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1

The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish  

E-print Network

FA124 The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. E. J. Livengood is a graduate student, School of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF

Watson, Craig A.

2

Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.  

PubMed

Over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into Australia alone. Compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. The aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement in Australia. Ornamental fish originate from about 100 countries and hazards are mostly unknown; since 2000 there have been 16-fold fewer scientific publications on ornamental fish disease compared to farmed fish disease, and 470 fewer compared to disease in terrestrial species (cattle). The import quarantine policies of a range of countries were reviewed and classified as stringent or non-stringent based on the levels of pre-border and border controls. Australia has a stringent policy which includes pre-border health certification and a mandatory quarantine period at border of 1-3 weeks in registered quarantine premises supervised by government quarantine staff. Despite these measures there have been many disease incursions as well as establishment of significant exotic viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and metazoan pathogens from ornamental fish in farmed native Australian fish and free-living introduced species. Recent examples include Megalocytivirus and Aeromonas salmonicida atypical strain. In 2006, there were 22 species of alien ornamental fish with established breeding populations in waterways in Australia and freshwater plants and molluscs have also been introduced, proving a direct transmission pathway for establishment of pathogens in native fish species. Australia's stringent quarantine policies for imported ornamental fish are based on import risk analysis under the SPS agreement but have not provided an acceptable level of protection (ALOP) consistent with government objectives to prevent introduction of pests and diseases, promote development of future aquaculture industries or maintain biodiversity. It is concluded that the risk analysis process described by the Office International des Epizooties under the SPS agreement cannot be used in a meaningful way for current patterns of ornamental fish trade. Transboundary disease incursions will continue and exotic pathogens will become established in new regions as a result of the ornamental fish trade, and this will be an international phenomenon. Ornamental fish represent a special case in live animal trade where OIE guidelines for risk analysis need to be revised. Alternatively, for countries such as Australia with implied very high ALOP, the number of species traded and the number of sources permitted need to be dramatically reduced to facilitate hazard identification, risk assessment and import quarantine controls. PMID:17485126

Whittington, R J; Chong, R

2007-09-14

3

Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

2012-01-01

4

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2012-01-01

5

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2014-01-01

6

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2010-01-01

7

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2013-01-01

8

7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303 Section 1437.303 Agriculture...303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss...consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that...

2011-01-01

9

Circular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in  

E-print Network

Circular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in Florida1 Jeffrey E. Hill and Roy P, University of Florida, Ruskin, FL 33570-3434. Introduction Freshwater tropical ornamental fish culture varieties of freshwater fishes. In 1999 alone, farm-gate value of Florida-raised tropical fish was about US

Hill, Jeffrey E.

10

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

11

Circular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in  

E-print Network

Circular 54 Freshwater Ornamental Fish Commonly Cultured in Florida 1 Jeffrey E. Hill and Roy P Introduction Freshwater tropical ornamental fish culture is the largest component of aquaculture in the State Florida producers who collectively raise over 800 varieties of freshwater fishes. In 2003 alone, farm

Watson, Craig A.

12

Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. PMID:22819587

Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2012-12-21

13

Red fish, blue fish: trade-offs between pigmentation and immunity in Betta splendens  

E-print Network

Red fish, blue fish: trade-offs between pigmentation and immunity in Betta splendens Ethan D School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA Carotenoid pigments, limited dietary availability may impose a trade-off between maintaining ornamental coloration and health

Ardia, Dan

14

Imported ornamental fish are colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about the overuse of antibiotics in the ornamental fish industry and its possible effect on the increasing drug resistance in both commensal and pathogenic organisms in these fish. The aim of this study was to carry out an assessment of the diversity of bacteria, including pathogens, in ornamental fish species imported into North America and to assess their antibiotic resistance. Kidney samples were collected from 32 freshwater ornamental fish of various species, which arrived to an importing facility in Portland, Oregon from Colombia, Singapore and Florida. Sixty-four unique bacterial colonies were isolated and identified by PCR using bacterial 16S primers and DNA sequencing. Multiple isolates were identified as bacteria with potential to cause disease in both fish and humans. The antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate was performed for nine different antibiotics. Among them, cefotaxime (16% resistance among isolates) was the antibiotic associated with more activity, while the least active was tetracycline (77% resistant). Knowing information about the diversity of bacteria in imported ornamental fish, as well as the resistance profiles for the bacteria will be useful in more effectively treating clinical infected fish, and also potential zoonoses in the future. PMID:23294440

Rose, S; Hill, R; Bermudez, L E; Miller-Morgan, T

2013-06-01

15

MFR PAPER 1299 Ornamental Fish: Diseases and Problems  

E-print Network

. BLUE ABSTRACT-Seventy-seven bags of ornamental fish imported from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore specifically to detect the possible presence of Salmonella typh- osa; F) Selenite-brilliant green broth and dulcitol selenite broth-brilliant green agar. This battery of media was used for the detection of possible

16

Ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Ornamental crops offer several interesting features for biotechnology. As a highly diverse group of different crops many morphological\\u000a and physiological traits like e.g. flower structure, colours and scent are unique to certain taxa and have been intensively\\u000a studied. Furthermore, plant transformation protocols have been published for more then 40 genera. However, beyond basic research\\u000a commercialisation of transgenic ornamental crops is

Thomas Debener; Traud Winkelmann

17

Health Status of Ornamental Freshwater Fishes Imported to South Africa: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping fish is a popular pastime in South Africa and the majority of ornamental fish are imported. A pilot study was initiated\\u000a to examine the health status of ornamental freshwater fishes imported to South Africa. Four groups of thirty fish each were\\u000a examined for the presence of external parasites, and processed for virus isolation and for bacterial and mycobacterial culture.

A. Mouton; L. Basson; D. Impson

2001-01-01

18

Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only. PMID:12747641

Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

2003-03-31

19

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH  

E-print Network

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE, GENE FLOW, AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL FISH dispersal distances in the Red Sea 12 Chapter 3 Comparative genetic population structure of two reef fishes and the demographic connectivity in the endemic fish species of the Red Sea Larabicus quadrilineatus, and in the two

20

Systems engineering for ornamental fish production in a recirculating aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop a simulation model for determining the optimal layout and management regime for ornamental fish recirculating aquaculture system (ORAS). The work plan involved: (1) quantifying the effects of fish growth rates, the nature of the products, and the management practices; (2) developing a mathematical simulation model of the ORAS, taking into account all factors that directly

Ilan Halachmi

2006-01-01

21

Exposure to pesticides impairs the expression of fish ornaments reducing the availability of attractive males.  

PubMed

Ornament magnitude often reflects a local balance between sexual selection and other sources of natural selection opposing their elaboration. Human activity may disrupt this balance if it modifies the costs of producing, maintaining or displaying the ornaments. When costs are increased, a shortage of acceptable partners may ensue, with consequences commensurate with how stringent (and effective) the process of mate choice is. Here, we show that the expression of ornaments in the viviparous amarillo fish (Girardinichthys multiradiatus) is influenced by embryonic exposure to low concentrations of an organophosphorus insecticide. Male ornamental fin size, dimorphic yellow coloration and display rates were all compromised in exposed fish, but unaffected in their paternal half-sibling controls and in their sisters (morphology and colour). Exposure resulted in smaller fish of both sexes, thus the differential effect by sex was restricted to attributes such as fin size only above the naturally selected magnitude shown by females. Father phenotype predicted offspring morphology of controls, but not of exposed males, which were discriminated against by both control and exposed females. Since stringent female mate choice can result in females refusing to mate with suboptimal mates, this sub-lethal developmental effect can reduce the effective population size of amarillo fish populations. PMID:18348963

Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Macías Garcia, Constantino

2008-06-01

22

Investigational use of metomidate hydrochloride as a shipping additive for two ornamental fishes.  

PubMed

During shipping, ornamental fish can be stressed due to handling, high stocking densities, and deteriorating water quality. Adding sedatives, such as metomidate hydrochloride, to shipping water may improve fish survival rates and the percentage of fish in saleable condition. Although the effects of metomidate hydrochloride on the stress response in fish have been studied, its application as a shipping additive has not been well investigated, particularly for tropical ornamental fishes shipped under industry conditions. Convict cichlids Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum and black mollies Poecilia sphenops were evaluated for 7 d after a 24-h period of exposure (including ground and air transport) to one of four metomidate hydrochloride concentrations: 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L. Immediate posttransport and cumulative mortality data, as well as 12-h and 7-d posttransport appearance and behavior scores, were generated. In convict cichlids, the highest dose of metomidate hydrochloride (1.0 mg/L) reduced mortality (0% compared with cumulative means of 5.5-9.2% in other groups) and increased the percentage of saleable fish (91.7% were immediately saleable compared with 12.5-50% in other groups). No effect was detected in black mollies at any concentration tested. Metomidate hydrochloride showed promise as a shipping additive for convict cichlids, but further studies are warranted to evaluate species-specific responses in other ornamental species. PMID:20043397

Kilgore, Kathy Heym; Hill, Jeffrey E; Powell, James F F; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E

2009-09-01

23

Characterization of Microbiota Composition and Presence of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Carriage Water of Ornamental Fish  

PubMed Central

International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1–2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25084116

Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

2014-01-01

24

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

25

Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

FA-117 Harvesting Ornamental Fish From Ponds1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, ornamental fish are predominantly farmed in earthen ponds. Once fish reach marketable size and are ready and physical damage during harvesting (see UF IFAS Circular 919 Stress-Its Role in Fish Disease). Overall, col

Watson, Craig A.

26

On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish 1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez, Craig A. Watson, Deborah B. Pouder, and Roy  

E-print Network

FA-119 On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish 1 Tina C. Crosby, Jeffrey E. Hill, Carlos V. Martinez Figure 2. A transportation vehicle Credits: Tina Crosby 2004 #12;2On-Farm Transport of Ornamental Fish and transport of fish will affect survival and overall quality of the fish (see UF IFAS Circular 919 Stress

Watson, Craig A.

27

Preliminary Investigations of Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Selected Ornamental Fishes and Efficacy against External Bacteria and Parasites in Green Swordtails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue

Riccardo Russo; Eric W. Curtis; Roy P. E. Yanong

2007-01-01

28

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

29

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Tolerant Bacteria and Associated Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Isolated from Ornamental Fish and Their Carriage Water  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to ?15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, blaTEM?1, tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. Conclusions These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. PMID:20027306

Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Welch, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J.; Woodward, Martin J.; Haig, Sarah J.; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

2009-01-01

30

Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species.  

PubMed

Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold. PMID:24650892

Sharon, G; Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Chettri, J Kumar; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

2014-01-01

31

Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.  

PubMed

Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg?¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ? 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ? 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ? 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the treated groups and the present work concluded that, the Phthalate derivatives from I. coccinea helps to stimulate the immune system against A. hydrophila challenge in C. auratus. PMID:24380832

Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

2014-02-01

32

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

33

Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

2012-01-01

34

Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden  

PubMed Central

Abstract The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11?29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3?8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A conclusion was done that environmental differences among the reefs and the habitats investigated were important components of abundance variations and species diversity of ornamental fish along latitudinal gradients in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. PMID:24478577

Khalaf, Maroof A.; Abdallah, Mohamed

2014-01-01

35

Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.  

PubMed

The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. PMID:18201053

Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

2007-06-01

36

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2011-04-01

37

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2010-04-01

38

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2012-04-01

39

Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird.  

PubMed

Bird song is hypothesized to be a reliable indicator of cognition because it depends on brain structure and function. Song features have been found to correlate positively with measures of cognition, but the relationship between song and cognition is complicated because not all cognitive abilities are themselves positively correlated. If cognition is not a unitary trait, developmental constraints on brain growth could generate trade-offs between some aspects of cognition and song. To further clarify the relationship between song and cognition in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we examined repertoire size and performance on a spatial task. We found an inverse relationship between repertoire size and speed of spatial learning and suggest that a developmental trade-off between the hippocampus and song control nuclei could be responsible for this relationship. By attending to male song, females may learn about a suite of cognitive abilities; this study suggests that females may glean information about a male's cognitive weaknesses as well as his strengths. PMID:23697642

Sewall, Kendra B; Soha, Jill A; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

2013-08-23

40

Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird  

PubMed Central

Bird song is hypothesized to be a reliable indicator of cognition because it depends on brain structure and function. Song features have been found to correlate positively with measures of cognition, but the relationship between song and cognition is complicated because not all cognitive abilities are themselves positively correlated. If cognition is not a unitary trait, developmental constraints on brain growth could generate trade-offs between some aspects of cognition and song. To further clarify the relationship between song and cognition in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we examined repertoire size and performance on a spatial task. We found an inverse relationship between repertoire size and speed of spatial learning and suggest that a developmental trade-off between the hippocampus and song control nuclei could be responsible for this relationship. By attending to male song, females may learn about a suite of cognitive abilities; this study suggests that females may glean information about a male's cognitive weaknesses as well as his strengths. PMID:23697642

Sewall, Kendra B.; Soha, Jill A.; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

2013-01-01

41

Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs. PMID:22903451

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2013-01-01

42

Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae), 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae), 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae), 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae) and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1%) were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%), followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) (20.6%), Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora) (4.0%), Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida) (1.3%), Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora) (0.89%), and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda) (0.4%). All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata. PMID:20624347

Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Lemos, Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga; Martins, Maurício Laterça

2010-01-01

43

A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice  

PubMed Central

Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference. PMID:22513859

Thunken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Baldauf, Sebastian A.

2012-01-01

44

The Introduction of Nonnative Fishes into Freshwater Systems of Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the 1930s, alien fishes (fishes not native to Peru) have been introduced into the freshwater systems of Peru for different\\u000a purposes such as fish farming, the ornamental fish trade, public health applications, and sport fishing. The fish were introduced\\u000a either deliberately or casually into the three hydrographic systems of the country (Amazon, Pacific coastal rivers, and Lake\\u000a Titicaca). To

Hernán Ortega; Humberto Guerra; Rina Ramírez

45

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

46

Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

2012-01-01

47

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

48

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

49

The benefits and risks of aquacultural production for the aquarium trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of animals for the aquarium hobbyist trade is a rapidly growing sector of the aquacultural industry, and it will continue to become more important as restrictions are placed on collecting animals for the wild. Currently, approximately 90% of freshwater fish traded in the hobbyist industry are captively cultured. However, for marine ornamentals, the reverse is true as only a

Michael Tlusty

2002-01-01

50

Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs  

PubMed Central

Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

2014-01-01

51

Asexual propagation of sea anemones that host anemonefishes: implications for the marine ornamental aquarium trade and restocking programs.  

PubMed

Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M; Hall, Karina C

2014-01-01

52

Ornamental Horticulture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

53

Home > Greenhouse > Chapters > 8 Pesticides Labeled for Arthropod Control > Table 8.2. Insecticides for control of arthropod pests of ornamentals, listed by product trade name  

E-print Network

product in combination or in rotation with other effective insecticides. Do not apply to pots grown Registered against: mites For use on greenhouse ornamental, floral and foliage crops, indoor ornamental laying, and mites die in 4 to 7 days. Do not apply more than 48 fl oz of product per crop cycle or per

Blanchette, Robert A.

54

Fish Gonadogenesis. Part I: Genetic and Environmental Mechanisms of Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of fish produced in aquaculture or for the ornamental fish trade exhibit sexual dimorphism in growth, age at maturity, secondary sexual characters, or other traits of interest. This has led to a desire to produce populations of only one sex for commercial ongrowing. Although direct sex reversal via manipulation of sex differentiation is used commercially (e.g., in tilapia

David J. Penman; Francesc Piferrer

2008-01-01

55

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

56

Life history trade-offs and community dynamics of small fishes in a seasonally pulsed wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a one-dimensional, spatially explicit model to simulate the community of small fishes in the freshwater wetlands of southern Florida, USA. The seasonality of rainfall in these wetlands causes annual fluctuations in the amount of flooded area. We modeled fish populations that differed from each other only in efficiency of resource utilization and dispersal ability. The simulations showed that these trade-offs, along with the spatial and temporal variability of the environment, allow coexistence of several species competing exploitatively for a common resource type. This mechanism, while sharing some characteristics with other mechanisms proposed for coexistence of competing species, is novel in detail. Simulated fish densities resembled patterns observed in Everglades empirical data. Cells with hydroperiods less than 6 months accumulated negligible fish biomass. One unique model result was that, when multiple species coexisted, it was possible for one of the coexisting species to have both lower local resource utilization efficiency and lower dispersal ability than one of the other species. This counterintuitive result is a consequence of stronger effects of other competitors on the superior species. ?? 2005 NRC.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.

2005-01-01

57

Biomechanical trade-offs bias rates of evolution in the feeding apparatus of fishes  

PubMed Central

Morphological diversification does not proceed evenly across the organism. Some body parts tend to evolve at higher rates than others, and these rate biases are often attributed to sexual and natural selection or to genetic constraints. We hypothesized that variation in the rates of morphological evolution among body parts could also be related to the performance consequences of the functional systems that make up the body. Specifically, we tested the widely held expectation that the rate of evolution for a trait is negatively correlated with the strength of biomechanical trade-offs to which it is exposed. We quantified the magnitude of trade-offs acting on the morphological components of three feeding-related functional systems in four radiations of teleost fishes. After accounting for differences in the rates of morphological evolution between radiations, we found that traits that contribute more to performance trade-offs tend to evolve more rapidly, contrary to the prediction. While ecological and genetic factors are known to have strong effects on rates of phenotypic evolution, this study highlights the role of the biomechanical architecture of functional systems in biasing the rates and direction of trait evolution. PMID:21993506

Holzman, Roi; Collar, David C.; Price, Samantha A.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Thomson, Robert C.; Wainwright, Peter C.

2012-01-01

58

Trimethylamine oxide, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and formaldehyde levels in main traded fish species in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Levels of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and formaldehyde (FA) were studied in 266 different fishes, including fresh/frozen raw whole fishes of 89 different species that traded in Hong Kong, China. Determination of TMAO can confirm the source of DMA and FA if present in the sample. These samples were purchased from different commercial outlets between April and August 2007. All samples of raw whole fish were identified for their species by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department. The content of TMAO was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector. The possible decomposition products of TMAO, DMA and TMA were analysed by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), while FA was conducted by steam distillation then quantified by a HPLC. The range for TMAO of all samples was <5-3800 mg kg(-1) with median of 970 mg kg(-1), while the endogenous enzymatic cleavage products DMA, TMA and FA were in the range of <2-320, <1-190 and <1-160 mg kg(-1), respectively. These cleavage products were mainly found in three fish species, Harpadon nehereus, Saurida elongata and Saurida tumbil, that belong to the family Synodontidae (Lizardfishes) and subfamily Harpadontinae. Besides, freshwater fish species, namely, Micropterus salmoides, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Siniperca chuatsi, were found to contain TMAO in the range of 510-760, 85-720 and 400-640 mg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:24784966

Chung, S W C; Chan, B T P

2009-01-01

59

Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments\\u000a from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia.\\u000a In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules

Ferenc Baska; V. N. Voronin; Linda Müller; Szilvia Marton; Kálmán Molnár

2009-01-01

60

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

61

Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation  

E-print Network

range of bacterial species [10]. Sperm protection via antibacterial substances would maintain maleEvolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal

Richner, Heinz

62

Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a\\u000a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of\\u000a birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these\\u000a to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses,

Francois Mougeot

2008-01-01

63

Occurrence of two myxosporean species, Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. and Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n., in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fry imported from Thailand to Europe as ornamental fish.  

