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Sample records for ornl face experiment

  1. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 μm) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding

  2. Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: Implications for carbon storage at ORNL FACE

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    N availability may constrain long-term increases in forest productivity and subsequent increases in C storage in response to CO2-fertilization. Fumigation with elevated [CO2] resulted in increased fine-root production in the sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Free-Air CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Fine roots turn over quickly at ORNL FACE and C storage in sweetgum biomass was limited. To examine the premise that increased root production at ORNL FACE was a physiological response to N-limitation, we fertilized a sweetgum plantation adjacent to ORNL FACE on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP). Annual additions of 200 kg ha-1 of N as urea in 2004 and 2005 increased inorganic soil N availability, which in turn increased stand net primary production (NPP) by approximately 25%. Fertilization increased leaf N concentration and canopy leaf area production, which facilitated a greater than 30% increase in stem production and shifted C partitioning aboveground. We conclude that sweetgum production on the Oak Ridge NERP is limited by soil N availability, and we suggest that N-limitation may have caused increased belowground partitioning in ORNL FACE. Current soil nutrient status and changes in soil N availability mediated by changes in forest C partitioning will shape future forest responses to elevated [CO2].

  3. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-11-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER).

  4. Videos of Experiments from ORNL Gas Hydrate Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gas hydrate research performed by the Environmental Sciences Division utilizes the ORNL Seafloor Process Simulator, the Parr Vessel, the Sapphire Cell, a fiber optic distributed sensing system, and Raman spectroscopy. The group studies carbon sequestration in the ocean, desalination, gas hydrates in the solar system, and nucleation and dissociation kinetics. The videos available at the gas hydrates website are very short clips from experiments.

  5. Accelerated Application Development: The ORNL Titan Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Richard K.; Berrill, Mark A.; Brown, W. Michael; Eisenbach, Markus; Grout, Ray; Larkin, Jeff; Levesque, John; Messer, Bronson; Norman, Matthew R.; Philip, Bobby; Sankaran, Ramanan; Tharrington, Arnold N.; Turner, John A.

    2015-05-09

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this paper we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.

  6. Accelerated Application Development: The ORNL Titan Experience

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Richard K.; Berrill, Mark A.; Brown, W. Michael; Eisenbach, Markus; Grout, Ray; Larkin, Jeff; Levesque, John; Messer, Bronson; Norman, Matthew R.; et al

    2015-05-09

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this papermore » we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.« less

  7. Recent high-speed ballistics experiments at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for almost 20 years. With these devices, pellets (1 to 8 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are formed (at temperatures <20 K) and typically accelerated to speeds of {approximately} 1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL, including repeating pneumatic injectors (single- and multiple-barrel light gas guns) that can inject up to hundreds of pellets for long-pulse plasma operation. The repeating pneumatic injectors are of particular importance because long-pulse fueling is required for present large experimental fusion devices, with steady-state operation the objective for future fusion reactors. In this paper, recent advancements in the development of repeating pneumatic injectors are described, including (1) a small-bore (1.8-mm), high-firing-rate (10-Hz) version of a single-stage light gas gun; (2) a repeating single-stage light gas gun for 8-mm-diam tritium pellets; (3) a repeating two-stage light gas gun for operation at higher pellet velocities; and (4) a steady-state hydrogen extruder feed system.

  8. Design, Implementation, and Experiences of Third-Party Software Administration at the ORNL NCCS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nicholas A; Fahey, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    At the ORNL NCCS, the structure and policy surrounding how we install third-party applications. This change is most notable for its effect on our quad-core Cray XT4 (Jaguar) computer. Of particular interest is the addition of many scripts to automate installing and testing system software, as well as the addition of automated reporting mechanisms. We will present an overview of the design and implementation, and also present our experiences to date

  9. Nursing student experiences with face-to-face learning.

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, Barbara J

    2011-12-01

    Face-to-face learning has been the mainstay of nursing student learning. Despite moves to online learning, face-to-face learning persists. This study focuses on how nursing students experience face-to-face learning and why it not only survives, but thrives. This study was anchored in a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, with Gadamerian concepts and van Manen's lifeworlds as frameworks to understand students' experiences of face-to-face learning. Patterns and themes were extracted from audiore-corded face-to-face interviews. Participants confirmed that face-to-face learning continues to be valued as a strong methodology in nursing education. Their experiences focused on humanism, the importance of "presence," physical proximity, classroom as "the real thing," immediacy of feedback, and learning and knowing by human connections and interaction. The study findings were a rich source for understanding how nursing students process learning experiences. Increased understanding of the meaning and essence of face-to-face learning is essential as we decide how nursing content will be taught. PMID:21956259

  10. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  11. ORNL Pre-test Analyses of A Large-scale Experiment in STYLE

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting a series of numerical analyses to simulate a large scale mock-up experiment planned within the European Network for Structural Integrity for Lifetime Management non-RPV Components (STYLE). STYLE is a European cooperative effort to assess the structural integrity of (non-reactor pressure vessel) reactor coolant pressure boundary components relevant to ageing and life-time management and to integrate the knowledge created in the project into mainstream nuclear industry assessment codes. ORNL contributes work-in-kind support to STYLE Work Package 2 (Numerical Analysis/Advanced Tools) and Work Package 3 (Engineering Assessment Methods/LBB Analyses). This paper summarizes the current status of ORNL analyses of the STYLE Mock-Up3 large-scale experiment to simulate and evaluate crack growth in a cladded ferritic pipe. The analyses are being performed in two parts. In the first part, advanced fracture mechanics models are being developed and performed to evaluate several experiment designs taking into account the capabilities of the test facility while satisfying the test objectives. Then these advanced fracture mechanics models will be utilized to simulate the crack growth in the large scale mock-up test. For the second part, the recently developed ORNL SIAM-PFM open-source, cross-platform, probabilistic computational tool will be used to generate an alternative assessment for comparison with the advanced fracture mechanics model results. The SIAM-PFM probabilistic analysis of the Mock-Up3 experiment will utilize fracture modules that are installed into a general probabilistic framework. The probabilistic results of the Mock-Up3 experiment obtained from SIAM-PFM will be compared to those results generated using the deterministic 3D nonlinear finite-element modeling approach. The objective of the probabilistic analysis is to provide uncertainty bounds that will assist in assessing the more detailed 3D finite

  12. Review of ORNL-TSF shielding experiments for the gas-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, L.S.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Muckenthaler, F.J.; Slater, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    During the period between 1975 and 1980 a series of experiments was performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility in support of the shield design for a 300-MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Demonstration Plant. This report reviews the experiments and calculations, which included studies of: (1) neutron streaming in the helium coolant passageways in the GCFR core; (2) the effectiveness of the shield designed to protect the reactor grid plate from radiation damage; (3) the adequacy of the radial shield in protecting the PCRV (prestressed concrete reactor vessel) from radiation damage; (4) neutron streaming between abutting sections of the radial shield; and (5) the effectiveness of the exit shield in reducing the neutron fluxes in the upper plenum region of the reactor.

  13. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  14. Power Distribution Analysis for the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor Critical Experiment 3

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Primm, Trent; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program is to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications by working to convert research and test reactors, as well as radioisotope production processes, to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and targets. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently reviewing the design bases and key operating criteria including fuel operating parameters, enrichment-related safety analyses, fuel performance, and fuel fabrication in regard to converting the fuel of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from HEU to LEU. The purpose of this study is to validate Monte Carlo methods currently in use for conversion analyses. The methods have been validated for the prediction offlux values in the reactor target, reflector, and beam tubes, but this study focuses on the prediction of the power density profile in the core. Power distributions were calculated in the fuel elements of the HFIR, a research reactor at ORNL, via MCNP and were compared to experimentally obtained data. This study was performed to validate Monte Carlo methods for power density calculations and to observe biases. A current three-dimensional MCNP model was modified to replicate the 1965 HFIR Critical Experiment 3 (HFIRCE-3). In this experiment, the power profile was determined by counting the gamma activity at selected locations in the core. 'Foils' (chunks of fuel meat and clad) were punched out of the fuel elements in HFIRCE-3 following irradiation, and experimental relative power densities were obtained by measuring the activity of these foils and comparing each foil's activity to the activity of a normalizing foil. This analysis consisted of calculating corresponding activities by inserting volume tallies into the modified MCNP model to represent the punchings. The average fission density was calculated for each foil location and then normalized to the reference foil

  15. Accelerating the connection between experiments and models: The FACE-MDS experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Zaehle, S.; Walker, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mandate is clear for improving communication between models and experiments to better evaluate terrestrial responses to atmospheric and climatic change. Unfortunately, progress in linking experimental and modeling approaches has been slow and sometimes frustrating. Recent successes in linking results from the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments with ecosystem and land surface models - the FACE Model-Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project - came only after a period of slow progress, but the experience points the way to future model-experiment interactions. As the FACE experiments were approaching their termination, the FACE research community made an explicit attempt to work together with the modeling community to synthesize and deliver experimental data to benchmark models and to use models to supply appropriate context for the experimental results. Initial problems that impeded progress were: measurement protocols were not consistent across different experiments; data were not well organized for model input; and parameterizing and spinning up models that were not designed for simulating a specific site was difficult. Once these problems were worked out, the FACE-MDS project has been very successful in using data from the Duke and ORNL FACE experiment to test critical assumptions in the models. The project showed, for example, that the stomatal conductance model most widely used in models was supported by experimental data, but models did not capture important responses such as increased leaf mass per unit area in elevated CO2, and did not appropriately represent foliar nitrogen allocation. We now have an opportunity to learn from this experience. New FACE experiments that have recently been initiated, or are about to be initiated, include a eucalyptus forest in Australia; the AmazonFACE experiment in a primary, tropical forest in Brazil; and a mature oak woodland in England. Cross-site science questions are being developed that will have a

  16. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. D.; Kvale, Thomas Jay; Strasser, S. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, Aq++H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons (gamma) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine gamma and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. D.; Kvale, T. J.; Strasser, S. M. Z.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.

    2009-03-10

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, A{sup q+}+H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons ({gamma}) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine {gamma} and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  18. Free Air C02 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Oak Ridge FACE Site and Experiment on CO2 Enrichment of Sweetgum

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The goal of the Oak Ridge FACE Experiment on C02 Enrichment of Sweetgum is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest will be affected by C02 enrichment of the atmosphere, and what are the feedbacks from the forest to the atmosphere. This goal is being approached by measuring the integrated response of an intact forest ecosystem, with a focus on stand-level mechanisms. The facility, comprising five 25-m plots was constructed in a deciduous forest on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. The study site is a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) monoculture planted in 1988. This closed-canopy, 18-m tall stand offers the opportunity for rigorous tests of hypotheses that address the essential features of a forest stand and how they could influence the responses to CO2. The facility was established with support from the ORNL Director's R&D Fund and the Biological and Environmental Research program of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Additional support was provided by the Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO) program through the National Science Foundation. This project was part of the CO2 research network fostered by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

  19. ORNL '90

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.; Barnes, D.; Jefferson, J.

    1990-01-01

    This overview of research conducted at ORNL in 1991 presents information on the subjects of biology, physics, and the environment. Specific topics include gene mutations in kidney disease, technology assessments in thermonuclear fusion, submarine hunting technology, ozone-safe refrigerants, optical data storage via surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and waste mitigating microbes. (GHH)

  20. ORNL `90

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.; Barnes, D.; Jefferson, J.

    1990-12-31

    This overview of research conducted at ORNL in 1991 presents information on the subjects of biology, physics, and the environment. Specific topics include gene mutations in kidney disease, technology assessments in thermonuclear fusion, submarine hunting technology, ozone-safe refrigerants, optical data storage via surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and waste mitigating microbes. (GHH)

  1. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  2. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  3. Online or Face-to-Face? Students' Experiences and Preferences in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Manuela; Maier, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    Which aspects of e-learning courses do students experience as being favorable for learning? When do students prefer online or face-to-face learning components? These questions were the subject of a research study in a sample of 2196 students from 29 Austrian universities. The students completed a questionnaire on their experiences attending an…

  4. Lessons From Two Decades of FACE Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant responses to the projected future levels of CO2 were first characterized in short term experiments lasting days to weeks. However, longer term acclimation responses to elevated CO2 were subsequently discovered to be very important in determining plant and ecosystem function. Free-Air CO2 Enric...

  5. Functional aspects of recollective experience in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Parkin, A J; Gardiner, J M; Rosser, R

    1995-12-01

    This article describes two experiments on awareness in recognition memory for novel faces. Two kinds of awareness, recollective experience and feelings of familiarity in the absence of recollective experience, were measured by "remember" and "know" responses. Experiment 1 showed that "remember" but not "know" responses were reduced by divided attention at study. Experiment 2 showed that massed versus spaced repetition of faces in the study list had opposite effects on "remember" and "know" responses. Massed repetition increased "know" responses and reduced "remember" responses. Spaced repetition increased "remember" responses and reduced "know" responses. The results of both experiments replicate previous findings from the verbal domain in the domain of face recognition, and hence they increase the ecological validity of this experimental approach to memory and awareness and the generality of its database. These findings are discussed from a rehearsal perspective on factors influencing the two states of awareness and in relation to the alternative "process dissociation" procedure. PMID:8750414

  6. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  7. Lessons from forest FACE experiments provide guidance for Amazon-FACE science plan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Lapola, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and they provide a strong foundation for next-generation experiments in unexplored biomes. Specific lessons from FACE experiments include: (1) Carbon cycle responses are time-dependent because component processes have different rate constants: for example, net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO2, but the response may diminish with time as N cycling feedbacks become important. (2) Carbon partitioning patterns determine the fate of the extra C taken up by CO2-enriched plants, but partitioning responses remain an important challenge for ecosystem models. (3) The influence of N cycling on plant and ecosystem C cycling continues to be a critical uncertainty, and new experiments, especially in the tropics, must also consider P cycling. (4) Plant community structure can influence the ecosystem response to elevated CO2, but dynamic vegetation effects have not been adequately addressed. These experiences from FACE experiments in temperate forests are now guiding the development of a science plan for a FACE experiment in Amazonia. Models and small-scale experimental results agree that elevated CO2 will affect the metabolism of tropical ecosystems, but the qualitative and quantitative expression of the effects are largely unknown, representing a major source of uncertainty that limits our capacity to assess the vulnerability of the Amazon forest to climate change. Recognizing the high importance of the forests of the Amazon basin on global carbon, water, and energy cycles, biodiversity conservation, and the provision of essential services in Latin America, a consortium of Brazilian researchers and international collaborators have developed a science plan for Amazon-FACE. While the challenges presented both by infrastructure needs (roads, electricity, and provision of CO2) and biology (the

  8. The Challenges of Blending a Face-to-Face Laboratory Experience with a Televised Distance Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeDrew, June; Cummings-Vickaryous, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the practical challenges faced by instructors who must blend a face-to-face laboratory experience into a distance education course. This issue is discussed in the context of an ongoing kinesiology and health course that includes a mandatory physical activity laboratory experience. The challenges that have arisen around this…

  9. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  10. ORNL ECR multicharged ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states in experiments requiring higher beam intensities than could be previously obtained in our laboratory. The source has already produced up to fully stripped C and O beams, as well as up to He-like Ar beams. Measurements of the energy spread of ions extracted from the ion source operating in both single-stage and two-stage mode are described. In addition, initial results of total cross section measurements for fully stripped light ions incident on atomic hydrogen in the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV are presented. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  11. Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  12. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  13. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed.

  14. Measurement of the axial distribution of radioactivity in the auxiliary charcoal bed of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.F.; Buckner, M.; Buchanan, M.

    1999-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory commenced operation in 1964 and was shut down in 1969. It was fueled with {sup 233}UF{sub 4} in a carrier salt of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}, and it operated at 1,200 F. After it was shut down, the fuel was heated annually to 200 C to recombine fluorine (with the fuel) released due to radiation-induced reactions in the fuel salt. However, a competing reaction oxidized uranium to UF{sub 6}, which was released (along with F{sub 2}) from the fuel and trapped in one of four charcoal filters in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). One of the tasks for decommissioning of the MSRE requires that at least 90% of the estimated 3 kg of {sup 233}U, and radioactive decay products, in this filter be removed, and one of the proposed methods is to vacuum the charcoal above a specified axial position in the filter. This requires that the axial distribution of activity in the filter be measured in a 60 rad/h radiation field to determine where this penetration can be made. To accomplish this, the shielded detector with a pinhole collimator, and with a laser positioning capability, was remotely translated to various axial positions to accomplish these measurements. Activities in the steel screen, and various regions of the charcoal bed, are estimated, and uncertainties in these estimates are generally {lt}1%. Results from this analysis are used for continued operational decisions for decommissioning of the MSRE.

  15. ORNL SunTracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screenmore » that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.« less

  16. Graphite as a plasma-facing material in fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Graphite is now used extensively in most of the major fusion experiments in the world and will be used more extensively in future devices. In addition to its excellent tolerance of high heat fluxes, graphite has many unusual characteristics that pertain to its use as a plasma-facing material; these are its propensity for releasing gases when heated and when exposed to ion fluxes, its ability to absorb copious quantities of hydrogen during hydrogen bombardment, and its ability to pump hydrogen after noble gas bombardment. The graphite used in existing machines and considered for use in future machines is isotropic on a macroscopic scale and anisotropic on a microscopic scale; it has a large open porosity, up to 20%. This leads to enormous internal surface areas for adsorption and desorption of gases. Most early hydrogen-graphite interaction experiments were incorrectly analyzed because of this property. In addition, interaction of energetic hydrogen ions with graphite can lead to erosion, with concomitant deposition of carbon films with high hydrogen content on chamber surfaces. These effects are observed experimentally and have been modeled with some success. This paper presents experimental data dealing with these topics and their influences on present-day plasma operations and on graphite use in future machines. 34 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Electric Fuel Rod Simulator Fabrication at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    Commercial vendors could not supply the high-quality, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators (FRS) required for large thermal-hydraulic safety-oriented experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970s and early 1980s. Staff at ORNL designed, developed, and manufactured the simulators utilized in these safety experiments. Important FRS design requirements include (1) materials of construction, (2) test power requirements and availability, (3) experimental test objectives, (4) supporting thermal analyses, and (5) extensive quality control throughout all phases of FRS fabrication. This paper will present an overview of these requirements (design, analytics, and quality control) as practiced at ORNL to produce a durable high-quality FRS.

  18. Electric Fuel Rod Simulator Fabrication at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-01

    Commercial vendors could not supply the high-quality, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators (FRS) required for large thermal-hydraulic safety-oriented experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970s and early 1980s. Staff at ORNL designed, developed, and manufactured the simulators utilized in these safety experiments. Important FRS design requirements include (1) materials of construction, (2) test power requirements and availability, (3) experimental test objectives, (4) supporting thermal analyses, and (5) extensive quality control throughout all phases of FRS fabrication. This paper will present an overview of these requirements (design, analytics, and quality control) as practiced at ORNL to produce a durable high-quality FRS.

  19. An Experiment Comparing HBSE Graduate Social Work Classes: Face-to-Face and at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehle, Ralph; Quinn, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental comparison of two master's level social work classes delivering content on human behavior in the social environment. One class, delivered face-to-face, was largely synchronous. The other class, delivered using distance technologies, was more asynchronous than the first. The authors hypothesized that…

  20. The University Student Experience of Face-to-Face and Online Discussions: Coherence, Reflection and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; O'Hara, Agi; Prosser, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into learning through discussions by undergraduate social work students. Second-year students studying psychology for social work experienced discussions began with face-to-face tutorials, and then continued for some time after online. This study used closed-ended questionnaires to investigate what students…

  1. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  2. Pellet injector research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Gouge, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads.

  3. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Foreign Policy: Student Experiences of Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussion and Their Relationship to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions of learning through discussion, and their approaches to both face-to-face and online…

  4. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in learning…

  5. RECOG-ORNL

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-05-29

    A general-purpose pattern recognition code, is a modification of the RECOG program, written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. RECOG-ORNL contains techniques for preprocessing, analyzing, and displaying data, and for unsupervised and supervised learning. Data preprocessing routines transform the data into useful representations by autocalling, selecting important variables, and/or adding products or transformations of the variables of the data set. Data analysis routines use correlations to evaluate the data and interrelationships among the data. Display routinesmore » plot the multidimensional patterns in two dimensions or plot histograms, patterns, or one variable versus another. Unsupervised learning techniques search for classes contained inherently in the data. Supervised learning techniques use known information about some of the data to generate predicted properties for an unknown set.« less

  6. Holistic face perception is modulated by experience-dependent perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Entenman, Robert J; Fleming, Justin T

    2016-07-01

    What role do general-purpose, experience-sensitive perceptual mechanisms play in producing characteristic features of face perception? We previously demonstrated that different-colored, misaligned framing backgrounds, designed to disrupt perceptual grouping of face parts appearing upon them, disrupt holistic face perception. In the current experiments, a similar part-judgment task with composite faces was performed: face parts appeared in either misaligned, different-colored rectangles or aligned, same-colored rectangles. To investigate whether experience can shape impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception, a pre-task fostered the perception of either (a) the misaligned, differently colored rectangle frames as parts of a single, multicolored polygon or (b) the aligned, same-colored rectangle frames as a single square shape. Faces appearing in the misaligned, differently colored rectangles were processed more holistically by those in the polygon-, compared with the square-, pre-task group. Holistic effects for faces appearing in aligned, same-colored rectangles showed the opposite pattern. Experiment 2, which included a pre-task condition fostering the perception of the aligned, same-colored frames as pairs of independent rectangles, provided converging evidence that experience can modulate impacts of perceptual grouping on holistic face perception. These results are surprising given the proposed impenetrability of holistic face perception and provide insights into the elusive mechanisms underlying holistic perception. PMID:27029482

  7. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma.

  8. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B. ); Schmidt, G.L. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma.

  9. Real-life experience with personally familiar faces enhances discrimination based on global information

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Goedele

    2016-01-01

    Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience. PMID:26855852

  10. Presentation at FTP: A review. [ORNL Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This series of vugraphs presents some information concerning ORNL's involvement in the fusion energy research program. Recent and future experiments are named, and a rough estimate of funding is given. (JDH)

  11. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E.

    2014-01-01

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. PMID:24993021

  12. ORNL RAIL BARGE DB

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P. )

    1991-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  13. The Embedded Librarian Online or Face-to-Face: American University's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Michael A.; Matsuoka-Motley, Nobue; Mayer, William

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role online communication and tools play in embedded librarianship at American University. Two embedded models of user engagement, traditional and hybrid, are discussed. The librarians operating in each mode share their experiences providing tailored support to the departments of music/performing arts and business. The…

  14. The Subjective Experiences of Therapists in Face-to-Face, Video, and Audio Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Susan X; Schneider, Paul

    Most psychotherapists hold preconceptions about what it could be like to deliver services using distance technology. Reactions to distance technology in counseling have been governed by guesses rather then by experience or research. However, a recent teletherapy project has provided insight into how remote systems of treatment actually are…

  15. Plasma Facing Surface Composition During NSTX Li Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Sullenberger, R.; Koel, B. E.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kugel, H. W.

    2012-07-20

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices. However, the nature of the plasma-lithium surface interaction has been obscured by the difficulty of in-tokamak surface analysis. We report laboratory studies of the chemical composition of lithium surfaces exposed to typical residual gases found in tokamaks. Solid lithium and a molybdenum alloy (TZM) coated with lithium has been examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and Auger electron spectroscopy both in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and after exposure to trace gases. Lithium surfaces near room temperature were oxidized after exposure to 1-2 Langmuirs of oxygen or water vapor. The oxidation rate by carbon monoxide was four times less. Lithiated PFC surfaces in tokamaks will be oxidized in about 100 s depending on the tokamak vacuum conditions.

  16. Poignancy: Mixed Emotional Experience in the Face of Meaningful Endings

    PubMed Central

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Mikels, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Sarah J.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons. Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness. Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states. In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location. Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined “last times” at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions. In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing. Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings. PMID:18179325

  17. Issues and Concerns Faced by Undergraduate Language Student Teachers during Teaching Practicum Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mohd Sofi; Othman, Abdul Jalil; Karim, Abdul Faruk Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study examined specific issues and concerns faced by Bachelor of Education student teachers majoring in Language and Literature during their 12-week teaching practicum experience. Specifically, three main areas of concerns were examined. They were: (1) specific issues and concerns related to the implementation of teaching practicum faced by…

  18. The ORNL-SNAP shielding program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mynatt, F. R.; Clifford, C. E.; Muckenthaler, F. J.; Gritzner, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The effort in the ORNL-SNAP shielding program is directed toward the development and verification of computer codes using numerical solutions to the transport equation for the design of optimized radiation shields for SNAP power systems. A brief discussion is given for the major areas of the SNAP shielding program, which are cross-section development, transport code development, and integral experiments. Detailed results are presented for the integral experiments utilizing the TSF-SNAP reactor. Calculated results are compared with experiments for neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the bare reactor and as transmitted through slab shields.

  19. Facing up to Complexity: Implications for Our Social Experiments.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    Biological systems are highly complex, and for this reason there is a considerable degree of uncertainty as to the consequences of making significant interventions into their workings. Since a number of new technologies are already impinging on living systems, including our bodies, many of us have become participants in large-scale "social experiments". I will discuss biological complexity and its relevance to the technologies that brought us BSE/vCJD and the controversy over GM foods. Then I will consider some of the complexities of our social dynamics, and argue for making a shift from using the precautionary principle to employing the approach of evaluating the introduction of new technologies by conceiving of them as social experiments. PMID:26062747

  20. [About animal experiments for a face without wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, a nervous poison produced by bacteria, is increasingly being used - besides its medical application - as a beauty product for smoothing facial wrinkles. It is unknown in public that each batch of the toxin has to undergo a quality control before marketing. The test used is a LD50 test using mice that is very animal consuming and causes extreme suffering. Although several alternative methods exist, none of these are have yet been adopted by the European pharmacopoeia. Consumers in the EU do not accept animal experiments for cosmetic purposes. However, Botulinum toxin does not fall under the definition of a "cosmetic product" and therefore the bans on animal experiments laid down in the EU Cosmetic Directive do not apply. Therefore on a short term scale, only the voluntarily renouncement of the use of this toxin as an anti-wrinkling agent can prevent the suffering and death of animals for a beauty product. PMID:14976586

  1. Changing the Face of Astronomy Through Authentic Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, K. A.; Bell, K'Maja; Jafri, J.; Lyon, G.; Hammergren, M.

