Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. often result in significant loses in the production and quality of ornamental crops, and are very difficult to control. The use of genetically engineered crops offers a novel, cost effective and environ...

436

The size of the red wing spot of the American rubyspot as a heightened condition-dependent ornament  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated an ornamental trait known to reflect male fighting ability and tested whether it shows heightened condition dependence compared with nonornamental traits in the American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana). Adult males bear red wing spots, the size of which is sexually selected: large-spotted and fatter males are more successful in territorial competition and obtain more matings than are nonterritorial males.

Jorge Contreras-Garduno; Bruno A. Buzatto; Martõ ´ n; A. Serrano-Meneses; Alejandro Cordoba-Aguilara

437

National inventory of organic wastes for use as growing media for ornamental potted plant production: case study in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory of materials suitable for use as growing media for ornamental potted plant production in Spain has been prepared. Special attention has been paid to solid organic wastes generated by production, industrial and consumer activities. Information obtained from this study has been organised into two data bases. Data base 1 contains the “General Characteristics” file of more than 105

Manuel Abad; Patricia Noguera; Silvia Burés

2001-01-01

438

Female Preference and the Maintenance of Male Fin Ornamentation in Three Egg-Mimic Darters (Pisces: Percidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg-mimic, or lollypop darters comprise four species in which breeding males develop large knobs supported by attenuated rays above the second dorsal fin. These structures are presumably the product of sexual selection via female mate choice behavior. I investigated female preference for male fin knobs in three species of egg-mimic darters by experimentally removing fin ornamentation from one of a

Rex Meade Strange

2001-01-01

439

SAMPLE FISH DATA, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish data at sample locations in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed, 1993-1995. See http://sgi1dncrlg.er.usgs.gov/albe-html/biology/fish/fishdatadic.html for list of fields and their meanings....

440

FISH U REGISTRATION Name: ___________________________________  

E-print Network

, Limnology and Water Quality -Boat & Water Safety -Plankton Collecting -Aquatic Entomology & Plant ID Tuesday the Fisheries Track through the Dept. of Zoology Friday: -Fishing Tournament -Awards & Recognition -Fish Fry

441

FISH U REGISTRATION Name: ___________________________________  

E-print Network

& Water Safety (Canoe Trip) -Plankton Collecting -Aquatic Entomology & Plant ID -Game Fish -Fisheries -Awards & Recognition -Family Fish Fry ADDITIONAL INFO... To keep costs down, campers are asked to bring

442

77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Trade Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department...the Trade Symposium is ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade...

2012-03-19

443

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Alex Storr

2007-12-12

444

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Coonce, Carol; Nunenkamp, David

2008-01-01

445

Technology Trade and NAFTA Walter G. Park  

E-print Network

Technology Trade and NAFTA Walter G. Park Associate Professor Department of Economics American technology trade among member countries relative to their trade with the rest of the world. However, the extent and scope of technology trade varies by member countries. Mexico, for instance, is a recipient

Lansky, Joshua

446

Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman  

E-print Network

MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit or baseline-and-credit trading ­ Essential mechanism: Credit for exceeding target that can be used to meet

447

Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact

Joel Hasbrouck

1991-01-01

448

Trade Is Everybody's Business [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trade has been an important factor in United States from the 17th century to the present day. The United States was born out of a trade dispute with Great Britain. From the moment the founders first set pen to paper, trade has helped spur U.S. economic growth. This booklet covers trade topics such as policy, perspectives, difference in nations…

Aaronson, Susan A.