PubMed

Fingerlings of the sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a favorite food fish in South Asia, is regularly imported by European fish traders and sold in pet fish shops. In shipments from Thailand, a skin and a kidney infection of this fish caused by myxosporean parasites was found both in Hungary and Russia. In the skin of the fish, small millet-sized nodules containing great numbers of a Myxobolus species were found, while in the renal glomeruli, spores and sporogonic stages of a Hoferellus species developed. The skin-infecting species described as Myxobolus hakyi sp. n. had 15.9 x 6.6-microm-sized spores with elongated polar capsules, while the renal species described as Hoferellus pulvinatus sp. n. had roundish spores with a size of 6.5 x 5.0 microm and had a characteristic pillow-like structure at its posterior end. Besides morphology, histology of infection and 18S rDNA sequences were studied. PMID:19629523

Baska, Ferenc; Voronin, V N; Eszterbauer, Edit; Müller, Linda; Marton, Szilvia; Molnár, Kálmán

2009-10-01

64

Male pipefish prefer ornamented females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle females compete for access to males and males are choosy. Females display a temporary ornament, a striped pattern. We show here for the first time in a sex role-reversed species that ornament display predicts how much time a female will devote to competitive behaviours, that males prefer ornamented females over nonornamented ones, and

Anders Berglund; Gunilla Rosenqvist

2001-01-01

65

WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN  

E-print Network

WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH THIS REPORT IS A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD ' S PRO- DUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL. IN 1959- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

66

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonindigenous Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus is established in west-central Florida, where it invades tropical ornamental fish production ponds. The economically valuable ornamental fish industry (US$42 million in 2003) is dominated by the production of small-bodied fishes cultured at high densities in small, earthen ponds. Although introduced Asian swamp eels have been described as voracious predators of fish, to

Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson

2007-01-01

67

Propagation of Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

1,-inch layer oi. sphagnum moss on top of the soil; sow seed or The classes of ornamental plants usually prop- this layer of moss and do not Cover. Water flati agated by seed are annuals, many trees and 0' when needed from below, by the methe... available, kitchen-grade aluminum foil can be sabstituted. The roots in the moist ball of sphagnum moss will grow quickly and abundantly. Cut the rooted stem or branch off and plant the new plant in fresh soil when inspection shows that the ball...

DeWerth, A. F.

1955-01-01

68

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Hunter, Ms.

2009-07-07

69

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Jones, Cory

2009-09-28

70

Diet of the Nonindigenous Asian Swamp Eel in Tropical Ornamental Aquaculture Ponds in West-Central Florida  

E-print Network

mm in total length (TL) that were taken from ornamental aquaculture farms. Fifty-two percent lacked values of stomach fullness. Prey items included amphipods, crayfish, fish, fish eggs, insects was the heaviest prey category, closely followed by insects, fish eggs, and crayfish. Only 10 fish prey were found

Watson, Craig A.

71

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... Transplant Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Fish Share Compartir Fish, frogs, toads, and the water they live in ... more likely than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status ...

72

NOAA/NMFS Developments Developing Fish Resources Can Offset U.S. Trade Deficits  

E-print Network

come across two oceans each year to do so. He noted to the subcommittee that the Magnuson Fishery underutilized by the domestic industry. Hormone Research Aids Pacific Salmon Culture Aquaculture companies them into the ocean have found that sometimes as many as 80-90 percent of the fish will either die

73

Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

2007-01-01

74

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

75

Pterin-based ornamental coloration predicts yolk antioxidant levels in female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).  

PubMed

1. Maternal investment in egg quality can have important consequences for offspring fitness. For example, yolk antioxidants can affect embryonic development as well as juvenile and adult phenotype. Thus, females may be selected to advertise their yolk antioxidant deposition to discriminatory males via ornamental signals, perhaps depending on the reproductive costs associated with signal production. 2. Female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) develop pterin-based orange colour patches during the reproductive season that influence male behaviour and that are positively associated with the phenotypic quality of the female and her offspring. Here, we assessed one potential developmental mechanism underlying the relationship between offspring quality and female ornamentation in S. virgatus, by examining the relationship between ornament expression and yolk antioxidant levels. 3. As expected, concentrations of the yolk antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin) were strongly positively intercorrelated. Eggs from larger clutches had fewer antioxidants than eggs from smaller clutches, suggesting that females may be limited in antioxidant availability or use. Fertilized and unfertilized eggs did not differ in yolk antioxidant levels. 4. The size of a female's ornament was positively related to both the concentration and total amount of yolk antioxidants, and ornament colour was positively related to yolk antioxidant concentration. Thus, in S. virgatus, female ornaments may advertise egg quality. In addition, these data suggest that more ornamented females may produce higher-quality offspring, in part because their eggs contain more antioxidants. As the colour ornament of interest is derived from pterins, not carotenoids, direct resource trade-offs between ornaments and eggs may be eliminated, reducing reproductive costs associated with signalling. 5. This is the first example of a positive relationship between female ornamentation and yolk antioxidants in reptiles and may indicate the general importance of these patterns in oviparous vertebrates. PMID:21269301

Weiss, Stacey L; Kennedy, Eileen A; Safran, Rebecca J; McGraw, Kevin J

2011-05-01

76

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five...

2012-01-01

77

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five...

2011-01-01

78

16 CFR 303.26 - Ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.26 Ornamentation. (a)(1) Where the textile fiber product contains fiber ornamentation not exceeding five...

2013-01-01

79

Viability selection against highly-ornamented males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Variation in ornamental traits, such as plumage coloration, is maintained by the opposing forces of sexual selection (increased ornamentation) and natural selection (decreased ornamentation). Organisms: A wild population of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) in northwestern Oregon which has been the subject of longitudinal population studies since 1988. Methods: We necropsied 47 adult birds recovered dead in 2002. We measured

Amber J. Keyser; Lynn M. Siefferman

2005-01-01

80

Toward proccedural decorative ornamentation in games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castles, palaces, temples and cathedrals in the real world are densely decorated with ornamentation. Computer games, in contrast, usually have much less and appear Spartan in comparison. Game worlds, whether hand-made or procedural, require greater decorative ornamentation to increase their realism and beauty. Currently artists create this ornament by hand; this doesn't scale. In order to have more decorative artwork

Jim Whitehead

2010-01-01

81

Agricultural Sciences WoodyOrnamental  

E-print Network

: Gary W. Moorman, Professor of Plant Pathology Pesticide safety: Kerry M. Richards, Director, and Sharon I. Gripp, Information Specialist, of the Penn State Pesticide Education Program Cover photograph to Woody Ornamentals 8 Plant Phenological Indicators 10 Bee Warning 10 Insect Traps and Attractants 10

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

82

Department of Entomology LANDSCAPE & ORNAMENTALS  

E-print Network

a ball of plant tissue. Because gall makers spend such a small part of their life out- side of galls to bud break. Galls should be pruned from the plant prior to this period of mite activity in the springDepartment of Entomology LANDSCAPE & ORNAMENTALS E-56-W PURDUE EXTENSION GALLS ON SHADE TREES

Ginzel, Matthew

83

Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

Still, Steven

84

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

2009-01-01

85

Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

removing, destroying and replacing heavily infested ornamental shrubs and trees. Insecticides labeled for control of scale insects may harm benefi- cial insects. Pesticides for scale control Many pesticides are available to consumers want- ing to control...- rupt molting. Poisons: The most common group of poisons is the nerve poisons. These insecticides disrupt an insect?s nervous system. They are absorbed through the insect?s exoskeleton ?skin? and are considered ?contact insecticides.? Common contact...

Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2000-08-21

86

Assortative mating by multiple ornaments in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In positive assortative mating, individuals of similar phenotype mate together more frequently than expected by chance. Assortative mating by a variety of qualities, including ornamentation, is well documented in birds. Studies of assortative mating by ornaments have focused on single, highly conspicuous ornaments, but many species of birds possess multiple ornaments in both sexes. We compared ornament expressions between mates

Jodie M. Jawor; Susan U. Linville; Sara M. Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2003-01-01

87

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds 4-89  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds 4-89 Weed Management in Home Ornamental Beds Jeffrey F. Derr, Extension Weed Scientist, Hampton Roads AREC Overview Weed management is necessary in flower beds and for shrub and tree plantings. Weeds reduce

Liskiewicz, Maciej

88

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2012-01-01

89

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2010-01-01

90

16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled for retail...

2011-01-01

91

Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse. PMID:20027312

Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

2009-01-01

92

Simple ecological trade-offs give rise to emergent cross-ecosystem distributions of a coral reef fish  

PubMed Central

Ecosystems are intricately linked by the flow of organisms across their boundaries, and such connectivity can be essential to the structure and function of the linked ecosystems. For example, many coral reef fish populations are maintained by the movement of individuals from spatially segregated juvenile habitats (i.e., nurseries, such as mangroves and seagrass beds) to areas preferred by adults. It is presumed that nursery habitats provide for faster growth (higher food availability) and/or low predation risk for juveniles, but empirical data supporting this hypothesis is surprisingly lacking for coral reef fishes. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms (growth, predation risk, and reproductive investment) that give rise to the distribution patterns of a common Caribbean reef fish species, Haemulon flavolineatum (French grunt). Adults were primarily found on coral reefs, whereas juvenile fish only occurred in non-reef habitats. Contrary to our initial expectations, analysis of length-at-age revealed that growth rates were highest on coral reefs and not within nursery habitats. Survival rates in tethering trials were 0% for small juvenile fish transplanted to coral reefs and 24–47% in the nurseries. As fish grew, survival rates on coral reefs approached those in non-reef habitats (56 vs. 77–100%, respectively). As such, predation seems to be the primary factor driving across-ecosystem distributions of this fish, and thus the primary reason why mangrove and seagrass habitats function as nursery habitat. Identifying the mechanisms that lead to such distributions is critical to develop appropriate conservation initiatives, identify essential fish habitat, and predict impacts associated with environmental change. PMID:21072542

Grol, Monique G. G.; Rypel, Andrew L.; Layman, Craig A.

2010-01-01

93

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

94

Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

2013-01-01

95

Treatment of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage ofIchthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1–11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5-

Günter Schmahl; Silke Ruider; Heinz Mehlhorn; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

1992-01-01

96

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

97

Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)  

PubMed Central

Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

2014-01-01

98

Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested\\u000a as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid\\u000a availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with

Eduardo Aguilera; Juan A. Amat

2007-01-01

99

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal\\u000a honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration\\u000a of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen

Pilar López; Marianne Gabirot; José Martín

2009-01-01

100

Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

2012-01-01

101

Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

PubMed

Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive. PMID:19776075

Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

2009-12-22

102

Applicator Training Manual for: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this manual are descriptions of the reaction of ornamental plants to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses and mycoplasmas. Also described are insects which are associated with ornamentals. Examples of weeds found in ornamental or turf areas, such as crabgrass and chickweed, are described as well. Finally information is…

Hartman, John R.; And Others

103

Parental choice selects for ornamental plumage in American coot chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORNAMENTAL traits such as colourful bird plumage were the prime motivation for Darwin's theory of sexual selection1. Other evolutionary mechanisms could also select for ornamental traits2-6, but such mechanisms have received far less attention, and empirical evidence for their existence is weak. Here we show that parental choice selects for the bizarre ornamental plumes of newly hatched American coot (Fulica

Bruce E. Lyon; John M. Eadie; Linda D. Hamilton

1994-01-01

104

The Social Capital of the Silver Ornaments in Northeastern, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The silver ornaments is the well known handicraft for Chum Chon Ban Choke, Tambon Khawao Sinrin, Amphoe Khawao Sinrin and Surin province. The study of social capital concerning silver ornaments at Ban Choke co mmunity, the Khmer ethnic focused on the low quality of the making the silver ornaments. The sil ver craftsmen earned less income because the

Warit Witsrutwait; Songkhoon Chantachon; Penchan Kriengkrisuk; Prasopsuk Rittidet; Budsakorn Saenyabud

2009-01-01

105

Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2  

E-print Network

VM114 Fish Nutrition1 Ruth Francis-Floyd, DVM2 1. This document is VM114, one of a series Introduction For many years water quality has been the most important limitation to fish production. Advances. Most successfully reared ornamental fish are omnivores, and these are the species that have adapted

Watson, Craig A.

106

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant based on Redundant Discrete  

E-print Network

Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space, and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, a system that can proper identify this plant is needed. Therefore, this work proposesto build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT) through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83 % of correct classification rate.

Wavelet Transformation; Kohei Arai; Indra Nugraha Abdullah

107

Testing the interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on carotenoid-based ornamentation in a wild bird.  

PubMed

Testosterone underlies the expression of most secondary sexual traits, playing a key role in sexual selection. However, high levels might be associated with physiological costs, such as immunosuppression. Immunostimulant carotenoids underpin the expression of many red-yellow ornaments, but are regulated by testosterone and constrained by parasites. We manipulated testosterone and nematode burdens in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) in two populations to tease apart their effects on carotenoid levels, ornament size and colouration in three time-step periods. We found no evidence for interactive effects of testosterone and parasites on ornament size and colouration. We showed that ornament colouration was testosterone-driven. However, parasites decreased comb size with a time delay and testosterone increased carotenoid levels in one of the populations. This suggests that environmental context plays a key role in determining how individuals resolve the trade-off between allocating carotenoids for ornamental coloration or for self-maintenance needs. Our study advocates that adequately testing the mechanisms behind the production or maintenance of secondary sexual characters has to take into account the dynamics of sexual trait expression and their environmental context. PMID:20536879

Martínez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Webster, L M I; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Piertney, S B

2010-05-01

108

Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

2013-09-01

109

Ultraviolet Colour Vision and Ornamentation in Bluethroats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV\\/violet ornament in

Staffan Andersson; Trond Amundsen

1997-01-01

110

Ornamental Horticulture: Program Planning Guide: Volume 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program planning guide for ornamental horticulture was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of arboriculture, floriculture, greenhouse operation and management,…

Ross, Roger R.; Stitt, Thomas R.

111

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

112

Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

113

Genetic Manipulation of Turfgrasses ORNAMENTALS: TURFGRASS  

E-print Network

. Genetic Transformation for Value-Added Traits and Varietal Improvement Genomic and cellular tools allow, competitiveness against weeds, and nutrient uptake efficiency. Tis- sue culture and genetic transformationGenetic Manipulation of Turfgrasses ORNAMENTALS: TURFGRASS Though turfgrass is not food, fiber

114

[Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].  

PubMed

The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico. PMID:23894937

Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

2012-06-01

115

A caboclo society in the middle Rio Negro Basin: Ecology, economy, and history of an ornamental fishery in the state of Amazonas, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes the socioeconomic organization of the ornamental fishery of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil and its articulation to the global aquarium trade; understood in historical context; provides ethnographic data which are comparable to those of other areas of Amazonia, and which demonstrate the lack of social and environmental uniformity in the region; describes the various myths of the

Gregory Prang

2001-01-01

116

Microencapsulation of Fish Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade\\u000a in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas\\u000a of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to

Christiaan M. Beindorff; Nicolaas Jan Zuidam

117

Senescing sexual ornaments recover after a sabbatical  

PubMed Central

Somatic deterioration in ageing animals may arise from allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of repair and maintenance. Thus, accumulated reproductive effort is likely to progressively limit the expression of sexual ornaments at older ages. We analysed the effect of age and reproductive effort on the sexual attractiveness (foot colour) of male blue-footed boobies. Using a long-term dataset, we found that, as animals age and accumulate reproductive events, the expression of foot colour deteriorates. In addition, after non-breeding events males displayed more colourful feet compared with males that reproduced the year before, suggesting that sabbatical years facilitate recovery. Our results indirectly support the idea that allocation of resources to reproduction limits sexual attractiveness and that animals could cope with the negative effects of senescence on sexual ornaments by skipping some breeding events. PMID:19955170

Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

2010-01-01

118

Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response.

Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A.

2007-11-01

119

Cellular respiration: the nexus of stress, condition, and ornamentation.  

PubMed

A fundamental hypothesis for the evolution and maintenance of ornamental traits is that ornaments convey information to choosing females about the quality of prospective mates. A diverse array of ornaments (e.g., colors, morphological features, and behaviors) has been associated with a wide range of measures of individual quality, but decades of study of such indicator traits have failed to produce general mechanisms of honest signaling. Here, I propose that efficiency of cellular respiration, as a product of mitochondrial function, underlies the associations between ornamentation and performance for a broad range of traits across taxa. A large biomedical literature documents the fundamental biochemical links between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the process of metabolism, the function of the immune system, the synthesis of proteins, and the development and function of the nervous system. The production of virtually all ornaments whose expressions have been demonstrated to be condition-dependent is directly affected by the efficiency of cellular respiration, suggesting that the signaling of respiratory efficiency may be the primary function of such traits. Furthermore, the production of ornaments links to stress-response systems, including particularly the neuroendocrine system, through mitochondrial function, thereby makes ornamental traits effective signals of the capacity to withstand environmental perturbations. The identification of a unifying mechanism of honest signaling holds the potential to connect many heretofore-disparate fields of study related to stress and ornamentation, including neuroendocrinology, respiratory physiology, metabolic physiology, and immunology. PMID:24791751

Hill, Geoffrey E

2014-10-01

120

Female choice, parasite load and male ornamentation in wild turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo, exhibit a particularly striking array of ornamental characters, including a bare, brightly coloured head covered with bumpy caruncles and a distensible snood, a black hair-like beard, tarsal spurs and a large fanned tail. These characters are hypothesized to be maintained by female choice. Good genes models of female choice propose that these ornaments serve as indicators

Richard Buchholz

1995-01-01

121

Fishing in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting magazine from the European Commission covers diverse topics related to (but not exclusive of) the fishing industry (in .pdf format). The current issue of the magazine includes a piece from the Trade Union of Fish Merchants; the story of an expanding fishing village; the discovery of the Patagonian toothfish, a potentially threatened species; and a discussion of Total Allowable Catches for the year 2000.

122

Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the spermonde islands, sulawesi, indonesia.  

PubMed

Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. PMID:25082298

Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

2014-12-01

123

Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple ornaments by the same organism. PMID:21556328

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galvan, Ismael

2011-01-01

124

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

125

Trade Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the measurement of trade costs --- what we know, and what we don't know but may usefully attempt to find out. Partial and incomplete data on direct measures of costs go together with inference on implicit costs from trade flows and prices. Total trade costs in rich countries are large. The ad valorem tax equivalent is about

James E. Anderson; Eric van Wincoop

2004-01-01

126

Multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of condition and behaviour in female northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male ornamentation in socially monogamous birds has been shown to provide information to potential mates on aspects of condition and behaviour. We studied female ornamentation in the socially monogamous, biparental northern cardinal to determine whether expressions of multiple ornaments correlate with aspects of female condition and behaviour. Expressions of the ornamental red-orange bill, red underwing feathers, head crest and blackish

Jodie M Jawor; Nick Gray; Sara M Beall; Randall Breitwisch

2004-01-01

127

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

128

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

129

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

130

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

131

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

132

Biotechnological approaches to breeding and cultivation of ornamental crop plants.  

PubMed

Recent advances in plant biotechnology hold great potential for the ornamental horticulture industry. In addition to conventional methods, breeders can now introduce genetic variation into ornamentals by the application of recombinant DNA technology. This technology is particularly useful for effecting changes in phenotypic expression encoded by single genes such as corolla and foliage color and texture, stem length, scent, temporal regulation of flowering, vase life of cut flowers and resistance to stressful environments. In part, the commercial success of this technology will depend on developing reliable methods of transformation of ornamentals and on the stability of the introduced or altered genes. In addition, new and improved strategies of in vitro culture have been commercially implemented for the propagation and breeding of a wide variety of ornamental crops and will undoubtedly play a major role in the screening and propagation of chimeric plants developed by recombinant DNA technology. PMID:14546642

Khayat, E

1990-01-01

133

Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of servant's room showing ornamental iron security grille, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

134

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Detail of fireplace ornament, nearly life size heads of General Stilwell and associated personnel, evenly spaced across the entire face of the mantlepiece. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

135

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

136

Ornament is dangerous : a wildfire hazard center for Los Angeles  

E-print Network

There is no such thing as an unadorned building. While the the role and relevance of ornament in architecture has been criticized for centuries, its position has been, for the most part, supported as essential to architecture. ...

Trimble, Matthew Alexander

2008-01-01

137

Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?  

PubMed

This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration. PMID:24946976

Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

2014-08-01

138

Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.  