    2012-05-01

    Project Exploration is a Chicago-based science outreach organization that works to ensure communities traditionally overlooked by science, particularly minority youth and girls, have access to personalized experiences with science and scientists. 85% of students participating in Project Exploration come from low-income families, primarily African-American and Latino, and 74% are girls. We particularly target students who may not be academically successful. The results of a recent 10-year retrospective study demonstrate that Project Exploration students are significantly more likely than their peers to graduate from high school (95%), go to college (50%), and major in science (60%); and they attribute their persistence in science and education to their Project Exploration experience. Furthermore, Project Exploration works with the scientists involved (including graduate students and post-docs) to help them understand what it means to do effective educational outreach and how to put the interests of the youth at the center of outreach work. In this poster, we describe the details of the Project Exploration model, as well as several projects in astronomy that our students and scientists have carried out. KB and KC are supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNX1OAC89G. KC is also supported by the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  2. Case 2: Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learners in a Synchronous Class: Instructor and Learner Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, P. Clint; Graham, Charles R.; Rasmussen, Rus; Campbell, J. Olin; Ure, Donna M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the development of a class at Brigham Young University (Utah) that blends distance and face-to-face students in a synchronous class. This case study focuses on how this blended learning environment was experienced by the distance and face-to-face students, as well as by the instructor. (MES)

  3. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  4. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  5. Guiding the Next Generation of Forest FACE Experiments with Lessons from the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments that were initiated in forest ecosystems 20 years ago represented a large commitment of time and energy of many students, early career, and senior scientists, and they were a substantial investment of funding from government science agencies. The experiments produced hundreds of primary research papers and dozens of synthesis and review papers, so it is highly appropriate to ask: What did we learn from this enterprise about how trees and forests will respond to an ever increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere? The diversity of sites and species preclude any single, simple answer. Nevertheless, the FACE experiments were successful in building upon earlier, smaller scale elevated CO2 experiments to provide the data needed to evaluate hypotheses derived from past results, and they provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Important lessons include: (1) Net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO2, but the response can diminish over time. (2) Carbon accumulation is driven by the distribution of carbon among plant and soil components with differing turnover rates and by interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. (3) Plant community structure may change, but elevated CO2 has only minor effects on microbial community structure. However, despite these insights, the size and longevity of forests preclude experimental evaluation, even in decade-long experiments, of the critical global-scale issues associated with forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and the feedbacks provided to the climate system. Instead, we must rely on models that simulate the exchange of carbon, water, and energy in the terrestrial biosphere. An important objective of FACE experiments has always been to provide data and evaluation tools for ecosystem models and thereby contribute to our ability to project how ecosystems will

  6. HappyFace as a generic monitoring tool for HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the information and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are always under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the different HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repository, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, the so-called grid-enabled HappyFace. It allows its basic framework to connect directly to the grid user applications and the grid collective services, without involving the monitoring resources in the HEP grid systems. This approach gives HappyFace several advantages: Portability, to provide an independent and generic monitoring system among the HEP grid systems. Eunctionality, to allow users to perform various diagnostic tools in the individual HEP grid systems and grid sites. Elexibility, to make HappyFace beneficial and open for the various distributed grid computing environments. Different grid-enabled modules, to connect to the Ganga job monitoring system and to check the performance of grid transfers among the grid sites, have been implemented. The new HappyFace system has been successfully integrated and now it displays the information and the status of both the monitoring resources and the direct access to the grid user applications and the grid collective

  7. SHIFTING THE PROTOTYPE: EXPERIENCE WITH FACES INFLUENCES AFFECTIVE AND ATTRACTIVENESS PREFERENCES

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    While some researchers have suggested that preferences for attractive faces are the result of a domain-specific beauty detection module, others argue these preferences develop based on averages of stimuli through a domain-general learning mechanism. We tested whether cognitive and perceptual mechanisms sensitive to experience underlie facial preferences by familiarizing participants with human, chimpanzee, or morphed faces (60%-chimp/40%-human). Results indicated that participants familiarized with human-chimp morphs showed greater zygomaticus major activity, a physiological correlate of positive affect (Study 1), and higher explicit attractiveness ratings (Study 2) to faces morphed to some degree with chimpanzees. These results demonstrate that experience shifts attractiveness preferences away from the normative average, and suggest that a domain-general cognitive mechanism better accounts for facial preferences than a domain-specific innate beauty-detector. PMID:23226915

  8. Depression Experience Journal: A Computer-Based Intervention For Families Facing Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaso, David Ray; Marcus, Nicole Eldridge; Kinnamon, Carolyn; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the feasibility and safety of a computer-based application for families facing childhood depression. The Depression Experience Journal (EJ) is a psychoeducational intervention based on a narrative model involving the sharing of personal stories about childhood depression. Method: Semistructured interviews assessed…

  9. The evolution of teleoperated manipulators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.; Herndon, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    ORNL has made significant contributions to teleoperator and telerobotics technology for two decades and continues with an aggressive program today. Examples of past projects are: (1) the M2 servomanipulator, which was the first digitally controlled teleoperator; (2) the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), which was the first remotely maintainable teleoperator; (3) the CESARm/Kraft dissimilar teleoperated system; and (4) the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM), a 7-Degree-of-Freedom (7-DOF) telerobot built as a prototype for work in space. More recently, ORNL has become heavily involved with Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) robotics programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The ERWM program requires high payloads and high dexterity. As a result, a hydraulically actuated, dual-arm system comprised of two 6-DOF arms mounted on a 5-DOF base has been constructed and is being used today for various research tasks and for decontamination and dismantlement activities. All of these teleoperated manipulator systems build upon the experiences gained throughout the almost two decades of development. Each system incorporates not only the latest technology in computers, sensors, and electronics, but each new . system also adds at least one new feature to the technologies already developed and demonstrated in the previous system(s). As a result of this process, a serious study of these manipulator systems is a study in the evolution of teleoperated manipulator the systems in general. This provides insight not only into the research and development paths chosen in the past, but also into the appropriate directions for future teleoperator and telerobotics research. This paper examines each of the teleoperated/telerobotic systems developed at ORNL, summarizes their features and capabilities, examines the state of the most current telerobotic system (the Dual Arm Work Module), PM provides direction for a Next Generation Telerobotic Manipulator system.

  10. Introducing Teaching Cases with Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Discussion: Two Multi-Classroom Quasi-Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Siwatu, Kamau O.; Liu, Xiongyi; PytlikZillig, Lisa M.; Horn, Christy; Sic, Stephanie; Carlson, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in multisection introductory child and adolescent development classes to determine effects of introducing abbreviated teaching case studies that were then discussed either in face-to-face or online formats. Students receiving teaching case studies in either format in both classes showed improved ability to critically…

  11. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces. PMID:23460867

  12. Single trial EEG classification applied to a face recognition experiment using different feature extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Yudu; Ma, Sen; Hu, Zhongze; Chen, Jiansheng; Su, Guangda; Dou, Weibei

    2015-08-01

    Research on brain machine interface (BMI) has been developed very fast in recent years. Numerous feature extraction methods have successfully been applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) classification in various experiments. However, little effort has been spent on EEG based BMI systems regarding familiarity of human faces cognition. In this work, we have implemented and compared the classification performances of four common feature extraction methods, namely, common spatial pattern, principal component analysis, wavelet transform and interval features. High resolution EEG signals were collected from fifteen healthy subjects stimulated by equal number of familiar and novel faces. Principal component analysis outperforms other methods with average classification accuracy reaching 94.2% leading to possible real life applications. Our findings thereby may contribute to the BMI systems for face recognition. PMID:26737964

  13. Importance of music for facing the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-09-01

    Attempts to cope with the experience of pain have been numerous and have had a long history. Among others, mindfulness meditation is one of the oldest of them. It first emerged in ancient India and since then has been practiced up to the present, possibly as one of the most prevalent methods. There is a general consensus that the practice of such meditation can lead to a reduction of perceived pain most effectively, as argued by Fabbro and Crescentini [1]. As a first step of the attempt to practice such meditation, one is required not to defend oneself when faced with a painful experience, or to avoid or withdraw from the experience. However, this is not an easy task for anyone because humans, as Homo loquense[3], are born with an almost predispositional tendency to discard or to devalue conflicting knowledge because simultaneously holding conflicting cognitions makes them feel discomfort. Ancient Greeks already knew that, and in Aesop's fable, when a fox sees high-hanging grapes, his desire to eat grapes and inability to reach them are in conflict. The fox then overcomes this conflict by deciding that the grapes are sour and not worth eating. This conflict is the phenomenon referred to as cognitive dissonance in the field of psychology, and is closely connected to the entirety of human evolution. That is, the emergence of language must have led to the proliferation of cognitive dissonances, and if they had not been overcome, language and knowledge would have been discarded and further human evolution would have been stopped in its tracks. Thus, difficulty of facing pain is a "burden" imposed upon humans, who acquired language as a way to construct divergent and highly sophisticated cultures for their living.

  14. ORNL grouting technologies for immobilizing hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Cement and Concrete Applications Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed versatile and inexpensive processes to solidify large quantities of hazardous liquids, sludges, and solids. By using standard off the shelf processing equipment, these batch or continuous processes are compatible with a wide range of disposal methods, such as above-ground storage, shallow-land burial, deep geological disposal, sea-bed dumping, and bulk in-situ solidification. Because of their economic advantages, these latter bulk in-situ disposal scenarios have received the most development. ORNL's experience has shown that tailored cement-based formulas can be developed which tolerate wide fluctuations in waste feed compositions and still maintain mixing properties that are compatible with standard equipment. In addition to cements, these grouts contain pozzolans, clays and other additives to control the flow properties, set-times, phase separations and impacts of waste stream fluctuation. The cements, fly ashes and other grout components are readily available in bulk quantities and the solids-blends typically cost less than $0.05 to 0.15 per waste gallon. Depending on the disposal scenario, total disposal costs (material, capital, and operating) can be as low as $0.10 to 0.50 per gallon.

  15. Development of Facial Rejuvenation Procedures: Thirty Years of Clinical Experience with Face Lifts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Jun; Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Yoonho

    2015-09-01

    Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons. However, no generally applicable standard method exists, because the condition of each patient is different, and each operative method has advantages and disadvantages. Specific characteristics of the skin of Asians and their skeletal anatomy should be considered when determining the operative method to be used on Asian patients. Plastic surgeons should improve their ability to analyze the original aesthetic properties and problem areas of each patient, drawing on scientific knowledge about the aging process, and they should develop the skills necessary to perform various rejuvenative techniques. In the present article, we reviewed various face lift procedures and the current methods of modified double plane face lift, based on our clinical experience of over 30 years. PMID:26430622

  16. Development of Facial Rejuvenation Procedures: Thirty Years of Clinical Experience with Face Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Jun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons. However, no generally applicable standard method exists, because the condition of each patient is different, and each operative method has advantages and disadvantages. Specific characteristics of the skin of Asians and their skeletal anatomy should be considered when determining the operative method to be used on Asian patients. Plastic surgeons should improve their ability to analyze the original aesthetic properties and problem areas of each patient, drawing on scientific knowledge about the aging process, and they should develop the skills necessary to perform various rejuvenative techniques. In the present article, we reviewed various face lift procedures and the current methods of modified double plane face lift, based on our clinical experience of over 30 years. PMID:26430622

  17. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; Griffard, Cory

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasmamore » facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.« less

  18. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; Griffard, Cory

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasma facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.

  19. Ecological Lessons from Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Zak, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experiments have provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to our ability to project how ecosystems respond to increasing CO{sub 2} in the Earth's atmosphere. Important lessons emerge by evaluating a set of hypotheses that initially guided the design and longevity of forested FACE experiments. Net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO{sub 2}, but the response can diminish over time. Carbon accumulation is driven by the distribution of carbon among plant and soil components with differing turnover rates and by interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Plant community structure may change, but elevated CO{sub 2} has only minor effects on microbial community structure. FACE results provide a strong foundation for next-generation experiments in unexplored ecosystems and inform coupled climate-biogeochemical models of the ecological mechanisms controlling ecosystem response to the rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.

  20. Pellet injector development at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Simmons, D.W.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range by either pneumatic (light-gas gun) or mechanical (centrifugal force) techniques. ORNL has recently provided a centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak and a new, simplified, eight-shot pneumatic injector for the Advanced Toroidal Facility stellarator at ORNL. Hundreds of tritium and DT pellets were accelerated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos in 1988--89. These experiments, done in a single-shot pipe-gun system, demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets at low {sup 3}He levels. A new, tritium-compatible extruder mechanism is being designed for longer-pulse DT applications. Two-stage light-gas guns and electron beam rocket accelerators for speeds of the order of 2--10 km/s are also under development. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun accelerated 10 surrogate pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds in the range of 2--3 km/s; and the electron beam rocket accelerator completed initial feasibility and scaling experiments. ORNL has also developed conceptual designs of advanced plasma fueling systems for the Compact Ignition Tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  1. Using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to evaluate ITER PFC safety. [Plasma-Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A. ); Bartlit, J.R. ); Causey, R.A. ); Haines, J.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment was assembled at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore to investigate interactions between dense plasmas at low energies and plasma-facing component materials. This apparatus has the unique capability of replicating plasma conditions in a tokamak divertor with particle flux densities of 2 [times] 10[sup 19] ions/cm[sup 2] [center dot] s and a plasma temperature of about 15 eV using a plasma that includes tritium. With the closure of the Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, the experiment was moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental program has been initiated there using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to examine safety issues related to tritium in plasma-facing components, particularly the ITER divertor. Those issues include tritium retention and release characteristics, tritium permeation rates and transient times to coolant streams, surface modification and erosion by the plasma, the effects of thermal loads and cycling, and particulate production. A considerable lack of data exists in these areas for many of the materials, especially beryllium, being considered for use in ITER. Not only will basic material behavior with respect to safety issues in the divertor environment be examined, but innovative techniques for optimizing performance with respect to tritium safety by material modification and process control will be investigated. Supplementary experiments will be carried out at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory to expand and clarify results obtained on the Tritium Plasma Experiment.

  2. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  3. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Data from the Duke Forest FACE Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOEÆs Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The Duke University FACE website actually presents information on several FACE experiments. The Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) facility is located in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest. It consists of four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) plots that provide elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and four plots that provide ambient CO2 control. The system has been in operation since June, 1994 in the prototype plot, and since August, 1996 in the three additional plots. The prototype plot and its reference were halved with a barrier inserted in the soil in 1998 to conduct, together with five additional plot pairs, CO2 X soil nutrient enrichment experiments. The rest of the plots were partitioned in early 2005 and incorporated into the CO2 X nutrient experiment. To increase statistical power, four additional ambient plots were established in January, 2005, halved, and one half of each fertilized. [copied from http://face.env.duke.edu/description.cfm] The Duke FACE home page makes information available from both completed and ongoing projects, provides a searchable database of publications and presentations, and data, images, and links to related websites.

  4. Crystal-face: A Field Experiment An Modelling Program Focused On Tropical Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E.

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The deployment phase will occur in July, 2002 in southern Florida, USA. Several aircraft will be used, including the ER-2 and Proteus for cloud remote sensing, the WB-57 and Citation for in situ cloud measurements, the P-3 with a Doppler radar for characterization of convective systems, and the Twin Otter for sampling of inflow airmasses. In addition, numerous ground-based and satellite remote sensing measure- ments will be contributing. A central focus of the mission is improvement of our ability to model cirrus clouds with numerical models. Several research groups with a variety of model types (cloud- resolving models, mesoscale models, weather-prediction models, and general circu- lation models) will be participating. Our hope is to fully characterize several cumu- lonimbus/cirrus anvil systems that can be used as case studies for testing and improve- ment of the models. The models will be used for investigating cirrus generation and dissipation processes and the sensitivity of tropical cirrus to convective intensity and aerosol properties. Ultimately, we expect this effort to improve our ability to represent tropical cirrus in GCMs. A general description of the CRYSTAL-FACE program will be presented, with an emphasis on the cloud modeling approach.

  5. CRYSTAL-FACE: A Field Experiment and Modeling Program Focused on Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical Cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of 'he Earth's climate. The deployment phase will occur in July, 2002 in southern Florida, USA. Several aircraft will be used, including the ER-2 and Proteus for cloud remote sensing, the WB-57 and Citation for in situ cloud measurements, the P-3 with a Doppler radar for characterization of convective systems, and the Twin otter for sampling of inflow airmasses. In addition, numerous ground-based and satellite remote sensing measurements will be contributing. A central focus of the mission is improvement of our ability to model cirrus clouds with numerical models. Several research groups with a variety of model types (cloud-resolving models, mesoscale models, weather-prediction models, and general circulation models) will be participating. Our hope is to fully characterize several mulonimbus/cirrus anvil systems that can be used as case studies for testing and improvement of the models. The models will be used for investigating cirrus generation and dissipation processes and the sensitivity of tropical cirrus to convective intensity and aerosol properties. Ultimately, we expect this effort to improve our ability to represent tropical cirrus in GCMs. A general description of the CRYSTAL-FACE program will be presented, with an emphasis on the cloud modeling approach.

  6. Face to Face with Fathers: A Report on Low-Income Fathers and Their Experience with Child Support Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Daniel O.

    This report documents the experiences of low-income, never-married fathers who have children receiving public assistance and who are required to establish paternity and pay child support. Seventy-one fathers were interviewed either in focus groups or individually. Each father was asked to describe his relationship with his children, his experience…

  7. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  8. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments.

    PubMed

    Norby, Richard J; De Kauwe, Martin G; Domingues, Tomas F; Duursma, Remko A; Ellsworth, David S; Goll, Daniel S; Lapola, David M; Luus, Kristina A; MacKenzie, A Rob; Medlyn, Belinda E; Pavlick, Ryan; Rammig, Anja; Smith, Benjamin; Thomas, Rick; Thonicke, Kirsten; Walker, Anthony P; Yang, Xiaojuan; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model-data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity. PMID:26249015

  9. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  10. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anjuli L. A.; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A.; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces. PMID:27074009

  11. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anjuli L A; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces. PMID:27074009

  12. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  13. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  14. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  15. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials. PMID:27587118

  16. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  17. ORNL analyses of AVR performance and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the high interest in modular High Temperature Reactor performance and safety, a cooperative project has been established involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs Reaktor GmbH (AVR), and Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (KFA) in reactor physics, performance and safety. This paper presents initial results of ORNL's examination of a hypothetical depressurized core heatup accident and consideration of how a depressurized core heatup test might be conducted by AVR staff. Also presented are initial analyses of a test involving a reduction in core flow and of a test involving reactivity insertion via control rod withdrawal.

  18. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  19. Effects of Normal and Abnormal Visual Experience on the Development of Opposing Aftereffects for Upright and Inverted Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel A.; Maurer, Daphne; Hatry, Alexandra; Anzures, Gizelle; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We used opposing figural aftereffects to investigate whether there are at least partially separable representations of upright and inverted faces in patients who missed early visual experience because of bilateral congenital cataracts (mean age at test 19.5 years). Visually normal adults and 10-year-olds were tested for comparison. Adults showed…

  20. BIFoR FACE: A ten-year Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment in Old Growth Deciduous English Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Ellsworth, D.; Hemming, D.; Crous, K.; Pope, F.; Blaen, P.; Poynter, A.; Hamilton, L.; Blenkhorn, D.; Jarvis-Rouse, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) will perform fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR to study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to against a large step-change in atmospheric [CO2] is the BIFoR Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England. The facility will enable elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment and 6 control plots), commencing in spring 2016. Under eCO2 conditions primary research questions will investigate carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses. As well as describing the facility and experimental design, we present baseline data collected throughout 2015, prior to fumigation. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; phenology camera derivatives; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and enhanced atmospheric chemistry. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatinus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is an exciting new international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  1. ORNL engineering design and construction reengineering report

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    A team composed of individuals representing research and development (R and D) divisions, infrastructure support organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE)-Oak Ridge Operations was chartered to reengineer the engineering, design, and construction (ED and C) process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The team recognized that ED and C needs of both R and D customers and the ORNL infrastructure program have to be met to maintain a viable and competitive national laboratory. Their goal was to identify and recommend implementable best-in-class ED and C processes that will efficiently and cost-effectively support the ORNL R and D staff by being responsive to their programmatic and infrastructure needs. The team conducted process mapping of current and potential ED and C approaches, developed idealized versions of ED and C processes, and identified potential barriers to an efficient ED and C process. Eight subteams were assigned to gather information and to evaluate the significance of potential barriers through benchmarking, surveys, interviews, and reviews of key topical areas in order to determine whether the perceived barriers were real and important and whether they resulted from laws or regulations over which ORNL has no control.

  2. ORNL trends and balances, 1987-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is given that covers the roles, organization, R and D sponsors, and recent achievements of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Current R and D programs are described in the areas of nuclear and engineering technologies, advanced energy systems, biomedical and environmental sciences, and basic physical sciences. ORNL's future activities are discussed. (LEW)

  3. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance—Part II: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-12-01

    A face/core debond in a sandwich structure may propagate in the interface or kink into either the face or core. It is found that certain modifications of the face/core interface region influence the kinking behavior, which is studied experimentally in the present paper. A sandwich double cantilever beam specimen loaded by uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) allows for accurate measurements of the J integral as the crack propagates under large scale fibre bridging. By altering the mode-mixity of the loading, the crack path changes and deflects from the interface into the adjacent face or core. The transition points where the crack kinks are identified and the influence of four various interface design modifications on the propagation path and fracture resistance are investigated.

  4. Plasma response to lithium-coated plasma-facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M. G.; Kugel, H.; Kaita, R.; Zakharov, L. E.; Schneider, H; LaBlanc, B. P.; Mansfield, D.K.; Bell, R. E.; Maingi, R.; Ding, S.; Kaye, S.; Paul, S.F.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Canik, John; Hosea, J.; Taylor, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment ( NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbon-fiber-composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor toward the lower divertor. In neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods of up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off-layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off-layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but

  5. Big data for ecologists: Highlighting the ORNL DAAC

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Alison G; Cook, Robert B; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Eby, Pete I; Thornton, Michele M; Thornton, Peter E; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Virdi, Makhan L; Wei, Yaxing

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly confronted by questions that can be addressed only by integrating data from numerous sources, often across large geographic areas and broad time periods. The supply of ecological big data is increasing at a rapid pace as researchers are publishing their data sets and large, public science and data infrastructures (such as NEON, DataONE, LTER, & NCEAS) are producing and curating extensive volumes of complex data and metadata. While supply of, and demand for, ecological data is on the rise, many ecologists now face a new challenge in locating and synthesizing the data relevant for their particular question. Here we highlight selected popular big data products applicable to ecological research available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  6. Tropical forest response to elevated CO2: Model-experiment integration at the AmazonFACE site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, C.; Berry, J. A.; Guanter, L.; Joiner, J.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere's response to current and future elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) is a large source of uncertainty in future projections of the C cycle, climate and ecosystem functioning. In particular, the sensitivity of tropical rainforest ecosystems to eCO­2 is largely unknown even though the importance of tropical forests for biodiversity, carbon storage and regional and global climate feedbacks is unambiguously recognized. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) project will be the first ecosystem scale eCO2 experiment undertaken in the tropics, as well as the first to be undertaken in a mature forest. AmazonFACE provides the opportunity to integrate ecosystem modeling with experimental observations right from the beginning of the experiment, harboring a two-way exchange, i.e. models provide hypotheses to be tested, and observations deliver the crucial data to test and improve ecosystem models. We present preliminary exploration of observed and expected process responses to eCO2 at the AmazonFACE site from the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, highlighting opportunities and pitfalls for model integration of tropical FACE experiments. The preliminary analysis provides baseline hypotheses, which are to be further developed with a follow-up multiple model inter-comparison. The analysis builds on the recently undertaken FACE-MDS (Model-Data Synthesis) project, which was applied to two temperate FACE experiments and exceeds the traditional focus on comparing modeled end-target output. The approach has proven successful in identifying well (and less well) represented processes in models, which are separated for six clusters also here; (1) Carbon fluxes, (2) Carbon pools, (3) Energy balance, (4) Hydrology, (5) Nutrient cycling, and (6) Population dynamics. Simulation performance of observed conditions at the AmazonFACE site (a.o. from Manaus K34 eddy flux tower) will highlight process-based model deficiencies, and aid the separation

  7. Tropical forest response to elevated CO2: Model-experiment integration at the AmazonFACE site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, K.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere's response to current and future elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) is a large source of uncertainty in future projections of the C cycle, climate and ecosystem functioning. In particular, the sensitivity of tropical rainforest ecosystems to eCO­2 is largely unknown even though the importance of tropical forests for biodiversity, carbon storage and regional and global climate feedbacks is unambiguously recognized. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) project will be the first ecosystem scale eCO2 experiment undertaken in the tropics, as well as the first to be undertaken in a mature forest. AmazonFACE provides the opportunity to integrate ecosystem modeling with experimental observations right from the beginning of the experiment, harboring a two-way exchange, i.e. models provide hypotheses to be tested, and observations deliver the crucial data to test and improve ecosystem models. We present preliminary exploration of observed and expected process responses to eCO2 at the AmazonFACE site from the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, highlighting opportunities and pitfalls for model integration of tropical FACE experiments. The preliminary analysis provides baseline hypotheses, which are to be further developed with a follow-up multiple model inter-comparison. The analysis builds on the recently undertaken FACE-MDS (Model-Data Synthesis) project, which was applied to two temperate FACE experiments and exceeds the traditional focus on comparing modeled end-target output. The approach has proven successful in identifying well (and less well) represented processes in models, which are separated for six clusters also here; (1) Carbon fluxes, (2) Carbon pools, (3) Energy balance, (4) Hydrology, (5) Nutrient cycling, and (6) Population dynamics. Simulation performance of observed conditions at the AmazonFACE site (a.o. from Manaus K34 eddy flux tower) will highlight process-based model deficiencies, and aid the separation

  8. Final CRADA Report ORNL-00-0609, Real-Time Control of Diesel Combustion Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques developed from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical techniques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion instabilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation of this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of advanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion systems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experimental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL. The objectives are to: (1) Explore and establish boundaries of high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes on a DDC heavy-duty diesel engine; (2) Improve fundamental understanding of combustion instabilities for use in the development of predictive controls and diagnostics; and (3) Develop

  9. Treatment of coal yard runoff at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmitt, R.R.; Davis, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    At the present time the steam plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is undergoing conversion from oil- to coal-fired boilers. To insure that rainwater runoff from the recently constructed coal storage yard meets current discharge standards, a three phase program was initiated. The first phase was a literature review which pointed out the great variability in chemical composition of runoff samples and demonstrated the site-specific nature of the problem. Next, a laboratory treatability study was conducted using samples of runoff from coal identical to that stored on the ORNL yard. In the last phase of the program, data from the study (i.e., chemical dosages, reaction rates, sludge characteristics) were used in the design of a treatment system. The project is currently in the final phase of detailed design.

  10. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  11. Compressible flow across narrow passages: Comparison of theory and experiment for face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisander, D. W.; Hady, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Computer calculation for determining compressible flow across radial face seals were compared with measured results obtained in a seal simulator rig at pressure ratios to 0.9 (ambient pressure/sealed pressure). In general, the measured and calculated leakages across the seal dam agreed within 3 percent. The resultant loss coefficient, dependent upon the pressure ratio, ranged from 0.47 to 0.68. The calculated pressures were within 2.5 N/cu um of the measured values.

  12. Resistance calculation of the face-centered cubic lattice: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owaidat, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    The effective resistance between two arbitrary lattice points in an infinite, face-centered cubic lattice network of identical resistors is calculated using the lattice Green's function method. Theoretical results have been verified experimentally by constructing actual finite networks of resistors. This problem could be useful in undergraduate courses (e.g., advanced mathematical methods course) and would provide a good example for introducing the concept of Green's function.