449

Trade Liberalization and Self-Control Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the welfare e!ects of trade liberalization when individuals su!er from self-control problems. Within a classic Ricardian model of trade, the welfare e!ects crucially depend on the direction of trade. In the importing country, indi- viduals lose from trade if they are su\\

Jennifer Abel-Koch

2010-01-01

450

Regional Effects of Trade on Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nelson A. J. and Zolnik E. J. Regional effects of trade on income, Regional Studies. Estimating the effects of trade on growth solely from an international perspective runs the risk of ignoring underlying spatial patterns in interregional trade. In this study, spatial variation in international trade patterns is explored by using both a cross-section and a panel of data that

Andrew J. Nelson; Edmund J. Zolnik

2011-01-01

451

Fish Health Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

452

Zebra fish juvenile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The juvenile stage is the third stage in the zebra fish life cycle. In the juvenile stage, the zebra fish is continuing to grow in size. At this stage, the juvenile fish can feed on its own and does not need a yolk sac.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-08

453

Juvenile Zebra fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The juvenile stage is the third stage in the zebra fish life cycle. In the juvenile stage, the zebra fish is continuing to grow in size. At this stage, the juvenile fish can feed on its own and does not need a yolk sac.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-08

454

CANNED FISH RETAIL PRICES  

E-print Network

PRICES CONTENTS Page Tuna, Canned White Meat Tuna (Albacore), Solid Pack, In Oil All Brands ExceptCANNED FISH RETAIL PRICES JUNE ll959 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDUFE, Commissioner CANNED FISH RETAIL PRICES JUNE 1959 Prepared in the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Branch

455

Jon Haveman's International Trade Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jon Haveman, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, maintains this metasite of industry classification concordances and international data links for researchers pursuing empirical studies of international trade. Among Haveman's collection of Industry Concordances, ISIC, SITC, usSIC, HS, TSUSA, and NACE classifications are covered with detailed source and downloading information. Links to a variety of International Trade Data such as the Penn World Tables are also well-documented; recent additions to both resources are listed by month.

1999-01-01

456

Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Mary E. Burfisher and Elizabeth A. Jones, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (described in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), the report Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture analyzes the "trade-creating" and "trade-diverting" impacts of US participation in regional trade agreements (RTAs). Twelve chapters cover the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the US-Israel Free Trade Agreement, among other RTAs. Arguments are made that increased US participation benefits US agriculture but could hurt non-member trade participants.

Burfisher, Mary E.; Jones, Elizabeth A.

1998-01-01

457

Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs?  

E-print Network

Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA, Alexandre to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA INRA, UMR1302 SMART, F-35000 Rennes, France, France Financial support received by the "New Issues in Agricultural, Food and Bio-energy Trade

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

P-Trade the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations  

E-print Network

P-Trade ­ the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations · Auctions are negotiation mechanisms configuration depends on multiple factors like traded good, participants, information available on the value of the traded good, etc. The system architecture of P-Trade · A central auction name server (ANS) containing

Narasayya, Vivek

459

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis  

E-print Network

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Trade Remedies and World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement: Why Are So Few Challenged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidumping and related trade remedies are the most popular policy instruments that many of the largest importing countries in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system use to restrict international trade. This paper empirically investigates the trade remedy and WTO dispute settlement interaction by focusing on determinants of WTO members’ decisions of whether to challenge U.S. trade remedies imposed between 1992

Chad P. Bown

2005-01-01

461

Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.  

PubMed

Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties. PMID:25099879

Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2014-08-01

462

A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal fluctuating asymmetry in the offspring. We experimentally demonstrate in wild barn owls (Tyto alba) that the extent to which females display black spots on their plumage does not only signal offspring parasite resistance as shown in a previous study but also developmental homeostasis in the offspring. A greater number of spotted females produced offspring that had more symmetrical feathers during the period of growth. Males, that pair non-randomly with respect to female plumage spottiness therefore appear to gain substantial benefits by mating with heavily spotted females. Genetic variation in plumage spottiness is nevertheless maintained as the covariation between offspring body mass and mother plumage spottiness varies annually depending on environmental conditions. PMID:12590755

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Balloux, François; Dijkstra, Cor; Riols, Christian

2003-01-01

463

Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense.  

PubMed

Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection. PMID:15750750

Lim, H P; Fong, Y K

2005-01-01

464

Coevolutionary Grammatical Evolution for Building Trading Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Advancements in communications and computer technology has enabled traders to program their trading strategies into computer\\u000a programs (trading algorithms) that submit electronic orders to an exchange automatically. The work in this chapter entails\\u000a the use of a coevolutionary algorithm based on grammatical evolution to produce trading algorithms. The trading algorithms\\u000a developed are benchmarked against a publicly available trading system called

Kamal Adamu; Steve Phelps

465

Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish ( Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect ( Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands.

Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M.; Plath, Martin

2008-08-01

466

Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug.  

PubMed

Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish (Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect (Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands. PMID:18437336

Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M; Plath, Martin

2008-08-01

467

DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

2008-01-01

468

78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade...in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards...the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

2013-07-15

469

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free...PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and...

2012-10-01

470

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free...PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and...

2011-10-01

471

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free...PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and...

2010-10-01

472

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free...PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and...

2013-10-01

473

Effects of Aquarium Collectors on Coral Reef Fishes in Kona, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

No previous studies have conclusively documented the magnitude of the effect of aquarium col- lecting on natural populations. In Hawaii concern over the effects on reef fish populations of collecting for the aquarium trade began in the early 1970s, primarily in response to multiple-use conflicts between aquarium- fish collectors and recreational dive-tour operators. In 1997-1998 we used a paired control-impact

BRIAN N. TISSOT; LEON E. HALLACHER

2003-01-01

474

Creating win-wins from trade-offs? Ecosystem services for human well-being: A meta-analysis of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies in the real world  

E-print Network

in the crops[fish], with higher immediate and direct financial returns, means trade-offs often result (Rasul, 2009; Steffan-Dewenter et al., 2007). This can lead to a cycle of ecological degradation, such as in Lake Victoria where poor management has led...

Howe, Caroline; Suich, Helen; Vira, Bhaskar; Mace, Georgina M.

2014-08-23

475

Gamma radiation sanitation of fish and blood meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade samples of fish and blood meal containing 10–14 per cent moisture were inoculated with 0·2–0·4 × 105\\/g of Salmonella binza and 0·2 × 106\\/g of spores of a strain of B. subtilis which had at least the same heat resistance as those of B. anthracis. This material was sealed in Polythene bags, filling them to the maximum, and irradiated

A. van der Schaaf; D. A. A. Mossel

1963-01-01

476

Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation\\u000a of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few\\u000a ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity\\u000a of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to

Craig S. Shuman; Gregor Hodgson; Richard F. Ambrose

2005-01-01

477

Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

478

Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate  

E-print Network

Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Keywords: barn owl; breeding success; divorce; female ornament; incompatibility hypothesis; melanin. Abstract Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce

Alvarez, Nadir

479

September 19, 2005 Dear Fish Sellers and Fish Buyers  

E-print Network

1 September 19, 2005 Dear Fish Sellers and Fish Buyers: Our records indicate you are obligated. (1) WHEN DOES THE FEE BEGIN? The fee begins on: October 17, 2005 (2) WHAT HAPPENS THEN? All fish sellers must pay the fee and all fish buyers must collect the fee for all fee fish landed on October 17

480

Fish elevator and method of elevating fish  

DOEpatents

A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

Truebe, Jonathan (Mirror Lake, NH); Drooker, Michael S. (Sanbornville, NH)

1984-01-01

481

United States International Trade Commission (USITC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USITC is an independent federal agency that provides trade advice to the government and examines instances of unfair trade practices. The web site offers useful information relating to international trade, including a monthly calendar of events, a listing of news releases, and notices of investigations into unfair trade practices. The USITC also publishes the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, now available for downloading. Researchers will be interested in the reports and publications section, which features the International Economic Review, the Industry, Trade, and Technology Review, opinions on countervailing duties, and general factfinding reports. The site also provides many useful links to trade-related information.

1999-01-01

482

Fisheries Foreign Trade Information Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Fisheries Statistics & Economics Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service, this spectacular foreign trade data base includes annual and monthly data since 1975 and is constantly updated as new information becomes available. For scientists interested in quantifying or tracking human impact on marine ecosystems, this site is a veritable gold mine. The database offers three types of data, all of which are searchable and may be downloaded: imports of fishery products, exports, and re-exports. Trade data exist for all countries with which the US conducts trade. A new feature increases the worth of this already valuable site: users can, with the help of explicit instructions, "build a database" (for download), organized by specified countries and time periods.