PubMed

Differences in growth conditions during early life have been suggested to cause long-lasting effects on morphology and quality of adult birds. We experimentally investigated the effect of early growth conditions on the expression of sexual ornaments later in life in male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). We also investigated the effects on immune function, as it could be a functional link between early nutrition and ornament expression. We manipulated the dietary protein intake during the first eight weeks post hatching. Males receiving fodder with 27% protein during the first three weeks of life grew larger and more colourful wattles when sexually mature than males receiving a low-protein diet (20.5% protein). Spur length was unaffected by diet treatment. Manipulation of food protein levels during weeks 4-8 after hatching had no effect on the development of ornaments. The different protein treatments had no long-term effect on either humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. There was, however, a positive relationship between spur length and cell-mediated immune responsiveness. Our study shows that expression of a sexual ornament in adult pheasants reflects nutritional conditions early in life. Because the expression of secondary sexual ornaments is affected by conditions during early growth, by selecting more ornamented males, females would choose mates that are superior at handling early nutritional stress. If the susceptibility to early nutritional stress also has a hereditary basis, females may benefit by obtaining 'good genes'. PMID:11788032

Ohlsson, Thomas; Smith, Henrik G; Råberg, Lars; Hasselquist, Dennis

2002-01-01

139

Oxidative damage to DNA related to survivorship and carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation in the common yellowthroat  

PubMed Central

Carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are hypothesized to be reliable signals of male quality, based on an allocation trade-off between the use of carotenoids as pigments and their use in antioxidant defence against reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids appear to be poor antioxidants in vivo, however, and it is not clear whether variation in ornament expression is correlated with measures of oxidative stress (OXS) under natural conditions. We used single-cell gel electrophoresis to assay oxidative damage to erythrocyte DNA in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler in which sexual selection favours components of the males' yellow ‘bib’. We found that the level of DNA damage sustained by males predicted their overwinter survivorship and was reflected in the quality of their plumage. Males with brighter yellow bibs showed lower levels of DNA damage, both during the year the plumage was sampled (such that yellow brightness signalled current OXS) and during the previous year (such that yellow brightness signalled past OXS). We suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments can convey information about OXS to prospective mates and that further work exploring the proximate mechanism(s) linking OXS to coloration is warranted. PMID:21247942

Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Amidon, Joel; Berdy, Brittany; Wein, Stephanie; Taff, Conor C.; Haussmann, Mark F.

2011-01-01

140

Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows  

PubMed Central

Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

Vagasi, Csongor I.; Pap, Peter L.; Barta, Zoltan

2010-01-01

141

Ornamental plants as sinks and bioindicators.  

PubMed

Mitigation of urban air pollution is a big challenge, especially for the metropolitan cities of the world. In an Indian metropolis like Delhi, even after the implementation of several control policies, no such remarkable change has been observed in its air quality. Globally, afforestation or greenbelt development is an effective and well-recognized pollution abatement process. The aim of our present study was to examine the biochemical response of some naturalized ornamental plant species, viz. Dracaena deremensis, Tagetes erecta, Rosa indica and Dianthus caryophyllus. During experimental study, plants were kept at selected sites which were categorized in terms of traffic density (emission source) and vegetative pattern during winter months for 120 days. Four biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH, relative water contents along with Air Pollution Tolerance Indices were determined from foliar samples at each selected site. D. deremensis and T. erecta were classified under tolerant while R. indica and D. caryophyllus were marked as in sensitive category. Based on the sensitivity of selected plant species, it has been recommended that D. deremensis and T. erecta may be used as sinks for the abatement of air pollution at highly polluted sites whereas R. indica and D. caryophyllus can be used as bioindicators. PMID:24617064

Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

2013-01-01

142

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems  

E-print Network

How Institutions Affect Outcomes in Laboratory Tradable Fishing Allowance Systems Christopher M. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade takes place through a double auction, which, which yield materially different outcomes. In a laboratory tradable fishing allowance system, when trade

143

Trading Post  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wake of COP-4, Resources for the Future (RFF) (described in the August 28, 1998 Scout Report) has posted Webpages on climate change negotiations. One of these, Trading Post, is "a resource for the analysis and reporting of research and writings on 'flexibility mechanisms' -- the Clean Development Mechanism, emissions trading, and Joint Implementation (or activities implemented jointly) -- authorized by the Kyoto Protocol."

144

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

145

Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.  

PubMed

In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination. PMID:22610632

Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

2012-01-01

146

Effect of stress on female-specific ornamentation.  

PubMed

Signal honesty is theorized to be maintained by condition-dependent trait expression. However, the mechanisms mediating the condition dependence of sexually selected traits are often unknown. New work suggests that elevated glucocorticoid levels during physiological stress may play a role in maintaining signal honesty. Here, we experimentally examine the effect of both chronic and acute stress on the expression of the condition-dependent ornamentation of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus. Females were stressed either chronically via corticosterone implants or relatively acutely via autotomy, were sham manipulated or were left unmanipulated. Both stressors resulted in elevations in corticosterone within physiologically relevant levels, though the implants resulted in significantly higher levels than did autotomy. Corticosterone-implanted females were less likely to produce a clutch of eggs, but those individuals that did reproduce had reproductive output similar to that of females from other treatment groups. Compared with females in other groups, the corticosterone-implanted females tended to develop smaller ornaments that had less UV and orange-to-red wavelength reflectance relative to medium wavelength reflectance. The sex steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol were correlated to corticosterone levels, but did not appear to underlie the effect on ornament expression; of the steroids measured, only corticosterone levels were negatively related to ornament size and coloration. Thus, the condition-dependent ornamentation of female lizards is sensitive to chronic elevations in stress hormones, supporting their importance in the maintenance of signal honesty. PMID:23531828

Weiss, Stacey L; Mulligan, Emily E; Wilson, Dawn S; Kabelik, David

2013-07-15

147

Are Non-Native Plants Perceived to Be More Risky? Factors Influencing Horticulturists' Risk Perceptions of Ornamental Plant Species  

PubMed Central

Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195

Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael

2014-01-01

148

Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.  

PubMed

Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N?=?625) to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species. PMID:25003195

Humair, Franziska; Kueffer, Christoph; Siegrist, Michael

2014-01-01

149

South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices 1  

E-print Network

ABE 369 South Florida ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management practices ornamental plant grower perspectives: water conservation management.... 2 water quantity and quality historically experienced periods of extended droughts which threaten production capabilities thus making water

Migliaccio, Kati White

150

Cosmic Ornament of Gas and Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] 4-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Silicon Gas Figure 2 Argon Figure 3 Dust Collection Figure 4

This beautiful bulb might look like a Christmas ornament but it is the blown-out remains of a stellar explosion, or supernova. Called Cassiopeia A, this supernova remnant is located about 10,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way galaxy. The remains are shown here in an infrared composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Silicon gas is blue and argon gas is green, while red represents about 10,000 Earth masses worth of dust. Yellow shows areas where red and green overlap.

The fact that these two features line up (as seen in yellow in the combined view) tells astronomers that the dust, together with the gas, was created in the explosion. This is the best evidence yet that supernovae are a significant source of dust in the early universe something that was postulated before, but not proven. Dust in our young universe is important because it eventually made its way into future stars, planets and even people.

In figure 1, the upper left panel is a composite made up of three infrared views shown in the remaining panels. The bottom left view (figure 3) shows argon gas (green) that was synthesized as it was ejected from the star. The upper right panel (figure 2) shows silicon gas (blue) deep in the interior of the remnant. This cooler gas, called the unshocked ejecta, was also synthesized in the supernova blast. The bottom right view (figure 4) shows a collection of dust (red), including proto-silicates, silicate dioxide and iron oxide.

The data for these images were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light apart to reveal the fingerprints of molecules and elements. In total, Spitzer collected separate 'spectra' at more than 1,700 positions across Cassiopeia A. Astronomers then created maps from this massive grid of data, showing the remnant in a multitude of infrared colors.

2007-01-01

151

Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. The remaining plants were intermediate in response. The identification of additional M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in nematode management in nurseries and landscapes. PMID:19277187

LaMondia, J. A.

1996-01-01

152

Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. The remaining plants were intermediate in response. The identification of additional M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in nematode management in nurseries and landscapes. PMID:19277187

Lamondia, J A

1996-12-01

153

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish ( ... medical alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the ...

154

Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes  

PubMed Central

From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

2014-01-01

155

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

2009-01-01

156

Carotenoid ornamentation of adult male Common Redpolls predicts probability of dying in a salmonellosis outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Conditional handicap models of sexual selection predict that ornamentation should be positively associated with an individual's ability to withstand challenges to their health. 2. We assessed whether levels of carotenoid ornamentation were related to the pro- bability of adult male Common Redpolls, Carduelis flammea , dying in a salmonellosis epidemic by comparing the ornamentation of surviving adult male

H. VAN OORT; R. D. DAWSON

2005-01-01

157

49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. photocopy of detail of ionic capital. Sculptures and Ornamental Details in Bronze and Iron of the New City Hall, Philadelphia. 5 vols. Compiled in 1883. II,n.p. - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

158

Metabolie Engineering of Flower Color in Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the knowledge of plant pigment pathways at genetic, biochemical and molecular levels, and the establishment of genetic transformation methods for an increasing number of plant species have paved the way to genetic engineering of flower and plant color for ornamental purposes. From trial-and-error approaches based on the available few genes, the trend is now to comprehensively study the

Carlo Rosati; Philippe Simoneau

2006-01-01

159

2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CLOSEUP OF THE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTS, THE CENTRAL BIFOLD DOORS, AND THE EXAGGERATED TRIGLYTHS ABOVE THE DOOR, LOOKING WEST. NOTE THE PERSONNEL DOOR COMPRISED OF THE BOTTOM THREE PANELS IN THE LEFT BIFOLD DOOR. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

160

Ornamental Annual Plants and Their Uses. Slide Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with ornamental annual plants and their uses. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 254 slides illustrating 97 different plants. At least two slides are provided for each plant: one shows the growth habits of the…

Still, Steven

161

An Analysis of Tasks Performed in the Ornamental Horticulture Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the result of a detailed task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. Nine types of horticulture businesses identified were: (1) retail florists, (2) farm and garden supply store, (3) landscape services, (4) greenhouse production, (5) nursery production, (6) turf production, (7) arborist…

Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

162

Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

163

Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008  

E-print Network

Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008 The Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of a new hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivar 'Red Dragon caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller. 'Red Dragon' (OSU 897.078) resulted from a cross of OSU

Tullos, Desiree

164

Business Analysis of Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Florida, 19981  

E-print Network

-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status container and field-grown woody ornamentals, tropical foliage, and flowering plants. The average firm had. These results confirm that profitability in the Florida nursery plant industry has continued to decline

Jawitz, James W.

165

3. VIEW WEST, ORNAMENTAL TEST PLOT IN THE MIDDLE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW WEST, ORNAMENTAL TEST PLOT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FIELDS, WITH LARGE CHINESE SAWTOOTH OAK (DAUGHTER OF THE ORIGINAL OAK THAT WAS LOCATED TO THE EAST OF BUILDING I) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Landscape, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

166

Identification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation  

E-print Network

they had great potential to be used for Cd contaminated soil remediation. Furthermore, under chemically). Whereas, stabilization and extraction remediation are mainly used for soils contaminated by most of heavyIdentification and Chemical Enhancement of Two Ornamental Plants for Phytoremediation Jia-Nv Liu Ã?

Ma, Lena

167

No heightened condition dependence of zebra finch ornaments--a quantitative genetic approach.  

PubMed

The developmental stress hypothesis offers a mechanism to maintain honesty of sexually selected ornaments, because only high quality individuals will be able to develop full ornamentation in the face of stress during early development. Experimental tests of this hypothesis have traditionally involved the manipulation of one aspect of the rearing conditions and an examination of effects on adult traits. Here, we instead use a statistically powerful quantitative genetic approach to detect condition dependence. We use animal models to estimate environmental correlations between a measure of early growth and adult traits. This way, we could make use of the sometimes dramatic differences in early growth of more than 800 individually cross-fostered birds and measure the effect on a total of 23 different traits after birds reached maturity. We find strong effects of environmental growth conditions on adult body size, body mass and fat deposition, moderate effects on beak colour in both sexes, but no effect on song and plumage characters. Rather surprisingly, there was no effect on male attractiveness, both measured in mate choice trials and under socially complex conditions in aviaries. There was a trend for a positive effect of good growth conditions on the success at fertilizing eggs in males breeding in aviaries whereas longevity was not affected in either sex. We conclude that zebra finches are remarkably resilient to food shortage during growth and can compensate for poor growth conditions without much apparent life-history trade-offs. Our results do not support the hypothesis that sexually selected traits show heightened condition dependence compared to nonsexually selected traits. PMID:20074304

Bolund, E; Schielzeth, H; Forstmeier, W

2010-03-01

168

The Political Trade-offs of Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

Bosshardt, William

1996-01-01

169

Technical improvements of a rearing system for the culture of decapod crustacean larvae, with emphasis on marine ornamental species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the efficiency of cylindrico-spherical (CST) and cylindrico-conical tanks (CCT) to culture the larvae of decapod crustaceans, with emphasis to marine ornamental species, and describes a new filter system to flush uneaten preys. The ornamental shrimps Lysmata debelius, Lysmata seticaudata and Stenopus hispidus, the ornamental crab Stenorhynchus seticornis and the ornamental hermit crab Clibanarius erythropus were used

Ricardo Calado; Tânia Pimentel; António Vitorino; Gisela Dionísio; Maria Teresa Dinis

2008-01-01

170

Trade Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human trafficking is an old, but increasingly complex, phenomenon. In an age of globalization and transnationalism, demand for cheap labour and services fuels a trade deeply rooted in different cultural and historical contexts. Human traffickers share those roots with their respective diasporas the world over. This paper examines the case for an empirical investigation, and gender-sensitive analysis, of the connections

Jackie Turner; Liz Kelly

2009-01-01

171

Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille

1996-01-01

172

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

173

Introgressive hybridization between color morphs in a population of cichlid fishes twelve years after human-induced secondary admixis.  

PubMed

In the extremely species-rich haplochromine cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes, prezygotic isolation between closely related species is often maintained by color-assortative mating. In 1998, local fisherman working for the ornamental fish trade released different color morphs of the cichlid genus Tropheus into a small harbor basin in the southern part of Lake Tanganyika. This artificial amalgamation of color morphs provides a unique possibility to study mating patterns in cichlids in a natural environment over time. In a precursor study, we analyzed genotypes and phenotypes of almost 500 individuals sampled between 1999 and 2001 and uncovered a marked degree of color-assortative mating, which depended on the level of color pattern dissimilarity between morphs. Twelve years after introduction of nonindigenous morphs, we again sampled Tropheus individuals from the harbor basin and an adjacent, originally pure population and analyzed phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and 9 microsatellite loci) to assess the current status of the admixed population. Principal component analyses of color score data and population assignment tests demonstrate an increasing level of introgressive hybridization between morphs but also some ongoing color-assortative mating within morphs. The observed mating pattern might have been influenced by fluctuating environmental conditions such as periodic algal blooms or increased sedimentation causing turbid conditions in an otherwise clear lake. PMID:22563125

Egger, Bernd; Sefc, Kristina M; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter

2012-07-01

174

The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and fleshy yellow wattles. In this paper we report the differences in ornamentation between sexes and

A. Velando; C. M. Lessells; J. C. Marquez

2001-01-01

175

Survival cost of an intrasexually selected ornament in a damselfly  

PubMed Central

Ornaments could evolve as honest indicators of fighting ability, provided they have costs that make deceptive signalling unprofitable. I tested for such costs by manipulating the size of the intrasexually selected wing spots of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) and monitoring survival in the field. Males with enlarged spots had higher mortality rates than both unmanipulated and sham-manipulated controls. Natural wing spot size correlated positively with longevity, which suggests that higher quality males develop larger spots.

Grether, G. F.

1997-01-01

176

U. S. Rat. Uus* Olv* fishes. Car^Ad  

E-print Network

Trade 59 Foreign Fishery Trade 68 Section 2 .-New England Fisheries 77 Sectional Summaries 84 Maine 94U. S. Rat. Uus* Olv* fishes. Car^Ad FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1960 STATISTICAL DIGEST FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE STATISTICAL DIGEST 53 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1960 BY E. A

177

Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation  

PubMed Central

Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

178

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

2013-08-01

179

Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation.  

PubMed

Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of diversification. Starlings are a speciose group characterized by diverse iridescent colors produced by nanometer-scale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) that play a central role in sexual selection and social competition. We show that evolutionary lability of these colors is associated with both morphological and lineage diversification in African starlings. The solid rod-like melanosome morphology has evolved in a directional manner into three more optically complex forms that can produce a broader range of colors than the ancestral form, resulting in (i) faster color evolution, (ii) the occupation of novel, previously unreachable regions of colorspace, and ultimately (iii) accelerated lineage diversification. As in adaptive radiations, key innovations in ornament production can provide high phenotypic trait variability, leading to dramatic effects on the tempo and mode of diversification. PMID:23754395

Maia, Rafael; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Shawkey, Matthew D

2013-06-25

180

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

181

Condition-dependent variation in the blue-ultraviolet coloration of a structurally based plumage ornament  

Microsoft Academic Search

After years of investigation into the function of sexually dimorphic ornamental traits, researchers are beginning to understand how bright plumage colour in birds acts as an intraspeci¢c signal.This work has focused primarily on pigment-based ornaments because they are highly variable in patch size, hue and brightness for some species. In contrast, structurally based ornaments have been little studied, in part

Amber J. Keyser; G. E. Hill

1999-01-01

182

Symptomology and relative susceptibility of various ornamental plants to acute airborne sulfur dioxide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of airborne sulfur dioxide on ornamental plants was examined by comparative greenhouse fumigation of various foliage plants, landscape ornamentals, and flowering ornamentals at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppM SOâ. Selected SOâ levels allowed placement of plants into very low, low, intermediate, high and very high susceptibility categories based on foliar injury. Foliar symptoms included marginal and interveinal

T. K. Howe; S. S. Woltz

1981-01-01

183

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

184

City Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

Lange, Robert E.

1979-01-01

185

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

186

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Fish Allergy Finned fish can cause severe allergic reactions (such as anaphylaxis ). Therefore it is advised that ... necessarily mean that you must avoid both. Avoiding Fish The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

187

Fish oil  

MedlinePLUS

... Fish may have earned its reputation as “brain food” because some people eat fish to help with ... nosebleeds. Taking fish oil supplements with meals or freezing them can often decrease these side effects. Consuming ...

188

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

2011-04-01

189

Essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of essays on the effect of trade costs on international trade. Chapter 1 derives and empirically examines how factor proportions determine the structure of commodity trade when international ...

Romalis, John

2001-01-01

190

The antibacterial screening of some common ornamental plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The freeze-dried powders, methanol extracts and the marcs of various parts of 57 ornamental plants were tested againstStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris andPseudomonas aeruginosa using the tube dilution and plate diffusion methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Nineteen plants showed activity against at least one of the test organisms. These plants were:Aphelandra squarrosa cv. dania,Arisaema triphyllum, Begonia hyb. C. P. Raffill,Begonia

Frank C. Roia; Robert A. Smith

1977-01-01

191

Regulations Pertaining to Non-native Fish in Florida Aquaculture1  

E-print Network

facilities, abundant water, and warm climate can allow non-native species to be introduced, become of a wide variety of warm-water and tropical species of ornamental, food, bait, and sport fish. In 2012-native species. Other non-native species such as tilapia and sturgeon are produced for food, and grass carp

Watson, Craig A.

192

TCC Trade Agreements Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Department of Commerce to aid US exporters, the Trade Compliance Center (TCC) provides access to more than 200 trade documents via the Trade Related Agreements Database (TARA). US Trade Agreements may be browsed by country signatory, issue, or agreement title, or searched by keyword with the benefit on an online thesaurus. In addition, the TCC provides a related database of Market Access Information with searchable country commercial guides, reports on economic policy and trade practices, and national trade estimate reports.

1998-01-01

193

The commercial seed trade: An early disperser of weeds in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds, bulbs, and cuttings of exotic plant species, including plants cultivated exclusively as ornamentals, were being advertised\\u000a for sale in printed circulars in the United States by 1800. By the end of the 19th century seed trade catalogs were prolific\\u000a and often listed dozens of exotic species that were already naturalized in the U.S. or new introductions from foreign suppliers.