  13. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  14. The use of faces as stimuli in neuroimaging and psychological experiments: a procedure to standardize stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Smeets, Floortje; Vuurman, Eric F P M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-11-01

    In psychological experiments involving facial stimuli, it is of great importance that the basic perceptual or psychological characteristics that are investigated are not confounded by factors such as brightness and contrast, head size, hair cut and color, skin color, and the presence of glasses and earrings. Standardization of facial stimulus materials reduces the effect of these confounding factors. We therefore employed a set of basic image processing techniques to deal with this issue. The processed images depict the faces in grayscale, all at the same size, brightness, and contrast, and confined to an oval mask revealing only the basic features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth. The standardization was successfully applied to four different face databases, consisting of male and female faces and including neutral as well as happy facial expressions. An important advantage of the proposed standardization is that featural as well as configurational information is retained. We also consider the procedure to be a major contribution to the development of a de facto standard for the use of facial stimuli in psychological experiments. Such methodological standardization would allow a better comparison of the results of these studies. PMID:19897813

  15. Use of remote sensing to identify waste sources at ORNL`s SWSA 4

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.; Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Solid waste storage area (SWSA) 4, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), contributes 25% of the {sup 90}Sr release from the ORNL complex. Disposal records were destroyed in a fire, thus limiting the ability to locate waste sources contributing to the releases. The use of remote sensing products, including photos and thermal spectra images, provided the needed information to allow field work to progress in an efficient and cost-effective manner. As a result, four major sources were identified. Preliminary estimates suggest that cost avoidance in excess of $5 million will be possible because of the detailed source location knowledge.

  16. An All-Permanent Magnet ECR Ion Source for the ORNL MIRF Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, D.; Girard, A.; Guillemet, L.; Mathonnet, J.M.; Chartier, J.; Delaunay, M.; Meyer, F.W.

    2005-03-15

    A new high voltage platform has been installed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) to extend the energy range of multicharged ions available for experiments studying their collisional interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules, and solid surfaces. For the production of the multiply charged ions, a new all-permanent magnet ECRIS has been designed and fabricated at CEA/Grenoble. After a brief overview of the basic features of the new platform, and associated beam transport detailed description of the new ion source design and performance is provided, together with some typical Ar, Xe, and O beam intensities obtained during source commissioning prior to shipment to ORNL.

  17. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  18. Semi-automated Data Set Submission Work Flow for Archival with the ORNL DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Eby, P.; Heinz, S. L.; Hook, L. A.; McMurry, B. F.; Shanafield, H. A.; Sill, D.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes, free of charge, data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The ORNL DAAC primarily archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program; however, any data that are pertinent to the biogeochemical and ecological community are of interest. The data set submission process to the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated and semi-automated to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. If the ORNL DAAC is the appropriate archive for a data set, the data provider will be sent an email with several URL links to guide them through the submission process. The data provider will be asked to fill out a short online form to help the ORNL DAAC staff better understand the data set. These questions cover information about the data set, a description of the data set, temporal and spatial characteristics of the data set, and how the data were prepared and delivered. The questionnaire is generic and has been designed to gather input on the various diverse data sets the ORNL DAAC archives. A data upload module and metadata editor further guide the data provider through the submission process. For submission purposes, a complete data set includes data files, document(s) describing data, supplemental files, metadata record(s), and an online form. There are five major functions the ORNL DAAC performs during the process of archiving data: 1) Ingestion is the ORNL DAAC side of submission; data are checked, metadata records are compiled, and files are converted to archival formats. 2) Metadata records and data set documentation made searchable and the data set is given a permanent URL. 3) The data set is published, assigned a DOI, and advertised. 4) The data set is provided long-term post-project support. 5) Stewardship

  19. Correcting Experience-Based Judgments: The Perseverance of Subjective Experience in the Face of the Correction of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussinson, Ravit; Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    Many of our cognitive and metacognitive judgments are based on sheer subjective experience. Subjective experience, however, may be contaminated by irrelevant factors, resulting in biased judgments. Under certain conditions people exert a metacognitive correction process to remedy such biased judgments. In this study we examine the proposition that…

  20. Radioactive Beams and Exploding Stars at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael S.

    2006-07-12

    Beams of radioactive nuclei from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to make direct and indirect measurements of reactions important in novae, X-ray bursts, supernovae, and our Sun. Experimental results are used in nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations to determine their astrophysical impact. Recent accomplishments include: the first neutron transfer reaction [(d, p)] measurements on nuclei in the r-process path in supernovae; precision measurements with radioactive 18F beams for novae; and a direct 7Be(p,{gamma})8B measurement relevant for the solar neutrino flux determination.

  1. Separation science and technology: an ORNL perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report was prepared as a summary of a fourfold effort: (1) to examine schemes for defining and categorizing the field of separation science and technology; (2) to review several of the major categories of separation techniques in order to determine the most recent developments and future research needs; (3) to consider selected problems and programs that require advances in separation science and technology as a part of their solution; and (4) to propose suggestions for new directions in separation research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  2. Radioactive Beams and Exploding Stars at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2006-07-01

    Beams of radioactive nuclei from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to make direct and indirect measurements of reactions important in novae, X-ray bursts, supernovae, and our Sun. Experimental results are used in nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations to determine their astrophysical impact. Recent accomplishments include: the first neutron transfer reaction [(d, p)] measurements on nuclei in the r-process path in supernovae; precision measurements with radioactive 18F beams for novae; and a direct 7Be(p,γ)8B measurement relevant for the solar neutrino flux determination.

  3. ORNL Radioactive Beams for Stellar Explosion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    At ORNL, we are using unique radioactive beams to measure scattering, transfer, and capture reactions to help understand exploding stars such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts. Recent results have been obtained with beams of 26Al, 17F, and 130,132Sn, utilizing gas targets, silicon strip detectors, and recoil separators. More exciting work is planned at the future FRIB facility. We are also using synergistic nuclear data evaluations and the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics to investigate the astrophysical impact of our measurements.

  4. Recent Nuclear Astrophysics Data Activities at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Meyer, Richard A.; Chae, Kyungyuk; Guidry, Michael W.; Hix, W. Raphael; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Ma, Zhanwen; Scott, Jason P.; Kozub, Raymond L.

    2005-12-01

    Recent measurements with radioactive beams at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) have prompted the evaluation of a number of reactions involving unstable nuclei needed for stellar explosion studies. We discuss these evaluations, as well as the development of a new computational infrastructure to enable the rapid incorporation of the latest nuclear physics results in astrophysics models. This infrastructure includes programs that simplify the generation of reaction rates, manage rate databases, and visualize reaction rates, all hosted at a new website .

  5. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  6. Will Elevated CO2 Increase Forest Productivity? Evidence from an Australian FACE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, L.

    2015-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings. Quantification of the response of forest productivity to rising CO2 concentrations is important, as increased forest productivity may contribute to the mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. Vegetation greenness indices derived from digital photographs have been correlated with a number of measures of ecosystem productivity including total biomass, leaf area index and gross primary productivity. Our study examines the effect of elevated CO2 on patterns in overstorey and understorey vegetation greenness at a Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility (EucFACE) situated within a temperate eucalypt forest in Sydney, Australia. EucFACE consists of six treatment areas, three subjected to ambient CO2 ('ambient') and three with ambient plus 150 ppm CO2 ('elevated'). Each treatment area had one camera monitoring canopy greenness for a 12 month period and four cameras monitoring one understorey vegetation plot (2.25 m2) each for a 15 month period. Vegetation greenness was measured daily using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC). Understorey and overstorey GCC and rates of understorey greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2. Periodic differences in canopy greening and browning between CO2 treatments were observed, though these probably reflect an insect defoliation event in one treatment area. Increases in canopy and understorey GCC were associated with a combination of extended periods of high soil volumetric water content (VWC) (>0.1) and high maximum temperatures (>25 °C). Browning appeared to be associated with a combination of periods of high maximum temperatures and low VWC or low minimum temperatures. Our short term findings suggest that eucalypt forest productivity will be sensitive to changes in climate, but may be relatively insensitive to changes in CO2 in the near future.

  7. Poker face of inelastic dark matter: Prospects at upcoming direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2010-08-01

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the standard model, and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100.

  8. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Counce, Deborah M; Ekkebus, Allen E; Horak, Charlie M; Nagler, Stephen E; Kszos, Lynn A

    2011-06-01

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron pnictides and

  9. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  10. Single institutional experience of the treatment of angiosarcoma of the face and scalp

    PubMed Central

    Tada, T; Kamo, R; Hosono, M N; Tamiya, H; Shimatani, Y; Tsutsumi, S; Ogino, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm with a poor prognosis. A retrospective study was performed to accumulate radiotherapy (RT) data. Methods: Data from 17 patients with angiosarcoma of the face and scalp (AFS) who were treated with definitive RT between January 1999 and July 2011 were retrospectively analysed. The total radiation dose was 70 Gy, and the fractional doses were 2.0–2.5 Gy. Combined with RT, chemotherapy using docetaxel alone, recombinant interleukin-2 immunotherapy alone and both of these was performed in 10, 4 and 2 patients, respectively. Three patients underwent limited surgery before RT. Results: The response rate was 82%, and the median overall survival (OS) rate was 26 months. Locoregional relapse alone, distant metastasis alone and both of these were confirmed in 4, 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Patients treated with docetaxel showed a better prognosis (p=0.0477), a distant metastasis-free rate (p=0.0063) and a better in-field control rate, although the last was not statistically significant (p=0.1645). Conclusion: Definitive RT combined with docetaxel chemotherapy provided an effective approach for treating AFS. Advances in knowledge: Since patients treated with chemoradiotherpy using docetaxel showed better OS and distant metastasis-free rates than those who did not receive docetaxel, it was warranted to continue use of docetaxel. In chemoradiotherapy at a dose of 70 Gy using docetaxel, 2-year in-field control rate was 67%. PMID:24014066

  11. Overview of diagnostic implementation on Proto-MPEX at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Fehling, D.; Goulding, R. H.; Gray, T. K.; Isler, R. C.; Martin, E. H.; Meitner, S.; Rapp, J.; Unterberg, E. A.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Donovan, D.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M.; Mosby, R.; Skeen, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) recently began operating with an expanded diagnostic set. Approximately 100 sightlines have been established, delivering the plasma light emission to a ``patch panel'' in the diagnostic room for distribution to a variety of instruments: narrow-band filter spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, and Thomson scattering. Additional diagnostic systems include: IR camera imaging, in-vessel thermocouples, ex-vessel fluoroptic probes, fast pressure gauges, visible camera imaging, microwave interferometry, a retarding-field energy analyzer, rf-compensated and ``double'' Langmuir probes, and B-dot probes. A data collection and archival system has been initiated using the MDSplus format. This effort capitalizes on a combination of new and legacy diagnostic hardware at ORNL and was accomplished largely through student labor. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  12. Radiation and Nuclear Materials Detection Research and Development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jim E; Wright, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Research and development is underway to improve radiation and nuclear detection capabilities. This research and development in radiation and nuclear detection includes areas such as advanced materials, applied research and engineering for designing and fabricating customized detection equipment, and theoretical modeling and computational support. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a distinctive set of detector materials fabrication and characterization capabilities and recently created a Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems. Applied research and engineering efforts have led to the development of improved detectors for specific applications including safeguards, treaty monitoring, and science experiments. All sizes, types, and capabilities of detector systems have been addressed from miniature to man-portable and from neutrons to gamma radiation. Dedicated test beds, in-house and in the field, have been established to analyze, characterize, and improve detection systems.

  13. Facing Goliath: Adults' Experiences of Participation, Guidance and Progression in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Amy; And Others

    A study examined adults' experiences regarding participation, guidance, and progression in various formal educational settings across Scotland. In-depth interviews were conducted with 50 adult returners to the different parts of the education system (higher, further, and community education and local schools). Data from the interviews were…

  14. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer…

  15. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  16. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R.; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants’ behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants’ facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate’s facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition. PMID:25811746

  17. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants' behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants' facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate's facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition. PMID:25811746

  18. Poker Face of Inelastic Dark Matter: Prospects at Upcoming Direct Detection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the Standard Model and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100. The process of testing the DAMA anomaly highlights many of the challenges inherent to direct detection experiments. In addition to determining the properties of the unknown dark matter particle, direct detection experiments must also consider the unknown flux of the incident dark matter, as well as uncertainties in converting a signal from one target nucleus to another. The predictions for both the CRESST 2009 run and XENON100 2010 run show an order of magnitude uncertainty. The nuclear form factor for {sup 184}W, when combined with additional theoretical and experimental uncertainties, will likely prevent CRESST from refuting the iDM hypothesis with an exposure of {Omicron}(100 kg-d) in a model-independent manner. XENON100, on the other hand, will be able to make a definitive statement about a spin-independent, inelastically scattering dark matter candidate. Still, the CRESST 2009 data can potentially confirm iDM for a large range of parameter space. In case of a positive signal, the combined data from CRESST and XENON100 will start probing the properties of the Milky Way DM profile and the interaction of the SM with the dark matter.

  19. ORNL Radioactive Beams for Stellar Explosion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2008-05-01

    Thermonuclear reactions on unstable nuclei generate the energy that power nova explosions and X-ray bursts. In these explosions and others such as supernovae, these reactions serve to synthesize nuclei that (via their decay) can serve as tracers of the explosion mechanism. A powerful approach to improve our understanding of these explosions is to utilize beams of radioactive nuclei for direct and indirect measurements of these reactions. We are pursuing this approach at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study reactions in the rp-process (with beams of 17,18F) and the r-process (with beams of 82Ge, 84Se 130,132Sn, 134Te). These measurements are combined with synergistic data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Highlights of recent results are presented.

  20. WUFI-ORNL/IBP Hygrothermal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2001-08-08

    Moisture engineering is becoming an important task in the overall design of building enclosures in both North America and Europe. Several methods may be used to design wall systems, and modeling is definitively the most flexible approach. There is an increasing demand for calculation methods to assess the moisture behavior of building components. In North America alone, the estimated cost in increased energy consumption due to the presence of moisture is approximately $1 billion dollars annually. Current tasks, such as preserving historical buildings or restoring and insulating existing buildings are closely related to the moisture tolerance in a building structure. Calculative analyses are becoming increasingly important due to the expensive and time-consuming experimental investigations and the limited transferability to real situations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Building Technology Center) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics in an international collaboration h ave jointly developed a moisture engineering assessment model that predicts the transient transport of heat and moisture. This model, WUFI-ORNL/IBP is now available in North America free of charge, and can be downloaded via the Internet at: www.ornl.gov/btc/moisture. The unique features of this particular model are that it incorporates vapor and diffusion transport mechanism, along with realistic boundary conditions that include wind-driven rain. This alone may account for more than 80% of the total moisture load in envelopes. In addition this model is tailored to North American materials and construction practices and has a very friendly user interface that appeals to both architects and engineers. The model is also the most benchmarked hygrothermal model developed, since 1994. In this paper a brief description of the model will be given showing all needed inputs for a brick wall envelope system located in Montreal CANADA.

  1. Laboratory Experiments of Silica Powder Lubrication Between Rock Faces at Coseismic Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K.; Kavehpour, P.; Brodsky, E.

    2004-12-01

    One of the unresolved problems in earthquake mechanics is the physical process controlling friction on faults during the rupture of large earthquakes. Many studies suggest that coseismic friction is low even at great depths and several mechanisms have been introduced to explain these observations. In these experiments, we attempt to investigate the physics of mechanical lubrication between rock surfaces by using dry powder. To simulate rock friction, we utilize a tribo-rheometer where two novaculite disks, with 1-inch diameter and 5-micron surface roughness, are compressed together with a thin layer of 5-micron silica powder applied in between. The tribo-rheometer is a highly sensitive instrument that measures torque and normal force when a test substance is placed between the rotating plates. The measurements can be used to directly calculate the viscosity and the friction coefficient. These experiments investigate the velocity dependence of friction by rotating the top disk through velocities from 10-3 to 102 rad/sec while the normal stress is kept constant on the order of 104 Pa. The preliminary experiments show frictional regimes of boundary, mixed, and hydrodynamic lubrication; together known as the Stribeck curve. At high shear rates of >10 rad/sec, hydrodynamic lubrication occurs when fluid-like behavior of granular flow are responsible for the shear stress between the surfaces. In contrast, boundary lubrication has full asperity contact between the top and bottom surfaces during low shear rates of <0.01 rad/sec and shear stress arises from physical interactions. Between the two regimes above, the mixed lubrication is where there is a combination of surface asperity and powder lubricant interactions. From the data, we find the friction coefficient drops from a boundary lubrication value of ˜0.3 -- 0.4 to a mixed regime minimum of ˜0.2 -- 0.3 while transitioning to the hydrodynamic lubrication. The transition corresponds to a change from solid

  2. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face. PMID:15629711

  3. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences Among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer symptoms. Using verbatim transcripts of the narratives collected from patients between 2008 and 2010, three themes were identified: insurance status as a barrier (discussed by n = 84; 100% of subsample), finding medical care (discussed by n = 30; 36% of subsample) and, insurance companies as barriers (discussed by n = 7; 8% of subsample). Our analysis revealed that insurance status is more nuanced than the categories insured/uninsured and differentially affects how patients attempt to secure health care. While barriers to medical care for the uninsured have been well documented, the experiences of those who are underinsured are less well understood. To improve outcomes in these patients it is critical to understand how financial barriers to medical care are manifested. Even with anticipated changes of the Affordable Care Act, it remains important to understand how perceived financial barriers may be influencing patient behaviors, particularly those who have limited health care options due to insufficient health insurance coverage. PMID:25394821

  4. Prepare the patient for future challenges when facing hemodialysis: nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sturesson, Anna; Ziegert, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem due to the significant financial burden for the healthcare system and likewise for the patient who needs the treatment. The patient's whole life situation is turned upside down with chronic kidney disease when they are confronted with the forced change to start treatment with hemodialysis. Patients with chronic kidney disease experience a lack of adequate emotional support from nurses during the transition to hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of giving support to patients during the transition to hospital-bound hemodialysis. The study had a qualitative descriptive design with a content analysis approach; eight nurses from four hospitals in the south of Sweden participated. The results showed that the nurses gave threshold support with an openness and awareness of the patient's individual needs during the transition, except that there seemed to be a lack of knowledge and ability to provide emotional support. Patient support during the transition could therefore be absent. Education, at local and national levels, is needed for the nurse to be able to give professional emotional support. Further research is also desired in order to provide nurses with the tools they need to give emotional support, which is of utmost importance. PMID:24717268

  5. Selected comments on the ORNL Residential Energy-Use Model

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This report assesses critical technical aspects of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Residential Energy Use Model. An important component of the ORNL Model is determination of the thermal performance of new equipment or structures. The examples presented here are illustrative of the type of analytic problems discovered in a detailed assessment of the model. A list of references is appended.

  6. The faces of breastfeeding support: Experiences of mothers seeking breastfeeding support online.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to advance understanding of the experiences of mothers using closed Facebook groups attached to the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA) and how these mothers find and share breastfeeding support and information using this forum. The study involved members of three closed Facebook groups that were chosen as interesting cases for study, based on the volume and nature of their posts. Members of these three groups then participated in online depth interviews and online semi-structured focus groups. The overarching theme identified was support, with four sub-themes that describe the nature of online breastfeeding support within the Facebook environment. These sub-themes are: community, complementary, immediate and information. It was found that social networking sites (SNSs) provide support from the trusted community. It is immediate, it complements existing support or services that ABA provides and also provides practical and valuable information for its users. PMID:27188074

  7. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  8. How nurses and physicians face ethical dilemmas--the Croatian experience.

    PubMed

    Sorta-Bilajac, Iva; Baždarić, Ksenija; Žagrović, Morana Brkljačić; Jančić, Ervin; Brozović, Boris; Čengic, Tomislav; Ćorluka, Stipe; Agich, George J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess nurses' and physicians' ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. Nurses and physicians of the Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka were surveyed (N=364). A questionnaire was used to identify recent ethical dilemma, primary ethical issue in the situation, satisfaction with the resolution, perceived usefulness of help, and usage of clinical ethics consultations in practice. Recent ethical dilemmas include professional conduct for nurses (8%), and near-the-end-of-life decisions for physicians (27%). The main ethical issue is limiting life-sustaining therapy (nurses 15%, physicians 24%) and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (nurses 16%, physicians 9%). The types of help available are similar for nurses and physicians: obtaining complete information about the patient (37% vs. 50%) and clarifying ethical issues (31% vs. 39%). Nurses and physicians experience similar ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The usage of clinical ethics consultations is low. It is recommended that the individual and team consultations should be introduced in Croatian clinical ethics consultations services. PMID:21558110

  9. Agile based "Semi-"Automated Data ingest process : ORNL DAAC example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Hook, L.; Wei, Y.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. The ORNL DAAC ingest team curates diverse data sets from multiple data providers simultaneously. To streamline the ingest process, the data set submission process at the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated to use an agile process and a semi-automated workflow system has been developed to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The goals of semi-automated agile ingest process are to: 1.Provide the ability to track a data set from acceptance to publication 2. Automate steps that can be automated to improve efficiencies and reduce redundancy 3.Update legacy ingest infrastructure 4.Provide a centralized system to manage the various aspects of ingest. This talk will cover the agile methodology, workflow, and tools developed through this system.

  10. Ice water content retrievals using an estimation theory approach: examples from the NASA CRYSTAL-FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, A.; Stephens, G.; Haynes, J.

    2003-04-01

    This study introduces a new, robust and reliable method to estimate ice cloud microphysical properties from cloud radar reflectivities and visible optical depth. The retrieval is formulated in an estimation theory framework which permits the introduction of optimal combinations of different measurements and a complete characterization of retrieval errors. The sensitivity of the retrieval to the assumed error statistics is assessed performing experiments with variablea priori, optical depth and forward model uncertainties. Quantitative estimates of the uncertainties show that the average ice water content is retrieved with errors varying between 20--30%. The relative error on ice water path is of the same order of magnitude. The retrieval is applied to synthetic and real observations. Retrieved products are checked against other retrieval methods andin situ observations when available. The results compare well with results from other methods. The retrieval appears to be robust and can be applied successfully to a variety of cirrus clouds without suffering from the problems often encountered when using empirically--based methods. As part of ongoing research the method is being evaluated using data from the NASA CRYSTAL--FACE experiment and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) Fall 2002 experiment.

  11. Disposition of ORNL's Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. W.; DeMonia, B. C.; Horton, L. L.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process of retrieving, repackaging, and preparing Oak Ridge spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for off-site disposition. The objective of the Oak Ridge SNF Project is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage SNF that is stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation until it can be shipped off-site. The project required development of several unique processes and the design and fabrication of special equipment to enable the successful retrieval, transfer, and repackaging of Oak Ridge SNF. SNF was retrieved and transferred to a hot cell for repackaging. After retrieval of SNF packages, the storage positions were decontaminated and stainless steel liners were installed to resolve the vulnerability of water infiltration. Each repackaged SNF canister has been transferred from the hot cell back to dry storage until off-site shipments can be made. Three shipments of aluminum-clad SNF were made to the Savannah River Site (SRS), and five shipments of non-aluminum-clad SNF are planned to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Through the integrated cooperation of several organizations including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and various subcontractors, preparations for the disposition of SNF in Oak Ridge have been performed in a safe and successful manner.

  12. ORNL's magic bullets: On target for health

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, J.

    1993-01-01

    Magic bullets. That's how we've come to know a group of chemical compounds that have an uncanny ability to home in on particular targets within the body. Their [open quotes]magic[close quotes] is provided by chemically attached radioactive isotopes, labels made of small quantities or radioactive material that enable physicians to obtain detailed images of internal organs, deliver doses of radiation to specific destinations, and trace the movement of medications - all without picking up a scalpel. In recent years, a barrage of magic bullets has been fired from laboratories around the country, but because of their long and involved development process, relatively few have been tested in human patients, - fewer still have found commercial applications. Despite these odds, the researchers of ORNL's Nuclear Medicine Group have gained reputations as sharpshooters, thanks to four new magic bullets now in clinical testing - a radiolabeled antibody that targets colon cancer cells, a test agent for pancreas problems, and imaging agents for monitoring blood flow in the heart and detecting early signs of heart disease. A fifth agent that promises to help track the changes in brain chemistry resulting from Alzheimer's and related diseases is undergoing preclinical studies.

  13. ORNL RAIL & BARGE DB. Network Database

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  14. ORNL RAIL & BARGE DB. Network Database

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1992-03-16

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  15. Cirrus Clouds Optical, Microphysical and Radiative Properties Observed During Crystal-Face Experiment: I. A Radar-Lidar Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrescu, C.; Haynes, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McGill, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    A method of retrieving cloud microphysical properties using combined observations from both cloud radar and lidar is introduced. This retrieval makes use of an improvement to the traditional optimal estimation retrieval method, whereby a series of corrections are applied to the state vector during the search for an iterative solution. This allows faster convergence to a solution and is less processor intensive. The method is first applied to a synthetic cloud t o demonstrate its validity, and it is shown that the retrieval reliably reproduces vertical profiles of ice water content. The retrieval method is then applied to radar and lidar observations from the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, and vertical profiles of ice crystal diameter, number concentration, and ice water content are retrieved for a cirrus cloud layers observed one day of that experiment. The validity of the relationship between visible extinction coefficient and radar reflectivity was examined. While synthetic tests showed such a functional relationship, the measured data only partially supported such a conclusion. This is due to errors in the forward model (as explained above) as well as errors in the data sets, including possible mismatch between lidar and radar profiles or errors in the optical depth. Empirical relationships between number concentrations and mean particle diameter were also examined. The results indicate that a distinct and robust relationship exists between these retrieved quantities and it is argued that such a relationship is more than an artifact of the retrieval process offering insight into the nature of the microphysical processes taking place in cirrus.

  16. A cultural setting where the other-race effect on face recognition has no social-motivational component and derives entirely from lifetime perceptual experience.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Reynolds, Katherine J; Irons, Jessica L; McKone, Elinor

    2015-11-01

    Competing approaches to the other-race effect (ORE) see its primary cause as either a lack of motivation to individuate social outgroup members, or a lack of perceptual experience with other-race faces. Here, we argue that the evidence supporting the social-motivational approach derives from a particular cultural setting: a high socio-economic status group (typically US Whites) looking at the faces of a lower status group (US Blacks) with whom observers typically have at least moderate perceptual experience. In contrast, we test motivation-to-individuate instructions across five studies covering an extremely wide range of perceptual experience, in a cultural setting of more equal socio-economic status, namely Asian and Caucasian participants (N = 480) tested on Asian and Caucasian faces. We find no social-motivational component at all to the ORE, specifically: no reduction in the ORE with motivation instructions, including for novel images of the faces, and at all experience levels; no increase in correlation between own- and other-race face recognition, implying no increase in shared processes; and greater (not the predicted less) effort applied to distinguishing other-race faces than own-race faces under normal ("no instructions") conditions. Instead, the ORE was predicted by level of contact with the other-race. Our results reject both pure social-motivational theories and also the recent Categorization-Individuation model of Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, and Sacco (2010). We propose a new dual-route approach to the ORE, in which there are two causes of the ORE-lack of motivation, and lack of experience--that contribute differently across varying world locations and cultural settings. PMID:26257000

  17. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    PubMed

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences. PMID:20483821

  18. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply

  19. ORNL fission product release tests VI-6

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The ORNL fission product release tests investigate release and transport of the major fission products from high-burnup fuel under LWR accident conditions. The two most recent tests (VI-4 and VI-5) were conducted in hydrogen. In three previous tests in this series (VI-1, VI-2, and VI-3), which had been conducted in steam, the oxidized Zircaloy cladding remained largely intact and acted as a barrier to steam reaction with the UO{sub 2}. Test VI-6 was designed to insure significant oxidation of the UO{sub 2} fuel, which has been shown to enhance release of certain fission products, especially molybdenum and ruthenium. The BR3 fuel specimen used in test VI-6 will be heated in hydrogen to 2300 K; the Zircaloy cladding is expected to melt and runoff at {approximately}2150 K. Upon reaching the 2300 K test temperature, the test atmosphere will be changed to steam, and that temperature will be maintained for 60 min, with the three collection trains being operated for 2-, 18-, and 40-min periods. The releases of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 137}Cs will be monitored continuously throughout the test. Posttest analyses of the material collected on the three trains will provide results on the release and transport of Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, and Eu as a function of time at 2300 K. Continuous monitoring of the hydrogen produced during the steam atmosphere period at high temperature will provide a measure of the oxidation rate of the cladding and fuel. Following delays in approval of the safety documentation and in decontamination of the hot cell and test apparatus, test VI-6 will be conducted in late May.