1999-01-01

483

Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS method for the extraction of pesticides from agricultural, ornamental and forestal soils.  

PubMed

A modified version of the QuEChERS method has been developed for the determination of a group of ten organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprofos, dimethoate, diazinon, malaoxon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, fenamiphos and phosmet) and one thiadiazine pesticide (buprofezin) in three different types of soils (forestal, ornamental and agricultural). The method was validated through linearity, recovery, precision and accuracy studies, and also by carrying out a matrix-matched calibration for the three soils owing to the existence of a strong matrix effect. Acceptable recovery values were obtained (between 45 and 96%) for all the pesticides and soils, except for malathion and malaoxon in forestal and ornamental soils, from which they could not be quantitatively extracted. Limits of detection of the whole method ranged between 0.48 and 7.78 ng/g. The method was finally applied to the determination of chlorpyrifos concentration in a treated soil for cultivation of potatoes. PMID:20127321

Asensio-Ramos, M; Hernández-Borges, J; Ravelo-Pérez, L M; Rodríguez-Delgado, M A

2010-03-01

484

From Trade-to-Trade in US Treasuries  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to model the trading intensity of the US Treasury bond market which has a unique expandable limit order book which distinguishes its structure from other asset markets. An analysis of tick data from the eSpeed database...

Dungey, Mardi; Henry, Olan; McKenzie, Michael

485

Masonry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the masonry trade as recommended by the successful mason. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to adequately…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

486

The global virtual water trade network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some countries have substantial supplies of freshwater, others need to import water to sustain their populations. Because food products contain significant amounts of water, global trade in food effectively moves water from one country to another in a “virtual water trade.” Konar et al. consider the global virtual water trade as a weighted complex network. The nations that participate in international food trade correspond to the nodes, and the links represent the flow of virtual water; weights are assigned to the links based on the volume of virtual water traded. They found that the number of trade connections follows an exponential distribution. There is a global hierarchy in which nations that trade large volumes of virtual water are more likely to link to other nations that trade large volumes of water. Several nations play a critical role in this network. For instance, the United States is the dominant exporter of virtual water, and Japan is the dominant importer. Furthermore, trade volume follows a power law relationship with the number of trade partners of each nation: The more trading partners a country has, the more virtual water it trades. The study could help in global water resource management; for instance, water-scarce nations could consider increasing their access to virtual water resources by increasing the number of nations with which they trade food. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR010307, 2011)

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-06-01

487

FishBase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massive database offers descriptions, data and images for 28,800 fish species in more than 6 languages. Search by scientific name, common name, or for information by: fish family, ecosystem, biological topic, country or island, among others. Individual species entries provide classification, habitat and distribution, morphological description, biological information, human uses, population status, references and many more details. Also has a larval fish database and a guide to learning & teaching ichthyology using this online source.

488

Freezing Fish and Shellfish.  

E-print Network

means of preserving the fresh-caught quality of fish and shellfish. Why Freeze? Freezing preserves foods by lowering their tem peratures to a point not conducive to bacterial growth and natural enzyme action. Many spoilage bacteria are destroyed... by freezing, and those that survive are unable to grow at the low temperature. A fresh seafood product can spoil when bacteria are not present. Natural enzymes that help fish digest food and carry on natural metabolism in the cells of the fish...

Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

1980-01-01

489

Intra-sexual competition alters the relationship between testosterone and ornament expression in a wild territorial bird.  