Richard N. Mack

1991-01-01

194

Sex role reversal in a pipefish: female ornaments as amplifying handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for sex role reversal in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle are reviewed. In this species, females compete for males, which are choosier than females. Before mating, females display a sexual ornament, a cross-wise striped pattern along their body sides. This ornament is here shown to be an amplifier that facilitates for males to tell females of different sizes apart

Anders Berglund

2000-01-01

195

Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

Nichols, Lester P.

196

Developmental evolution of sexual ornamentation: model and a test of feather growth and pigmentation  

E-print Network

Developmental evolution of sexual ornamentation: model and a test of feather growth. In particular, because feathers are colored during growth, the dynamics of feather growth play a deterministic of feather growth to the expression of carotenoid-based ornamentation. Here, we examine the developmental

Badyaev, Alex

197

On ornamental maturation of two Philippine hornbill species with a note on physiological colour change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Philippine hornbill species, the Visayan writhed-billed hornbill ( Aceros waldeni) and the Visayan tarictic hornbill ( Penelopides panini panini), display on their heads multiple sexual ornaments in both sexes. An account is given of the maturation of these ornaments, except for the hood on the hind neck, from the nestling stage through age 5 years in the writhed-bill, and from

Eberhard Curio

2004-01-01

198

Heritability and genetic correlation between the sexes in a songbird sexual ornament  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic correlation between the sexes in the expression of secondary sex traits in wild vertebrate populations has attracted very few previous empirical efforts of field researchers. In southern European populations of pied flycatchers, a sexually selected male ornament is also expressed by a proportion of females. Additive genetic variances in ornament size and expression, transmission mechanisms (autosomal vs Z-linkage)

J Potti; D Canal

2011-01-01

199

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-83  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-83 Organic Controls for Insects of Home Ornamentals Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Peter Insects Controlled Remarks Bacillus thuringiensis Most caterpillars, loopers, hornworms and bagworms

Liskiewicz, Maciej

200

Signaling efficacy drives the evolution of larger sexual ornaments by sexual selection.  

PubMed

Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

201

SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION  

PubMed Central

Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2014-01-01

202

Pathogenicity and Virulence of the Two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to Woody Ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody hosts. A range of woody ornamental plant species, including Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Acer

J. C. Goud; A. J. Termorshuizen

2002-01-01

203

Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may not accelerate industrialization and growth. This is because there are

Moritz Cruz

2008-01-01

204

Statistical Trading Using Target Oriented Trading Agent  

E-print Network

In this article we briefly present our contributions toward Trading Agent Competition (TAC); an international forum for promotion of research into the trading agent problems. Moreover, we present some strategies proposed and used in the development of our TAC Agent and resultant brief information after its participation in a real time trading environment. In the end we conclude with needed improvements and future recommendations.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

205

Reuse of industrial wastewater for the irrigation of ornamental plants.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of experimental activities carried out for verifying the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater originated from textile (70%) and domestic (30%) activities for the irrigation of container-grown ornamental shrubs. Aspects that concern the refinery treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the effect of irrigation on some ornamental plant species were investigated. An experimental site consisting of a refinery treatment pilot plant (filtration and disinfection) and an agronomic experimental area was set-up. The combined treatment of PAA and UV, used for the disinfection, showed to be very effective for inactivation of E. coli with most of PAA and UV dose combinations able to assure total inactivation. The plants (Buxus, Photinia, Pistacia and Viburnum), sprinkle and drip irrigated with well water (WW), reclaimed wastewater (RW) and a water mixed (MW) between reclaimed wastewater and well water (1:1 by vol), showed interesting results. A similar growth among different treatments was achieved for Buxus and Pistacia, while Viburnum and Photinia plants showed a higher sensibility to MW and RW. Photinia, in particular, turned out to be very sensitive to sprinkle irrigation with the reclaimed water, while the drip irrigation had no such bad effects, as reported in previous works. PMID:18413949

Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F P; Coppini, E

2008-01-01

206

Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards  

PubMed Central

Bacteria present in ejaculates can impair sperm function and reduce male reproductive success. Thus, selection should favour the evolution of antimicrobial defences to limit the detrimental effects of sperm-associated bacteria. Additionally, current hypotheses suggest that ornamental traits may signal information about the infection status of an individual or the ability of an individual to resist bacterial-induced sperm damage. However, despite the evolutionary implications of ejaculate antimicrobials, and the putative importance of pathogens for the evolution of male ornamentation, tests of these hypotheses are lacking. We examined the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal capacity of semen was associated with bill coloration, a sexually selected trait. We show that mallard semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that males with more colourful bills have semen with superior bacterial-killing ability. These results suggest that females could use male phenotypic traits to avoid sexually transmitted pathogens and acquire partners whose sperm suffer less bacteria-induced damage. PMID:21490006

Rowe, Melissah; Czirjak, Gabor Arpad; McGraw, Kevin J.; Giraudeau, Mathieu

2011-01-01

207

Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria  

PubMed Central

Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

Yovkova, Mariya; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

2013-01-01

208

Can too strong female choice deteriorate male ornamentation?  

PubMed Central

Competition for limited resources can have fundamental implications for population dynamics. However, the effects of resource depletion have rarely been discussed in the context of sexual selection, even though mate choice typically favours males who outperform others in securing access to some limited resource. Here, we develop a model to investigate the question of resource competition as a form of male-male competition in the context of male sexual displays. We phrase our model in terms of male bowerbirds either searching for or stealing resources (ornamental objects) valued by females, and compare the model findings with published studies of time allocation to various activities in different species of bowerbirds. The basic idea of the model, however, extends to cases where the resource is used less directly for the development of sexual ornamentation, such as males excluding others' access to food. We show that if males compete for resources used in sexual displays, intense female preference for high-quality displays can lead to poorer prospects for efficient choice by females. This is because males benefit from excluding others' access to resources used in displays, damaging the overall efficiency of resource use in the population, and the accuracy with which females can judge male ability to gain such resources. The evolution of female choice may therefore have a self-limiting nature when it poses a selection pressure on male resource acquisition. PMID:15306306

Morrell, Lesley J.; Kokko, Hanna

2004-01-01

209

Does Trade Cause Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining the correlation between trade and income cannot identify the direction of causation between the two. Countries' geographic characteristics, however, have important effects on trade and are plausibly uncorrelated with other determinants of income. This paper, therefore, constructs measures of the geographic component of countries' trade and uses those measures to obtain instrumental variables estimates of the effect of trade

Jeffrey A. Frankel; David Romer

1999-01-01

210

Technology, Geography, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium. It delivers simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, to comparative advantage (promoting trade), and to geographic barriers (resisting it). We estimate the parameters with data on bilateral trade in manufactures, prices, and geography from 19 OECD countries in 1990. We

Jonathan Eaton; Samuel Kortum

2002-01-01

211

Jewellery- and ornament-related injuries in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers in Canada. Few publications have addressed injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children. OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms and the incidence of injuries caused by jewellery and ornaments in children and teenagers, to identify children at high risk for these type of injuries and to recommend specific injury prevention strategies. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a Canadian database (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) of a tertiary paediatric centre. All patients between zero and 18 years of age who were diagnosed in the emergency department with jewellery- and ornament-related injuries during a 10-year period (1997 to 2006) were identified. Patients were categorized according to six age groups (younger than one year of age; one to two years of age; two to four years of age; five to nine years of age; 10 to 14 years of age, and 15 to 18 years of age). For each case, the context and the mechanism of injury were investigated. RESULTS: From a total of 150,771 reported injury cases, 380 (0.25%) were jewellery related. Unlike with most trauma, girls predominate in this kind of injury (n=288; 75.8% of cases). Over one-half of cases (58.1%) were reported for children four years of age or younger. Emergency physicians reported the presence of jewellery as a foreign body in a natural orifice (mouth, nose, ear or genitourinary tract) in 308 cases (81%). No case of intestinal obstruction, strangulation or death was reported. Eleven cases (2.9%) required emergency hospitalization, all for endoscopic evaluation of a foreign body in the airway or in the digestive tract. In the adolescent group, five cases of injuries secondary to piercing were reported. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that, although jewellery-related injuries are relatively infrequent, some can cause severe injuries that could compromise patients’ health. As a primary prevention strategy, doctors and health professionals working with children should make parents and caregivers aware of the possibility of trauma in children wearing or playing with jewellery, especially in the zero- to four-year-old group requiring closer supervision. Specific anticipatory guidance concerning piercing may be helpful to adolescents. PMID:22131862

Boisclair, S; Rousseau-Harsany, E; Nguyen, BH

2010-01-01

212

Preventive control of aphids in ornamental plants with complementary parasitoids.  

PubMed

Biological control of aphids can be achieved with parasitoids. A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize aphids in a host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are used in organic or integrated pest management strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid against a given aphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently identified. By the time the aphids are spotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control over an increasing aphid population. Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on the crop treated. There was a need for a product controlling the largest possible spectrum of aphid species susceptibly present in ornamental crops. As the first step of development, an inventory of the aphid species attacking ornamental crops was made in various regions. A unique cocktail of parasitoids species (OrnaProtect) controlling all these aphids was then developed. OrnaProtect contains six different species of natural aphid enemies, and is able to control all commonly appearing aphids attacking ornamental crops. The fact of mixing different species not only covers the entire spectrum of aphids, but also contributes to prolonged hatching. To reinforce this long lasting emergence, mummies of different ages are mixed, older mummies (stored at low temperature) emerging earlier after release than young mummies. With that prolonged hatching dynamics, a release every two weeks assures a permanent presence of fresh adult parasitoids in the crop. The ready-to-use units of OrnaProtect contain an integrated feeding point which contributes to longevity and efficiency of the parasitoids. Its application in the crop is much faster than even any chemical treatment. Here, we show the results of trials made with OrnaProtect in 2011 on several crops (Hydrangea macrophylla, Solanum jasminoides, Argyranthemum frutescens and Osteospermum ecklonis). OrnaProtect controlled the aphids in all trials. In one trial, aphids were already present at the time of first release and a localized treatment on about ten plants, compatible with beneficial insects, was applied. After that, an excellent control of the aphids was achieved by the parasitoids. In the other trials, when used in a really preventive way (no aphid at the time of first release, the aphid population was immediately controlled and all plants could be sold as first quality plant without any insecticide treatment. PMID:23885420

Dassonville, N; Thielemans, T; Ruisinger, M; Rosemeyer, V

2012-01-01

213

Trade and Transboundary Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how national income and trading opportunities interact to determine the level and incidence of world pollution. The authors find that free trade raises world pollution if incomes differ substantially across countries; if trade equalizes factor prices, human-capital-abundant countries lose from trade, while human-capital-scarce countries gain; international trade in pollution permits can lower world pollution even when governments'

Brian R. Copeland; M Scott Taylor

1995-01-01

214

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

Tullos, Desiree

215

Fish Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

216

Allergy to the ornamental indoor green plant Tradescantia (Albifloxia).  

PubMed

We report on a 32-year-old atopic female office employee with a moderate tree pollinosis who also suffered from indoor-related perennial rhinoconjunctivitis. Once when she repotted her two ornamental nonflowering green plants of the genus Tradescantia (synonym; Albifloxia; family Commelinaceae), she immediately experienced itching of the face, throat, and conjunctiva; swelling of the lips; and dyspnea and wheezing. Skin prick tests with the leaves of Tradescantia (T. albifloxia and T. fluminensis) (Ta and Tf) were strongly positive as was the specific IgE to Ta leaves extract. On RAST inhibition studies, no cross-reactivity was found between Ta and Ficus benjamina (weeping fig), a nonflowering green plant, which produces, in its milky sap, an important respiratory allergen. Green plants should be considered potential indoor allergens and tested in plant-keepers referred for allergologic investigation. PMID:9201367

Wüthrich, B; Johansson, S G

1997-05-01

217

Female butterflies prefer males bearing bright iridescent ornamentation.  

PubMed

Butterflies are among nature's most colorful animals, and provide a living showcase for how extremely bright, chromatic and iridescent coloration can be generated by complex optical mechanisms. The gross characteristics of male butterfly colour patterns are understood to function for species and/or sex recognition, but it is not known whether female mate choice promotes visual exaggeration of this coloration. Here I show that females of the sexually dichromatic species Hypolimnas bolina prefer conspecific males that possess bright iridescent blue/ultraviolet dorsal ornamentation. In separate field and enclosure experiments, using both dramatic and graded wing colour manipulations, I demonstrate that a moderate qualitative reduction in signal brightness and chromaticity has the same consequences as removing the signal entirely. These findings validate a long-held hypothesis, and argue for the importance of intra- versus interspecific selection as the driving force behind the exaggeration of bright, iridescent butterfly colour patterns. PMID:17284412

Kemp, Darrell J

2007-04-22

218

Properties of iridoviruses from ornamental fish RP Hedrick TS McDowell  

E-print Network

mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), indicated the former species was susceptible although-chat (Ictalurus punctatus) et la truite arc- en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a indiqué que seule cette dernière y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

220

Fish Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 serving) per week. • Do not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating fish caught in local waters. State health departments have ...

221

Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

2014-10-01

222

The Triangular Trade Route  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the Triangular Trade Route? After completeing this project, you should be able to explain the Triangular Trade Route in detail. These details should include the reason for trade, the countries involved, and the main goods that were traded. Getting Started: Each number will give you instructions. Follow the instructions, answering the questions on a loose leaf sheet of paper. Your answers will be collected. 1. What do you already know about trade? Answer this question in your own words. There is no right or wrong answer. 2. Have you ever traded ...

Caldwell, Ms.

2009-07-07

223

SOME MIDDLE DEVONIAN (EIFELIAN-GIVETIAN) FOSSIL FISH REMAINS FROM THE PIMENTEIRA FORMATION OF THE PARNAÍBA BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 ABSTRACT: Some Middle Devonian (late Eifelian-early Givetian) fossil fish remains are described from an outcrop of the Pimenteira Formation on the eastern border of the Parnaíba Basin (Picos area, State of Piauí, northeast Brazil). These remains include a fin spine with ribbed ornament, a bicuspid shark tooth similar to those of xenacanths and omalodontids, a badly-preserved Machaeracanthus spine, and

JOHN G. MAISEY; JOSÉ HENRIQUE G. MELO

224

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

225

Fish Dishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

Derby, Marie

2003-01-01

226

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

227

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update;

2003-10-13

228

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS  

E-print Network

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES TRADE BOOMS, TRADE BUSTS, AND TRADE COSTS David S. Jacks Christopher M Nottingham GEP Trade Costs Conference. Finally, Jacks gratefully acknowledges the Social Sciences that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. #12;Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs

Hickman, Mark

229

Dual functions of a melanin-based ornament in the common yellowthroat  

E-print Network

) that are used to attract mates. Most explanations for the evolution of male plumage ornaments focus on sexual to absorb and metabolize prior to incorporation into feathers (Fox 1976; Olson & Owens 1998). On the other

Dunn, Peter O.

230

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

231

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely\\u000a been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single\\u000a aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages\\u000a hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured

Pablo Vergara; Juan A. Fargallo

2011-01-01

232

The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

Apps, Gary Edward

2012-06-07

233

Experimental manipulation of tail ornament size affects the hematocrit of male barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments\\u000a exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail\\u000a length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen

Nicola Saino; José Javier Cuervo; Marco Krivacek; Florentino de Lope; Anders Pape Møller

1997-01-01

234

Dossier Fair trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dossier various aspects of fair trade are dealt with. First, in brief, an outline is presented what fair trade is usually associated with. Further, KIT’s focus on influencing the mainstream market by promoting business partnerships between conventional companies and small-scale suppliers in developing countries is explained. Fair trade organizations involved in labelling and certification can be found in

J. Sluijs

2007-01-01

235

Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.  

PubMed

B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

2008-01-01

236

In vitro propagation of ornamental myrtus (Myrtus communis).  

PubMed

The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization. PMID:20099108

Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco

2010-01-01

237

Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

2007-02-01

238

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

239

Fish predation selects for reduced foraging activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of foraging activity for the growth\\/predation risk trade-off, studies that demonstrated predator-induced\\u000a survival selection on foraging activity under semi-natural conditions are relatively rare. Here, we tested for fish-induced\\u000a selection for reduced foraging activity in two larval Enallagma damselflies using a field enclosure experiment. Fish imposed considerable mortality in both damselfly species and survival\\u000a selection on foraging activity

Francis Strobbe; Mark A. McPeek; Marjan De Block; Robby Stoks

2011-01-01

240

Parasitic infections in live freshwater tropical fishes imported to Korea.  

PubMed

We examined 15 species of ornamental tropical fishes originating from Southeast Asia to determine the cause of losses among 8 fish farms in Korea. A total of 351 individuals belonging to 5 different families (1 species of Characidae, 6 of Cichlidae, 3 of Cyprinidae, 1 of Heleostomatidae, and 4 of Poecilidae) were collected for the purpose of detecting metazoan and protozoan parasites. Parasites were fixed and stained using routine methods, and identified. We found 3 ciliates, 2 monogeneans, 1 nematode, and 1 copepod from 7 host species. Of these, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common parasite in our study, and together with Trichodina sp., caused mass mortality of Sumatra barb Puntius tetrazona at 1 farm. We also found Camallanus cotti and Tetrahymena corlissi from guppies Poecilia reticulata, both for the first time in Korea. Farmers consider these 2 pathogens to be the most serious ones in Korea. Gussevia asota from oscar Astronotus ocellatus, and Gyrodactylus bullatarudis from platy Xiphophorus maculatus were also found in Korea for the first time. We believe that appropriate quarantine practices for tropical ornamental fishes should be introduced because the failure to require and implement quarantines has already resulted in the accidental introduction of exotic parasites to fish farms, and because these parasites can cause further economic losses if they become established in the wild. PMID:12542094

Kim, Jeong-Ho; Hayward, Craig James; Joh, Seong-Joon; Heo, Gang-Joon

2002-11-22

241

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

242

78 FR 23823 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FISHIN GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel FISHIN GAME is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Sport fishing...

2013-04-22

243

77 FR 5628 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BIG GAME; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BIG GAME is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Fishing...

2012-02-03

244

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

245

Texture Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

Stone, Julie

2007-01-01

246

Venomous Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-08-10

247

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

2010-08-16

248

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

249

Trade Liberalisation and Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

250

Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

2009-01-01

251

Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences. PMID:12791170

Schilthuizen, Menno

2003-01-01

252

British Trade International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Trade International is a comprehensive site covering aspects of the British import and export trades. Along with headlines and daily news, this site also includes news and information for exporters, sector information, and a large searchable database of overseas trade fairs and seminars. An ever-expanding number of market information pages includes snapshot overviews of the countries, maps, and summaries of the UK's dealings with the countries.

253

Trade in health services.  

PubMed Central

In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

Chanda, Rupa

2002-01-01

254

The Trade Card Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Author and collector Ben Crane maintains The Trade Card Place for "all who are interested in Victorian Trade Cards used to advertise American goods and services during the late 1800s." Although the site is geared toward collectors, hosting dealer, collector, and organization directories for the potential Victorian Trade Card buyer, advertising students may also be interested, as Crane includes articles on trade card history and, in his Victorian Scrapbook archive, has posted thumbnail images of cards on subjects ranging from beverages and clothing to toys and tobacco.

1996-01-01

255

SYSTEMWIDE GOAL AND FRAMEWORK SECTION 2 FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM 2-4 September 13, 1995  

E-print Network

SYSTEMWIDE GOAL AND FRAMEWORK SECTION 2 FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM 2-4 September 13, 1995 #12;SECTION 2 SYSTEMWIDE GOAL AND FRAMEWORK September 13, 1995 2-4 FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM · determine Address biological trade-offs between resident fish and wildlife species affected by upriver reservoir

256

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

257

SICE: Foreign Trade Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SICE (Foreign Trade Information System) is the "information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS)." It provides information and trade documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. The available documents are divided into categories such as Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) process, Trade Agreements, Investment Treaties, and Dispute Settlement. The Dispute Settlement section contains all of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel reports from 1948 to 1994. The site also contains a quantitative trade data section with links to data on tariffs, trade flows and national statistical agencies. Spanish, Portuguese and French versions of the site are available.

258

Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

2011-03-01

259

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators.

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M.; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

260

The ornament-condition relationship varies with parasite abundance at population level in a female bird.  