  20. Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

  1. Proposal for secondary enclosure setup for experiments to expose plasma facing materials to tritiated plasma in VISIONI

    SciTech Connect

    Broeckx, W.E.K.; Dylst, K.; Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.

    2015-03-15

    VISIONI is an equipment at SCK-CEN that allows the exposure of candidate plasma facing materials to tritium - deuterium plasmas at ITER first wall conditions. VISIONI itself, being a vacuum setup, acts as primary confinement. To protect operators against exposure to a tritiated atmosphere VISIONI must be placed in a secondary confinement. The current Tritium lab at SCK-CEN has a walk-in process cell which can be used to enclose the plasma chamber and diagnostics of the VISIONI setup, which have a limited tritium inventory. This allows easy accessibility to the setup in a well-ventilated environment. Routine operations should be conducted from outside the process cell and maintenance operations can be conducted from within the process cell with proper protections. The tritium storage and supply can be enclosed in a glove box with a dedicated air detritiation system which is activated during an experiment or in case of an incident. The detritiation system will oxidize tritium and capture it on molecular sieves. By using this confinement approach it is possible to expose materials to a tritiated plasma while maintaining good accessibility of the VISIONI setup. This paper describes the proposed confinement system and compares it to the most common approach where the entire system is enclosed into one large glovebox.

  2. Edge transport and turbulence reduction with lithium coated plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Kubota, S.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Callen, J. D.; Osborne, T. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    The coating of plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium improves energy confinement and eliminates ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, the latter due to a relaxation of the density and pressure profiles that reduces the drive for peeling-ballooning modes. 2-D interpretive transport modeling of discharges without and with lithium shows that a reduction in the PFC recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.90 is required to match the drop in D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings. A broadening of the edge barrier region showing reduced transport coefficients is observed, with a {approx}75% drop of the D and {chi}{sub e} from 0.8 < {psi}{sub N} < 0.93 needed to match the profile relaxation with lithium coatings. Turbulence measurements using an edge reflectometry system as well as high-k microwave scattering show a decrease in density fluctuations with lithium coatings. These transport changes allow the realization of very wide pedestals, with a {approx}100% width increase relative to the reference discharges.

  3. Innate face processing.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoichi

    2009-02-01

    Recent monkey studies provide intriguing information for an open question whether face processing is a special perceptual process and is organized as such at birth, or has its origin in a more general system that becomes specialized with experience. Before seeing any faces or face-like objects, macaque monkeys showed a preference for faces rather than nonface objects. Furthermore, they showed remarkable face processing abilities both for human and monkey faces. It was also shown that macaque newborns are able to imitate human facial gestures, indicating the ability to match their own facial movements to observed facial gestures. Taken together, it seems very likely that newborns can acquire the knowledge about the basic structure of their own face, presumably through proprioception, so that facial structure would become a familiar and attractive visual object without the experience of the face itself. PMID:19339171

  4. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  5. Mechanisms of face perception

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Doris Y.

    2009-01-01

    Faces are among the most informative stimuli we ever perceive: Even a split-second glimpse of a person's face tells us their identity, sex, mood, age, race, and direction of attention. The specialness of face processing is acknowledged in the artificial vision community, where contests for face recognition algorithms abound. Neurological evidence strongly implicates a dedicated machinery for face processing in the human brain, to explain the double dissociability of face and object recognition deficits. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that macaques too have specialized neural machinery for processing faces. Here we propose a unifying hypothesis, deduced from computational, neurological, fMRI, and single-unit experiments: that what makes face processing special is that it is gated by an obligatory detection process. We will clarify this idea in concrete algorithmic terms, and show how it can explain a variety of phenomena associated with face processing. PMID:18558862

  6. A comparison of on-campus first year undergraduate nursing students' experiences with face-to-face and on-line discussions.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Hilary E

    2006-08-01

    Only limited pedagogical use has been made of information and communications technology (ICT) in nursing education in Norway. In this study the use of ICT was linked to assignments in the first year undergraduate nursing program and included four on-line discussions. There is evidence to suggest that on-line discussions can enhance the learning environment. The students' experiences of the on-line discussions are compared to those of the students participating in traditional group discussions. The results show little difference between the two groups' opinions of the discussions' fruitfulness and the ease in which they expressed their feelings, thoughts and ideas. However, there is a marked difference between the two groups regarding their experience of how the discussions affected the amount of contact between group members outside the discussions. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. PMID:16519969

  7. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  8. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations related to the phenomenon of

  9. Comparing a FACE experiment with mechanistic ecohydrological modeling: which processes are reliably simulated under elevated CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Scenarios for the future terrestrial carbon and water cycle rely on numerical tools that simulate the dynamics of vegetation from assimilation of carbon through stomata to long-term forest development at the global scale. However, these tools are rarely tested to perform well in conditions different from the historical climate and comparisons are mostly limited to carbon and energy fluxes. A combination of numerical modeling and observations is used here to investigate the capability of a mechanistic approach to simulate the hydrology and the vegetation behavior of a forest exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Specifically, we thoroughly compare data from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature deciduous forest in Switzerland with realizations from a state-of-the-art ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris). Model realizations compare favorably with field observations of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, sap flow, leaf and fruit litter, as well as qualitative changes in soil moisture. The simulated differences between CO2 scenarios for both the carbon and water balance are generally very small (less than 10%) and fall within the uncertainty of experimental observations. More problematic is the simulation of stem growth which is significantly higher in the modeled scenario with elevated CO2 but not in the observations even though current accuracy of field measurements precludes robust conclusions. These results demonstrate that while ecohydrological models can be used to reliably simulate multi-year energy, water, and carbon fluxes, evaluating the modeled carbon allocation remains critical. However, experimental evidence suggests that the structure of current vegetation models which use the photosynthesized carbon to directly drive plant growth should be revised because plant tissue growth is very sensitive to direct controls of environmental variables, independently of the amount of assimilated carbon.

  10. Model-experiment synthesis at two FACE sites in the southeastern US. Forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO[2]. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dietze, M.; Hickler, T.; Iversen, C. M.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Parton, W. J.; Prentice, C.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Warren, J.; Weng, E.; Hanson, P. J.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem observations from two long-term Free-Air CO[2] Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Duke forest and Oak Ridge forest) were used to evaluate the assumptions of 11 terrestrial ecosystem models and the consequences of those assumptions for the responses of ecosystem water, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes to elevated CO[2] (eCO[2]). Nitrogen dynamics were the main constraint on simulated productivity responses to eCO[2]. At Oak Ridge some models reproduced the declining response of C and N fluxes, while at Duke none of the models were able to maintain the observed sustained responses. C and N cycles are coupled through a number of complex interactions, which causes uncertainty in model simulations in multiple ways. Nonetheless, the major difference between models and experiments was a larger than observed increase in N-use efficiency and lower than observed response of N uptake. The results indicate that at Duke there were mechanisms by which trees accessed additional N in response to eCO[2] that were not represented in the ecosystem models, and which did not operate with the same efficiency at Oak Ridge. Sequestration of the additional productivity under eCO[2] into forest biomass depended largely on C allocation. Allocation assumptions were classified into three main categories--fixed partitioning coefficients, functional relationships and a partial (leaf allocation only) optimisation. The assumption which best constrained model results was a functional relationship between leaf area and sapwood area (pipe-model) and increased root allocation when nitrogen or water were limiting. Both, productivity and allocation responses to eCO[2] determined the ecosystem-level response of LAI, which together with the response of stomatal conductance (and hence water-use efficiency; WUE) determined the ecosystem response of transpiration. Differences in the WUE response across models were related to the representation of the relationship of stomatal conductance to CO[2] and

  11. Program planning for future improvement in managing ORNL's radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    This is intended to serve as a reference document and guide in developing the long-term improvements section of ORNL's radioactive waste management plan. The report reviews ORNL's operations and future program needs in terms of currently applicable DOE regulations and also in terms of regulations and accepted practices of the commercial sector of the nuclear power industry so that the impact of potential future adoption of these regulations and standards on ORNL's operations can be fully evaluated. The principal conclusion reached after reviewing ORNL's waste management operations is that these operations are currently being conducted in a manner that does not endanger the health or safety of workers or the general public and that does not have an adverse effect on the environment. Although nineteen specific problem areas have been identified all of these problems can be attributed to one of the following: (1) the legacy of past practices; (2): gradual deterioration of systems which have reached (or are near to reaching) the end of their reasonable design lives; and (3) potential changes in regulations applicable to ORNL.

  12. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  13. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark Edward

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed a reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of this criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration.

  14. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in the body. ...

  15. Facing facts: neuronal mechanisms of face perception.

    PubMed

    Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:18511959

  16. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  17. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  18. ORNL facilities for testing first-wall components

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Becraft, W.R.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Menon, M.M.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Future long-impulse magnetic fusion devices will have operating characteristics similar to those described in the design studies of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), the Fusion Engineering Device (FED), and the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). Their first-wall components (pumped limiters, divertor plates, and rf waveguide launchers with Faraday shields) will be subjected to intense bombardment by energetic particles exhausted from the plasma, including fusion products. These particles are expected to have particle energies of approx.100 eV, particle fluxes of approx.10/sup 18/ cm/sup -2/.s/sup -1/, and heat fluxes of approx.1 kW/cm/sup 2/ CW to approx.100 kW/cm/sup 2/ transient. No components are available to simultaneously handle these particle and heat fluxes, survive the resulting sputtering erosion, and remove exhaust gas without degrading plasma quality. Critical issues for research and development of first-wall components have been identified in the INTOR Activity. Test facilities are needed to qualify candidate materials and develop components. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), existing neutral beam and wave heating test facilities can be modified to simulate first-wall environments with heat fluxes up to 30 kW/cm/sup 2/, particle fluxes of approx.10/sup 18/ cm/sup -2/.s/sup -1/, and pulse lengths up to 30 s, within test volumes up to approx.100 L. The characteristics of these test facilities are described, with particular attention to the areas of particle flux, heat flux, particle energy, pulse length, and duty cycle, and the potential applications of these facilities for first-wall component development are discussed.

  19. Intranasal Oxytocin Lessens the Attentional Bias to Adult Negative Faces: A Double Blind within-Subject Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Min; Corfield, Freya; Jeong, Da-Woon; Jang, Eun-Young; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is involved in social emotional processing. A leading hypothesis is that oxytocin facilitates positive prosocial behaviors; the peptide may also play a more general role in inhibiting withdrawal-related social behaviors. The present study examined these possibilities. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design was used with 31 healthy women. Forty-five minutes following the administration of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo, the participants were presented with two dot probe tests with pairs of face stimuli depicting emotional and neutral faces in adults. Results Oxytocin specifically reduced the attention bias toward the location of the faces of adults showing negative emotions, particularly in the case of disgust. Oxytocin did not enhance the attentional bias toward adult happy faces. The effect of oxytocin toward adult negative emotion was correlated with the sensitivity of the drive in the behavioral motivational system. Conclusion Oxytocin reduces attention to negative social emotions in adults, which supports oxytocin serves to inhibit withdrawal-related social behaviour. PMID:24843371

  20. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  1. ORNL Lightweighting Research Featured on MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-15

    PBS MotorWeek, television's longest running automotive series, featured ORNL lightweighting research for vehicle applications in an episode that aired in early April 2014. The crew captured footage of research including development of new metal alloys, additive manufacturing, carbon fiber production, advanced batteries, power electronics components, and neutron imaging applications for materials evaluation.

  2. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  3. ORNL Lightweighting Research Featured on MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-03

    PBS MotorWeek, television's longest running automotive series, featured ORNL lightweighting research for vehicle applications in an episode that aired in early April 2014. The crew captured footage of research including development of new metal alloys, additive manufacturing, carbon fiber production, advanced batteries, power electronics components, and neutron imaging applications for materials evaluation.

  4. ORNL concept would greatly increase optical data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    ORNL researchers have developed a technique, surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS), which uses the light-emitting properties of molecules to pack considerably more information into compact discs. This new technology has the potential to store 10 days of music-instead of just 90 minutes-on a single disc.

  5. Assessment of potential ORNL contributions to supply of molybdenum-99

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, C.L.; Collins, E.D.

    1996-04-01

    The most widely used, and probably the most important, single radioisotope in commerce is {sup 99}Mo. Although the present supply is adequate, there are many vulnerabilities in the supply picture. Resources available at ORNL could be applied to help ensure the continued availability of this critically needed radioisotope. This assessment considers the ways in which ORNL might participate in DOE efforts to develop and maintain a domestic source of {sup 99}Mo for medical needs. The primary recommendation presented here is that ORNL obtain DOE support for development of an improved method for providing {sup 99}Mo to the user community. Specifically, development and demonstration of a system based on irradiation of enriched stable {sup 98}Mo, as opposed to fission of {sup 235}U, is recommended. Such a system would (1) alleviate the need for using highly enriched uranium as target material (nonproliferation and criticality safety concerns); (2) alleviate the need to produce a large volume of unwanted fission product wastes (safety and cost concerns); (3) promote the need for enriched {sup 98}Mo, which can be produced in the ORNL calutrons or plasma separation equipment; and (4) promote the need for a high-flux reactor, such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  6. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-19

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  7. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  8. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  9. Appendix I: Weather, soils, cultural practices, and cotton growth data from the 1989 FACE Experiment in IBSNAT Format

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, B.A.; La Morte, R.L.; Peresta, G.J.; Mauney, J.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-12-31

    A major objective of the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) project is to provide data suitable for validation of plant growth models. These models are intended to have the capability to predict the effects of the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and its interactions with climate variables on future plant growth, yield, and water use. And indeed one such model called COTCO2 has been written for cotton in cooperation with the FACE project. Therefore, it is important that the data from the project be assembled for convenient use by modelers seeking to validate COTCO2 or other cotton growth models. The objective of this Appendix is to present these data in a standard format used by many plant growth models (the data are also available on diskette by request). 31 refs.

  10. Finding faces among faces: human faces are located more quickly and accurately than other primate and mammal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-11-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli-human and animal faces-or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species' faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species' faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets) and task-irrelevant (distractors), even in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns but that human adults process own-species' faces more efficiently than other species' faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics' faces. PMID:25113852

  11. Studies of (p, γ) reactions with the Daresbury Recoil Separator at ORNL'S HRIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Abbotoy, E.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Champagne, A. E.; Chen, A. A.; Greife, U.; Hill, D. W.; James, A. N.; Kozub, R. L.; Lewis, T. A.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.; Mahan, S. L.; McConnell, J. W.; Milner, W. T.; Moazen, B. H.; Parker, P. D.; Pierce, D. E.; Roettger, M. E.; Sahin, L.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Strieder, F.; Swartz, K. B.; Thomas, J. S.; Visser, D. W.

    2005-02-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei is important in stellar explosions such as novae and X-ray bursts and for the production of neutrinos in the sun. The Daresbury Recoil Separator and a windowless gas target system have been installed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for measurements of proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The performance of the system has been characterized with a number of experiments using stable ion beams. We report on results from these commissioning measurements and plans for measurements of the 1H(17F,18Ne) and 1H(7Be,8B) reactions.

  12. Visual Search of Mooney Faces

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Jessica E.; Meng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect is unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: (1) Although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention toward a face. (2) Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. (3) By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces; making faces a special object category for guiding attention. PMID:26903941

  13. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  14. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-01

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  15. Voices of the Homeless: An Emic Approach to the Experiences of Health Disparities Faced by People Who Are Homeless.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    People who are homeless are particularly vulnerable to health disparities. Rather than using population statistics to highlight the prevalence or severity of the suffering of people who are homeless, 28 undergraduate students each conducted an in-depth interview with an individual who relied on a local homeless shelter to cope with everyday life. The interview explored the participants' health concerns and strategies for health management. Due to equipment failure and incomplete recording, only 16 interviews are included in this study. The author adopted thematic analysis while focused on preserving the richness of the interactions between the participants who are homeless and the undergraduate students. The author's goal is to provide emic, intimate insights about the struggles and challenges faced by the people who are homeless. The author concluded the study by situating the findings in the larger literature of health disparities experienced by people who are homeless. PMID:27093127

  16. Results from ORNL Characterization of Archive German Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D

    2004-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data obtained on a sample of TRISO-coated 500 {micro}m UO{sub 2} produced by the Germans and obtained by the AGR program for use as a reference material. This sample came from the EUO 2358-2365 composite studied by General Atomics (GA) and referenced in GA document No.910852 'Acceptance Test report for German Fuel Particles'. The ORNL designation for the material characterized was AGR-06.

  17. An overview of the ORNL-NFS intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    Nuclear Fuel Services sent more than 800 drums of nuclear waste to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the majority of the waste packaged into five different waste matrix types. A thorough and complete assay of the waste was performed at both NFS and at ORNL. A detailed comparing of the two assay sets provides valuable. insights into problems encountered in typical assay campaigns, particularly as there is, for the most part, excellent agreement between these two campaigns.

  18. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-01

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  19. Environmental Data from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) is a NASA-sponsored source for biogeochemical and ecological data and models useful in environmental research. Data have been collected on the ground, by aircraft, by satellite, and from computer models. The extent of data and model products ranges from site specific to global, and durations range from days to years. Data products and models are free, but users must typically register. Major field campaigns with available data include: • The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) • The First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) Project) • The Large-Scale Biosphere - Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) • The North American Carbon Program (NACP) • Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project • The SAFARI 2000 (S2K) Project in Africa • Superior National Forest(SNF)Project Validation projects with available data include: • BigFoot • The Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP) • The EOS Land Validation Project • FLUXNET • MODIS • The Prototype Validation Exercise (PROVE) The ORNL DAAC also provides access to data for many regional and global projects and to a model archive. (Specialized Interface)(Registration Required)

  20. ORNL compact loop antenna design for TFTR and Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bryan, W.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; McIlwain, R.L. ); Ray, J.M. )

    1987-01-01

    The goal supplemental ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of fusion plasma is to deliver power at high efficiencies deep within the plasma. The technology for fast-wave ICRH has reached the point of requiring proof-of-performance'' demonstration of specific antenna configurations of specific antenna configurations and their mechanical adequacy for operating in a fusion environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the compact loop antenna concept based on a resonant double loop (RDL) configuration for use in both Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Tore Supra ICRH programs. A description and a comparison of the technologies developed in the two designs are presented. The electrical circuit and the mechanical philosophy employed are the same for both antennas, but different operating environments result in substantial differences in the design of specific components. The ORNL TFTR antenna is designed to deliver 4 MW over a 2-s pulse, and the ORNL Tore Supra antenna is designed for 4 MW and essentially steady-state conditions. The TFTR design embodies the first operations compact RDL antenna, and the Tore Supra antenna extends the technology to an operational duty cycle consistent with reactor-relevant applications. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  2. Behavior of Cs, I, and Te in the fission product release program at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at ORNL with highly irradiated light-water reactor (PWR and BWR) fuel rod segments to investigate fission product release in steam in the temperature range 500 to 2000/sup 0/C. Objectives were to quantify and characterize the releases under conditions postulated for LOCA) and severe accident conditions. In all, 26 experiments have been conducted - 24 with high burnup and 2 with low burnup fuels. To aid in the interpretation of fission product release, 12 implant and 18 control experiments were also conducted; the behavior of HI, I/sub 2/, Cs/sub 2/O, CsOH, Te, and TeO/sub 2/ (individually and in different combinations) was studied. This paper discusses only the observed behavior of cesium, iodine, and tellurium. Cs and I were released primarily as CsOH and CsI, and Te release was controlled by steam oxidation of Zircaloy cladding.

  3. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350

  4. Putting on a brave face: the experiences of women living with HIV and AIDS in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, M; Okeng'o, L; Wagura, A; Mwenzwa, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines two key dimensions of HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, namely poverty and gender, within the particular context of informal settlements. The study, conducted in five informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya explored the challenges facing women living with HIV and AIDS (WLWA) in informal settlements in Nairobi in terms of the specific risk environments of informal settlements, the support they receive and their perceptions of their future. The data were gathered through an interviewer-based questionnaire administered to 390 WLWA and 20 key informant interviews with Kenya Network of Women with AIDS (KENWA) project personnel. The results show that for WLWA in informal settlements, poverty and poor living conditions combine to increase the risk environment for HIV infection and other opportunistic infections and that the WLWA then face HIV- and AIDS-related problems that are exacerbated by poverty and by the poor living environments. In response, the WLWA had devised coping strategies that were largely centred on survival, including commercial sex work and the sale of illicit liquor, thus increasing their susceptibility to re-infections. Insecurity in informal settlements curtailed their participation in income generating activities (IGAs) and increased their risk of rape and HIV re-infection. Recognising the disadvantaged position of communities in informal settlements, the non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs) and faith-based organizations (FBOs) provide a range of services including HIV and AIDS information and therapy. Paradoxically, living in urban informal settlements was found to increase WLWA's access to HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment services through NGOs and social networks that are not found in more established residential areas. The sustainability of these services is, however, questioned, given the lack of local resources, weak state support and high donor dependency. We suggest that the

  5. Integrated Planning for Cleanup of Bethel Valley and Revitalization of the ORNL Main Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S. D.; Myrick, T. E.; Eidam, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the efforts currently underway to integrate the planning for, and performance of, the cleanup and modernization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). UT-Battelle, LLC, is the DOE Office of Science (SC) contractor responsible for ORNL Operations and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, is the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for cleanup of the ORNL site. The two companies are working together to address the 50+ year old ORNL contamination legacy while new facilities for the next 50 years of ORNL operation are being built. These joint efforts have accomplished a number of ''early cleanup actions'' that have significantly reduced the current risk from legacy contamination, are securing approval for cleanup of the ORNL main plant area, and, at the same time, have launched the ORNL modernization efforts.

  6. Recognizing one's own face.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness. PMID:11062324

  7. Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuang; Yin, Xinyou; He, Shuaiqi; Jiang, Wenyu; Si, Chuanfei; Struik, Paul C; Luo, Weihong; Li, Gang; Xie, Yingtian; Xiong, Yan; Pan, Genxing

    2016-02-01

    Elevated CO2 and temperature strongly affect crop production, but understanding of the crop response to combined CO2 and temperature increases under field conditions is still limited while data are scarce. We grew wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two levels of CO2 (ambient and enriched up to 500 μmol mol(-1) ) and two levels of canopy temperature (ambient and increased by 1.5-2.0 °C) in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems and carried out a detailed growth and yield component analysis during two growing seasons for both crops. An increase in CO2 resulted in higher grain yield, whereas an increase in temperature reduced grain yield, in both crops. An increase in CO2 was unable to compensate for the negative impact of an increase in temperature on biomass and yield of wheat and rice. Yields of wheat and rice were decreased by 10-12% and 17-35%, respectively, under the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature. The number of filled grains per unit area was the most important yield component accounting for the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature in wheat and rice. Our data showed complex treatment effects on the interplay between preheading duration, nitrogen uptake, tillering, leaf area index, and radiation-use efficiency, and thus on yield components and yield. Nitrogen uptake before heading was crucial in minimizing yield loss due to climate change in both crops. For rice, however, a breeding strategy to increase grain number per m(2) and % filled grains (or to reduce spikelet sterility) at high temperature is also required to prevent yield reduction under conditions of global change. PMID:26279285

  8. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets worse when you bend forward) Tic douloureux Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome Sometimes the reason for the face pain ... is persistent, unexplained, or accompanied by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider. What to Expect at ...

  9. Social dimensions of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avenanti, Alessio; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Borgomaneri, Sara

    2014-09-01

    In this issue, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] provide an integrative review of neuroscientific, psychological, cultural and philosophical aspects of pain experience and discuss some critical examples of its regulation. Here we focus on the two main social phenomena that are addressed in the review, namely the 'pain of separation' and 'empathy for pain' and further support the idea that these phenomena are intrinsically linked to physical pain, which may provide a 'proximal' physiological base to further understand them. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary 'ultimate' bases of such phenomena and suggest that they are linked to the evolution of parental care in social animals and as such support the development of social bonds. We conclude by considering the effect that positive social relationships and empathy have on the experience of pain.

  10. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Fung, Inez; Thornton, Peter E; Covey, Curtis; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N

  11. Results from ORNL Characterization of HRB-21 Reference Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D

    2004-08-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data produced by ORNL for coated UCO fuel particles (350 {micro}m kernel diameter) fabricated by GA for the HRB-21 irradiation test capsule. The archived fuel particles form the batch used in HRB-21 were obtained by the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program for use as a reference material. The GA characterization data for this batch of fuel particles is presented in document GT-HTGR-88357, Rev. C, 'Capsule HRB-21 Preirradiation Report'. The archived fuel particles obtained by the AGR Program are from batch 8876-70, which was the parent batch for batch 8876-70-O, which was actually irradiated in HRB-21. The difference between batches 8876-70 and 8876-70-L is that the particles in batch 8876-70 do not have the seal coat and protective pyrocarbon coating (PPyC) that were deposited over the OPyC layer in batch 8876-70-O. The ORNL designation for the material characterized is AGR-10. This document summarizes characterization of the HRB-21 fuel for size, shape, coating thickness, and density. Fracture behavior and microstructural analysis of the layers and interfaces is compared to previous analyses of the German proof test particles (EU 2358-2365) published in ORNL/CF-04/06. Further detailed comparative study of the microstructure of these two reference materials would be valuable to continue to define the property differences between particles which exhibited good irradiation performance (the German particles) and poor irradiation performance (the HRB-21 particles).

  12. Recent Activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Bannister, Mark E; Hale, Jerry W; Havener, C C; Krause, Herbert F; Vane, C Randy; Deng, Shihu; Draganic, Ilija N; Harris, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) are summarized. A brief summary of the MIRF high voltage (HV) platform and floating beam line upgrade is provided. An expansion of our research program to the use of molecular ion beams in heavy-particle and electron collisions, as well as in ion-surface interactions is described, and a brief description is provided of the most recently added Ion Cooling and Characterization End-station (ICCE) trap. With the expansion to include molecular ion beams, the acronym MIRF for the facility, however, remains unchanged: M can now refer to either Multicharged or Molecular.