PubMed

In a reliable signalling system, individual quality is expected to mediate the costs associated with ornamental displays, with relatively lower costs being paid by individuals of higher quality. These relative costs should depend not only on individual quality, but also on levels of intra-sexual competition. We explored the current and delayed effects that testosterone implants have on bird ornamentation in populations with contrasted population densities, as a proxy for intra-sexual competition. In a replicated experiment, we manipulated testosterone in 196 yearling male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus in autumn in populations of high and low levels of intra-sexual competition. Males were assigned to one of three exogenous testosterone (T) treatments: empty implants (T0), small T implants (T1) or larger T implants (T2). We monitored subsequent changes in testosterone levels, ornament size and carotenoid-based colouration, carotenoid levels and body condition from autumn to spring. Testosterone implants increased testosterone levels, comb redness and comb size, and decreased body condition but these effects depended on levels of intra-sexual competition. Specifically, T2-implanted birds increased testosterone levels and comb size more, and reduced body condition more, in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. In the following spring, testosterone levels of T2-treated birds kept increasing in populations where intra-sexual competition was high but not in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. Our results highlight that levels of intra-sexual competition alter the relationship between testosterone levels and ornament expression, influencing their condition-dependence; they also indicate that the outcome of standard hormone manipulation conducted in free-living animals vary depending on the population context. PMID:24698833

Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S; Redpath, S M

2014-05-01

490

The role of intraspecific hybridization in the evolution of invasiveness: a case study of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus calleryana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between genetically distinct populations of a single species can serve as an important stimulus for the evolution\\u000a of invasiveness. Such intraspecific hybridization was examined in Pyrus calleryana, a Chinese tree species commonly planted as an ornamental in residential and commercial areas throughout the United States.\\u000a This self-incompatible species is now escaping cultivation and appearing in disturbed habitats, where it

Theresa M. Culley; Nicole A. Hardiman

2009-01-01

491

Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.  

PubMed

Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated. PMID:25666551

Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

2015-03-01

492

Desert Fishes Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Desert fish biologists have a one-stop information resource in this comprehensive Web site from the Desert Fishes Council (DFC), an organization established to "preserve the biological integrity of desert aquatic ecosystems and their associated life forms, to hold symposia to report related research and management endeavors, and to effect rapid dissemination of information concerning activities of the Council and its members." Any interested user may freely access field-related news and conference proceedings; ten desert fish videos; the Desert Fishes Council Listserv; and a number of databases offering taxonomic information, distribution maps, photos, and more.

493

[Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].  

PubMed

Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB. PMID:22007449

Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

2011-07-01

494

Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown for birds that females sometimes choose mates on the basis of condition-dependent variation in ultraviolet (UV, less than 400?nm) ornamentation, but there have been few comparable studies on invertebrates. Yet many invertebrates have UV structural coloration. Here, we investigate Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) that has sexually dimorphic UV-iridescent ornamentation, and we provide evidence that male UV coloration is condition dependent in this species. Spectral-reflection patterns change with male age and prior feeding history. The position of the UV band (i.e. UV hue) of the carapaces of younger (field-collected as subadults and matured as adults in laboratory) males shifted, relative to older (field-collected as adults) males, significantly towards longer wavelengths. Food deprivation significantly decreased the spectral intensity of the abdomen, but not the carapace. Questions concerning the mechanisms by which UV ornaments change are highlighted, as are hypotheses concerning the role of condition-dependent UV variation in male–male competition and as a criterion used by females when making mate-choice decisions. PMID:17476778

Lim, Matthew L.M; Li, Daiqin

2006-01-01

495

Essays on international trade and investment  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three essays on international trade and investment. In the first essay, I study how cross-country differences in labor market institutions shape the pattern of international trade with a focus ...

Tang, Heiwai

2008-01-01

496

7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating... The quantity of merchantable inshell walnuts that the trade will acquire from all... The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that the trade will acquire from...

2010-01-01

497

Emission trading with absolute and intensity caps  

E-print Network

The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have absolute caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...

Song, Jaemin

2005-01-01

498

78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...agreement: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Once realized, the deal...marketplace. And to ramp up trade with Europe, we also plan to launch talks for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with the European...

2013-05-22

499

One Fish, Two Fish, Butterfish, Trumpeter: Recognizing Fish in Underwater Video  

E-print Network

One Fish, Two Fish, Butterfish, Trumpeter: Recognizing Fish in Underwater Video Andrew Rova Simon template object recognition method for classifying fish species in un- derwater video. This method can be a component of a system that automatically identifies fish by species, im- proving upon previous works which

Mori, Greg

500

International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.  

PubMed

Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5?billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling. PMID:22678290

Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

2012-06-01