PubMed

Environmental heterogeneity is expected to create variation in the ornament-condition relationship. This topic has been studied in males with less attention being given to females. Here, we explore inter-population variation in the relationship between the size of a male-like trait, supra-orbital combs, and body mass in female red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We used the abundance of the nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis, a parasite with strong negative effects on this species, as a proxy of environmental conditions. We studied six populations over 5 years and showed that the comb size-body mass relationship varied with mean parasite abundance, with stronger ornament-condition relationships in populations with higher parasite infection levels. Our study supports the idea that environmental conditions, and in particular parasite infection levels, may affect the reliability of female ornaments as condition indicators. PMID:21858505

Vergara, Pablo; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Redpath, Stephen M; Mougeot, Francois

2011-10-01

261

Comparative Study of Feature Extraction Components from Several Wavelet Transformations for Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

Abstract — Human has a duty to preserve the nature, preserving the plant is one of the examples. This research emphasis on ornamental plant that has functionality not only as ornament plant but also as a medicinal plant. Purpose of this research is to find the best of the particular feature extraction components from several wavelet transformations. It consists of Daubechies, Dyadic, and Dualtree complex wavelet transformation. Dyadic and Dual-tree complex wavelet transformations have shift invariant property. While Daubechies is a standard wavelet transform that widely used for many applications. This comparison is utilizing leaf image datasets from ornamental plants. From the experiments, obtained that best classification performance attained by Dual-tree complex wavelet transformation with 96.66 % of overall performance result. Keywords—wavelet transformation; shift invariant; rotation invariant; feature extraction; leaf identification. I.

Kohei Arai; Indra Nugraha Abdullah; Hiroshi Okumura

262

Fish Is Food - The FAO's Fish Price Index  

PubMed Central

World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations–which compiles prices for other major food categories–has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

Tveteras, Sigbj?rn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F.; Smith, Martin D.; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

2012-01-01

263

Fishing Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

1988-01-01

264

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

265

Lifetime fitness and age-related female ornament signalling: evidence for survival and fecundity selection in the pied flycatcher.  

PubMed

Ornaments displayed by females have often been denied evolutionary interest due to their frequently reduced expression relative to males, habitually attributed to a genetic correlation between the sexes. We estimated annual and lifetime reproductive success of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and applied capture-mark-recapture models to analyse annual survival rates in relation to the patterns of expression (absence/presence) of an ornament displayed by all males and a fraction of females. Overall, the likelihood of expressing the ornament increased nonlinearly with female age and was due to within-individual variation, not to the selective appearance or disappearance of ornament-related expression of phenotypes in the population. Accordingly, expressing the forehead patch in a given year did not influence survival probability. However, those females expressing the ornament at early ages (1-2 years old) enjoyed survival advantages throughout lifetime. Although ornamented females had higher lifetime fecundity and fledging success, their yearly reproductive performance, in terms of fledging productivity, decreased as they aged so that, late in life, ornamented females reared fewer offspring than nonexpressing females of the same age. In addition, both strategies (expressing vs. not expressing the trait) returned similar fitness payoffs in terms of recruited offspring. Our results support the hypothesis that fecundity and survival selection are involved in the displaying of this 'male' ornament by females. PMID:23638705

Potti, J; Canal, D; Serrano, D

2013-07-01

266

Avian plumage ornaments are some of the best-studied sexually selected traits in animals. From the elongated tails of  

E-print Network

Avian plumage ornaments are some of the best-studied sexually selected traits in animals. From of information that can be signaled by ornamental traits (Owens and Hartley, 1999; McGraw and Hill, 2000 are behaviorally dominant to those having smaller color patches (for a review, see Senar, 1999). More recent work

McGraw, Kevin J.

267

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

HEMP, PAUL E.

268

Free Trade: A Misnomer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

McMillan, Robert R.

1983-01-01

269

Introduction to International Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

Intercom, 1986

1986-01-01

270

International trade. Multinational aspects.  

PubMed

Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups. PMID:11193639

Ozawa, Y

2000-01-01

271

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

272

Theory of International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book expounds trade theory emphasizing that a trading equilibrium is general rather than partial, and is often best modelled using dual or envelope functions. This yields a compact treatment of standard theory, clarifies some errors and confusions, and produces some new departures. In particular, the book (i) gives unified treatments of comparative statics and welfare, (ii) sheds new light

Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

1980-01-01

273

Teaching With Trade Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project provides the why as well as tips and techniques for incorporating trade books in the middle school math and science classroom. In addition, lessons ideas and descriptions of specific trade books are provided.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2010-05-01

274

Designer Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

Hall, William R., Jr.

1990-01-01

275

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

276

Fish cognition.  

PubMed

The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two reasons (Figure 1). First, they occupy a key position in the vertebrate phylogenetic tree: the common ancestor of the tetrapods was a bony fish. Thus, all vertebrates share key genetic features that code for the body structure, including the vertebrate brain. Similarities in brain structure and function are hence likely to be due to common ancestry. A second reason to study fish cognition is that fish have had their own independent evolution/radiation since they split from tetrapods. Bony fishes are by far the most species-rich vertebrate group. As a consequence, they provide the best options for a comparative approach that aims to link the evolution of cognition to a species' ecology. Therefore, the study of fishes may reveal general principles of ecological effects on cognitive abilities in vertebrates. PMID:25291632

Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

2014-10-01

277

Enigmatic ornamentation eases male reliance on courtship performance for mating success  

E-print Network

have a mating advantage, whereas at high courtship rates, males with less foreleg ornamentation have with intricate structures, conspicuous coloration, specific pigment patterns and/or other forms of sexual was the proposal that such traits as the peacock's tail evolved in response to selection via female choice. Indeed

Rodríguez, Rafael Lucas

278

Carotenoid Plasma Concentration, Immune Profile, and Plumage Ornamentation of Male Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids exert immunomodulating, immunostimu- lating, and antioxidant actions in mammals and are major deter- minants of coloration in animals. Honest advertisement models of sexual selection propose that male ornaments, including coloration, are reliable indicators of male quality. Because of their simultaneous effects on male coloration and immunity, carotenoids might mediate the hypothesized relationship between the expression of epigamic coloration and

Nicola Saino; Riccardo Stradi; Paola Ninni; Elena Pini; Anders Pape Møller

1999-01-01

279

Elaborate ornaments are costly to maintain: evidence for high maintenance handicaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaborate secondary sexual traits, such as the ornamental plumage of birds, may be favored by female choice because they serve as honest indicators of male quality. Elaborate traits are thought to be honest signals because they are expensive to produce and increase predation risk. Here we investigate another potential cost of elaborate traits, i.e., the time and energy required to

Bruno A. Walther; Dale H. Clayton

2005-01-01

280

Transient starch metabolism in ornamental tobacco floral nectaries regulates nectar composition and release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enlargement of the floral nectary gland of ornamental tobacco during its development is accompanied by a major accumulation of starch granules in nectary amyloplasts. Quantification of starch in the nectary at various developmental stages showed little starch accumulation at early stages but increasing amounts of starch over the course of nectary development that reached a peak approximately 24h prior to

Gang Ren; Rosanne A. Healy; Anna M. Klyne; Harry T. Horner; Martha G. James; Robert W. Thornburg

2007-01-01

281

Expression of starch metabolic genes in the developing nectaries of ornamental tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the mechanisms that control starch metabolism in the nectary, this study combined TEM analysis of floral nectaries in ornamental tobacco with gene expression analysis of a number of starch metabolism genes over the time course of nectary development. Using TEM, we observed an increase in amyloplasts accumulating from early developmental stages until stage 9 (S9), and their subsequent

Gang Ren; Rosanne A. Healy; Harry T. Horner; Martha G. James; Robert W. Thornburg

2007-01-01

282

Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

Harrison, R. W.; And Others

283

Career Preparation in Ornamental Horticulture: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide in ornamental horticulture is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes five occupational subgroups: arboriculture, floriculture, landscape maintenance and establishment, nursery production, and turfgrass…

McGhee, Max B.

284

COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

DILLON, ROY D.

285

Invading populations of an ornamental shrub show rapid life history evolution despite genetic  

E-print Network

highlight the potential for even genetically depauperate founding populations to adapt and evolve invasiveLETTER Invading populations of an ornamental shrub show rapid life history evolution despite genetic bottlenecks Katrina M. Dlugosch* and Ingrid M. Parker Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University

Linder, Tamás

286

Application of Marine Foodfish Techniques in Marine Ornamental Aquaculture: Reproduction and Larval First Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of the marine ornamental industry is being threatened by environmental pressures that are severely degrading the health of coral reef ecosystems. There is now a compelling need to practice resource conservation through the development of 'reef friendly' aquaculture technologies as an alternative to wild collection practices and to restore degraded wild populations. The commercial culture of marine

Anthony C. Ostrowski; Charles W. Laidley

2001-01-01

287

Secondary sexual ornamentation and non-additive genetic benefits of female mate choice.  

PubMed

Ornamental secondary sexual traits are hypothesized to evolve in response to directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates. Such mating preferences may themselves evolve partly because ornamentation indicates an individual's additive genetic quality (good genes). While mate choice can also confer non-additive genetic benefits (compatible genes), the identity of the most 'compatible' mate is assumed to depend on the choosy individual's own genotype. It is therefore unclear how choice for non-additive genetic benefits could contribute to directional mating preferences and consequently the evolution of ornamentation. In free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), individual males varied in their kinship with the female population. Furthermore, a male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, was negatively correlated with kinship such that males with larger repertoires were less closely related to the female population. After excluding close relatives as potential mates, individual females were on average less closely related to males with larger repertoires. Therefore, female song sparrows expressing directional preferences for males with larger repertoires would on average acquire relatively unrelated mates and produce relatively outbred offspring. Such non-additive genetic fitness benefits of directional mating preferences, which may reflect genetic dominance variance expressed in structured populations, should be incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:17374595

Reid, Jane M

2007-06-01

288

Ornamental plumage does not signal male quality in red-billed queleas.  

PubMed Central

Sexually selected ornaments often function as condition-dependent signals of quality (or 'indicators'). When ornamentation is costly, only high-quality individuals can afford to produce the most elaborate signals. The plumage ornamentation of male red-billed queleas, Quelea quelea, is an ideal candidate for an indicator because it is continuously variable, conspicuous, sexually dimorphic, is displayed only during breeding and is partially based on carotenoid pigmentation. However, I show here that quelea plumage is not an indicator because first, plumage colour is not correlated with physical condition or age; second, plumage colour is a genetically determined phenotype that is unresponsive to environmental variation; third, different plumage characters have bimodal distributions; fourth, plumage characters vary independently of one another; and finally, plumage colour is not correlated with reproductive success. To my knowledge, this is the first demonstration of non-condition dependence in colourful and sexually dimorphic breeding ornamentation. Instead, plumage variation may function as a sexually selected signal of individual identity among territorial males that nest in huge, densely packed and highly synchronized colonies. PMID:11413625

Dale, J

2000-01-01

289

The allometric pattern of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments and factors affecting allometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static allometry of secondary sexual characters is currently subject to debate. While some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for such traits, but isometry or negative allometry for nonornamental traits, other studies maintain that any kind of allometric pattern is possible. Therefore, we investigated the allometry of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments in 67 species of birds. We

J. J. CUERVO; A. P. MØLLER

2009-01-01

290

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

291

Alarm calling best predicts mating and reproductive success in ornamented male fowl, Gallus gallus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of female mate choice in fowl typically invoke ornament size as the best predictor of male repro- ductive success. The strongest evidence comes from experiments in which a hen is presented with two unfamiliar and physically separated males that she can evaluate and mate with for up to 120 min. This design controls for prior experience and maleemale competition,

David R. Wilson; Karen L. Bayly; Ximena J. Nelson; Michael Gillings; Christopher S. Evans

2008-01-01

292

Costs of bearing a sexually selected ornamental weapon in a fiddler crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Sexually selected structures with dual function of combat and display are likely to be honest signals of male quality to opponents and mates, but should be costly to produce and maintain. 2. Male fiddler crabs use a single greatly enlarged claw as both a weapon in agonistic contests with other males and an ornament to attract females for

BENGT J. ALLEN; JEFFREY S. LEVINTON

2007-01-01

293

Female throat ornamentation does not reflect cell-mediated immune response in bluethroats Luscinia s. svecica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brilliantly coloured throat patch in male bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, influences their social mating success and both within- and extra-pair paternity. Female bluethroats are highly variable in their extent of throat coloration, from entirely drab to almost male-like. The ornament in females could be due to a genetic correlation between the sexes. However, it has been shown that male

Henrik Pärn; Jan T. Lifjeld; Trond Amundsen

2005-01-01

294

July 22, 2011 Imprelis Herbicide Injury to Landscape Trees and Ornamentals  

E-print Network

1 July 22, 2011 Imprelis Herbicide Injury to Landscape Trees and Ornamentals Who is making of Indiana. As such OISC is responsible for registering pesticide products, including herbicides, for sale primarily observed on properties where a newly registered turf herbicide Imprelis has been applied

Pittendrigh, Barry

295

Quasi-Periodicity in Medieval and Islamic architecture and ornament , Helmer Aslaksen2  

E-print Network

Quasi-Periodicity in Medieval and Islamic architecture and ornament Ser Zheng1 , Helmer Aslaksen2 1 Medieval Islamic tilings are examples of aperiodic and quasiperiodic tilings. The tilings have five- or ten regarding quasi-periodicity in Medieval Islamic tilings. We will focus on three properties: the method

Aslaksen, Helmer

296

Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

Expanded Course Description for 11:776:391 Diseases and Insects of Ornamental Plants (3.0 credits-requisites and other registration restrictions: General Plant Pathology 11:776:302 and/or Insect Biology 11 is to familiarize students with the common insect and disease problems that occur during the production

Chen, Kuang-Yu

297

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials 4-27 Insects of Trees, Shrubs, Annuals, and Perennials Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Peter and long-established trees and shrubs. More than 2,000 species of insects and mites may be encountered

Liskiewicz, Maciej

298

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 4-84 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Foliage and Houseplants  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 4-84 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Foliage and Houseplants Insects of Foliage and Houseplants Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Relatively few kinds of insects. The major pests include: aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, and mites (spider mites, cyclamen

Liskiewicz, Maciej

299

Manipulating the abundance of natural enemies in ornamental landscapes with floral resource plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We manipulated densities of floral resource plants to test the hypothesis that natural enemies would be more abundant in artificial ornamental landscapes that contained high densities of floral resource plants than in landscapes without these plants. We established an experimental landscape consisting of 3×3m plots that contained a central bed of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) and either a low or high

Eric J. Rebek; Clifford S. Sadof; Lawrence M. Hanks

2005-01-01

300

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Home Ornamentals: Diseases of Landscape Trees 4-11 Diseases techniques, and providing proper nutrition and adequate water will help trees to maintain their best defense in tree species not adapted to wet sites. · Follow nursery recommendations for the size of the planting

Liskiewicz, Maciej

301

Hormones and honest signals: males with larger ornaments elevate testosterone more when challenged  

E-print Network

Hormones and honest signals: males with larger ornaments elevate testosterone more when challenged, investment in mating effort is mediated in part by the steroid hormone testosterone. In many species, experimentally elevated testosterone tends to increase behaviours related to mating, such as song and display

Casto, Joseph M.

302

Female ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos  

E-print Network

or may not influence attractiveness in the other. In the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis, outer tailFemale ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos WENDY L. WOLF, JOSEPH M. CASTO, VAL. During courtship, male juncos spread their tails, revealing their tail white, and a previous experiment

Casto, Joseph M.

303

Differential effects of endoparasitism on the expression of carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration.  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sexual dimorphisms in nature begs the question: Why are there so many signal types? One possibility is that ornamental traits convey different sets of information about the quality of the sender to the receiver. The colourful, pigmented feathers of male birds seem to meet the predictions of this hypothesis. Evidence suggests that carotenoid pigmentation reflects the nutritional condition of males during moult, whereas in many instances melanin pigmentation is a reliable indicator of social status. However, as of yet there have been no experimental tests to determine how these two ornament types respond to the same form of environmental stress. In this study, we tested the effect of endoparasitic infection by intestinal coccidians (Isospora sp.) on the expression of both carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration in captive male American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). We found that the carotenoid-based plumage and bill coloration of parasitized males was less saturated than that developed by unparasitized males, but that the brightness and size of melanin-based black caps did not differ between the groups. These findings provide the most robust empirical support to date for the notion that carotenoid and melanin ornaments reveal different information to conspecifics. PMID:11007328

McGraw, K J; Hill, G E

2000-01-01

304

Carotenoid-based ornamentation and status signaling in the house finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status signaling hypothesis (SSH) was devised primarily to explain the adaptive significance of avian ornamental coloration during the nonbreeding season. It proposes that conspicuous male plumage serves as an honest signal of social status within a population of birds. However, to date this hypothesis has been well tested and supported for only one type of plumage coloration, melanin-based coloration.

Kevin J. McGraw; Geoffrey E. Hill

2000-01-01

305

Ecological Risk Assessment and Regulation for Genetically-Modified Ornamental Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classic plant breeding has increased the beauty and utility of ornamental plants, but biotechnology can offer completely new traits for plants used in homes and gardens. The creation of blue petal color in carnations and roses are examples where biotechnology has created novelty that conventional hybridization cannot match. However, all innovations have benefits and risks, and future commercialization of transgenic

Carol Auer

2008-01-01

306

Growth, the external terms of trade and endogenous trade liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of growth and changes in the external terms of trade on protection. There are two sectors, an urban sector and a rural sector, and trade policy is used to redistribute income between them. We show that growth precedes trade liberalization. In addition, we find that trade reform is triggered by falls in the world prices of

John Devereux; LeinLein Chen

1999-01-01

307

Greenhouse gas emissions trading and the world trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme has the potential to bring parties into conflict with the WTO provisions in dealing with the initial allocation of permits, non-compliance with emissions targets, emissions trading system enlargement, and trade measures against non-members of an emissions trading club, and relates the discussion to joint implementation with developing countries. To our

ZhongXiang Zhang

1998-01-01

308

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twentieth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Trade Act), as amende...

2005-01-01

309

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2008 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the 23rd in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Trade Act), as amended by ...

2008-01-01

310

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-second in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Trade Act), as am...

2007-01-01

311

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2006 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-first in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Trade Act), as ame...

2006-01-01

312

HAS THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION PROMOTED SUCCESSFUL REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses econometric gravity equations to test whether the WTO has promoted successful regional trade agreements (RTA). Two important findings emerge. First, we find that two countries that are members of the GATT\\/WTO and enter into a regional trade agreement stimulate trade. However, the effect on trade is not nearly as large as that between two RTA members that

Jason H. Grant; Christopher F. Parmeter

2008-01-01

313

Improving Trade Policy Reviews in the World Trade Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) is a little-known but important activity of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Its purpose is to strengthen observance of WTO commitments and promote trade liberalization by providing all member countries with current and objective information about the trade policies and practices of each member individually and by establishing a forum within which members can

Donald B. Keesing

1998-01-01

314

17 CFR 37.400 - Core Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing.  

...Principle 4-Monitoring of trading and trade processing. 37.400 Section 37...FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.400 Core Principle 4—Monitoring of trading and trade processing. The swap execution...

2014-04-01

315

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2014-01-01

316

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2012-01-01

317

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2011-01-01

318

15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2013-01-01

319

15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE...

2010-01-01

320

Essays on International Trade  

E-print Network

As the world progresses and countries continue to compete for dominance, economic development has become the key criterion in assessing of a country's strength. International trade is a catalyst of growth and the study of international economics...

Lugovskyy, Oleksandr

2013-12-31

321

Training European Trade Unionists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

1998-01-01

322

Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds  

PubMed Central

Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest. PMID:20514141

Ligon, Russell A.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

2010-01-01

323

Galaxy Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of nine trading cards focuses on the three types of galaxies: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. Each card displays a color image of a galaxy on one side and describes the galaxy's type, its location within a constellation, and interesting facts on the other side. The Hubble Space Telescope card includes interesting facts, as well as suggestions for using the cards, such as educational games. The trading cards are available for download in PDF format.