  13. ORNL FISH Telomere Segmentation GUI and Instruction Manual

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-12-01

    The ORNL FISH Telomere Segmentation GUI takes images of cellular chromosomes and telomeres obtained through Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization and automatically labels the pixels that belong to the chromosomes and telomeres, which are cellular structures of interest to cancer researchers. The process of labeling the pixels is called segmentation. The resulting segmentation can be edited through the use of an extensive graphical user-interface or GUI, saved, and exported to a data file suitable for use withmore » data analysis programs such as Microsoft Excel.« less

  14. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  15. Investigating the Multiple Food Sources and N Chemistry of Invasive Earthworms at the Rhinelander, WI, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can directly and indirectly alter biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems through changes to plant productivity, tissue chemistry, and associated feedbacks to microbial and faunal communities. At the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment site (FACE), Rhinelander WI, we examined the consumption and movement of plant tissue and soil by invasive earthworm species using a multi-proxy stable isotope and amino acid chemistry analysis of plant and soil, as well as fecal matter extracted from invasive earthworms present at the site. Using an isotopic mixing model that exploits the 13C-depleted CO2 source and a previous 15N labeling in the FACE experiment, we determined potential sources to the earthworm fecal matter and the movement of amino compounds. For epigeic, surface dwelling earthworms, the stable isotope modeling showed the largest contribution to the C and N in fecal matter was from leaf litter (up to 80%) which was depleted in amino acid C under elevated CO2 conditions. Fecal matter from the endogeic, mineral soil dwelling earthworms was primarily derived from 0-5 cm soil (up to 56%) and fine root tissue (up to 70%). Additionally, amino acid C in this group of earthworms had a proportionately greater relative concentration compared to the epigeic species and the 0-5cm soil. Here we demonstrate that earthworms are incorporating multiple sources (leaf litter, root, and soil) into their fecal matter, which then get deposited throughout the soil profile, where nutrients could become available for plant use.

  16. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629

  17. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629

  18. ORNL Remedial Action Program strategy (FY 1987-FY 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Myrick, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    Over 40 years of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations have produced a diverse legacy of contaminated inactive facilities, research areas, and waste disposal areas that are potential candidates for remedial action. The ORNL Remedial Action Program (RAP) represents a comprehensive effort to meet new regulatory requirements and ensure adequate protection of on-site workers, the public, and the environment by providing appropriate corrective measures at over 130 sites contaminated historically with radioactive, hazardous chemical, or mixed wastes. A structured path of program planning, site characterization, alternatives assessment, technology development, engineering design, continued site maintenance and surveillance, interim corrective action, and eventual site closure or decommissioning is required to meet these objectives. This report documents the development of the Remedial Action Program, through its preliminary characterization, regulatory interface, and strategy development activities. It provides recommendations for a comprehensive, long-term strategy consistent with existing technical, institutional, and regulatory information, along with a six-year plan for achieving its initial objectives. 53 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. ORNL/NSF elementary science leadership leadership institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Begun as a Teacher Enhancement Project in 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is now hosting as annual four-week Elementary Science Leadership summer institute for twenty-five teacher/administrator participants. During 1993-95 summer institutes, the participants receive instruction in science/math content, pedagogy, leadership training, and evaluation techniques. Science topics and instruction will be selected from the best available resources at ORNL, pedagogy and evaluation techniques will be directed by the University of Tennessee`s College of Education, and leadership training will be based on established leadership training models. During the academic year component, participants will: (1) share new math/science knowledge and curriculum with their students and fellow teachers while continuing to develop additional curriculum to share with other Leadership Institute participants, (2) work with the established state-wide advisory group to contribute to systemic reform in math/science education, and (3) prepare and deliver NSF leadership Institute-related math/science presentations at local and state educational conferences. Graduate credit for summer and academic-year participation in the NSF Leadership Institute will be offered through the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

  20. Characterization of the BVEST waste tanks located at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks W-21, W-22, and W-23. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the BVEST sludge was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the BVEST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  1. Hardware implementation of the ORNL fissile mass flow monitor

    SciTech Connect

    McEvers, J.; Sumner, J.; Jones, R.; Ferrell, R.; Martin, C.; Uckan, T.; March-Leuba, J.

    1998-11-01

    This paper provides an overall description of the implementation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor, which is part of a Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor is designed to measure the mass flow of fissile material through a gaseous or liquid process stream. It consists of a source-modulator assembly, a detector assembly, and a cabinet that houses all control, data acquisition, and supporting electronics equipment. The development of this flow monitor was first funded by DOE/NE in September 95, and an initial demonstration by ORNL was described in previous INMM meetings. This methodology was chosen by DOE/NE for implementation in November 1996, and the hardware/software development is complete. Successful BDMS installation and operation of the complete BDMS has been demonstrated in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is operated by Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc. for the US Enrichment Corporation and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Equipment for two BDMS units has been shipped to the Russian Federation.

  2. Evaluation of the ORNL residential energy-use model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, D.

    1982-06-01

    The architecture, empirical foundation, and applications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Residential Energy Use Model are valuated. A particular effort is made to identify the strengths and shortcomings of the model for alternative uses and to identify areas where model structure and empirical support could be upgraded. Concrete suggestions are made for improving model logic, strengthening the empirical basis for behavioral and technical parameters, and reducing the biases in the model that arise from aggregation. The overall conclusion is that the model has the potential to provide adequate forecasts, at a regional or national level, of the aggregate impacts of policies whose effects on households are relatively homogeneous. There are a number of model changes which would be relatively easy to implement and which should substantially improve forecasts of this sort. The version of the ORNL model reviewed here makes it fundamentally unsuitable for applications to geographical areas smaller than DOE regions or to policies that have a heterogeneous impact on households.

  3. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  4. The ORNL Chemical Technology Division, 1950-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Genung, R.K.; McNeese, L.E.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    This document attempts to reconstruct the role played by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the atomic era since the 1940`s related to the development and production of nuclear weapons and power reactors. Chem Tech`s early contributions were landmark pioneering studies. Unknown and dimly perceived problems like chemical hazards, radioactivity, and criticality had to be dealt with. New chemical concepts and processes had to be developed to test the new theories being developed by physicists. New engineering concepts had to be developed and demonstrated in order to build facilities and equipment that had never before been attempted. Chem Tech`s role was chemical separations, especially uranium and plutonium, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. With diversification of national and ORNL missions, Chem Tech undertook R&D studies in many areas including biotechnology; clinical and environmental chemistry; nuclear reactors; safety regulations; effective and safe waste management and disposal; computer modeling and informational databases; isotope production; and environmental control. The changing mission of Chem Tech are encapsulated in the evolving activities.

  5. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-12-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γp1023 m-3 s-1, and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of ˜10 MW/m2. An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength |B| in the antenna region up to ˜0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3×1019 m-3 in He and 2.5×1019 m-3 in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial |B| profile.

  6. Carbon dioxide effects on crop energy balance: Testing ecosys with a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, R.F.; Kimball, B.A.; Pinter, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    Elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations (C{sub e}) have been observed to decrease short-term plant water use under controlled conditions by increasing stomatal resistance. The extent to which this decrease occurs over a growing season in the field is uncertain, however, because stomatal resistance is only one of many mechanisms that control water use. In this study, we tested the ecosystem simulation model ecosys, which reproduces an hourly energy balance through soil-vegetation systems under defined atmospheric boundary conditions, using energy exchange data measured as part of the Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) experiment at C{sub e}=550 vs. 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. The model reproduced reductions in measured upward latent heat fluxes that varied from -10 to +40 W m{sup -2}, depending on atmospheric conditions. In the model, the primary effect of elevated C{sub e} on latent heat fluxes was through canopy stomatal conductance. This effect was largely offset by secondary effects through canopy temperature that enabled the model to reproduce measured changes in sensible heat fluxes. The total effect simulated by ecosys of C{sub e}=550 vs. 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on evapotranspiration during the entire FACE experiment was a reduction of 7%. This reduction compares with one of 11% estimated from accumulated daily measurements of latent heat flux. In the model, the different effects of C{sub e} on plant water use depend on atmosphere and soil boundary conditions, and are highly dynamic. Consequently the simulated C{sub e}-water use relationship is likely to be site-specific. The use of models such as ecosys allows site-specific boundary conditions to be considered in the study of C{sub e} effects on plant growth and water use. 51 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Stable face representations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have been consistently disappointing. In this review, we suggest that failure to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar face processing has led to unrealistic expectations about face identification in applied settings. We also argue that a photograph is not necessarily a reliable indicator of facial appearance, and develop our proposal that summary statistics can provide more stable face representations. In particular, we show that image averaging stabilizes facial appearance by diluting aspects of the image that vary between snapshots of the same person. We review evidence that the resulting images can outperform photographs in both behavioural experiments and computer simulations, and outline promising directions for future research. PMID:21536553

  8. Jamin-interferometer-setup for the determination of concentration and temperature dependent face-specific crystal growth rates from a single experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Cornelia; Choscz, Carsten; Müller, Vesna; Briesen, Heiko

    2015-09-01

    An interference technique that permits the investigation of the crystal growth from a temperature controlled solution is presented. Contrary to Mach-Zehnder- or Michelson-type interferometers, the Jamin-interferometer applied in this work is characterized by improved thermal and long-time stability. In consequence a single experiment may comprise several temperature steps leading to significant changes in the bulk concentration. A procedure for the automated analysis of the acquired sequence of interference patterns is presented. Within this evaluation procedure the position of the selected crystal face, the bulk concentration and the vertical concentration distribution above the crystal are determined simultaneously. Long-term single crystal growth experiments in the range from 20 to 60 °C with sucrose and lactose crystals are used to test the method. The exact bulk concentration is determined by the interferometer. The obtained results for the growth rate of sucrose are consistent with values given in the literature. The vertical concentration distribution above the two saccharide crystals differs clearly indicating that the diffusion strongly limits the sucrose growth but not the growth of the lactose crystal. The major benefit of the described setup is that the data of a single experiment are sufficient to deduce the parameters of the model equation for the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation.

  9. Closure of a unique mixed waste storage canal at the Dept. of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Etheridge, J.T.; Thompson, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    At the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) a unique closure was accomplished for a storage canal that contained both hazardous chemical contaminants controlled by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive contaminants controlled by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). During 1991 and 1992, after approvals were received from the DOE and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), subcontractors to DOE`s Construction Manager were mobilized and remote controlled equipment was operated on site to remove the RCRA and radioactive contamination (referred to hereafter as mixed wastes) from the 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL. After numerous {open_quotes}surprises{close_quotes} during the removal activities, each requiring problem resolution and approvals from DOE and TDEC, the canal closure was completed in September 1992 and final closure certification was submitted to TDEC in October 1992. The following discussion describes the learning experiences that ORNL and DOE acquired from a RCRA closure project for a mixed waste storage canal containing high radiation levels. The project was successful, especially since worker exposures were minimized, but was lengthy, requiring 30 months from notification of a leak in the canal until final demobilization of the subcontractor, and expensive to complete (total overall cost of $3 million).

  10. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  11. To take or not to take? The future of distance learning: A quasi-experiment comparison of the effectiveness of Internet-based distance learning versus face-to-face classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghikian-Whitby, Seta

    Purpose. This research study compared Internet-based distance learning versus face-to-face classroom using traditional undergraduate and continuing education adult students. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Internet-based distance learning. The study examined whether there was any significant difference between an Internet-based distance-learning course and a face-to-face classroom course. Moreover, the study examined whether continuing-education adult students performed higher in Internet-based distance learning than traditional undergraduate students. Methodology. Seventy-three subjects participated in the study. A pretest/posttest nonequivalent quasi-experimental design was used. The study tested a total of sixteen research questions, thirteen hypotheses, and sixteen null hypotheses. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), an independent-sample t-test, and a paired sample t-test were used for the data analysis. Findings. The findings indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between Internet-based distance learning and face-to-face classroom environment. Continuing-education adult and traditional undergraduate students performed equally in Internet-based distance learning.

  12. Studies Of (lowercasep,γ) Reactions With The Daresbury Recoil Separator At ORNL'S HRIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Champagne, A. E.; Visser, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Bardayan, D. W.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Kozub, R. L.; Moazen, B. H.; Parker, P. D.; Greife, U.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.; Jones, K. L.; Thomas, J. S.; Johnson, M. S.

    2004-10-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei is important in stellar explosions such as novae and X-ray bursts as well as in solar neutrino production. The Daresbury Recoil Separator and a windowless gas target system have been installed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for measurements of proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The performance of the system has been characterized with a number of experiments with stable ion beams. The windowless gas target thickness has been determined to 3% using a novel technique and the DRS transmission has been studied with ^1H(^12C,γ)^13N. Results from this work will be presented. We will also report on plans for ^1H(^7Be,γ)^8B and ^1H(^17F,γ)^18Ne measurements at the HRIBF.

  13. Implementation of multi-channel electronics system for astrophysical reaction studies at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S. H.; Jones, K. L.; Matos, M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chae, K. Y.; Smith, M. S.; Varner, R. J.; Elson, J. M.; Famiano, M. A.

    2010-11-01

    The development of large area, high-granularity silicon detector arrays has created opportunities to study transfer reactions in inverse kinematics with low-intensity radioactive beams. We are developing a new detector array comprised of 24 double-sided silicon strip detectors that will allow measurements with lower thresholds and better resolution than current detectors at ORNL. To instrument this new array, we are implementing ˜2000 channels of signal processing electronics based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) designed at Washington University. The ASICs handle pulse shaping, timing, triggering, and digitization of 32 channels all on a single chip. In addition, a Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) is used for a network communication between the electronics and data acquisition server. Details of the electronics setup and a status report on the devices will be presented. We will also discuss plans to utilize this system for experiments of transfer reactions using radioactive ion beams.

  14. Conceptions of reality and the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Anna, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    A core of neurobiological mechanisms is implicated in different forms of pain. Fabbro and Crescentini [4] show that this fact is significant both on the scientific level and on the philosophical level. Their main philosophical claim is that the existence of a neural circuit devoted to the experience of time suggests that time might not be real. An upshot would be that the objects which populate the world of our experience might not be real either, and hence the attachment to them and the mechanisms of pain for the separation from them that were developed through evolution would be misplaced. By contrast, in their view, we inhabit a Heraclitean or Buddhist world of processes: indeed, by inhibiting our time circuits, mindful meditation releases us from perceiving reality as a world of objects and thereby reliefs us from pain. Fabbro and Crescentini remark on a limitation of attempts to employ mindful meditation as a pain killer in clinical contexts: a long time of meditation practice is needed for a subject to be able to alleviate pain through that method.

  15. Face detection: mapping human performance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Edmonds, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    The recognition of faces has been the focus of an extensive body of research, whereas the preliminary and prerequisite task of detecting a face has received limited attention from psychologists. Four experiments are reported that address the question how we detect a face. Experiment 1 reveals that we use information from the scene to aid detection. In experiment 2 we investigated which features of a face speed the detection of faces. Experiment 3 revealed inversion effects and an interaction between the effects of blurring and reduction of contrast. In experiment 4 the sizes of effects of reversal of orientation, luminance, and hue were compared. Luminance was found to have the greatest effect on reaction time to detect faces. The results are interpreted as suggesting that face detection proceeds by a pre-attentive stage that identifies possible face regions, which is followed by a focused-attention stage that employs a deformable template. Comparisons are drawn with automatic face-detection systems. PMID:14580138

  16. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Hill, David E

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  17. The influence of emotion on face processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden one's thought-action repertoire, which may manifest as a widened attentional scope in cognitive processing. The present study directly tests this hypothesis by examining the influences of induced emotions (positive, neutral and negative) on holistic processing of face (Experiment 1) and face discrimination (Experiment 2). In both experiments, emotions induced with images from the International Affective Picture System significantly interacted with face processing. That is, positive emotions engendered greater holistic face encoding in a composite-face task in Experiment 1 and more accurate face discrimination in Experiment 2, relative to the neutral condition. In contrast, negative emotions impaired holistic face encoding in the composite-face task and reduced face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these results provide further support for the attentional broadening effect of positive affect by demonstrating that induced positive emotions facilitate holistic/configural processing. PMID:25621898

  18. Electron-Impact Ionization of Multicharged Ions: Cross-Sections Data from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This website presents experimental ionization cross sections measured using the Electron-Ion Crossed Beams apparatus in the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at the Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The data are given in both graphical and tabular form along with the reference to the original publication of the experimental results. Also presented in the figures are theoretical cross sections supporting the experiments. For details of the theoretical work, refer to the original publication given for the particular experiment. These pages are based primarily on three technical memorandums issued by ORNL: 1(D. H. Crandall, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. C. Gregory, Electron Impact Ionization of Multicharged Ions, ORNL/TM-7020, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1979; 2) D. C. Gregory, D. H. Crandall, R. A. Phaneuf, A. M. Howald, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Also presented are more recent (1993-present) data, both published and unpublished. The data pages feature dynamic plotting, allowing the user to choose which sets of data to plot and zoom in on regions of interest within the plot. [Taken from http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/xbeam/index.html

  19. Simulation experiment of interaction of plasma facing materials and transient heat loads in ITER divertor by use of magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Ando, K.; Higashi, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2009-11-01

    Interaction of plasma facing materials and transient head loads such as type I ELMs is one of the critical issues in ITER divertor. The heat load to the ITER divertor during type I ELMs is estimated to be 0.5-3 MJ/m^2 with a pulse length of 0.1-0.5 ms. We have developed a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for the simulation experiment of transient heat load during type I ELMs in ITER divertor. The MCPG has inner and outer electrodes made of stainless steel 304. In addition, the inner electrode is covered with molybdenum so as to suppress the release of impurities from the electrode during the discharge. The diameters of inner and outer electrodes are 0.06 m and 0.14 m, respectively. The power supply for the MCPG is a capacitor bank (7 kV, 1 mF, 25 kJ). The plasma velocity estimated by the time of flight measurement of the magnetic fields was about 50 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 15 eV (H) or 30 eV (D). The absorbed energy density of the plasma stream was measured a calorimeter made of graphite. It was found that the absorbed energy density was 0.9 MJ/m^2 with a pulse width of 0.5 ms at the distance of 100 mm from the inner electrode. In the conference, experimental results of plasma exposure on the plasma facing materials in ITER divertor will be shown.

  20. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  1. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2011-12-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  2. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  3. Residential end use demand modeling: Improvements to the ORNL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, J. E.

    1981-10-01

    The ORNL/LBL Residential Energy Demand Model incorporated major improvements in three areas: efficiency of appliances, current construction practice in new houses, and appliance retirements. The new methodology is more general, and provides energy demand estimates in better agreement with recent data. Key areas for future improvements are indicated, including: quantifying the uncertainty in model simulation, redefining the set of end uses, updating the algorithm, and broadening the model's applicability to different geographic areas. A US Department of Energy survey of appliance manufacturers was used to determine new appliance efficiencies. Similarly, surveys of current housing practices (e.g., ceiling insulation level) were used to estimate changes in heating and cooling energy requirements. Appliances are assumed to retire as a function of their age.

  4. Recent Astrophysical Studies with Exotic Beams at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bardayan, Daniel W

    2006-02-01

    The availability of exotic beams has produced great opportunities for advances in our understanding of the nucleosynthesis occurring in stellar burning and stellar explosions such as novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. In these extreme environments, synthesized radioactive nuclei can undergo subsequent nuclear processing before they decay, and thus to understand these events, we must understand reaction rates involving radioactive nuclei. At the ORNL Holi led Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), we have made several recent measurements using proton-rich beams such as 18F and 7Be and neutron-rich beams such as 82Ge and 84Se that help clarify the structure of astrophysically-important nuclei. We are also poised to begin studies with doubly-magic 132Sn. The experimental methods and results are discussed.

  5. Potentiometric studies at ORNL with hydrogen electrode concentration cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mesmer, R.E.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The absence of suitably stable reference electrodes for and to 300 C led ORNL to develop hydrogen electrode concentration cells for studies of equilibria of interest in reactor and steam generator systems to about 300 C during the late 1960`s and seventies. During the intervening two dozen years over twenty scientists have participated in potentiometric studies at Oak Ridge and much of that work will be summarized in this paper. A description of hydrogen electrode concentration cells developed in the late sixties and currently in use at Oak Ridge is given. The method of measurement, data interpretation, and published results are reviewed for studies of acid-base ionization, metal ion hydrolysis, and metal complexation reactions using principally such cells in titration or flow modes. 41 refs.

  6. Recent astrophysical studies with exotic beams at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardayan, D. W.

    2006-03-01

    The availability of exotic beams has produced great opportunities for advances in our understanding of the nucleosynthesis occurring in stellar burning and stellar explosions such as novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. In these extreme environments, synthesized radioactive nuclei can undergo subsequent nuclear processing before they decay, and thus to understand these events, we must understand reaction rates involving radioactive nuclei. At the ORNL Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), we have made a number of measurements using proton-rich beams such as 18F and 7Be and neutron-rich beams such as 82Ge and 84Se that help clarify the structure of astrophysically-important nuclei. We are also poised to begin studies with doubly-magic 132Sn. The experimental methods and results are discussed.

  7. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248

  8. Wired for Her Face? Male Attentional Bias for Female Faces

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yuka; Abrahamyan, Arman; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2009-01-01

    Under conditions of inattention or deficits in orienting attention, special classes of stimuli (e.g. faces, bodies) are more likely to be perceived than other stimuli. This suggests that biologically salient visual stimuli automatically recruit attention, even when they are task-irrelevant or ignored. Here we report results from a behavioral experiment with female and male subjects and two magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments with male subjects only, in which we investigated attentional capture with face and hand stimuli. In both the behavioral and MEG experiments, subjects were required to count the number of gender-specific targets from either face or hand categories within a block of stimuli. In the behavioral experiment, we found that male subjects were significantly more accurate in response to female than male face target blocks. There was no corresponding effect found in response to hand target blocks. Female subjects did not show a gender-based difference in response to face or hand target blocks. MEG results indicated that the male subjects’ responses to face stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and the face-selective part of the fusiform gyrus (FG) were reduced when male face stimuli were not relevant to the task, whereas female faces maintained a strong response in these areas in both task-relevant and task-irrelevant conditions. These results suggest that within the male brain, female face stimuli are more resilient to suppression than male faces, once attention is drawn to the part of the visual field where the face appears. PMID:19809873

  9. Not All Faces Are Processed Equally: Evidence for Featural Rather than Holistic Processing of One's Own Face in a Face-Imaging Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Seth N.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2009-01-01

    The present work considers the mental imaging of faces, with a focus in own-face imaging. Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated an own-face disadvantage, with slower generation of mental images of one's own face than of other familiar faces. In contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that mental images of facial parts are generated more quickly for one's…

  10. Faces Attract Infants' Attention in Complex Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Andravizou, Athina; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infant's face preferences have previously been assessed in displays containing 1 or 2 faces. Here we present 6-month-old infants with a complex visual array containing faces among multiple visual objects. Despite the competing objects, infants direct their first saccade toward faces more frequently than expected by chance (Experiment 1). The…

  11. Evaluation of Durable Metallic Supports for Catalytic Combustors, CRADA Final Report ORNL 00-0570

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B. A.; Wright, I. G.; Lara-Curzio, E.; McCarty, J.; Barnes, J.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Catalytica Energy Systems Incorporated (CESI) to determine the properties of current metallic catalyst supports and examine new candidate alloys for this application. A team was established at ORNL to examine oxidation-limited lifetime of these thin-walled metallic components using standard lifetime models and to measure the mechanical properties of the foils (40-200:m in thickness) which can differ substantially from bulk properties. Oxidation experiments were conducted on foil specimens at 700/-1100/C in laboratory air and in air with 10 vol.% water vapor to better simulate the combustor environment. At the higher test temperatures, time to oxidation-induced (i.e. breakaway oxidation) failure was determined in 1h cycles in order to verify predictions from a standard reservoir-type oxidation lifetime model. Selected specimens were run for >10,000h in 100 or 500h cycles at lower test temperatures in order to determine the oxidation kinetics for the model. The creep properties of selected foils were measured for 4,000-8,000h at operation-relevant stresses and temperatures. None of the new candidate alloys significantly out-performed currently used alloys in laboratory testing, particularly in oxidation lifetime testing. Therefore, engine testing was not performed on any of the new candidate alloys. Both the oxidation- and creep-resistance of FeCrAl alloys was greater than expected and the results of the CRADA allowed CESI to extend life or increase operating temperatures for these lower cost substrate alloys in the next generation of catalyst modules.

  12. Development studies for the treatment of ORNL low-level liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental program is under way to investigate potential separation methods for application to specific problems relating to the management of low-level liquid wastes (LLLWs) at ORNL. This report summarizes experimental results that were acquired during fiscal year 1990 and have not been previously reported elsewhere. Measurements are presented for cesium and strontium removal from simulated high-salt waste compositions, using both inorganic ion- exchange sorbents and organic ion-exchange resins, and for one experiment with actual LLLW supernate solution from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-26, using inorganic sorbents. The purpose of the study was to acquire an extensive data base to support the development of flowsheets for decontamination of the LLLW currently stored at ORNL. Experimental measurements with inorganic ion exchangers focused on batch separations of cesium using several transition-metal hexacyanoferrate(2) compositions (ferrocyanides) and of strontium using titanium oxide-based sorbents. Cesium distribution coefficients in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 6} were generally observed with nickel and cobalt ferrocyanides at pH values {le}11, yielding DFs of about 100 with 100 ppm sorbent in a single-stage batch separation. Most organic ion-exchange resins are not very effective for cesium removal from such high salt concentrations, but a new resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site was found to be considerably superior to any other such material tested. Several chelating resins were effective for removing strontium from the waste simulants. An ion-exchange column test successfully demonstrated the simultaneous removal of both cesium and strontium from a waste simulant solution.

  13. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  14. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  15. Low recycling and high power density handling physics in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade with lithium plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Gray, T.; Kugel, H.; Mansfield, D.; Spaleta, J.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Doerner, R.; Lynch, T.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2007-05-15

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade [T. Munsat, P. C. Efthimion, B. Jones, R. Kaita, R. Majeski, D. Stutman, and G. Taylor, Phys. Plasmas 9, 480 (2002)] spherical tokamak research program has focused on lithium as a large area plasma-facing component (PFC). The energy confinement times showed a sixfold or more improvement over discharges without lithium PFCs. This was an increase of up to a factor of 3 over ITER98P(y,1) scaling [ITER Physics Basis Editors, Nucl. Fusion 39, 2137 (1999)], and reflects the largest enhancement in confinement ever seen in Ohmic plasmas. Recycling coefficients of 0.3 or below were achieved, and they are the lowest to date in magnetically confined plasmas. The effectiveness of liquid lithium in redistributing heat loads at extremely high power densities was demonstrated with an electron beam, which was used to generate lithium coatings. When directed to a lithium reservoir, evaporation occurred only after the entire volume of lithium was raised to the evaporation temperature. The ability to dissipate a beam power density of about 60 MW/m{sup 2} could have significant consequences for PFCs in burning plasma devices.

  16. 'It is the situation that makes it difficult': experiences of nursing students faced with a high-stakes drug calculation test.