2010-09-01

324

Do Insider Trading Laws Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By calculating an estimated measure of undetected insider trading, this paper shows that profits made by informed corporate insiders prior to tender offer announcements increase after the first enforcement of insider trading laws. I analyze the effects of Insider Trading regulation on a sample of 5,099 acquisitions in 56 different countries, and estimate the profits due to insider trading from

Arturo Bris

2000-01-01

325

Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

326

Why do trade costs vary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tariffs have fallen, it is apparent that trade costs are a significant obstacle to international trade and that they vary\\u000a from country to country. The gap between the cif and fob value of a trade flow is a useful measure of aggregate trade costs,\\u000a but only if the measure is based on a consistent volume of trade; mirror statistics

Richard Pomfret; Patricia Sourdin

2010-01-01

327

Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

328

Fish Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

Science Update;

2004-08-23

329

Karuk Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

330

Disappearing Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, authors like Herman Melville, Jules Verne, and Ernest Hemingway pitted grizzled adventurers against the mightiest creatures of the ocean. Today, the struggle of man-versus-nature is quite a different contest. Science reporter Bob Hirshon tells us that the world's biggest fish are now in serious jeopardy.

Science Update;

2003-07-21

331

Flying Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN excellent opportunity of observing the aerial means of propulsion in the flying fish was afforded me during a six days' calm lately when crossing the Bay of Bengal. This must be my excuse for again touching this subject. I watched day by day some hundreds rise under the bows of the ship. The water surface was a glassy calm.

Alfred Carpenter

1885-01-01

332

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

333

Bandwidth Trading as Incentive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

334

Global Trade and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

2005-01-01

335

Floriculture and Greenhouse Crops Utilization of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation on ornamental plants for disease  

E-print Network

Floriculture and Greenhouse Crops Utilization of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation on ornamental-class breakthrough for the floriculture industry. It will save time and money, and it will have tremendous benefits

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

336

Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used

Geoff L. Allan

2004-01-01

337

Is Sexual Ornamentation an Honest Signal of Male Quality in the Chinese Grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi)?  

PubMed Central

We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels. PMID:24386132

Yang, Chen; Wang, Jie; Fang, Yun; Sun, Yue-Hua

2013-01-01

338

Efficient identification of ornamental peach cultivars using RAPD markers with a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.  

PubMed

One of the most important uses of DNA markers is cultivar identification. However, no DNA fingerprint analysis strategy is available for making DNA markers helpful in practical plant cultivar identification, especially for the identification of a large number of cultivars. We developed a manual cultivar identification diagram strategy for efficient identification of plant cultivars, from which a cultivar identification diagram (CID) of genotyped plant individuals can be constructed manually. This CID could be used as a reference for quick identification of plant cultivars of interest. We used 11-mer RAPD primers to amplify DNA samples of 32 ornamental peach genotypes; all the cultivars were well distinguished by fingerprints from 6 primers. The utility of this CID was verified by identification of three randomly chosen groups of cultivars among the 32 ones that we selected. This CID generated will be useful for the identification of commercially important ornamental peach cultivars. PMID:24446285

Han, J; Wang, W Y; Leng, X P; Guo, L; Yu, M L; Jiang, W B; Ma, R J

2014-01-01

339

Fertilizer Concentration and Irrigation Method Affect Growth and Fruiting of Ornamental Pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of fertilizer concentration and irrigation method on growth of ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L. “Treasures Red”), a water-soluble fertilizer solution containing 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg L nitrogen (N) was applied, using subirrigation and hand-watering. Fertilizer concentrations of 200–400 mg L N resulted in an electrical conductivity (EC) gradient from the bottom (lowest EC) to the top (highest

Jong-Goo Kang; Marc W. van Iersel; Krishna S. Nemali

2004-01-01

340

Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata ‘Kwanzan’, P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana ‘Schubert’, commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue\\u000a culture through introduction

Anna Kalinina; Daniel C. W. Brown

2007-01-01

341

Male barn swallows use different signalling rules to produce ornamental tail feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of secondary sexual characters is the subject of controversial debate between those defending their role as\\u000a ‘viability indicators’ and those arguing that ornaments are purely ‘attractive traits’ selected by females. Recent theoretical\\u000a studies suggest that these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, as both viability and attractiveness can contribute to improve\\u000a the reproductive success of progeny and could thus

Alberto Muñoz; José Miguel Aparicio; Raúl Bonal

342

Carotenoid-based colouration and ultraviolet reflectance of the sexual ornaments of grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most familiar sexual signals are red, yellow, and orange sexual traits pigmented by carotenoids. Many birds can\\u000a detect near-ultraviolet (UV) light, and UV signals can play key roles in mate choice. Grouse (Tetraonidae) exhibit bright\\u000a carotenoid-dependent sexual ornaments, their supra-orbital combs, which to humans appear orange-red. Combs also reflect in\\u000a the UV, which is not visible to humans

F. Mougeot; J. Martínez-Padilla; L. Pérez-Rodríguez; G. R. Bortolotti

2007-01-01

343

Natural radioactivity in ornamental stones: an approach to its study using stones from Iberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural stones are commonly used both for interior and exterior construction but due to their mineralogy, some rocks (e.g.,\\u000a granite) can generate a high amount of radon in the atmosphere. Several samples of commercial ornamental stones from Iberia\\u000a were analyzed for radon. A correlation between natural radioactivity, mineralogy and geochemistry provides a useful indication\\u000a of the possible hazards of using

Dolores Pereira Gómez; Luis Neves; Alcides Pereira; Carlos Gonzalez Neila

344

Age before beauty? Relationships between fertilization success and age-dependent ornaments in barn swallows.  

PubMed

When males become more ornamented and reproduce more successfully as they grow older, phenotypic correlations between ornament exaggeration and reproductive success can be confounded with age effects in cross-sectional studies, and thus say relatively little about sexual selection on these traits. This is exemplified here in a correlative study of male fertilization success in a large colony of American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Previous studies of this species have indicated that two sexually dimorphic traits, tail length and ventral plumage coloration, are positively correlated with male fertilization success, and a mechanism of sexual selection by female choice has been invoked. However, these studies did not control for potential age-related variation in trait expression. Here, we show that male fertilization success was positively correlated with male tail length but not with plumage coloration. We also show that 1-year-old males had shorter tails and lower fertilization success than older males. This age effect accounted for much of the covariance between tail length and fertilization success. Still, there was a positive relationship between tail length and fertilization success among older males. But as this group consisted of males from different age classes, an age effect may be hidden in this relationship as well. Our data also revealed a longitudinal increase in both tail length and fertilization success for individual males. We argue that age-dependent ornament expression and reproductive performance in males complicate inferences about female preferences and sexual selection. PMID:21949464

Lifjeld, Jan T; Kleven, Oddmund; Jacobsen, Frode; McGraw, Kevin J; Safran, Rebecca J; Robertson, Raleigh J

2011-09-01

345

Diversity and activity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the phyllosphere of ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants were characterized based on their diversity and activity towards the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major air pollutants in urban area. The amounts of PAH-degrading bacteria were about 1-10% of the total heterotrophic phyllosphere populations and consisted of diverse bacterial species such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Mycobacterium, and uncultured bacteria. Bacterial community structures analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis from each plant species showed distinct band patterns. The uniqueness of these phyllosphere bacterial communities was partly due to the variation in leaf morphology and chemical properties of ornamental plants. The PAH degradation activity of these bacteria was monitored in gas-tight systems containing sterilized or unsterilized leaves. The results indicated that phyllosphere bacteria on unsterilized leaves were able to enhance the activity of leaves for phenanthrene removal. When compared between plant species, phenanthrene removal efficiency corresponded to the size of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. In addition, phyllosphere bacteria on Wrightia religiosa were able to reduce other PAHs such as acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and fluorine in 60-ml glass vials and in a 14-l glass chamber. Thus, phyllosphere bacteria on ornamental plants may play an important role in natural attenuation of airborne PAHs in urban areas. PMID:20107780

Yutthammo, Chontisak; Thongthammachat, Nudchanard; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh; Luepromchai, Ekawan

2010-02-01

346

The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition  

PubMed Central

Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016

Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

2012-01-01

347

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-sixth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published i...

R. Kirk

2011-01-01

348

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2013 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the 28th in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published in March....

2013-01-01

349

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2009 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twenty-fourth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the Presidents Trade Policy Agenda published ...

2009-01-01

350

NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

351

Building Trades II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains a curriculum guide, a set of lesson plans, a student manual, and a competency test packet for the Building Trades II course, the second year of a 2-year, 2-unit (350 hour) preemployment program for students in grades 11-12. This technical course is designed to develop the basic skills associated with builders. An additional…

Hamlin, Larry

352

Trade Masonry Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

353

Recreational Vehicle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

Felice, Michael

354

Construction Trades Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

355

Chicago Board of Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Board of Trade offers a visitors center with an overview and history of CBOT, as well as a glossary of futures terminology. It also contains financial and agricultural market information and commentaries, agricultural contract information, a media page with news about upcoming contracts, and an education page that discusses course offerings at CBOT.

356

Maintenance Trades Guidelines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

Weidner, Theodore J.

2008-01-01

357

Mutual fund trading and liquidity  

E-print Network

This thesis uses equities holdings snapshots of mutual funds to study their trading patterns. Using quarter and semi-annual holdings of mutual funds, I am able to extract a main trading component with the application of ...

Chu, Ka Yin Kevin

2010-01-01

358

Corporate governance and insider trading  

E-print Network

I investigate the relation between corporate governance and insider trading by corporate executives. Despite the general view that trade on non-public information adversely affects capital market participants, the impact ...

Rozanov, Konstantin A

2008-01-01

359

Trading Network Predicts Stock Price  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

2014-01-01

360

Indirect Influences in International Trade  

E-print Network

We address the problem of gauging the influence exerted by a given country on the global trade market from the viewpoint of complex networks. In particular, we apply the PWP method for computing indirect influences on the world trade network.

Diaz, Rafael

2014-01-01

361

Trading network predicts stock price.  

PubMed

Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

2014-01-01

362

Three essays in international trade  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays in international trade. Chapter 1 explains how firm heterogeneity and market structure can distort the geography of international trade. By considering only the intensive margin ...

Chaney, Thomas

2005-01-01

363

An experimental test of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in a teleost fish: 11-ketotestosterone suppresses innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks.  

PubMed

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) provides a functional explanation for how sexual ornaments can provide honest signals of male quality. A key aspect of this hypothesis is that testosterone (T) has a bimodal effect: a higher T level enhances the expression of ornaments (increasing mating success and, ultimately, fitness); however, at the same time, it suppresses immune function. Tests of the latter assumption, which have focused mainly on aspects of adaptive immunity in birds, led to equivocal results. We performed a hormone-implant experiment in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to test the key assumptions of the ICHH in a fish, where the dominant circulating androgen is 11-ketotestosterone (11kT) rather than T. Males were implanted with 11-ketoandrostenedione, which is a natural precursor of 11kT. Each individual's circulating 11kT level, ornamentation, and immunocompetence were measured 2 weeks later. In addition, we quantified oxidative tissue damage because the ICHH has been hypothesized to work via oxidative stress. We found that the males' 11kT levels correlated positively with ornamentation but negatively with immunocompetence, in particular, measures of innate immunity. Moreover, there was a trend for fish with high 11kT levels to suffer more from oxidative stress. Thus, our data provide support for the ICHH. PMID:17891730

Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin; Langefors, Asa; Mayer, Ian; Milinski, Manfred; Hasselquist, Dennis

2007-10-01

364

Fish Biology Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 10: Fish Biology Introduction The effective management of fish populations requires knowledge of the growth rate of the fish. This requires determination of the age of fish to develop a relationship between the size and age of fish. For an inventory, this information provides insights to evaluate the potential

Jochem, Frank J.

365

Find far fish fast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean â a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-02-02

366

THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE TRADES GUILD OF LEARNING WAS FOUNDED IN LONDON, ENGLAND IN 1873 BY THE REVEREND HENRY SOLLY TO PROMOTE THE VOCATIONAL AND FURTHER EDUCATION OF ARTISANS. NOT A TRADE UNION ORGANIZATION, IT INVOLVED SKILLED WORKERS OUTSIDE THE UNIONS AS WELL AS TRADE UNIONISTS. A SERIOUS CONFLICT BETWEEN SOLLY'S PATERNALISTIC PHILANTHROPY AND THE PRINCIPLES OF…

MCCANN, W.P.

367

Trading constraints and illiquidity discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acting as the source of exogenous illiquidity, trading constraints prevent free trading of shares and discount their value relative to freely traded counterparts with identical dividends and voting rights. This paper numerically solves the theoretical illiquidity discounts for the restricted shares with long constraint horizon and then reconciles the contradictions in the results of various theoretical models. With control of

Wenxuan Hou; Sydney Howell

2012-01-01

368

Trading constraints and illiquidity discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acting as the source of exogenous illiquidity, trading constraints prevent free trading of shares and discount their value relative to freely traded counterparts with identical dividends and voting rights. This paper numerically solves the theoretical illiquidity discounts for the restricted shares with long constraint horizon and then reconciles the contradictions in the results of various theoretical models. With control of

Wenxuan Hou; Sydney Howell

2011-01-01

369

Trade Liberalization and Cartel Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can reduced trade barriers promote a collusive understanding about not exporting into each others domestic markets? Reduced trade costs increase the short-run gains from starting exporting, but can also make the long-run punishment of such a strategy harsher. If collusion on prices is supported by a trigger strategy, a reduction in trade costs weakens competition in the sense that collusion

Kjell Erik Lommerud; Lars Sorgard

2001-01-01

370

South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

Crook, Shirley J.

371

Trading Arrangements and Industrial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1997A new approach to analyzing the role of trade in promoting industrial development.How do different trading arrangements influence the industrialization process of developing countries? Can preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) be superior to multilateral liberalization, or at least an alternative when multilateral liberalization proceeds slowly? If so, what form should the PTAs take? Are developing countries better advised to seek

Anthony Venables; Diego Puga

1999-01-01

372

WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

E-print Network

WORKFLOW SIMULATION FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE Qiang Dong Supervised by Professor Clark Thomborson's competitive world. International trade has received some academic attention as an application of Business Process Reengineering. A major issue in international trade is due to problems pertaining to mutual

Thomborson, Clark

373

17 CFR 37.406 - Trade reconstruction.  

... 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 37.406 Section 37.406...EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.406 Trade reconstruction. The swap execution facility...

2014-04-01

374

Lesson Plan on the US Trade Deficit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan explaining the concept of the balance of trade and the positives and negatives to a trade surplus and a trade deficit. Deals with the US trade deficit and its potential effects on the US economy.

Studies, Center F.

375

Essays on trade, CO?, and the environment  

E-print Network

The first chapter of this thesis uses a general equilibrium model of trade and the environment to investigate two questions. First, how do the gains from trade compare against the environmental costs of trade? Trade can ...

Shapiro, Joseph S

2013-01-01

376

Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.  

PubMed

Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

2014-10-01

377

Got a Sick Fish?  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

378

International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

Not Available

2013-05-01

379

Federation of International Trade Associations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring an annotated index of more than 2,500 world trade Websites, the Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA) homepage houses a wealth of resources for members and non-members of this organization. The FITA Website hosts a marketing database consisting of Export and Protocol reviews of over 80 countries, job postings, and a searchable database of international trade-related conferences and seminars. In conjunction with the "international trade webcast network" How to Conquer the World, FITA also includes a wide array of indexed and annotated interviews with leading international trade professionals, available in RealAudio format.

380

Effluent Trading: A Policy Review for Texas  

E-print Network

degraded within the ecosystem (metals, salts and some organics) are potentially bioconcentratable toxicants and therefore usually inappropriate to trade. Trading boundaries should coincide with watersheds or watershed segments, and trading should apply... degraded within the ecosystem (metals, salts and some organics) are potentially bioconcentratable toxicants and therefore usually inappropriate to trade. Trading boundaries should coincide with watersheds or watershed segments, and trading should apply...

Fossett, Mark A.; Kaiser, Ronald; Matlock, Marty D.; Vedlitz, Arnold; Woodward, Richard T.

2013-12-19

381

Natural variation in a testosterone-mediated trade-off between mating effort and parental effort.  

PubMed

Male birds frequently face a trade-off between acquiring mates and caring for offspring. Hormone manipulation studies indicate that testosterone often mediates this trade-off, increasing mating effort while decreasing parental effort. Little is known, however, about individual covariation between testosterone and relevant behavior on which selection might act. Using wild, male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we measured individual variation in testosterone levels before and after standardized injections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH challenges have been shown to produce short-term testosterone increases that are similar to those produced naturally in response to social stimuli, repeatable in magnitude, and greater in males with more attractive ornaments. We correlated these testosterone increases with behavioral measures of mating and parental effort (aggressive response to a simulated territorial intrusion and nestling feeding, respectively). Males that showed higher postchallenge testosterone displayed more territorial behavior, and males that produced higher testosterone increases above initial levels displayed reduced parental behavior. Initial testosterone levels were positively but nonsignificantly correlated with aggression but did not predict parental behavior. These relationships suggest that natural variation in testosterone, specifically the production of short-term increases, may underlie individual variation in the mating effort/parental effort trade-off. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of hormonally mediated trade-offs. PMID:18171169

McGlothlin, Joel W; Jawor, Jodie M; Ketterson, Ellen D

2007-12-01

382

Trade and Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of electronic commerce (or “e-commerce”) is governed by the same basic principles of GATT, GATS, TRIPS and other WTO\\u000a agreements that apply to offline commerce. For example, it should not matter for purposes of trade analysis if a physician\\u000a delivers cross-border medical advice by letter, by telephone, or via the Internet. And a book that is ordered online from

Stewart Baker; Maury Shenk

383

LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

2001-01-01

384

Fish and Tetrapods Geology 331  

E-print Network

Placoderms: armored fish Class Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous fish Class Osteichthyes: bony fish Subclass - a ray #12;Manta Ray #12;Fish Anatomy: Ray-finned fish #12;Osteichthyes: ray-finned fish: clownfish #12;Osteichthyes: ray-finned fish, deep water species #12;Lophius, an Eocene fish showing the ray fins

Kammer, Thomas

385

Gold package menu -Week 3 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.  

E-print Network

Gold package menu - Week 3 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal and balsamic vinegar (v) Ramekins Meat- Tempura pork balls, fragrant rice with hot and sour sauce Fish- Green

Sussex, University of

386

Cydonia japonica, Pyrus calleryana and P. amygdaliformis: three new ornamental or wild hosts of Apple stem pitting virus.  

PubMed

Japanese quince, ornamental and wild pear symptomless samples were infected with Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV). Identification of ASPV was achieved by different PCR assays that amplified either the RNA polymerase or coat protein gene regions. For further confirmation, 312 bp amplicons within the polymerase gene were sequenced and compared with previously published ASPV sequences and additional sequences of isolates from ancient Italian cultivars. Comparison of the partial sequences isolated from wild/ornamental hosts and from cultivated species revealed significant divergence levels. Among the wild/ornamental isolates, the PCT88 isolate from Pyrus calleryana was the most divergent, having an amino acid deletion and incorporating a unique stretch of amino acids not present in any other isolate. Further to this preliminary partial sequence data, statistical analysis demonstrated that the isolates from wild or ornamental hosts were not more closely related to each other than to isolates from cultivated hosts. These results represent the first report of natural ASPV infection in these novel ornamental and wild Rosaceae hosts. PMID:22006446

Mathioudakis, Matthaios M; Candresse, Thierry; Barone, Maria; Ragozzino, Antonio; Katis, Nikolaos I

2012-04-01

387

Foreign Fishery Developments Italy-U.S. Fish  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments Italy-U.S. Fish Trade, 1981-88 Introduction Italy is the world. The value ofItaly's fishery im ports has more than doubled from $0.7 billionin 1981 to $1.8billion in 1987, however, U.S. fishery exports to Italy doubled in value comparedwiththosein 1987andtrebled in quantity

388

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriosis due to mycobacteria is one of the most common bacterial diseases in ornamental fish. We describe here the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. using ATCC Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae as references. A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains. PMID:20971487

Najiah, M; Lee, K L; Noorasikin, H; Nadirah, M; Lee, S W

2011-12-01

389

Root-knot Nematode Problem of Some Winter Ornamental Plants and Its Biomanagement.  

PubMed

A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode. PMID:19262861

Khan, Mujeebur Rahman; Khan, Shahana M; Mohide, Faya

2005-06-01

390

Heritability and genetic correlation between the sexes in a songbird sexual ornament  

PubMed Central

The genetic correlation between the sexes in the expression of secondary sex traits in wild vertebrate populations has attracted very few previous empirical efforts of field researchers. In southern European populations of pied flycatchers, a sexually selected male ornament is also expressed by a proportion of females. Additive genetic variances in ornament size and expression, transmission mechanisms (autosomal vs Z-linkage) and maternal effects are examined by looking at patterns of familial resemblance across three generations. Size of the secondary sex trait has a genetic basis common to both sexes, with estimated heritability being 0.5 under an autosomal model of inheritance. Significant additive genetic variance in males was also confirmed through a cross-fostering experiment. Heritability analyses were only partially consistent with previous molecular genetics evidence, as only two out of the three predictions supported Z-linkage and lack of significant mother–daughter resemblance could be due to small sample sizes caused by limited female trait expression. Therefore, the evidence was mixed as to the contribution of the Z chromosome and autosomal genes to trait size. The threshold heritability of trait expression in females was lower, around 0.3, supporting autosomal-based trait expression in females. Environmental (birth date) and parental effects on ornament size mediated by the mother's condition after accounting for maternal and paternal genetic influences are also highlighted. The genetic correlation between the sexes did not differ from one, indicating that selection on the character on either sex entails a correlated response in the opposite sex. PMID:21081966

Potti, J; Canal, D

2011-01-01

391

China's foreign trade policy and world trade organization membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of China's major economic reforms and how they impacted certain key domestic economic indicators\\u000a such as income, production, employment, and prices. More importantly, the paper concentrates on China's foreign trade focusing\\u000a on such issues as import and export policies, exchange rate controls, foreign investments, balance of payments, traded commodities,\\u000a and major trading partners. China's chance

F. Niroomand; I. Hamwi; T. Hudson

1996-01-01

392

Greenhouse space allocation in the ornamental foliage industry in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-print Network

their greenhouses during the entire year, feeling that heating costs in the winter outweigh the profit that the area could generate if it was kept stocked during that time. Oh)ectives The purpose of this thesis is to provide ornamental foliage plant growers... and production should not be allowed to exceed this amount. Vpper sales limits account for this. In addition, some producers feel that a given product mix is necessary and contributes to sales. Lower sales limits persd. t a minimum number of plants on hand...

Krafka, Brenda Dea Lang

2012-06-07

393

Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-01-01

394

2000 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the United States Trade Representative (USTR), this report "surveys significant foreign trade barriers to U.S. export." Created from information collected from government agencies including the USTR and the US Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, the report attempts to classify barriers in foreign trade into ten categories including import policies, government procedures, lack of intellectual property protection, and investment barriers. Reports on US trade relations with 55 countries, from the Arab League to Zimbabwe, are provided, giving succinct summaries of the outlined ten categories. Available in .pdf format only, the report may be downloaded by country or in its entirety.

395

Rare Trophy Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

Schroeder, Denice

2000-01-01

396

Meat, Poultry and Fish  

MedlinePLUS

Meat, Poultry and Fish Updated:Aug 11,2014 AHA Recommendation Choose fish, shellfish, poultry without the skin, and trimmed lean meats, no more ... at least 2 servings of baked or grilled fish each week, especially oily fish. Choose low-sodium, ...

397

Ecological analysis of world trade  

E-print Network

Ecological systems have a high level of complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. Recently, the analysis of their properties and evolution has been pushed forward on a basis of concept of mutualistic networks that provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. It was shown that the nestedness architecture of mutualistic networks of plants and their pollinators minimizes competition and increases biodiversity. Here, using the United Nations COMTRADE database for years 1962 - 2009, we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade. In fact the countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a low nestedness temperature which is typical for the ecological networks. This approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade highlighting new significance of countries and trade products for the world trade.

Ermann, Leonardo

2012-01-01

398

Trade, Income Disparity and Poverty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from the WTO "finds that trade liberalization helps poor countries to catch up with rich ones and that this faster economic growth helps to alleviate poverty." According to the highlighted findings, poor countries that have opened up to trade are economically converging at much faster rates than ones that haven't; the more open to trade a poor country is, the faster its living standard rises. The first chapter of this report offers an introduction and overview to poverty and trade issues, as well as an introduction to this study. Chapter two explores the links among "trade, economic growth, and income disparity." And the third chapter explains the ways in which being open to trade can benefit poor countries. The press release offers bulleted highlights to the report and provides the .pdf downloads for each of the report's three chapters.

399

Is it a Fish?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 8 of the pdf, part of the Sea Life Discovery Box. This is an activity exploring the characteristics of fish. Learners are asked if they have seen a fish and what elements they saw that let them know it was a fish. A song about fish may be sung, engaging young learners. Pictures and a book about fish are viewed and important elements that fish have are noted: "tail fin," "dorsal fin," "pectoral fins," "pelvic fins." A clownfish puppet is shown and learners identify its fish characteristics.

Omsi

2004-01-01

400

Stopping the Torture Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from Amnesty International has been issued as part of the organization's larger campaign against torture launched in October 2000. The report examines the ballooning international trade in both traditional tools of torture (e.g., leg irons and shackles) as well as newer electro-shock devices and other "non-lethal" weapons. The report reveals how torturers have been trained through the transfer of military and security training and makes a number of recommendations to governments and corporations on methods they can pursue to eradicate torture. Users may download the report by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

401

TradingCharts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the International DoubleClick Network, an affiliate of AltaVista, TradingCharts provides free financial charts on stock market prices, market indices, and money markets. Chart data are updated daily, and a written technical analysis of market movements is given with each chart output. NASDAQ, NYSE, CDN, NDX, and money market symbols may be entered in daily, weekly, or monthly terms at the homepage, and search and browse options are available for unknown symbols. In addition, a Personalized Chart Menu allows users to save charts for future reference while browsing.

402

TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND COMPENSATION ?  

E-print Network

Liberalization harms some groups while generating aggregate benefits. We consider various labor market policies that might be used to compensate those who lose from freer trade. Our goal is to find the policy that compensates each group of losers at the lowest cost to the economy. We argue that wage subsidies should be used to compensate those who bear the adjustment costs triggered by liberalization whereas employment subsidies should be used to compensate those who remain trapped in the previously protected sector. Our analysis indicates that the cost of compensation is low, provided that the right policy is used. 1.

Davidson; Steven J. Matusz

403

A comparative analysis of pollinator type and pollen ornamentation in the Araceae and the Arecaceae, two unrelated families of the monocots  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The high diversity of ornamentation type in pollen grains of angiosperms has often been suggested to be linked to diversity in pollination systems. It is commonly stated that smooth pollen grains are associated with wind or water pollination while sculptured pollen grains are associated with biotic pollination. We tested the statistical significance of an association between pollen ornamentation and

Julie Sannier; William J Baker; Marie-Charlotte Anstett; Sophie Nadot

2009-01-01

404

Ecological analysis of world trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2013-01-01

405

U.S. Agricultural Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This briefing room from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (reviewed in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) provides general information and data on US agricultural trade with all of the countries and regions of the world. Data publications such as the US Agricultural Trade (FATUS), Agricultural Outlook, and US Agricultural Trade Balance are gathered here on a monthly or yearly basis with export and import values by commodity and country. Users will also find FATUS reference tools as well as special ERS articles covering topics such as agricultural export figures by state and the US agricultural trade's effect on the overall economy.

1999-01-01

406

Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants.  

PubMed

Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

2012-06-01

407

Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.  

PubMed

Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

2013-11-01

408

The development of spinosad for the control of Frankliniella occidentalis in protected ornamentals.  

PubMed

Fifteen trials were undertaken to determine the effectiveness of spinosad for the control of Frankliniella occidentalis on a range of glasshouse ornamentals. A range of dose rates were tested from 6-15 g as hl-1. A high level of control (> 90%) was achieved at most assessments of both nymphs and adults with a comparatively flat dose response recorded. Rates of 9 g as hl-1 and above provided improved consistency of control compared with the lower rate of 6 g as hl-1 across trials. No adverse effect was recorded from eight selectivity trials completed on a range of pot plants and cut flowers at rates up to 72 g as hl-1 with the exception of Saintpaulia ionantha. On this highly sensitive species some spotting of the flowers occurred following application rates of spinosad applied at 24 g as hl-1 and above. It is considered that the high level of activity of spinosad combined with its excellent plant safety profile will be of significant benefit to growers for the control of a major insect pest of glasshouse ornamentals. PMID:12425059

Drinkall, M J; Boogaard, M

2001-01-01

409

Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.  

PubMed

A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection. PMID:17323085

Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

2007-07-01

410

Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material. PMID:24048158

Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Punyasena, Surangi W.

2013-01-01

411

Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000?mg kg?1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

2012-01-01

412

Corporate international trade: teaching international trade in business schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the apparent paradox between the importance of the practice of international trade and the relative weakness of the subject as part of the curriculum in business schools. A possible resolution for the inconsistency is reorientation of the focus of trade theory. By concentrating on the process toward an equilibrium, rather than on the equilibrium itself and on

Tamir Agmon

1990-01-01

413

Masonry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in masonry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

414

Just Trade: A New Covenant Linking Trade and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

While modern trade law and human rights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade

Stephen J Powell; Berta E Hernandez-Truyol

2009-01-01

415

Electricity Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job as an electrician. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

416

Trade facilitation, regulatory quality and export performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to quantify the potential gains in trade performance from the implementation of trade facilitation reform. The study applies a gravity model augmented with trade facilitation, regulatory quality and infrastructure indicators to assess the impact of trade facilitation and other trade-related constraints on export performance. Quantitatively, our results suggest that a 10 per cent improvement

Tomasz Iwanow; Colin Kirkpatrick

2007-01-01

417

Notes Why We Trade Instructor: Syon Bhanot  

E-print Network

Notes ­ Why We Trade Instructor: Syon Bhanot Why We Trade In class game: see freehand notes York Times Op-Ed "Trouble With Trade." - Free vs. Fair Trade: The Economist online debate, "This house believes that making trade fairer is more important than making it freer." - Reinhardt reading: Uwe

Wolfe, Patrick J.

418

The Economics of the World Trading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

World trade is governed by the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO sets rules of conduct for the international trade of goods and services and for intellectual property rights, provides a forum for multinational negotiations to resolve trade problems, and has a formal mechanism for dispute

Kyle Bagwell; Robert W. Staiger

2002-01-01

419

Regional Liberalization of Trade in Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the impact of trade in services on the current global financial crisis appears to overtake that of trade in goods, we propose to examine liberalization of trade in services through regional trade agreements (RTAs). The regional liberalization of trade in services is expected to generate significant welfare gains both in the services and goods sectors. However, the quantitative effect

2010-01-01

420

Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates alternative methods for classifying individual trades as market buy or market sell orders using intraday trade and quote data. The authors document two potential problems with quote-based methods of trade classification: quotes may be recorded ahead of trades that triggered them, and trades inside the spread are not readily classifiable. These problems are analyzed in the context

Charles M. C. Lee; Mark J. Ready

1991-01-01

421

Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia  

E-print Network

Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement@bu.edu #12;Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia Trade Agreement SerieBrief # 66 | Abril 2011 Trading Away Financial Stability in Colombia: Capital Controls and the US-Colombia

Tufts University

422

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

2010-10-01

423

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

2010-10-01

424

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

2013-10-01

425

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

2012-10-01

426

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

2012-10-01

427

48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

2011-10-01

428

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

2011-10-01

429

48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade...

2013-10-01

430

Sea turtle consumption and black market trade in Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined sea turtle consumption and illegal trade in Baja California Sur (BCS) using data from (1) bimonthly surveys at beaches, fishing camps and dumpsites and (2) semi-struc- tured interviews with fishermen. From March 2006 to February 2008, we found the carcasses of 1014 sea turtles; the meat of 461 of these turtles (45.5%) had been consumed. The East Pacific

Agnese Mancini; Volker Koch

2009-01-01

431

Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics  

E-print Network

Trade Liberalization And Poverty Dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara COELLO World Bank Madior FALL Afristat Paris School of Economics INRA Akiko SUWA-EISEMANN Paris School of Economics INRA June-28Mar2014 #12;1 Trade liberalization and poverty dynamics in Vietnam 2002-2006 Barbara Coello, the World

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Optimal Immigration, Assimilation and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a general equilibrium model of migration, assimilation and trade, using a random matching framework of culture and trade. The market equilibrium and the social plannerÍs solution are contrasted and policy implications are given. The model predicts that the presence of immigrants who do not assimilate into the mainstream culture is economically inefficient, but whether such migration occurs

Istvan Konya

2001-01-01

433

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK,

Martin Junginger; Torjus Bolkesjø; Douglas Bradley; Paulo Dolzan; Jussi Heinimö; Bo Hektor; Øyvind Leistad; Erik Ling; Miles Perry; Erik Piacente; Frank Rosillo-Calle; Yves Ryckmans; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Birger Solberg; Erik Trømborg; Arnaldo da Silva Walter; Marc de Wit

2008-01-01

434

Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

435

Trends in Canada's Merchandise Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines aspects of Canada's trade performance in light of the major trends seen in world trade over the past several decades. Canada has become more integrated with the world economy, and this openness is evident from its greater export orientation, its heavier reliance on imported inputs, and more exposure to foreign competition in its domestic markets. The author

Richard Dion

2000-01-01

436

NONTARIFF AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminological, as well as substantive, problems with other-than-customs-duty trade protection issues have existed for a long time. After World War II, these problems proved troublesome for trade analysts. Baldwin [1970], Denton and O'Cleiracain [1972], and Lloyd [1973] were among the first who helped clarify language and ideas. Unlike many at that time, I chose to stick with \\

Jimmye S. Hillman

1996-01-01

437

United Nations on Trade and  

E-print Network

TD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Distr. GENERAL TD/TIMBER.3/12 1 February 2006, and recognizing the work of the International Tropical Timber Organization and its achievements since its inception, including a strategy for achieving international trade in tropical timber from sustainably

438

The Power Trading Agent Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts, and must then serve those customers by trading in a wholesale market. Brokers are challenged to maximize

Wolfgang Ketter; John Collins; Prashant Reddy; Christoph Flath; Mathijs Weerdt

2011-01-01

439

International Trade and Domestic Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing formal models of the relationship between trade policy and regulatory policy suggest the potential for a regulatory race to the bottom. WTO rules and disputes, however, center on complaints about excessively stringent regulations. This paper bridges the gap between the existing formal literature and the actual pattern of rules and disputes. Employing the terms-of-trade framework for the modeling of

Robert W. Staiger; Alan O. Sykes

2009-01-01

440

Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room  

E-print Network

Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room Daniel Beunza at the Santa Fe Institute. #12;2 Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading of trading in the era of quantitative finance. To do so, we conduct an ethnography of arbitrage, the trading

Schweik, Charles M.

441

WORKING PAPER N 2008 -52 Trade in services and trade in goods  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 52 Trade in services and trade in goods: Differences and complementarities Carolina Lennon JEL Codes: F12, F15, L8 Keywords: International trade in services, trade in goods, gravity ­ �COLE NORMALE SUP�RIEURE halshs-00586223,version1-15Apr2011 #12;Trade in Services and Trade in Goods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID:20838643

Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjorleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nolte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar

2010-01-01

443

Australian Museum Fish Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently redesigned, the Australian Museum Fish Site contains a host of resources for researchers, students, and interested visitors. The heart of the site is the Find a Fish section, a collection of hundreds of fact sheets on fish, sorted by common or scientific name. Each fact sheet includes a quick overview, one or more images, and suggestions for further reading. Visitors can also identify fish pictorially using the Identify a Fish section, which links back to the fact sheets. Other offerings include further information on the Museum's fish department, a student section, some short underwater movies, related links, a FAQ, and an internal search engine.

444

Tools of the Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity offers kids a fun way to get firsthand knowledge of how archaeologists find lost sites. In Tools of the Trade, kids are given six cartoon frames, each illustrating a problem the archaeology team faced in locating a lost mission on St. Catherines Island. When kids select a frame, they are given details about the problem; they are then asked to pick which tool they think helped the team solve the problem. Each time they correctly identify a tool, they are given additional details of the story and the cartoon frame is "colored in." After correctly identifying the tools for all six cartoon frames, they have the option of printing a PDF of the full-color cartoon.

445

Federal Trade Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The work of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been going on since 1914, and this site offers access to information about the agency's regulatory activities and public outreach programs, such as the National Do Not Call Registry program. From the homepage, visitors can file a complaint with the FTC, learn about the world of antitrust regulation, and read transcripts of their most recent hearings and workshops. The section dedicated to offering transcripts of recent conferences and roundtables is very helpful, and contains remarks and presentations given on such timely topics as "Perspectives on Marketing, Self-Regulation, and Childhood Obesity". The general public will definitely appreciate the section titled "Consumers", which contains edifying information about avoiding identify theft and vacation package scams. Finally, the site also contains much of this same material in Spanish.

2005-11-03

446

Federal Trade Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The work of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been going on since 1914, and this site offers access to information about the agency's regulatory activities and public outreach programs, such as the National Do Not Call Registry program. From the homepage, visitors can file a complaint with the FTC, learn about the world of antitrust regulation, and read transcripts of their most recent hearings and workshops. The section dedicated to offering transcripts of recent conferences and roundtables is very helpful, and contains remarks and presentations given on such timely topics as "Perspectives on Marketing, Self-Regulation, and Childhood Obesity". The general public will definitely appreciate the section titled "Consumers", which contains edifying information about avoiding identify theft and vacation package scams. Finally, the site also contains much of this same material in Spanish.

447

Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

Veale, Sarah

1987-01-01

448

INFLUENCE OF STATIONARY MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF SOME ORNAMENTAL PERENNIAL SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of stationary magnetic field with induction B =0 .15 T on the absorption spectra of the photosynthetic appara- tus of the ornamental perennial species Caragana arborescens Lam., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Laburnum anagiroides Med. has been investigated. It has been established that magnetic field treatment does not change the magnitude of the extinction, but affects the contribution of

ANNA ALADJADJIYAN; ALEXANDAR ZAHARIEV

449

Is carotenoid ornamentation linked to the inner mitochondria membrane potential? A hypothesis for the maintenance of signal honesty.  

PubMed

Several mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed for how carotenoid pigmentation of integumentary structures can serve as an honest signal of individual quality. These hypotheses are founded on proposed links between carotenoids, immuno responsiveness, and oxidative stress, but an absence of biochemical information on the oxidative pathways of carotenoids has limited the sophistication of such hypotheses. Based on published evidence, we propose that the oxidation of carotenoids for the purpose of ornamentation in birds and reptiles is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane. We predict that several carotenoid oxidation reactions yielding ornamental pigments occur on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Three of these reactions are proposed to occur within the ubiquinone biosynthesis cluster known as the Coq cluster consisting of approximately a dozen Coq members, tightly integrated and intimately associated with Complex I and III of the electron transport system. Ubiquinone and highly oxidized ornamental carotenoids share a stereochemically-conserved binding region suggesting that these two molecules may have shared similar pathways in the past. Carotenoids and ubiquinones may cooperate as redox participants in anti-radical reactions or independently in helping to maintain membrane or supra-complex stabilization during times of high-energy demand. Under this hypothesis, oxidation of carotenoids is coupled to the inner mitochondria membrane potential such that ornamental coloration reflects the efficiency of cellular respiration. PMID:23131590

Johnson, James D; Hill, Geoffrey E

2013-02-01

450

GntR family regulators of the pathogen of fish tuberculosis Mycobacterium marinum.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium marinum is a slow-growing pathogenic mycobacterium. It was first isolated by Aronson in 1926 from fish, fish mycobacteriosis or called fish tuberculosis is the common causative agent of bacterial disease in many species of freshwater and marine fish. M. marinum can infect wild fish, aquaculture and ornamental fish, and it has a close relative of the causative agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The recently sequenced genome of M. marinum has been shown to contain several putative GntR regulators. This family named after gluconate regulator has a helix-turn-helix structure. Characterization of transcription regulators and their network is an important step towards the complete understanding of cellular physiology. The regulator of this family shares a similar and conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain, but has a highly diverse C-terminal effector-binding and oligomerization domain. According to the heterogeneity, we classify the M. marinum GntR family to four subfamilies: FadR, HutC, MocR, and YtrA, and these regulators are encoded by 8, 3, 1 and 1 genes, respectively. Thus this study extends the annotation of M. marinum GntR family proteins, and can help to understand the pathogenic role of this family in M. marinum and facilitate future drug design against this pathogen. PMID:21703231

Ji, Lei; Xie, Jianping

2011-07-15

451

Morphology predicts suction feeding performance in centrarchid fishes.  