    PubMed

    Røykenes, Kari; Smith, Kari; Larsen, Torill M B

    2014-08-01

    Test anxiety affects the learning, performance and well-being of students, and it increases as the stakes get higher. Norwegian nursing students must pass a drug calculation test with a flawless performance if they are to qualify as nurses. The aim of the current study was to investigate the test anxiety experiences of students faced with such a high-stakes test. We used a mixed methods approach where the data were collected using a survey questionnaire and a focus group interview. In total, 203 freshman nursing students completed the questionnaire, six of whom also participated in the focus group interview. The survey results showed that 44.3% of the students reported high mathematics test anxiety in the months before the drug calculation test. More than 12% of the high-anxiety students reported a low mathematics self-concept. High and medium self-concept students also experienced high test anxiety. Our analysis of the focus group interview data confirmed that the high stakes of the test increased the test anxiety dramatically. PMID:24462630

  17. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human face detection might be driven by skin-coloured face-shaped templates. To explore this idea, this study compared the detection of faces for which the natural height-to-width ratios were preserved with distorted faces that were stretched vertically or horizontally. The impact of stretching on detection performance was not obvious when faces were equated to their unstretched counterparts in terms of their height or width dimension (Experiment 1). However, stretching impaired detection when the original and distorted faces were matched for their surface area (Experiment 2), and this was found with both vertically and horizontally stretched faces (Experiment 3). This effect was evident in accuracy, response times, and also observers' eye movements to faces. These findings demonstrate that height-to-width ratios are an important component of the cognitive template for face detection. The results also highlight important differences between face detection and face recognition. PMID:25727491

  18. Inversion and Configuration of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James C.; Searcy, Jean

    1993-01-01

    The Thatcher illusion, in which the inverted mouth and eyes of a face appear grotesque when upright, but not when the whole configuration is inverted, was studied in 3 experiments involving 89 undergraduates. Results suggest that the illusion represents a disruption of encoding of holistic information when faces are inverted. (SLD)

  19. Configural Processing and Face Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2008-01-01

    Configural/holistic processing, a key property of face recognition, has previously been examined only for front views of faces. Here, 6 experiments tested front (0 degree), three-quarter (45 degree), and profile views (90 degree), using composite and peripheral inversion tasks. Results showed an overall disadvantage in identifying profiles. This…

  20. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.; Chung, T.C.

    1995-11-08

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern.

  1. Gender-Based Prototype Formation in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Brochard, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    The role of gender categories in prototype formation during face recognition was investigated in 2 experiments. The participants were asked to learn individual faces and then to recognize them. During recognition, individual faces were mixed with faces, which were blended faces of same or different genders. The results of the 2 experiments showed…

  2. Characterization of the MVST waste tanks located at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns of the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report only discusses the analytical characterization data for the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report support the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were ``denatured`` as required by administrative controls. In general, MVST sludge was found to be both hazardous by RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well about the limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  3. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  4. (d, p γ) Measurements at the HRIBF at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Carter, H. K.; Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kronenberg, A.; Kozub, R. L.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Smith, M. S.; Thomas, J. S.; Visser, D. W.

    2004-11-01

    Transfer reactions are an important spectroscopic tool for astrophysics and nuclear structure. Measurements from transfer reactions probe spectroscopic quantities such as single-particle excitation energies, angular momentum and spectroscopic factors. Neutron transfer reactions on neutron-rich nuclei is important to astrophysics because these nuclei lie along the r-process path. Population of excited states through neutron transfer has the potential for γ-ray cascades to the ground state or isomeric states. Therefore, γ-ray-proton coincidence measurements can give improvement over detecting protons alone. First, energy resolution is enhanced with Ge γ-ray detectors by an order of magnitude. Second, information can be extracted on spectroscopic strengths of states not seen in proton spectra, but evident in γ-ray cascades. Finally, γ-ray tagging can reduce background effects and contamination. A program at the HRIBF at ORNL is focused on doing (d,pγ) measurements in inverse kinematics. Progress of the (d,pγ) program will be presented.

  5. Science and Technology Highlights of ORNL's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.

    1998-11-01

    ORNL's EE/RE research has always involved partnering with outside organizations, but collaborations tended toward industrial and university partners. Recognizing the value of working with state energy agencies, ORNL began in the early 1990s to establish stronger relations with state energy offices (SEOs) and the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI). In a 1993 meeting, states offered to help DOE deliver technology to the marketplace and indicated that the national laboratories could help them solve technology-related problems. In 1994, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory responded with a new program to establish federal-state collaborations. In 1996 ORNL began the State Partnerships Program (SPP), incorporating lessons learned from our sister laboratory. Core funding for SPP is provided by ORNL's EE/RE Program to pay for ORNL staff expertise and assistance. Partners contribute through either direct funding or in-kind resources. SPP has funded 38 projects and technical-assistance activities in 18 states. Partners include SEOS, ASERTTI members, utilities, universities, industrial firms, trade associations, and DOE regional support offices. All four sectors covered by ORNL's EE/RE Program-buildings, transportation, industry, and utility--are represented in the project mix. How can your organization participate? Twice yearly, calls for proposals are issued to ORNL staff, SEOS, and ASERTTI members. (Requests for 2-to 4-day technical assistance efforts are welcome any time!) Proposals must be developed in collaboration with ORNL researchers and must address issues integral to the EE/RE missions of DOE and ORNL.

  6. Belowground carbon sources and fine root turnover times using 13C tracer at the conclusion of a long-term FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. J.; Matamala, R.; Norby, R.; Iversen, C.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of carbon budgets require accurate approximations of fine root production and turnover. Current published estimates of root carbon turnover vary more than five-fold, with large differences between isotope-derived estimates, minirhizotron studies or other approaches. Variations in residence times between root structural and reserve C, root orders and new photosynthate to support root function have been shown independently, but have not been yet reconciled in a single study. Taking advantage of the conclusion of the long-term FACE experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we track the whole ecosystem isotope relaxation in fine root pools (<2mm). Carbon assimilated in 2010 and beyond is isotopically unique from carbon incorporated during fumigation (1998-2009). Our objectives were to quantify carbon turnover time in fine roots of Liquidambar styraciflua, and to identify carbon sources for new root growth and for energy metabolism. We sampled intact and in-growth root cores at regular (minimum time was monthly) intervals in 2010 and at several intervals in 2011. Additionally, fine roots and soils were incubated from three sampling periods each from 2010 and 2011 for measurement of the isotopic signature of respired CO2. Our results show a residence time of carbon in fine roots consistent with previous stable isotope reports for this species, with about 20% of structural C replaced after one full growing season. In contrast, all new root growth (evidenced from in-growth cores) was supported by new photosynthate, except for some storage carbon used very early in the growing season. Carbon used for energy metabolism in roots exclusively originated from new photosynthate during all measurement periods. Our results confirm heterogeneity of C pools in existing and new roots and the relatively long residence time of structural C in existing fine roots.

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - special form package

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.

  8. Safety-analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 20WC-5 - special form packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of large quantities of solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. the package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (formerly Sandia Corporation), on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of large quantities of non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. 7 figures.

  9. Not just another face in the crowd: detecting emotional schematic faces during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-10-01

    To test whether threatening visual information receives prioritized processing, many studies have examined visual search for emotional schematic faces. Still, it has remained unclear whether negative or positive schematic faces are processed more efficiently. We used continuous flash suppression, a variant of binocular rivalry, to render single emotional schematic faces invisible and measured whether negative or positive faces have an advantage in accessing awareness. Across three experiments, positive faces were detected more quickly than negative faces. A fourth experiment indicated that this positive face advantage was unrelated to the valence of the face stimuli but due to the relative orientation of the mouth curvature and the face contour. These findings demonstrate the impact of configural stimulus properties on perceptual suppression during binocular rivalry and point to a perceptual confound present in emotional schematic faces that might account for some ambiguous results obtained with schematic face stimuli in previous studies. PMID:22309728

  10. Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Husband, Haley L; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similar searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  11. Visual Search Efficiency is Greater for Human Faces Compared to Animal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Mertins, Haley L.; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2015-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similarly efficient searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  12. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  13. Learning of Argumentation Skills in Networked and Face-to-Face Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttunen, Miika; Laurinen, Leena

    2001-01-01

    In a teaching experiment, 16 face-to-face and 11 e-mail Finnish university students studied academic debating in an argumentation course. Results indicated the e-mail students learned to identify and choose relevant grounds, while face-to-face students improved in putting forward counter-argumentation. The study suggests that argumentation skills…

  14. "No Significant Distance" between Face-to-Face and Online Instruction: Evidence from Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…

  15. Face identity matching is influenced by emotions conveyed by face and body.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Faces provide information about multiple characteristics like personal identity and emotion. Classical models of face perception postulate separate sub-systems for identity and expression recognition but recent studies have documented emotional contextual influences on recognition of faces. The present study reports three experiments where participants were presented realistic face-body compounds in a 2 category (face and body) × 2 emotion (neutral and fearful) factorial design. The task always consisted of two-alternative forced choice facial identity matching. The results show that during simultaneous face identity matching, the task irrelevant bodily expressions influence processing of facial identity, under conditions of unlimited viewing (Experiment 1) as well as during brief (750 ms) presentation (Experiment 2). In addition, delayed (5000 ms) face identity matching of rapidly (150 ms) presented face-body compounds, was also influenced by the body expression (Experiment 3). The results indicate that face identity perception mechanisms interact with processing of bodily and facial expressions. PMID:24574994

  16. BNCT filter design studies for the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.; Williams, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the United States has entered into a new phase with the initiation of clinical trials using neutron sources at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. If these trials are successful at demonstrating the efficacy of BNCT as a viable treatment for glioblastoma multiforme, then there will be an immediate demand for several additional neutron sources in order to treat the several thousand patients currently diagnosed with glioblastomas in the U.S. each year. However, the requirements for an acceptable neutron source for BNCT are rather severe in terms of the need to provide a sufficient number of epithermal neutrons to a patient-accessible location in a reasonable time with minimal thermal-neutron, fast- neutron, and gamma-ray background. A recent study of potential neutron sources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been completed, which concludes that the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF), also appears very well suited for BNCT. The light-water-cooled reactor is contained in an aluminum pressure vessel and located in a large concrete `bunker` referred to as the Big Beam Shield (BBS). The BBS contains a 77-cm-diameter beam collimator, which permits access to a broad beam neutron flux exceeding 4 x 10[sup ll] Cm[sup -2]s[sup- 1] at the operational power of 1 MW. The collimated beam emerges horizontally onto an unenclosed test pad area on which shield mockups were assembled. The appropriate beam filter and collimator system can be easily constructed in the expansive area previously used for the large shield mockups. Additional engineering of the beam shutter mechanism and the construction of treatment support facilities will be needed but can be easily accommodated on the remote dedicated site. The filter design analysis is provided.

  17. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2014-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2013. The associated FY 2013 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2014/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  18. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2013-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2012. The associated FY 2012 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  19. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2010-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2009. The associated FY 2009 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2010/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  20. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2009-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2008. The associated FY 2008 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2008/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  1. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  2. Use of standards in nuclear analytical chemistry at ORNL - a historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, F.F.

    1994-12-31

    Standards, the glue that holds empirical science together, have long been recognized as important in nuclear analytical chemistry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). From the earliest days of the nuclear analytical program at ORNL, personnel have been vigorously involved with the evaluation of decay schemes and half-lives to improve radioactive standards. One of the more interesting uses of standards at ORNL was in the Apollo program, where radionuclides were determined in moon rocks by measuring samples containing known amounts of radionuclides that simulated the actual samples in size and shape. This paper briefly reviews some of the early uses of standards at ORNL and contrasts the application of standards in some current work in multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) that uses germanium gamma-ray detectors with similar work that was performed in the 1960s that made use of NaI(Tl) detectors.

  3. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2012-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2011. The associated FY 2011 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  4. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    NA, NA

    2011-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2010. The associated FY 2010 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2011/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  5. Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  6. Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.; West, G.D.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected in bottles, by trucks, or in underground collection tanks; it is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  7. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J; Adelman, Brad; Derybowski, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound experiments

  8. Faces in the mist: illusory face and letter detection

    PubMed Central

    Rieth, Cory A.; Lee, Kang; Lui, Jiangang; Tian, Jie; Huber, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480) during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2) occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus. PMID:23145238

  9. Face format at encoding affects the other-race effect in face memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Hayward, William G; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Memory of own-race faces is generally better than memory of other-races faces. This other-race effect (ORE) in face memory has been attributed to differences in contact, holistic processing, and motivation to individuate faces. Since most studies demonstrate the ORE with participants learning and recognizing static, single-view faces, it remains unclear whether the ORE can be generalized to different face learning conditions. Using an old/new recognition task, we tested whether face format at encoding modulates the ORE. The results showed a significant ORE when participants learned static, single-view faces (Experiment 1). In contrast, the ORE disappeared when participants learned rigidly moving faces (Experiment 2). Moreover, learning faces displayed from four discrete views produced the same results as learning rigidly moving faces (Experiment 3). Contact with other-race faces was correlated with the magnitude of the ORE. Nonetheless, the absence of the ORE in Experiments 2 and 3 cannot be readily explained by either more frequent contact with other-race faces or stronger motivation to individuate them. These results demonstrate that the ORE is sensitive to face format at encoding, supporting the hypothesis that relative involvement of holistic and featural processing at encoding mediates the ORE observed in face memory. PMID:25104831

  10. Development of a high-heat-flux target for multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beams at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Bush, C.E.; Foster, C.A.; Haselton, H.H.; Hayes, P.H.; Menon, M.M.; Moeller, J.A.; Sluss, F.; Tsai, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A high-heat-flux target has been developed for intercepting multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beam power at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Water-cooled copper swirl tubes are used for the heat transfer medium; these tubes exhibit an enhancement in burnout heat flux over conventional axial-flow tubes. The target consists of 126 swirl tubes (each 0.95 cm in outside diameter with 0.16-cm-thick walls and approx. =1 m long) arranged in a V-shape. Two arrays of parallel tubes inclined at an angle ..cap alpha.. to the beam axis form the V-shape, and this geometry reduces the surface heat flux by a factor of 1/sin ..cap alpha.. (for the present design, ..cap alpha.. =13/sup 0/ and 21/sup 0/). In tests with the ORNL long-pulse ion source (13- by 43-cm grid), the target has handled up to 3-MW, 30-s beam pulses with no deleterious effects. The peak power density was estimated at approx. =15 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (5.4 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces). The water flow rate through the target was 41.6 L/s (660 gpm) or 0.33 L/s (5.2 gpm) per tube (axial flow velocity = 11.6 m/s). The corresponding pressure drop across the target was 1.14 MPa (165 psi) with an inlet pressure of 1.45 MPa (210 psia). Data are also presented from backup experiments in which individual tubes were heated by a small ion source (10-cm-diam grid) to characterize tube performance. These results suggest that the target should handle peak power densities in the range 25 to 30 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (approx. =10 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces) with the present flow parameters. This translates to beam power levels of 5 to 6 MW for equivalent beam optics.

  11. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  12. Faces distort eye movement trajectories, but the distortion is not stronger for your own face.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haoyue; Gao, Xiangping; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-07-01

    It is currently unclear whether a person's own face has greater capacity in absorbing his/her attention than faces of others. With two visual distractor tasks, the present study assessed the extent to which a person's own face attracts his/her attention, by measuring face distractor elicited distortion of saccade trajectories. Experiment 1 showed that upright faces induced stronger distortion of saccade trajectories than inverted ones. This face inversion effect, however, was not stronger for the participant's own face than for unfamiliar other's faces. By manipulating fixation stimulus offset and using peripheral onset target, Experiment 2 further demonstrated that these observations were not contingent on saccade latency. Together, these findings suggest that a person's own face is not more salient or attention-absorbing than unfamiliar other's faces. PMID:25912608

  13. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets With Face Mating Gears. Part 1: Basic Theoretical and Cad Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are the Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion possesses threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three types transmis- sions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three types transmissions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in this study. The presented research shows that the synthesis is realized by application of two mathematical models: pitch contact point and mesh region models. Two approaches for synthesis of the gear drives in accordance with Olivier's principles are illustrated. The algorithms and computer programs for optimization synthesis and design of the studied hyperboloid gear drives are presented.

  14. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  15. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  16. PREPARING FOR EXASCALE: ORNL Leadership Computing Application Requirements and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Kothe, Douglas B; Nam, Hai Ah

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), elicited petascale computational science requirements from leading computational scientists in the international science community. This effort targeted science teams whose projects received large computer allocation awards on OLCF systems. A clear finding of this process was that in order to reach their science goals over the next several years, multiple projects will require computational resources in excess of an order of magnitude more powerful than those currently available. Additionally, for the longer term, next-generation science will require computing platforms of exascale capability in order to reach DOE science objectives over the next decade. It is generally recognized that achieving exascale in the proposed time frame will require disruptive changes in computer hardware and software. Processor hardware will become necessarily heterogeneous and will include accelerator technologies. Software must undergo the concomitant changes needed to extract the available performance from this heterogeneous hardware. This disruption portends to be substantial, not unlike the change to the message passing paradigm in the computational science community over 20 years ago. Since technological disruptions take time to assimilate, we must aggressively embark on this course of change now, to insure that science applications and their underlying programming models are mature and ready when exascale computing arrives. This includes initiation of application readiness efforts to adapt existing codes to heterogeneous architectures, support of relevant software tools, and procurement of next-generation hardware testbeds for porting and testing codes. The 2009 OLCF requirements process identified numerous actions necessary to meet this challenge: (1) Hardware capabilities must be

  17. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  18. Different neural correlates of facing pain with mindfulness: Contributions of strategy and skill. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gard, Tim

    2014-09-01

    As Fabbro and Crescentini [1] state at the beginning of their perspective article, pain is an inevitable, complex and multifaceted phenomenon. While acute pain fulfills an important alerting function, persistent pain is considered maladaptive and associated with unnecessary suffering. The definition of pain "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" indicates the presence of sensory and emotional components [2]. In the brain the sensory aspects of pain, or its intensity, is associated with activations in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex while the emotional aspects of pain or pain unpleasantness are related to brain activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [3,4]. Physical and emotional pain have overlapping mechanisms [5,6] as Fabbro and Crescentini [1] discuss with respect to social exclusion, empathy and the pain of separation including the fear of death.

  19. Face Recognition Increases during Saccade Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D.; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition. PMID:24671174

  20. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  1. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L; Murphy, Ashley M; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  2. Developmental Changes in Face Processing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Geldart, Sybil; Maurer, Daphne; Le Grand, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of slow development of processing differences among faces in the spacing among facial features (second-order relations). Computerized tasks involving various face-processing skills were used. Results of experiment with 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds and with adults indicated that slow development of sensitivity to…

  3. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL, calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.

    1988-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 to apply corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. These studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. 10 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Electron-impact ionization of multicharged ions at ORNL: 1985--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.C.; Bannister, M.E.

    1994-07-01

    Absolute cross sections are presented in graphs and tables for single ionization of forty-one ions, multiple ionization of four ions, and for dissociation and ionization of two molecular ions by electron impact. This memo is the third in a series of manuscripts summarizing previously published as well as unpublished ionization cross section measurements at ORNL; contents of the two previous memos are also referenced in this work. All work tabulated in this memo involved ion beams generated in the ORNL-ECR ion source and utilized the ORNL electron-ion crossed beams apparatus. Target ions range from atomic number Z = 8 (oxygen) to Z = 92 (uranium) in initial charge states from +1 to +16. Electron impact energies typically range from threshold to 1500 eV.

  5. Covert face recognition without prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H D; Young, A W; Koenken, G

    1993-01-01

    An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA) to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985). The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, "automatic" aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury. PMID:24487927

  6. Implementation of Data Citations and Persistent Identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; McMurry, B. F.; Kidder, J. H.; Shanafield, H. A.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    As research in Earth Science becomes more data intensive, a critical requirement of data archives is that data needs to be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Beginning in 1998, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) has issued data product citations that have been accepted and used in AGU and other peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, titles, information to locate, and version), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The citation approach used at the DAAC also allows for referring to specific subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial portions of the data actually used. Citations allow others to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set. The ORNL DAAC has developed a database that links research articles and their use of ORNL DAAC data products. The database allows determination of who, in which journal, and how the data have been used, in a manner analogous to author citation indices. The ORNL DAAC has been an initial contributor to the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index. In addition, research data products deposited at the ORNL DAAC are linked using DOIs to relevant articles in Elsevier journals available on ScienceDirect. The ultimate goal of this implementation is that citations to data products become a routine part of the scientific process.

  7. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  8. Face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition method using a multiscale Markov Random Fields (MRF) model. Our system has three components: 1) given a face photo, synthesizing a sketch drawing; 2) given a face sketch drawing, synthesizing a photo; and 3) searching for face photos in the database based on a query sketch drawn by an artist. It has useful applications for both digital entertainment and law enforcement. We assume that faces to be studied are in a frontal pose, with normal lighting and neutral expression, and have no occlusions. To synthesize sketch/photo images, the face region is divided into overlapping patches for learning. The size of the patches decides the scale of local face structures to be learned. From a training set which contains photo-sketch pairs, the joint photo-sketch model is learned at multiple scales using a multiscale MRF model. By transforming a face photo to a sketch (or transforming a sketch to a photo), the difference between photos and sketches is significantly reduced, thus allowing effective matching between the two in face sketch recognition. After the photo-sketch transformation, in principle, most of the proposed face photo recognition approaches can be applied to face sketch recognition in a straightforward way. Extensive experiments are conducted on a face sketch database including 606 faces, which can be downloaded from our Web site (http://mmlab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/facesketch.html). PMID:19762924

  9. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms. PMID:26169316

  10. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; Cone, John M.; Hendrickson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker’s face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods. PMID:21113354

  11. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  12. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, Neil R; Reasor, R. Scott; Campbell, Claire L.

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  13. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification. PMID:26576452

  14. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee's facial-recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  15. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  16. Spatiotemporal Structure and Covariance of Bedload Motion and Near-Bed Fluid Velocity over Bedforms: Laboratory and Numerical Experiments Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, K. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous experimental and numerical studies investigating transport over ripples and dunes in rivers, the spatiotemporal details of the pattern of transport over bedforms remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bedload motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Details are compared to a coupled large eddy simulation and distinct element simulation (LES-DEM) of the same geometry. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bed load motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward-facing step. Particle imaging velocimetry algorithms were applied to the laser sheet images to obtain two-dimensional field of two-dimensional vectors while manual particle tracking techniques were applied to the video images of the bed. As expected, there is a strong positive correlation between sediment flux and near-bed fluid velocity. Sediment flux was determined by manually tracking grains that passed over a 6 cm long line in the middle of the field of view on the bedload images. Sediment flux increased monotonically downstream of flow reattachment. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events were more apparent near flow reattachment than further downstream. Often, these high-magnitude events were seen to have significant cross-stream particle velocities. These events are consistent with permeable "splat events" visualized in the LES-DEM numerical simulations, wherein a volume of fluid moves toward and impinges on the bed. Fluid impingement and penetration of the bed results in outward flow and sediment motion from the center of the splat. Work is ongoing to quantify spatial and temporal autocorrelations and covariances of the fluid velocity and sediment motions.

  17. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  18. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  19. ICRF heating on TFTR with the ORNL antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gardner, W.L.; Ryan, P.M.; Greene, G.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Wilson, J.R.; Stevens, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Initial ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating experiments on TFTR began in the summer of 1988. Although we were in the commissioning stage for much of the equipment, some plasma coupling measurements were made in the fall. This paper is focused on the results from the Bay L antenna. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Many Faces of Study Abroad: An Update on the Research on L2 Gains Emerged during a Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the existing literature on gains in a second language (L2) as a result of a study abroad (SA) experience. The aim of this article is (a) to provide an updated overview of the empirical evidence of L2 gains emerging during an SA experience in order to know what the current situation is, and (b) to identify…

  1. What constitutes pain?. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Franco Fabbro and Cristiano Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    In their thought provoking perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the neuropsychological mechanisms of pain, encompassing physical and psychological pain. An underlying assumption of the article is that experiences, ranging from physical pain to the feelings that accompany thoughts of one's own death, can all be subsumed under the banner of pain. While Fabbro and Crescentini are certainly not alone in amalgamating these diverse experiences, I would argue that it is not pain that binds them, but rather suffering.

  2. ORNL Evaluation of Electrabel Safety Cases for Doel 3 / Tihange 2: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Bennett Richard; Dickson, Terry L.; Gorti, Sarma B.; Klasky, Hilda B.; Nanstad, Randy K.; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Williams, Paul T.; Server, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a detailed technical review of the 2015 Electrabel (EBL) Safety Cases prepared for the Belgium reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) at Doel 3 and Tihange 2 (D3/T2). The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) in Belgium commissioned ORNL to provide a thorough assessment of the existing safety margins against cracking of the RPVs due to the presence of almost laminar flaws found in each RPV. Initial efforts focused on surveying relevant literature that provided necessary background knowledge on the issues related to the quasilaminar flaws observed in D3/T2 reactors. Next, ORNL proceeded to develop an independent quantitative assessment of the entire flaw population in the two Belgian reactors according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Criteria for Protection Against Failure, New York (1992 and 2004). That screening assessment of all EBL-characterized flaws in D3/T2 used ORNL tools, methodologies, and the ASME Code Case N-848, Alternative Characterization Rules for QuasiLaminar Flaws . Results and conclusions from the ORNL flaw acceptance assessments of D3/T2 were compared with those from the 2015 EBL Safety Cases. Specific findings of the ORNL evaluation of that part of the EBL structural integrity assessment focusing on stability of the flaw population subjected to primary design transients include the following: ORNL s analysis results were similar to those of EBL in that very few characterized flaws were found not compliant with the ASME (1992) acceptance criterion. ORNL s application of the more recent ASME Section XI (2004) produced only four noncompliant flaws, all due to LOCAs. The finding of a greater number of non-compliant flaws in the EBL screening assessment is due principally to a significantly more restrictive (conservative) criterion for flaw size acceptance used by EBL. ORNL s screening assessment results

  3. Status of the ORNL liquid low-level waste management upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed. The latest information on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to be in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement compliance, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize Environmental Safety & Health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily but significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receiving additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term.

  4. QA Verification of Computer Codes Used in ORNL/TM-1999/159

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.T.

    2000-04-07

    This report describes QA verification exercises carried out for the computer codes applied in the analyses summarized ''Stress Intensity Factors for HFIR HB-2 Nozzle Corner'' (ORNL/TM-1999/159). Several benchmark problems are presented that establish the following: (1) The version of the finite-element mesh generator code ORNOZL used in the subject analyses reproduces the results of the two sample problems given in its previously published user's guide. (2) The ABAQUS code reproduces, independently of ORNOZL, the results of a benchmark verification problem given in its Example Problems Manual that compares linear-elastic stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical surface flaws to solutions published in the literature. (3) The ORNOZL/ABAQUS code combination was benchmarked against an approximate method for estimating linear-elastic stress-intensity factors for corner flaws in pressure vessel nozzles. In addition, all input and output files produced during the analyses described in ORNL/TM-1999/159 have been archived on an electronic medium (CD-R74-ORNL/TM-1999/159) and transmitted with this report to ORNL Research Reactors Division personnel for archival storage.

  5. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1999-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1998 Annual Program Review held July 20-22, 1998. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the Applied Superconductivity Conference (September 1998) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  6. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems: Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    2000-06-13

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26-28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  7. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W

    2000-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26--28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  8. ORNL ADCP POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods, along with guidance for post-processing the ADCP stationary measurements using MATLAB algorithms that were evaluated and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are presented following an overview of the ADCP operating principles, deployment methods, error sources and recommended protocols for removing and replacing spurious data.