PubMed

Suction feeding fish differ in their capacity to generate subambient pressure while feeding, and these differences appear to relate to morphological variation. We developed a morphological model of force transmission in the fish head and parameterized it with measurements from individual fish. The model was applied to 45 individuals from five species of centrarchid fishes: Lepomis macrochirus, Lepomis punctatus, Lepomis microlophus, Micropterus salmoides and Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Measurements of epaxial cross-sectional area, epaxial moment arm, buccal area and buccal area moment arm were combined to estimate pressure generation capacity for individual fish. This estimation was correlated with pressure measured in fish feeding on elusive prey to test the model's ability to predict pressure generation from morphology. The model explained differences in pressure generation found among individuals (P<0.001, r2=0.71) and produced a realistic estimate of normalized muscle stress during suction feeding (68.5+/-6.7 kPa). Fish with smaller mouths, larger epaxial cross-sectional area and longer epaxial moments, such as L. macrochirus (bluegill sunfish), generated lower pressures than fish with larger mouths, smaller cross-sectional area and shorter moments, such as M. salmoides (largemouth bass). These results reveal a direct trade-off between morphological requirements of feeding on larger prey (larger mouth size relative to body depth) and the ability to generate subambient pressure while suction feeding on elusive prey. PMID:15472018

Carroll, Andrew M; Wainwright, Peter C; Huskey, Stephen H; Collar, David C; Turingan, Ralph G

2004-10-01

452

SAMPLE FISH DATA, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish data at sample locations in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed, 1993-1995. See http://sgi1dncrlg.er.usgs.gov/albe-html/biology/fish/fishdatadic.html for list of fields and their meanings....

453

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

454

Fish-Friendly Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students further their understanding of the salmon life cycle and the human structures and actions that aid in the migration of fish around hydroelectric dams by playing an animated PowerPoint game involving a fish that must climb a fish ladder to get over a dam. They first brainstorm their own ideas, and then learn about existing ways engineers have made dams "friendlier" to migrating fish, before being quizzed as part of the game.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

455

Design a Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will study the adaptations different fish species have developed to survive in their habitats. Using basic craft supplies, learners will construct a 3D fish exhibiting these traits, or even design their own fish and detail how it has adapted to another world, then present their fish to the class. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Alligator Habitat.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

456

Fish Family Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, students will become familiar with fish shapes, learn that fish within a given taxonomic family have similar body shapes, and discuss how different body shapes enable fish to survive in their environments. This activity enhances learners' abilities at making careful observations about each shape and supports an understanding that there are many different kinds of fish, each adapted to its own environment. This standards-based activity includes wrap-up suggestions and background for educators.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

457

Molecular characterization of allium virus X, a new potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae, infecting ornamental allium.  

PubMed

ABTRACT: A new potexvirus affecting ornamental allium spp in the Netherlands was identified and characterized at the molecular level. The virus had a single-stranded RNA genome of 7100 bp (excluding the 18 bp poly A tail). The genome organization was found to be typical of members of the genus Potexvirus and consisted of five open reading frames (ORF). Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with those of known potexvirus members showed that this virus is related to Hosta virus X and Hydrangea ringspot virus. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the allium virus is a new and distinct species in the genus Potexvirus and the name, Allium virus X (AlVX) is proposed. PMID:21938462

Miglino, R; Druffel, K L; van Schadewijk, A R; Pappu, H R

2011-11-01

458

A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal fluctuating asymmetry in the offspring. We experimentally demonstrate in wild barn owls (Tyto alba) that the extent to which females display black spots on their plumage does not only signal offspring parasite resistance as shown in a previous study but also developmental homeostasis in the offspring. A greater number of spotted females produced offspring that had more symmetrical feathers during the period of growth. Males, that pair non-randomly with respect to female plumage spottiness therefore appear to gain substantial benefits by mating with heavily spotted females. Genetic variation in plumage spottiness is nevertheless maintained as the covariation between offspring body mass and mother plumage spottiness varies annually depending on environmental conditions. PMID:12590755

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Balloux, François; Dijkstra, Cor; Riols, Christian

2003-01-01

459

FISH — Food for Gourmets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chef Louis shares his favorite fish recipes. He reports that in 1965 over 10 percent of his menu sales were fish entrées and that lobster was not the leader. More important, his total food cost, when fish other than lobster is the entrée, is only 98 cents of The Bakery's $5 prix-fixe menu, or 20 percent. Last year Holiday and

Louis Szathmary

1966-01-01

460

The Virtual Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a simulated fish tank that requires Shockwave. You need to register to log in. Once you log in, you can create up to four unique fish. Then you can launch your fish into a Personal Tank on your own computer and see how they behave.

Science NetLinks (Nearlife, Inc.;)

2008-04-29

461

Replicating the carry trade through an exchange traded fund  

E-print Network

There is an overarching belief that the carry trade is a simple investment strategy based on the popular mantra of buying low and selling high. However, in reality, there are several factors that need to be taken into ...

Shan, Jonathan (Jonathan W.)

2013-01-01

462

Endogenous trade protection under regional trade agreements: the Andean case  

E-print Network

Endogenous tariff formation has been the subject of theoretical studies that attempt to determine the fundamental economic variables that influence the structure of industry protection implemented by international trade policy makers. An empirical...

Sanchez Bizot, Gustavo

2006-08-16

463

Deterioration of the ornamental stones from Apulia (SE Italy) caused by thermal stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesozoic carbonate rocks cropping out in Apulia, SE Italy, represent today, as in the past, a fundamental artistic and communicative mean for the local culture. For their physico-mechanical and aesthetic properties, these sedimentary rocks have always found a large application both as ornamental stones and as simple construction materials, particurarly in military architecture and worship buildings during the Middle Ages. The Apulian "marbles" are characterised by high strength and durability, nevertheless outdoors exposure often involves significant changes in their technical properties and state of conservation caused by weathering. The effects of thermal stresses on the material performances, due to diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations, constitute a topic of particular interest in the assessment of durability problems associated to long-term exposure. In this work, a study about changes in technical properties of the Apulian ornamental limestones and dolostones induced by thermal stresses is presented. Direct and indirect evaluations concerning index properties, mechanical strength, deformability, textural characteristics and chromatic features, on samples subjected to thermal cycles, were used for providing a comprehensive perspective about deterioration, from the mesoscopic scale to the microscopic one. In a muffle fornace, the samples were subjected to thermal cycles ranging from 100 to 700°C. At the end of each cycle, mass and volume determinations, mercury porosimetry measurements, sclerometric tests, ultrasonic tests, thin section observations and chromatic evaluations through image analysis and Munsell charts were performed. The proposed methodology took into account only non-destructive or semi-destructive tests, in order to highlight the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of decay related to thermal stresses exclusively. In this way a constant comparison among the results of different experimental tests was carried out.

Andriani, G. F.; Germinario, L.

2012-04-01

464

A radiological study of some ornamental stones: the bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain) we have found a variety of striking bluish and secondary yellow granites outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals in which a bluish phosphate is dispersed throughout the rock. Their physical and mechanical properties make these granites a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. Within the pluton the radiological background is fairly homogeneous, with no significant differences between the gamma ray fluxes of the different facies. U (6.4 ± 0.51 ppm), Th (2.9 ± 0.47 ppm) and K2O (4.32 ± 0.26%) contents determined in the laboratory by gamma-ray spectrometry from representative samples are in good accordance with fast in situ measurements carried out with the same technique and also with conventional chemical analysis. Estimated activities for K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 were, on average, 1022 ± 36 Bq kg-1, 84 ± 9 Bq kg-1 and 6.8 ± 1.6 Bq kg-1. On the basis of these results, the I index of EU technical document 112 was determined, with an average result of 0.66 ± 0.03. This suggests that the rock can be used with no restrictions for all types of construction purposes. Striking differences were observed between the blue facies and the yellow facies in radon exhalation tests from crushed material (0.03 Bq kg-1 vs. 0.20 Bq kg-1). Since both granites have similar uranium contents (6.3 ppm and 6.5 ppm, respectively), these results can probably be explained in terms of important differences in the mineralogical distribution of this chemical element, radon emanation being enhanced in the yellow facies. However, due to the ordinary use as ornamental stone, the yellow facies does not present a radiological risk in terms of excess effective dose due to internal exposure to radon.

Pereira, D.; Neves, L.; Pereira, A.; Peinado, M.; Blanco, J. A.; Tejado, J. J.

2012-02-01

465

Electrical Power Trade-Offs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical power trade studies were initiated in September 1982 supporting the Space Station Systems Definition activity. Responsibility for performing the electrical power trade studies (Power Data Base) was divided between the NASA Centers. Center representatives and their respective subjects are identified in the accompanying chart. The data base material was used to conduct a general storage trade study. When the results appeared to favor the flywheel option, effort was focused on a comparative flywheel investigation wherein a range of flywheel performance and cost possibilities was compared with optimistic projections of competing options.

Giudici, B.

1983-01-01

466

Environment and Trade: A Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Environment Programme and the International Institute for Sustainable Development have joined forces to produce this handbook on environment and trade. Designed to "help us understand how trade can affect the environment, for better and for worse, and how environmental concern can work through the trading system, to foster or frustrate development, in both rich and poor countries," this resource attempts to synthesize the multiple pieces of this complex interaction. The handbook is available either as a .pdf document or as a continuously updated HTML version.

467

Trade and the environment: Discussion  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

Lutz, E.

1992-12-01

468

Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis. PMID:18226212

2008-01-01

469

Design Trades for WFIRST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope, WFIRST, was recommended as the highest priority mission for the next decade by the National Research Council in their 2010 report "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics.” The mission aims to measure the properties of dark energy via three different techniques: weak lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations and detecting distant supernova explosions. WFIRST will also search for micro-lensing events caused by extrasolar planets, and perform a near infrared sky survey. Here, we present a fresh look at WFIRST by tracing the science and mission requirements to the three mission concepts that formed the basis of WFIRST and incorporating them into a consistent set. We expect that these requirements will further evolve as NASA evolves the program and use this representative set as an interim solution. From there, we highlight the requirements that are expected to drive the design and evaluate current capabilities based on current and past missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Interferometry Mission, and other mission concepts. We ask what makes the project hard to do. What have we learned from other missions that we can bring to WFIRST? Are there any options that would significantly reduce cost or risk while preserving the science return? Finally, we present a preliminary design concept and identify key trades that will lead to a robust, affordable design that meets all science and mission requirements. We conclude with a preview of future work we expect to perform over the next year.

Danner, Rolf; Casement, S. L.; Lillie, C.; Lo, A.; Oleas, G.; Shapiro, K.; Spittler, C.

2011-01-01

470

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.

2007-12-12

471

Tropical Fish Rescue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Millions of fish eggs from the Caribbean get stuck in the gulf stream every year and drift thousands of miles north where they hatch. Unfortunately, when winter comes, the baby fish will die. In this video, Jonathan joins the New England Aquarium Dive Club on a tropical fish rescue in Rhode Island where they catch some of these fish in the fall before water temperatures plummet. The fish go to the New England Aquariumâs exhibits. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-02-01

472

DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E. J.; Kurath, G.

2008-01-01

473

To trade or not to trade: firm-level analysis of emissions trading in Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed

Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies--given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies--is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allows us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries. PMID:20599317

Coria, Jessica; Löfgren, Asa; Sterner, Thomas

2010-11-01

474

Fish allergy: in review.  

PubMed

Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

2014-06-01

475

ATAM - Automated Trade Assessment Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Trade Assessment Modeling program, ATAM, one of software tools designed to assess candidate architectures for data-management system of Space Station. Designed to discriminate among candidates having equally acceptable performance and reliability characteristics. Utilizes data base, defined by user, containing information on candidate architecture. Assesses such trade factors of system as weight, power consumption, and life-cycle cost. Produces detailed parameter assessments as well as single figure of merit for candidate architecture. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN.

Vallone, Antonio; Wu, Mei-Zong; Hogie, Keith

1989-01-01

476

Walverine: a Walrasian trading agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

TAC-02 was the third in a series of Trading Agent Competition events fostering research in automating trading strategies by showcasing alternate approaches in an open-invitation market game. TAC presents a challenging travel-shopping scenario where agents must satisfy client preferences for complementary and substitutable goods by interacting through a variety of market types. Michigan's entry, Walverine, attempts to bid optimally based

Shih-Fen Cheng; Evan Leung; Kevin M. Lochner; Kevin O'Malley; Daniel M. Reeves; L. Julian Schvartzman; Michael P. Wellman

2003-01-01

477

Jon Haveman's International Trade Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jon Haveman, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, maintains this metasite of industry classification concordances and international data links for researchers pursuing empirical studies of international trade. Among Haveman's collection of Industry Concordances, ISIC, SITC, usSIC, HS, TSUSA, and NACE classifications are covered with detailed source and downloading information. Links to a variety of International Trade Data such as the Penn World Tables are also well-documented; recent additions to both resources are listed by month.

1999-01-01

478

Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish ( Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect ( Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands.

Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M.; Plath, Martin

2008-08-01

479

Working Papers in Trade and Development  

E-print Network

Working Papers in Trade and Development Costing Global Trade Barriers, 1900 to 2050 Kym Anderson Policy ANU College of Asia and the Pacific #12;#12;Costing Global Trade Barriers, 1900 to 2050 Kym circulation of research results in the fields of economic development and international trade. The series

Botea, Adi

480

Trade Is Everybody's Business [and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trade has been an important factor in United States from the 17th century to the present day. The United States was born out of a trade dispute with Great Britain. From the moment the founders first set pen to paper, trade has helped spur U.S. economic growth. This booklet covers trade topics such as policy, perspectives, difference in nations…

Aaronson, Susan A.

481

Working Papers in Trade and Development  

E-print Network

(2010) by the World Trade Organization as a reference point. The Sri Lankan experience for over Organization. JEL Codes: F13, F14, O24, O53 Forthcoming in The World Economy #12;1 Sri Lanka's Trade PolicyWorking Papers in Trade and Development Sri Lanka's Trade Policy: Reverting to Dirigisme? Prema

Botea, Adi

482

Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman  

E-print Network

MIT CEEEPR Cap-and-Trade A. Denny Ellerman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emissions Trading for Energy and Environmental Policy Research #12;MIT CEEEPR Two Types of Air Emissions Trading · Credit or baseline-and-credit trading ­ Essential mechanism: Credit for exceeding target that can be used to meet

483

Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact

Joel Hasbrouck

1991-01-01

484

Introducing the Fair and Logical Trading Project  

E-print Network

contrast with existing Electronic Document Interchange (EDI). EDI Messages belong to certain transaction the so-called "first trade problem". Reduce the potentially very high cost of the first message to support the `fair trade' movement. Introducing the Fair and Logical Trading Project ­ p.7 #12;Fair trade

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

485

Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Mary E. Burfisher and Elizabeth A. Jones, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (described in the July 2, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics), the report Regional Trade Agreements and US Agriculture analyzes the "trade-creating" and "trade-diverting" impacts of US participation in regional trade agreements (RTAs). Twelve chapters cover the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the US-Israel Free Trade Agreement, among other RTAs. Arguments are made that increased US participation benefits US agriculture but could hurt non-member trade participants.

Burfisher, Mary E.; Jones, Elizabeth A.

1998-01-01

486

The present outlook for trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Uruguay Round agreements established the World Trade Organization (WTO), overhauled and strengthened the GATT rules on trade in goods, and added rules on trade in services and intellectual property. Individual countries made wide-ranging commitments to liberalize trade policies. A new round of multilateral trade negotiations may be launched in the year 2000 or soon after. The author reviews the

John Croome

1998-01-01

487

Trade Remedies and World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement: Why Are So Few Challenged?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidumping and related trade remedies are the most popular policy instruments that many of the largest importing countries in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system use to restrict international trade. This paper empirically investigates the trade remedy and WTO dispute settlement interaction by focusing on determinants of WTO members’ decisions of whether to challenge U.S. trade remedies imposed between 1992

Chad P. Bown

2005-01-01

488

Forest products and services, international trade Trade in forest products and services  

E-print Network

regime, primarily pursued by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional trade agreements, focusedForest products and services, international trade Trade in forest products and services The forest for three percent of international merchandise trade. The annual turnover of roundwood, sawnwood, panels

489

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis  

E-print Network

Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

490

Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs?  

E-print Network

Applying the gravity approach to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA, Alexandre to sector trade: Who bears the trade costs? Angela CHEPTEA INRA, UMR1302 SMART, F-35000 Rennes, France, France Financial support received by the "New Issues in Agricultural, Food and Bio-energy Trade

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

P-Trade the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations  

E-print Network

P-Trade ­ the Generic P2P Trading Platform Foundations · Auctions are negotiation mechanisms configuration depends on multiple factors like traded good, participants, information available on the value of the traded good, etc. The system architecture of P-Trade · A central auction name server (ANS) containing

Narasayya, Vivek

492

Fish elevator and method of elevating fish  

DOEpatents

A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

Truebe, Jonathan (Mirror Lake, NH); Drooker, Michael S. (Sanbornville, NH)

1984-01-01

493

Phytophthora ramorum: a pathogen with a remarkably wide host range causing sudden oak death on oaks and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora ramorum is an oomycete plant pathogen classified in the\\u000a kingdom Stramenopila. P. ramorum is the causal agent of sudden oak death\\u000a on coast live oak and tanoak as well as ramorum blight on woody\\u000a ornamental and forest understorey plants. It causes stem cankers on\\u000a trees, and leaf blight or stem dieback on ornamentals and understorey\\u000a forest species. This pathogen

Niklaus J. Gruenwald; Erica M. Goss; Niklaus J. Grunwald

2008-01-01

494

September 19, 2005 Dear Fish Sellers and Fish Buyers  

E-print Network

1 September 19, 2005 Dear Fish Sellers and Fish Buyers: Our records indicate you are obligated. (1) WHEN DOES THE FEE BEGIN? The fee begins on: October 17, 2005 (2) WHAT HAPPENS THEN? All fish sellers must pay the fee and all fish buyers must collect the fee for all fee fish landed on October 17

495

The Fish Funnel: A Trawl Modification to Reduce Fish Escapement  

E-print Network

The Fish Funnel: A Trawl Modification to Reduce Fish Escapement IAN K. WORKMAN and CHARLES W to escape these nets, especially during haul back. To reduce fish escapement, webbing panels, attached designs a fish jlap and a "jloppa." Neither design reduced fish escapement. The jloppa dis torted

496

Fishing Communities Facts Gloucester, Massachusetts has been a fishing  

E-print Network

#12; #12; Fishing Communities Facts Gloucester, Massachusetts has been a fishing community continuously since its founding in 1623. Boston's Fish Pier, which opened in 1914, is the oldest continuously operating fish pier in the U.S. There is a lot of support for the fishing industry by state and local

497

Immunostimulants in fish diets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

1999-01-01

498

78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade...in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards...the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

2013-07-15

499

Brood sex ratio and male UV ornamentation in blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus ): correlational evidence and an experimental test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-allocation theory predicts that females paired to attractive males should bias the brood sex ratio towards male offspring,\\u000a as these would inherit the attractiveness of their father. We studied sex allocation based on male ornamentation in blue tits.\\u000a Brood sex ratios varied with male UV coloration in an age-dependent manner. For juvenile males, the proportion of sons increased\\u000a with increasing

Kaspar Delhey; Anne Peters; Arild Johnsen; Bart Kempenaers

2007-01-01

500