  9. A shape-based account for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive discrimination experience. Results show that facial shape information alone is sufficient to elicit the composite face effect (CFE), 1 of the most convincing demonstrations of holistic processing, whereas facial surface information is unnecessary (Experiment 1). The CFE is eliminated when faces differ only in surface but not shape information, suggesting that variation of facial shape information is necessary to observe holistic face processing (Experiment 2). Removing 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape information also eliminates the CFE, indicating the necessity of 3D shape information for holistic face processing (Experiment 3). Moreover, participants show similar holistic processing for faces with and without extensive discrimination experience (i.e., own- and other-race faces), suggesting that generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires facial shape information, but does not necessarily require further individuation experience. These results provide compelling evidence that facial shape information underlies holistic face processing. This shape-based account not only offers a consistent explanation for previous studies of holistic face processing, but also suggests a new ground-in addition to expertise-for the generalization of holistic processing to different types of faces and to nonface objects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371495

  10. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  11. Unconscious evaluation of faces on social dimensions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lorna H; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and that they are likely to be interpretations arising from interactions between the face stimuli and observer-specific traits. Monocularly viewed faces that varied independently along two social dimensions of trust and dominance were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression (CFS) when a flashing pattern was presented to the other eye. Participants pressed a button as soon as they saw the face emerge from suppression to indicate whether the previously hidden face was located slightly to the left or right of central fixation. Dominant and untrustworthy faces took significantly longer time to emerge (T2E) compared with neutral faces. A control experiment showed these findings could not reflect delayed motor responses to conscious faces. Finally, we showed that participants' self-reported propensity to trust was strongly predictive of untrust avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for untrustworthy vs neutral faces) as well as dominance avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for dominant vs neutral faces). Dominance avoidance was also correlated with submissive behavior. We suggest that such prolongation of suppression for threatening faces may result from a passive fear response, leading to slowed visual perception. PMID:22468670

  12. WUFI (Wärme and Feuchte Instationär)-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Kehrer, ORNL

    2014-05-20

    WUFI - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural weather. It is based on the newest findings regarding vapor diffusion and liquid transport in building materials and has been validated by detailed comparison with measurements obtained in the laboratory and on outdoor testing fields. Together with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fraunhofer IBP has developed a special version of WUFI ® for North America. WUFI® ORNL is a functionally limited free version of WUFI® Pro for non-commercial purposes. It contains climate data for 62 cities in the USA and Canada which are all available in the free version. http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/wufi/ http://www.WUFI.com/ORNL

  13. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  14. Preadolescents' recognition of faces of unfamiliar peers: the effect of attractiveness of faces.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Lallemand, Noëlle

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined preadolescents' ability to recognize faces of unfamiliar peers according to their attractiveness. They hypothesized that highly attractive faces would be less accurately recognized than moderately attractive faces because the former are more typical. In Experiment 1, 106 participants (M age = 10 years) were asked to recognize faces of unknown peers who varied in gender and attractiveness (high- vs. medium-attractiveness). Results showed that attractiveness enhanced the accuracy of recognition for boys' faces and impaired recognition of girls' faces. The same interaction was found in Experiment 2, in which 92 participants (M age = 12 years) were tested for their recognition of another set of faces of unfamiliar peers. The authors conducted Experiment 3 to examine whether the reason for that interaction is that high- and medium-attractive girls' faces differ more in typicality than do boys' faces. The effect size of attractiveness on typicality was similar for boys' and girls' faces. The overall results are discussed with reference to the development of face encoding and biological gender differences with respect to the typicality of faces during preadolescence. PMID:14719778

  15. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination – just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al. 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. PMID:25659502

  16. Building Face Composites Can Harm Lineup Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gary L.; Charman, Steve D.; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Face composite programs permit eyewitnesses to build likenesses of target faces by selecting facial features and combining them into an intact face. Research has shown that these composites are generally poor likenesses of the target face. Two experiments tested the proposition that this composite-building process could harm the builder's memory…

  17. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  18. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  19. EMC3-Eirene simulations of particle- and energy fluxes to main chamber- and divertor plasma facing components in ASDEX Upgrade compared to experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, T.; Carralero, D.; Feng, Y.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Müller, S.; Wischmeier, M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on first EMC3-Eirene simulations with an extended computational grid including both divertor- and main chamber (MC) 3D wall plasma-facing components (PFCs). In a first step we compare the simulations to low-power L-mode discharges systematically analyzed by Carralero et al., who observed a transition from a low- to a high density regime (Carralero et al., 2014). Case A is a configuration at low density and high clearance, while B is a high density regime configuration at medium clearance. In order to explain the upstream far-SOL ne profiles of B the MC PFCs and an enhanced transport region at ρ = 1.01, …, 1.03 need to be included in the simulations. In a second step we compute the particle-, and power fluxes to the limiter for the realistic geometry, for limiters displaced radially inward and for a toroidally symmetric limiter. Almost the same fraction of power as that to the divertor is absorbed by the MC PFCs in the simulation of case B.

  20. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  1. LASL-ORNL fast digital data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, R.W.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.; Suehiro, S.

    1980-06-01

    A data acquisition system for recording multi-parameter digital data into a large memory array at 1 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK8600 2048K x 24-bit memory system, I/0 ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. Several specific examples are described.

  2. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  3. Contextual Modulation of Biases in Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Felisberti, Fatima Maria; Pavey, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. Methodology and Findings Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral) embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174). An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2). Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of “cooperative”, “cheating” and “neutral/indifferent” behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3). Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4). Conclusion The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context. PMID:20886086

  4. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  5. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance. This article is for information ... The ingredients in face powder that can be harmful are: Baking soda Talcum powder Many other types of powder

  6. FacingDisability.com

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate A Spinal Cord Injury Affects the Entire Family FacingDisability was specifically created ... and insights on spinal cord injury issues Interactive Spinal Cord Injury Map Shows what areas are affected by spinal ...

  7. Learning Environments for Studying Argumentation: Learning Effects of E-Mail and Face-to-Face Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttunen, Miika; Laurinen, Leena

    In a teaching experiment, 16 face-to-face and 11 e-mail Finnish university students engaged in an argumentation course. The 19 students of the control group did not study argumentation. The course involved two lectures, exercises with argumentative texts, and face-to-face or e-mail seminar discussions based on these texts. The topics of the texts…

  8. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  9. FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response): experience of Central Coast Stroke Services implementation of a pre-hospital notification system for expedient management of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, W; Crimmins, D; Donaldson, W; Risti, R; Clarke, T A; Whyte, S; Sturm, J

    2012-02-01

    Despite benefit in acute ischaemic stroke, less than 3% of patients receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Australia. The FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response) protocol was constructed to reduce pre-hospital and Emergency Department (ED) delays and improve access to thrombolysis. This study aimed to determine if introduction of the FASTER protocol increases use of tPA using a prospective pre- and post-intervention cohort design in a metropolitan hospital. A pre-hospital assessment tool was used by ambulance services to screen potential tPA candidates. The acute stroke team was contacted, hospital bypass allowed, triage and CT radiology alerted, and the patient rapidly assessed on arrival to ED. Data were collected prospectively during the first 6 months of the new pathway and compared to a 6-month period 12 months prior to protocol initiation. In the 6 months following protocol introduction, 115 patients presented within 24 hours of onset of an ischaemic stroke: 22 (19%) received thrombolysis, significantly greater than five (7%) of 67 patients over the control period, p=0.03. Overall, 42 patients were referred via the FASTER pathway, with 21 of these receiving tPA (50%). One inpatient stroke was also treated. Only two referrals (<5%) were stroke mimics. Introduction of the FASTER pathway also significantly reduced time to thrombolysis and time to admission to the stroke unit. Therefore, fast-track referral of potential tPA patients involving the ambulance services and streamlined hospital assessment is effective and efficient in improving patient access to thrombolysis. PMID:22118794

  10. A Comparative View of Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, David A.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Face perception serves as the basis for much of human social exchange. Diverse information can be extracted about an individual from a single glance at their face, including their identity, emotional state, and direction of attention. Neuropsychological and fMRI experiments reveal a complex network of specialized areas in the human brain supporting these face-reading skills. Here we consider the evolutionary roots of human face perception by exploring the manner in which different animal species view and respond to faces. We focus on behavioral experiments collected from both primates and non-primates, assessing the types of information that animals are able to extract from the faces of their conspecifics, human experimenters, and natural predators. These experiments reveal that faces are an important category of visual stimuli for animals in all major vertebrate taxa, possibly reflecting the early emergence of neural specialization for faces in vertebrate evolution. At the same time, some aspects of facial perception are only evident in primates and a few other social mammals, and may therefore have evolved to suit the needs of complex social communication. Since the human brain likely utilizes both primitive and recently evolved neural specializations for the processing of faces, comparative studies may hold the key to understanding how these parallel circuits emerged during human evolution. PMID:20695655

  11. Overcoming Student Resistance to Group Work: Online Versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…

  12. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutoring Support in Humanities Courses in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of students taking the same courses in the humanities by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). The Course Experience Questionnaire…

  13. Categorical perception for unfamiliar faces. The effect of covert and overt face learning.

    PubMed

    Kikutani, M; Roberson, D; Hanley, J R

    2010-06-01

    Robust findings show that categorical perception (CP) occurs in identification of familiar faces. CP has also been observed for unfamiliar morphed faces after sufficient learning of the original, unmorphed faces has taken place. We previously suggested that CP arises when the activation of inconsistent visual and verbal representations creates a conflict between perceptual and category information. In the present study, we conducted two experiments in which the endpoint faces of an unfamiliar morphed continuum were presented in either a covert training regime (famous vs. nonfamous judgments) or an overt training regime (previously seen vs. unseen judgments). In both experiments, participants' reaction times to repeated targets decreased relative to reaction times to control items during training. After overt training, CP was observed for the previously unfamiliar faces. No CP was observed for covertly trained faces. We conclude that individual faces must be explicitly categorized before CP can be established for the morphed continuum between them. PMID:20483817

  14. Effects of unconscious processing on implicit memory for fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Xiaohong; Du, Xiaoya; Shi, Cuntong; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli can be processed even when participants perceive them without conscious awareness, but the extent to which unconsciously processed emotional stimuli influence implicit memory after short and long delays is not fully understood. We addressed this issue by measuring a subliminal affective priming effect in Experiment 1 and a long-term priming effect in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a flashed fearful or neutral face masked by a scrambled face was presented three times, then a target face (either fearful or neutral) was presented and participants were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment. We found that, relative to a neutral prime face (neutral-fear face), a fearful prime face speeded up participants' reaction to a fearful target (fear-fear face), when they were not aware of the masked prime face. But this response pattern did not apply to the neutral target. In Experiment 2, participants were first presented with a masked faces six times during encoding. Three minutes later, they were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment for the same face with congruent expression, the same face with incongruent expression or a new face. Participants showed a significant priming effect for the fearful faces but not for the neutral faces, regardless of their awareness of the masked faces during encoding. These results provided evidence that unconsciously processed stimuli could enhance emotional memory after both short and long delays. It indicates that emotion can enhance memory processing whether the stimuli are encoded consciously or unconsciously. PMID:21408105

  15. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  16. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  17. Connect the Book. I Face the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This month's feature is Vicki Cobb's "I Face the Wind" (Illus. by Julia Gorton. HarperCollins, 2003) which introduces the wind's characteristics and actions through experiments and observations complemented with Gorton's creative illustrations. "I Face the Wind" was a 2004 Sibert Honor Book. The Sibert Award and Honor books are awarded annually to…

  18. Hemisphere-Dependent Holistic Processing of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In two behavioral experiments involving lateralized stimulus presentation, we tested whether one of the most commonly used measures of holistic face processing--the composite face effect--would be more pronounced for stimuli presented to the right as compared to the left hemisphere. In experiment 1, we investigated the composite face effect in a…

  19. The hows and whys of face memory: level of construal influences the recognition of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Wyer, Natalie A.; Hollins, Timothy J.; Pahl, Sabine; Roper, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the influence of level of construal (i.e., the interpretation of actions in terms of their meaning or their details) on different stages of face memory. We employed a standard multiple-face recognition paradigm, with half of the faces inverted at test. Construal level was manipulated prior to recognition (Experiment 1), during study (Experiment 2) or both (Experiment 3). The results support a general advantage for high-level construal over low-level construal at both study and at test, and suggest that matching processing style between study and recognition has no advantage. These experiments provide additional evidence in support of a link between semantic processing (i.e., construal) and visual (i.e., face) processing. We conclude with a discussion of implications for current theories relating to both construal and face processing. PMID:26500586

  20. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  1. High heat flux experiment on B4C-converted carbon based materials for plasma facing materials of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, Toshiro; Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Dairakum, Masayuki; Araki, Masanori; Akiba, Masato

    1994-03-01

    High heat flux experiments have been previously carried out on three kinds, namely low pressure plasma spray (LPPS), chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and conversion (CVR) methods, of B4C-overlaid CFC's using the JAERI electron beam irradiation system (JEBIS). As a result, it turned out that CVR method has the best adhesion property between B4C layer and bulk carbon. However, thicker B4C layer is necessary to use in long period as the divertor tiles of JT-60U. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the thermal property of B4C-converted carbon based materials which have thicker B4C layer than the previous experiments. Irradiations were performed under two different heating conditions, namely in the normal condition (5-20 MW/m(exp 2), 5 s) and in the disruption conditions (1100-1600 MW/m(exp 2), 2-3 ms). The dimensions of the samples were 25 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, and B4C-converted layers were made on the three kinds of CFC's and fifth kinds of isotropic graphites. The thickness of B4C layer was 150-1300 (mu)m. Measurements were made with respect to the weight loss, changes of the surface morphology and the surface temperature. In the normal condition, the damages such as surface melting and exfoliation were not observed on the samples which have B4C layer below 600 (mu)m in thickness. In the disruption condition, melting and exfoliation were observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PD-330S, PD-600S and HCB-5S, and melting was observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PCC-2S, MFC-1, MCI-felt, ETP-10 and STP-60. It is considered that the porous layer in the B4C layer caused the severe exfoliation from the measurement of the surface composition.

  2. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.

    2014-09-01

    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  3. Comparison of Focus Groups on Cancer and Employment Conducted Face to Face or by Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Linda M.; Miller, Virginia A.; Horbelt, Douglas V.; Delmore, James E.; Miller, Brigitte E.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Findings from telephone focus groups have not been compared previously to findings from face-to-face focus groups. We conducted four telephone focus groups and five face-to-face focus groups in which a single moderator used the same open-ended questions and discussion facilitation techniques. This comparison was part of a larger study to gain a better understanding of employment experiences after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Offering the telephone option made it easier to recruit women from rural areas and geographically distant cities. Interaction between participants occurred in both types of focus group. Content analysis revealed that similar elements of the employment experience after cancer diagnosis were described by telephone and face-to-face participants. Participants disclosed certain emotionally sensitive experiences only in the telephone focus groups. Telephone focus groups provide useful data and can reduce logistical barriers to research participation. Visual anonymity might help some participants feel more comfortable discussing certain personal issues. PMID:20142606

  4. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Planning for future needs has traditionally been considered to be restricted to human cognition. Although recent studies on great ape and corvid cognition challenge this belief, the phylogenesis of human planning remains largely unknown. The complex skill for future planning has not yet been satisfactorily established in any other extant primate species than our own. In humans, planning for future needs rely heavily on two overarching capacities, both of which lie at the heart of our cognition: self-control, often defined as the suppression of immediate drives in favor of delayed rewards, and mental time travel, which could be described as a detached mental experience of a past or future event. Future planning is linked to additional high complexity cognition such as metacognition and a consciousness usually not attributed to animals. In a series of four experiments based on tool use, we demonstrate that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) override immediate drives in favor of future needs, and they do not merely rely on associative learning or semantic prospection when confronted with a planning task. These results suggest that great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally pre-experiencing an upcoming event. This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed. PMID:18553113

  5. Face transplantation: a leading surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, M

    2011-10-01

    Twenty years of experience in the field of vascularized composite allografts (VCA) leading to the first US face transplantation is presented. Different experimental models and cadaveric studies in the VCA models are outlined. Development of face transplantation protocol and consent forms for Institutional Review Board approval is discussed. Different scientific, regulatory, and financial considerations that were required before approval of face transplantation are presented. The effort, importance, and role of multidisciplinary team approach are emphasized. Finally, the technical aspects of face transplantation and related immunologic and functional outcomes of the patients are discussed. PMID:21996172

  6. CERL/ORNL research and development programs in support of prestressed concrete reactor vessel development

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, I.W.; Naus, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    In support of the evolution of PCRV designs being developed both in the UK and USA, research and developments programmers are being conducted at the CEGB Central Electricity Research Laboratories (CERL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) respectively. In the UK, recent work has focused on elevated temperature effects on concrete properties and instrument systems for PCRVs. The concrete development program at ORNL consists of generic studies designed to provide technical support for ongoing prestressed concrete reactor vessel-related activities, to contribute to the technological data base, and to provide independent review and evaluation of the relevant technology. Recent activities have been related to the development of properties for high-strength concrete mix designs for the PCRV of a 2240 MW(t) HTGR-SC/C lead plant project, and the development of PCRV model testing techniques.

  7. Summary of ORNL work on NRC-sponsored HTGR safety research, July 1974-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Harrington, R.M.; Hatta, M.; Hedrick, R.A.; Johnson, L.G.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    A summary is presented of the major accomplishments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research program on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety. This report is intended to help the nuclear Regulatory Commission establish goals for future research by comparing the status of the work here (as well as at other laboratories) with the perceived safety needs of the large HTGR. The ORNL program includes extensive work on dynamics-related safety code development, use of codes for studying postulated accident sequences, and use of experimental data for code verification. Cooperative efforts with other programs are also described. Suggestions for near-term and long-term research are presented.

  8. Waste form development for use with ORNL waste treatment facility sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    A sludge that simulates Water Softening Sludge number 5 (WSS number 5 filtercake) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared and evaluated for its thermal behavior, volume reduction, stabilization, surface area and compressive strength properties. Compaction of the surrogate waste and the calcium oxide (produced by calcination) in the presence of paraffin resulted in cylindrical molds with various degrees of stability. This work has demonstrated that surrogate WSS number 5 at ORNL can be successfully stabilized by blending it with about 35 percent paraffin and compacting the mixture at 8000 psi. This compressive strength of the waste form is sufficient for temporary storage of the waste while long-term storage waste forms are developed. Considering the remarkable similarity between the surrogate and the actual filtercake, the findings of this project should be useful for treating the sludge generated by the waste treatment facility at ORNL.

  9. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  10. Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.

    PubMed

    Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

    2014-01-01

    When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

  11. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool -- Mark IV User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-09-27

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  12. [The influence of face on person perception].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, C

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to examine the influence of three factors on person perception, (a) the degree of facial attractiveness, (b) the order of presentation of the faces and the verbal information of the same stimulus person and (c) the sex of the perceivers. Seventy-one male undergraduates and 89 female undergraduates were asked to rate the personalities of the two positive and two negative stimulus persons of the opposite sex, who were selected by each subject in preliminary experiment, and asked to choose what kind of relation they would have with them. Positive or negative face was presented either before or after verbal information. The main results were as follows. (a) Generally, positive faces exerted greater influence than negative faces. (b) Faces presented after verbal information were more influential than those presented before it (recency effect). (c) The influence of face on male subjects was greater than that on female subjects. PMID:8301890

  13. The Influence of Flankers on Race Categorization of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Mei; Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Context affects multiple cognitive and perceptual processes. In the present study, we asked how the context of a set of faces affected the perception of a target face’s race in two distinct tasks. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants categorized target faces according to perceived racial category (Black or White). In Experiment 1, the target face was presented alone, or with Black or White flanker faces. The orientation of flanker faces was also manipulated to investigate how face inversion effect interacts with the influences of flanker faces on the target face. The results showed that participants were more likely to categorize the target face as White when it was surrounded by inverted White faces (an assimilation effect). Experiment 2 further examined how different aspects of the visual context affect the perception of the target face by manipulating flanker faces’ shape and pigmentation as well as their orientation. The results showed that flanker faces’ shape and pigmentation affected the perception of the target face differently. While shape elicited a contrast effect, pigmentation appeared to be assimilative. These novel findings suggest that the perceived race of a face is modulated by the appearance of other faces and their distinct shape and pigmentation properties. However, the contrast and assimilation effects elicited by flanker faces’ shape and pigmentation may be specific to race categorization, since the same stimuli used in a delayed matching task (Experiment 3) revealed that flanker pigmentation induced a contrast effect on the perception of target pigmentation. PMID:22825930

  14. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition. PMID:27271993

  15. 'Lysi-T-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Pötsch, Erich; Kandolf, Matthias; Bohner, Andreas; Schaumberger, Andreas; Resch, Reinhard; Graiss, Wilhelm; Krautzer, Bernhard; Buchgraber, Karl

    2010-05-01

    During the past century the average global surface air temperature has already increased by 1°C. A doubling of atmospheric concentration of CO2 near the end of the 21st century is predicted to result in a 3°C temperature increase. The Alpine region has experienced above average warming over the last century and is considered particularly vulnerable to global change. In Austria in some regions, grassland production suffered severe droughts during the last decade leading to serious damages and even temporal shortage in feed supply. Changes in temperature and precipitation have evident consequences for grassland vegetation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is a major driver of climate change. Photosynthesis and productivity of most grassland species might be stimulated by increasing CO2 when soil nutrients and water are not limiting. On dry grassland sites increasing CO2 also reduces plant water loss, thereby increasing plant water use efficiency. When plant production is limited by seasonal cold temperatures as e.g. in the inner Alpine parts of Austria and in high altitude or high latitude grasslands, combined warming and higher CO2 might continue to enhance plant production. However, it is still unknown to what extend a further increase of temperature and CO2 will result in higher biomass yield in different grassland communities. To study the effects of global warming on future grassland communities and management, the application of a heating treatment combined with free-air controlled enhancement of CO2 (T-FACE) to open-field plant canopies at lysimeters is an innovative approach which allows studying responses of the plant-soil-systems as well as carbon- water and nutrient fluxes under expected future climate. The experiment is scheduled to run in the first phase 6 years (2011-2017) and is located at the AREC Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Upper Enns Valley, Austria (47,49; 14,10). Heater arrays and miniFACE rings are installed in 1.6 m diameter plots and expose

  16. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems--Annual Report for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, RA

    2002-02-18

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. A new part of the wire research effort was the Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 2001 Annual Program Review held August 1-3, 2001. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference/Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 2001) are included in this report as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  17. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B.; Guay, K.P.; Smith, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  18. ORNL superconducting technology program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are conductor development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1993 Annual Program Review held July 28--29, 1993. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to industrial competitiveness projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  19. ORNL Soils Remediation and Slabs Removal The Bridge from D&D to Redevelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, M Malinda; Schneider, Ken R

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has dramatically changed over the past 2 years with demolition of aging facilities in the Central Campus. Removal of these infrastructure legacies was possible due to an influx of DOE-Environmental Management funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Facility D&D traditionally removes everything down to the building slab, and the Soils and Sediments Program is responsible for slabs, below-grade footers, abandoned waste utilities, and soils contaminated above certain risk levels that must be removed before the site can be considered for redevelopment. , DOE-EM has used a combination of base and ARRA funding to facilitate the clean-up process in ORNL s 2000 Area. Demolition of 13 buildings in the area was funded by the ARRA. Characterization of the remaining slabs, underground pipelines and soils was funded by DOE-EM base funding. Additional ARRA funding was provided for the removal of the slabs, pipelines and contaminated soils. Removal work is in progress and consists of removing and disposing of approximately 10,000 cubic yards (CY) of concrete, 2,500 CY of debris, and 500 CY of contaminated soil. The completion of this work will allow the site to be available for redevelopment and site reuse efforts at ORNL.

  20. Data and Information Management System for the ORNL Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; Owen, P.T.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Bibliographic Data Base, (2) the Records Control Data Base, and (3) the Numeric Data Base. This paper/poster emphasizes the Numeric Data Base, including its development and organization, and also summarizes the status of other activities associated with management and use of such data (i.e., bibliographic information, records control, geographic information, and quality assurance). The types of data currently available have been summarized, and a synopsis of the contents of the RAP numeric data base has been compiled in a menu-driven program available on PC diskettes. The synopsis will be demonstrated at the conference. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems: Annual report for FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; O`Hara, L.M.; Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and developments activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1997 Annual Program Review held July 21--23, 1997. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  2. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; Hawsey, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1996 Annual Program Review held July 31 and August 1, 1996. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  3. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Turner, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1995 Annual Program Review held August 1-2, 1995. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  4. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  5. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  6. Buried transuranic wastes at ORNL: Review of past estimates and reconciliation with current data

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    Inventories of buried (generally meaning disposed of) transuranic (TRU) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been estimated for site remediation and waste management planning over a period of about two decades. Estimates were required because of inadequate waste characterization and incomplete disposal records. For a variety of reasons, including changing definitions of TRU wastes, differing objectives for the estimates, and poor historical data, the published results have sometimes been in conflict. The purpose of this review was (1) to attempt to explain both the rationale for and differences among the various estimates, and (2) to update the estimates based on more recent information obtained from waste characterization and from evaluations of ORNL waste data bases and historical records. The latter included information obtained from an expert panel`s review and reconciliation of inconsistencies in data identified during preparation of the ORNL input for the third revision of the Baseline Inventory Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The results summarize current understanding of the relationship between past estimates of buried TRU wastes and provide the most up-to-date information on recorded burials thereafter. The limitations of available information on the latter and thus the need for improved waste characterization are highlighted.

  7. Results from ORNL characterization of ZrO2-500-AK2 - surrogate TRISO material

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D

    2005-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particles designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the creation of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significantly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

  8. Results from ORNL Characterization of Zr02-500-AK2 - Surrogate TRISO Material

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Kercher, Andrew K

    2005-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particle batch designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the createion of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significanly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

  9. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    measures which prevent extensive edemas are: avoiding transection of the temporal pedicle, or to realizing platysma plication too tight by using strong aspirative drainage instead of elastic bandages. In the post-op, the manual lymphatic drainage is initiated on the third or fifth day, but must be done by a trained professional, in a method contrary to that specified in the books for non-operated individuals. An aesthetician washes the hair and applies decongestive cold tea on the face the second day, and on the fifth, moisturizes the skin and cosmetically conceals any signs of bruising. The psychological support provided by the staff keeps the patient calm and relaxed. Five years experience with this protocol has enabled us to minimize post-op pain. The edema can be predicted with certain consistency (in which surgery there will be more or less edema) and the proper technique can be selected, permitting the patient to choose the best moment for a FL while the surgeon can avoid intra and postoperative measures that increase the edema. After surgery, the patient receives the daily assistance of the staff, which rapidly and efficiently improves this condition. We can predict and control the post-op recovery and the patient feels fine, unlike the past when recovery was abandoned to its natural evolution. If the patient perceived an intensive, positive support on behalf of the entire staff that kept him or her content, then we have succeeded in doing an excellent marketing. This may encourage others to undergo aesthetic surgery, especially those who are convinced that after surgery they might have to endure considerable suffering. PMID:12140694

  10. Patient and carer experiences of clinical uncertainty and deterioration, in the face of limited reversibility: A comparative observational study of the AMBER care bundle

    PubMed Central

    Bristowe, Katherine; Carey, Irene; Hopper, Adrian; Shouls, Susanna; Prentice, Wendy; Caulkin, Ruth; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical uncertainty is emotionally challenging for patients and carers and creates additional pressures for those clinicians in acute hospitals. The AMBER care bundle was designed to improve care for patients identified as clinically unstable, deteriorating, with limited reversibility and at risk of dying in the next 1–2 months. Aim: To examine the experience of care supported by the AMBER care bundle compared to standard care in the context of clinical uncertainty, deterioration and limited reversibility. Design: A comparative observational mixed-methods study using semi-structured qualitative interviews and a followback survey. Setting/participants: Three large London acute tertiary National Health Service hospitals. Nineteen interviews with 23 patients and carers (10 supported by AMBER care bundle and 9 standard care). Surveys completed by next of kin of 95 deceased patients (59 AMBER care bundle and 36 standard care). Results: The AMBER care bundle was associated with increased frequency of discussions about prognosis between clinicians and patients (χ2 = 4.09, p = 0.04), higher awareness of their prognosis by patients (χ2 = 4.29, p = 0.04) and lower clarity in the information received about their condition (χ2 = 6.26, p = 0.04). Although the consistency and quality of communication were not different between the two groups, those supported by the AMBER care bundle described more unresolved concerns about caring for someone at home. Conclusion: Awareness of prognosis appears to be higher among patients supported by the AMBER care bundle, but in this small study this was not translated into higher quality communication, and information was judged less easy to understand. Adequately powered comparative evaluation is urgently needed. PMID:25829443

  11. WUFI (Wärme and Feuchte Instationär)-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-20

    WUFI - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural weather. It is based on the newest findings regarding vapor diffusion and liquid transport in building materials and has been validated by detailed comparison with measurements obtained in the laboratory and on outdoor testing fields. Together with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)more » Fraunhofer IBP has developed a special version of WUFI ® for North America. WUFI® ORNL is a functionally limited free version of WUFI® Pro for non-commercial purposes. It contains climate data for 62 cities in the USA and Canada which are all available in the free version. http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/wufi/ http://www.WUFI.com/ORNL« less

  12. Results from ORNL Characterization of Nominal 350 µm LEUCO Kernels from the BWXT G73D-20-69302 Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D

    2005-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data obtained on the nominal 350 {micro}m low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO) produced by BWXT for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A 4502 g composite of LEUCO kernels was produced at BWXT by combining kernels from 8 forming runs sintered in 6 separate lots. 2150 grams were shipped to ORNL. ORNL has performed size, shape, density, and microstructural analysis on riffled samples from the kernel composite.

  13. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  14. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  15. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  16. Attentional capture by completely task-irrelevant faces.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shiori; Kawahara, Jun I

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated whether faces capture attention regardless of attentional set. The presentation of a face as a distractor during a visual search has been shown to impair performance relative to when the face was absent, implying that faces automatically attract attention. If attentional control is contingent on the observer's current goal, faces should not capture attention when they are irrelevant to the observer's attentional set. Previous studies demonstrating face-induced attentional capture used faces that were relevant to the task. Thus, a task in which faces were completely irrelevant to the observer's set was created. Participants identified a target letter among heterogeneously colored non-targets while ignoring a peripheral facial image that appeared as a brief distractor. No face-specific capture was observed when the target-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was long (Experiment 1). When the SOA was shortened, attentional capture by irrelevant faces was observed (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 extended this finding to all conditions, regardless of the attractiveness of faces. No such capture effect was found in Experiment 4 with inverted-face distractors. These results indicate that completely task-irrelevant faces break through top-down attentional set given a brief distractor-target SOA. PMID:25030814

  17. Rigid facial motion influences featural, but not holistic, face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Ge, Liezhong; Lee, Kang

    2012-03-15

    We report three experiments in which we investigated the effect of rigid facial motion on face processing. Specifically, we used the face composite effect to examine whether rigid facial motion influences primarily featural or holistic processing of faces. In Experiments 1-3, participants were first familiarized with dynamic displays in which a target face turned from one side to another; then at test, participants judged whether the top half of a composite face (the top half of the target/foil face aligned or misaligned with the bottom half of a foil face) belonged to the target face. We compared performance in the dynamic condition to various static control conditions in Experiments 1-3, which differed from each other in terms of the display order of the multiple static images or the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the images. We found that the size of the face composite effect in the dynamic condition was significantly smaller than that in the static conditions. In other words, the dynamic face display influenced participants to process the target faces in a part-based manner and consequently their recognition of the upper portion of the composite face at test became less interfered with by the aligned lower part of the foil face. The findings from the present experiments provide the strongest evidence to date to suggest that the rigid facial motion mainly influences facial featural, but not holistic, processing. PMID:22342561

  18. Intentionally forgetting other-race faces: costs and benefits?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L; Oriet, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Eyewitnesses to events with multiple actors might be aware that during a subsequent investigation some actors will need to be remembered and others can be forgotten. Research on the directed-forgetting procedure suggests that when some information is cued to be forgotten, retention of other information is enhanced. In three experiments, directed-forgetting conditions were compared with control conditions to assess potential costs and benefits of forgetting other-race faces. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students (N = 148; mostly Caucasian) viewed all Black faces or all Asian faces followed by overt remember or forget cues. Participants in the directed-forgetting conditions of Experiments 2 and 3 received more covert cues instructing them to remember the faces of one race and to forget the faces of another race. In Experiment 2, undergraduate students (N = 116; all Caucasian) viewed Black and Asian faces within the context of a criminal storyline. In Experiment 3, undergraduate students (N = 94; all Caucasian) again viewed Black and Asian faces; however, the remember and forget cues were embedded in a noncriminal narrative. Although faces generally were forgotten on cue, forgetting some faces did not enhance memory for other faces. Furthermore, recognition of remember-cued faces was impaired by exposure to forget-cued faces. These findings indicate that faces can be forgotten on cue, but that doing so confers no benefit for remembering other faces. Eyewitnesses are advised that exposure to irrelevant faces reduces the likelihood that relevant faces will be remembered, even when effort is allocated to forgetting the irrelevant faces. PMID:23795980

  19. Face adaptation in an isolated population of African hunter-gatherers: Exposure influences perception of other-ethnicity faces more than own-ethnicity faces.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Apicella, Coren L

    2016-04-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that exposure to faces can change the perception of normality in new faces, such that faces similar to those at exposure appear more normal. Here we examined how experience influences adaptation effects in African Hadza hunter-gatherers, who have limited experience with White faces. We exposed participants to sets of either Hadza or White European faces that were manipulated to possess either wide-spaced or narrow-spaced eyes. We collected normality judgments both pre-exposure and post-exposure by showing pairs of images, one with wide-spaced and one with narrow-spaced eyes. Examining the difference between the pre-exposure and post-exposure judgments revealed that participants selected an increased number of images that were congruent with the faces to which they had been exposed. The change in normality judgments was strongest for White faces, suggesting that representations of White ethnicity faces are more malleable and less robust to adaptation, potentially because of the decreased experience that individuals had with them. A second experiment using the same test stimuli with a sample of White participants revealed equivalent adaptation effects for both Hadza and White faces. These data highlight the role of experience on the high-level visual adaptation of faces. PMID:26282830

  20. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions. PMID:26672902

  1. The intrinsic memorability of face photographs.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Wilma A; Isola, Phillip; Oliva, Aude

    2013-11-01

    The faces we encounter throughout our lives make different impressions on us: Some are remembered at first glance, while others are forgotten. Previous work has found that the distinctiveness of a face influences its memorability--the degree to which face images are remembered or forgotten. Here, we generalize the concept of face memorability in a large-scale memory study. First, we find that memorability is an intrinsic feature of a face photograph--across observers some faces are consistently more remembered or forgotten than others--indicating that memorability can be used for measuring, predicting, and manipulating subsequent memories. Second, we determine the role that 20 personality, social, and memory-related traits play in face memorability. Whereas we find that certain traits (such as kindness, atypicality, and trustworthiness) contribute to face memorability, they do not suffice to explain the variance in memorability scores, even when accounting for noise and differences in subjective experience. This suggests that memorability itself is a consistent, singular measure of a face that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of personality and social facial attributes. We outline modern neuroscience questions that can be explored through the lens of memorability. PMID:24246059

  2. Non-Egalitarian Allocations among Preschool Peers in a Face-to-Face Bargaining Task

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3–5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  3. Really Reaching the Public, Face-to-Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2014-02-01

    This past summer I was able to provide a young couple with their first view of Saturn through a telescope, and afterward they told me what a profound experience this look into space had been for them. It wasn't the first time I'd seen such an emotional response since I opened the East Point Solar Observatory, a small public observatory in Nahant, Mass., in 1995. But listening to them reminded me how lucky we scientists are to pursue a career that brings out such warm feelings in our neighbors. It also made me wonder whether the effectiveness of our national approach to public outreach might be increased by more face-to-face contact between scientists and the public.

  4. Judging Normality and Attractiveness in Faces: Direct Evidence of a More Refined Representation for Own-Race, Young Adult Faces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaomei; Short, Lindsey A; Chan, Harmonie S J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-09-01

    Young and older adults are more sensitive to deviations from normality in young than older adult faces, suggesting that the dimensions of face space are optimized for young adult faces. Here, we extend these findings to own-race faces and provide converging evidence using an attractiveness rating task. In Experiment 1, Caucasian and Chinese adults were shown own- and other-race face pairs; one member was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal (a task that requires referencing a norm) and which was more expanded (a task that simply requires discrimination). Participants showed an own-race advantage in the normality task but not the discrimination task. In Experiment 2, participants rated the facial attractiveness of own- and other-race faces (Experiment 2a) or young and older adult faces (Experiment 2b). Between-rater variability in ratings of individual faces was higher for other-race and older adult faces; reduced consensus in attractiveness judgments reflects a less refined face space. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence that the dimensions of face space are optimized for own-race and young adult faces, which may underlie face race- and age-based deficits in recognition. PMID:27335127

  5. The design of a low-cost Thomson Scattering system for use on the ORNL PhIX device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Lore, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Owen, L.; Rapp, J.

    2012-10-01

    Study of the plasma-material interface (PMI) under high power and particle flux on linear plasma devices is an active area of research that is relevant to fusion-grade toroidal devices such as ITER and DEMO. ORNL is assembling a 15 cm diameter, ˜3 m long linear machine, called the Physics Integration eXperiment (PhIX), which incorporates a helicon plasma source, electron heating, and a material target. The helicon source has demonstrated coupling of up to 100 kW of rf power, and produced ne >= 4 x 10^19 m-3 in D, and He fueled plasmas, measured with interferometry and Langmuir probes (LP). Optical emission spectroscopy was used to confirm LP measurements that Te is about 10 eV in helicon heated plasmas, which will presumably increase when electron heating is applied. Plasma parameters (ne, Te, n0) of the PhIX device will be measured with a novel, low-cost Thomson Scattering (TS) system. The data will be used to characterize the PMI regime with multiple profile measurements in front of the target. Profiles near the source and target will be used to determine the parallel transport regime via comparison to 2D fluid plasma simulations. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  6. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  7. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading: Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a parent education program and the contextual factors that influenced the experiences of families in the program. Seventeen parents completed a 9-week, face-to-face program and 15 parents completed a similar online program. This study was designed as a multiple case study and utilized multimethods for data…

  8. Online Discussions: A Survey of Advantages and Disadvantages Compared to Face-to-Face Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of surveys of graduate students involved in online class discussions that show a preference for face-to-face experiences in spite of positive reactions to online discussions. Online discussions were perceived as valuable additions to in-class discussions, rather than as an acceptable substitution for them. (Author/LRW)

  9. Presentation Anxiety Analysis: Comparing Face-to-Face Presentations and Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study is an exploration in the changing landscape of how people deliver presentations in an attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both forms. The study focused on key differences of student expectations and experiences delivering a presentation to an audience in the same location (face-to-face) compared to a presentation…

  10. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  11. Faculty Perceptions of Moving a Face-to-Face Course to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Kari; Terras, Katherine; Smart, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 faculty members who developed and taught an online course that they had previously taught in a face-to-face classroom. The categories from the data analysis included planning, implementation, and reflection. Within the categories, eight themes emerged from the data. The themes addressed…

  12. Face-to-Face vs. Real-Time Clinical Education: No Significant Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Y. Q.; Waddington, G.; Donnan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot research project was to determine whether the use of an internet broadband link to stream physiotherapy clinical education workshop proceedings in "real-time" is of equivalent educational value to the traditional face-to-face experience. This project looked at the benefits of using the above technology as…

  13. Social presence and the composite face effect.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Fonseca, Ricardo; Prada, Marilia

    2015-06-01

    A robust finding in social psychology research is that performance is modulated by the social nature of a given context, promoting social inhibition or facilitation effects. In the present experiment, we examined if and how social presence impacts holistic face perception processes by asking participants, in the presence of others and alone, to perform the composite face task. Results suggest that completing the task in the presence of others (i.e., mere co-action) is associated with better performance in face recognition (less bias and higher discrimination between presented and non-presented targets) and with a reduction in the composite face effect. These results make clear that social presence impact on the composite face effect does not occur because presence increases reliance on holistic processing as a "dominant" well-learned response, but instead, because it increases monitoring of the interference produced by automatic response. PMID:25939138

  14. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  15. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump Deployment in the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Lewis, Ben; Johnson, Marshall A.; Randolph, J. G.

    2001-03-01

    In FY 1998, Pulsating Mixer Pump (PMP) technology, consisting of a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for deployment in one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to mobilize settled solids. The pulsating mixer pump technology was identified during FY 1996 and FY 1997 technical exchanges between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the DOE complex. During FY 1997, the pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to suspend settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for remote sludge mobilization of Gunite tank sludge and reduce the cost of operation and maintenance of more expensive mixing systems. The functions and requirements of the system were developed by combining the results and recommendations from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL with the requirements identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks. The PMP is comprised of a pump chamber, check valve, a working gas supply pipe, a discharge manifold, and four jet nozzles. The pump uses two distinct cycles, fill and discharge, to perform its mixing action. During the fill cycle, vacuum is applied to the pump chamber by an eductor, which draws liquid into the pump. When the liquid level inside the chamber reaches a certain level, the chamber is pressurized with compressed air to discharge the liquid through the jet nozzles and back into the tank to mobilize sludge and settled solids.

  16. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  17. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  18. Face shape and face identity processing in behavioral variant fronto-temporal dementia: A specific deficit for familiarity and name recognition of famous faces.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Timmers, Dorien; de Gelder, Beatrice; Van Orshoven, Marc; Vieren, Marleen; Bouckaert, Miriam; Cypers, Gert; Caekebeke, Jo; Van de Vliet, Laura; Goffin, Karolien; Van Laere, Koen; Sunaert, Stefan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Van den Stock, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in face processing have been described in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), primarily regarding the recognition of facial expressions. Less is known about face shape and face identity processing. Here we used a hierarchical strategy targeting face shape and face identity recognition in bvFTD and matched healthy controls. Participants performed 3 psychophysical experiments targeting face shape detection (Experiment 1), unfamiliar face identity matching (Experiment 2), familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching (Experiment 3). The results revealed group differences only in Experiment 3, with a deficit in the bvFTD group for both familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching. Voxel-based morphometry regression analyses in the bvFTD group revealed an association between grey matter volume of the left ventral anterior temporal lobe and familiarity recognition, while face-name matching correlated with grey matter volume of the bilateral ventral anterior temporal lobes. Subsequently, we quantified familiarity-specific and name-specific recognition deficits as the sum of the celebrities of which respectively only the name or only the familiarity was accurately recognized. Both indices were associated with grey matter volume of the bilateral anterior temporal cortices. These findings extent previous results by documenting the involvement of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in familiarity detection and the right ATL in name recognition deficits in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. PMID:27298765

  19. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  20. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  1. Preference for Attractive Faces in Human Infants Extends beyond Conspecifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not…

  2. Type B investigation report of curium-244 exposure at the ORNL TRU Facility, January 15, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.L.; Butler, H.M.; Duncan, D.T.; Oakes, T.W.

    1986-04-01

    This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium-244 in the Building 7920 facility at ORNL in January 1986. Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees. Management systems evaluated include (1) training of employees performing lab analyses, (2) adherence to procedures, and (3) response to unusual circumstances.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.; Mouring, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of lung dose in ORNL phantom for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Markovic, V M; Jovanovic, Z; Milenkovic, B; Nikezic, D; Atanackovic, J

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate dose for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of male Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom was used to simulate tumours in the lung. Calculations have been performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. In this simulation, two opposite neutron beams were considered, in order to obtain uniform neutron flux distribution inside the lung. The obtained results indicate that the lung cancer could be treated by BNCT under the assumptions of calculations. PMID:24435912

  5. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  6. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  7. Future Faces of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    In keeping with its commitment to help students transform themselves into contributing members of the professional physics community, the Society of Physics Students National Council began efforts aimed at addressing issued of diversity in physics several years ago. One of the projects stemming from these discussions is the adoption of a 2008 theme ``The Future Faces of Physics.'' With this theme, the council aims to raise visibility and focus on issues of student diversity in physics. The initiative included the distribution of ``Future Faces of Physics Kits'' to any chapter hosting zone meetings. A highlight of the kit is the Future Faces of Physics Jeopardy set, which consists of buzzers, a score board, instructions, and a game board. The Future Faces of Physics game is a vehicle for generating discussion and raising awareness. The diversity session is hosted by the SPS Zone 13 and Zone 16 leadership.

  8. Cross-modal face recognition using multi-matcher face scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2015-05-01

    The performance of face recognition can be improved using information fusion of multimodal images and/or multiple algorithms. When multimodal face images are available, cross-modal recognition is meaningful for security and surveillance applications. For example, a probe face is a thermal image (especially at nighttime), while only visible face images are available in the gallery database. Matching a thermal probe face onto the visible gallery faces requires crossmodal matching approaches. A few such studies were implemented in facial feature space with medium recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal recognition approach, where multimodal faces are cross-matched in feature space and the recognition performance is enhanced with stereo fusion at image, feature and/or score level. In the proposed scenario, there are two cameras for stereo imaging, two face imagers (visible and thermal images) in each camera, and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, linear discriminant analysis). A score vector is formed with three cross-matched face scores from the aforementioned three algorithms. A classifier (e.g., k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression [BLR]) is trained then tested with the score vectors by using 10-fold cross validations. The proposed approach was validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Our experiments show very promising results: ACR (accuracy rate) = 97.84%, FAR (false accept rate) = 0.84% when cross-matching the fused thermal faces onto the fused visible faces by using three face scores and the BLR classifier.

  9. Cognitive Processing of Scrambled Faces: Effects of Instructions and Task.

    PubMed

    Rakover, Sam S

    2015-01-01

    The present study tests Rakover and Cahlon's (2013) face-checking model, which grades 7 regular and scrambled faces on a scale of similarity to an upright regular face, by predicting the results of 2 experiments in upright and inverted orientations: Experiment 1, which uses the interest choice task (to choose from a pair of faces the one most interesting), and Experiment 2, which uses the old/new recognition task. The main results of these 2 experiments show that in comparison to Rakover and Cahlon's (2013) findings, the face-checking model preserves its ability to predict satisfactorily the order of the 7 faces in the 2 experiments especially in the upright orientation; however, the model's success in making accurate point predictions is reduced significantly in both the upright and the inverted orientations. PMID:26442344

  10. Does Face Inversion Change Spatial Frequency Tuning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbockel, Verena; Fiset, Daniel; Chauvin, Alan; Blais, Caroline; Arguin, Martin; Tanaka, James W.; Bub, Daniel N.; Gosselin, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined spatial frequency (SF) tuning of upright and inverted face identification using an SF variant of the Bubbles technique (F. Gosselin & P. G. Schyns, 2001). In Experiment 1, they validated the SF Bubbles technique in a plaid detection task. In Experiments 2a-c, the SFs used for identifying upright and inverted inner facial…

  11. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint

    2014-07-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel "eyes-face" stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. PMID:24950500

  12. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Erik J; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  13. Spatial attention does not modulate holistic face processing, even when multiple faces are present.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Tokarev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The perception of faces is often considered to be unique in comparison with that of other objects in the world. The fact that faces are processed not by their constituent components but by the spatial configuration between those components (holistic face processing--HFP) is often used to support this. Despite two decades of research, however, there is no consensus as to whether or not HFP is a process that is subject to attentional modulation. Here, in two experiments, we used a method to direct spatial attention not previously used in studies of HFP--an exogenous spatial cue--as it offers a robust, rapid, and involuntary method of directing attention. In one experiment we demonstrate that the degree of HFP afforded to a face is not reduced when attention is directed away from that face. In a second experiment we replicate this finding even when the face is simultaneously flanked by other faces--a condition under which a face-specific processing module would, hypothetically, be more sensitive to attentional guidance. These results add to the argument that HFP is carried out independently of attention. PMID:25669051

  14. Awareness of faces is modulated by their emotional meaning.

    PubMed

    Milders, Maarten; Sahraie, Arash; Logan, Sarah; Donnellon, Niamh

    2006-02-01

    A central question in perception is how stimuli are selected for access to awareness. This study investigated the impact of emotional meaning on detection of faces using the attention blink paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that fearful faces were detected more frequently than neutral faces, and Experiment 2 revealed preferential detection of fearful faces compared with happy faces. To rule out image artifacts as a cause for these results, Experiment 3 manipulated the emotional meaning of neutral faces through fear conditioning and showed a selective increase in detection of conditioned faces. These results extend previous reports of preferential detection of emotional words or schematic objects and suggest that fear conditioning can modulate detection of formerly neutral stimuli. PMID:16637746

  15. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework. PMID:23531227

  16. Face-Sensitive Processes One Hundred Milliseconds after Picture Onset

    PubMed Central

    Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382

  17. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  18. Production of Thorium-229 at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Boll, Rose Ann; Garland, Marc A; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of targeted cancer therapy using -emitters has developed considerably in recent years and clinical trials have generated promising results. In particular, the initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the -emitter 213Bi in killing cancer cells [1]. Pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both 213Bi and its 225Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy [2]. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of the 10-d 225Ac parent, a member of the 7340-y 229Th chain. Currently, 233U is the only viable source for high purity 229Th; however, due to increasing difficulties associated with 233U safeguards, processing additional 233U is presently unfeasible. The recent decision to downblend and dispose of enriched 233U further diminished the prospects for extracting 229Th from 233U stock. Nevertheless, the anticipated growth in demand for 225Ac may soon exceed the levels of 229Th (~40 g or ~8 Ci; ~80 times the current ORNL 229Th stock) present in the aged 233U stockpile. The alternative routes for the production of 229Th, 225Ra and 225Ac include both reactor and accelerator approaches [3]. Here, we describe production of 229Th via neutron transmutation of 226Ra targets in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  19. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL: Calendar year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.; Rosen, A.E.

    1989-04-01

    The ORNL Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in 1985 in response to state and federal regulations mandating corrective actions at contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the type and extent of contamination. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP during 1988 are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Numeric Data Base, (2) the Bibliographic Data Base, and (3) the Records Control Data Base. This report addresses all three data bases, but focuses on a description of the contents of the Numeric Data Base. The types of numeric data currently available are summarized in the tables and figures. More detailed information on the contents of the RAP Numeric Data Base has been assembled in a menu-driven format on IBM PC diskettes, which are available upon request. 6 refs.

  20. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems. Annual report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE`s Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  1. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  2. Assessment of neutron fluence to organ dose conversion coefficients in the ORNL analytical adult phantom.

    PubMed

    Miri Hakimabad, H; Rafat Motavalli, L; Karimi Shahri, K

    2009-03-01

    Neutron fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients have been evaluated for the analytical ORNL modified adult phantom in 21 body organs using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The calculation used 20 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10(-9)-20 MeV, under four irradiation conditions: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT) and right-lateral (RLAT). Then the conversion coefficients are compared with the data reported in ICRP publication 74 for mathematical MIRD type phantoms and by Bozkurt et al for the VIPMAN voxel model. Although the ORNL results show fewer differences with the ICRP results than the Bozkurt et al data, one can deduce neither complete agreement nor disparity between this study and other data sets. This comparison shows that in some cases any differences in applied Monte Carlo codes or simulated body models could significantly change the organ dose conversion factors. This sensitivity should be considered for radiological protection programmes. For certain organs, the results of two models with major differences can be in a satisfactory agreement because of the similarity in those organ models. PMID:19225185

  3. Production of H, D, and He Plasmas in the ORNL High Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-10-01

    The ORNL high particle flux helicon source is has been operated with various light ions at power levels up to 30 kW. It is being studied as an electrodeless source for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γp >1023m-3s-1 , and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high heat fluxes ~ 10 MW /m2 . The maximum magnetic field strength | B | in the plasma production region for which high density operation is possible at the present power level has been found to increase with increasing ion mass. Operation with | B | ~ 0 . 5 T has been achieved with He as the working gas. The radial density profile is found to be strongly dependent on the axial magnetic field geometry, and both strongly centrally peaked and flat profiles have been obtained. Maximum plasma densities > 4 ×1019m-3 have been achieved with He, and > 2 . 5 ×1019m-3 with H. The device has been modeled using the EMS2D (G. Chen et al., Phys Plasmas 13 (2006) 123507) and SOLPS (R. Schneider, X. Bonnin et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46 (2006) 3) codes. The latest results will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Batelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept of Energy under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  4. Wavelet networks for face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, V.; Sommer, G.

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  5. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  6. Modeling the importance of faces in natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, B.; Yildirim, G.; Lau, C.; Shaji, A.; Ortiz Segovia, M.; Süsstrunk, S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we study the varying importance of faces in images. Face importance is found to be affected by the size and number of faces present. We collected a dataset of 152 face images with faces in different size and number of faces. We conducted a crowdsourcing experiment where we asked people to label the important regions of the images. Analyzing the results from the experiment, we propose a simple face-importance model, which is a 2D Gaussian function, to quantitatively represent the influence of the size and number of faces on the perceived importance of faces. The face-importance model is then tested for the application of salient-object detection. For this application, we create a new salient-objects dataset, consisting of both face images and non-face images, and also through crowdsourcing we collect the ground truth. We demonstrate that our face-importance model helps us to better locate the important, thus salient, objects in the images and outperforms state-of-the-art salient-object detection algorithms.

  7. Attention to Faces Modulates Early Face Processing during Low but not High Face Discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Goldstein, Jonathan M.; Lustig, Audrey G.; Rivas, Luis R.; Jha, Amishi P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated if attention to faces results in sensory gain modulation. Participants were cued to attend to faces or scenes in superimposed face-scene images while face discriminability was parametrically manipulated across images. The face-sensitive N170 event-related potential component was used as a measure of early face processing. Attention to faces modulated N170 amplitude, but only when faces were not highly discriminable. Additionally, directing attention to faces modulated later processing (~230–300 msec) for all discriminability levels. These results demonstrate that attention to faces can modulate perceptual processing of faces at multiple stages of processing, including early sensory levels. Critically, the early attentional benefit is present only when the “face signal” (i.e., the perceptual quality of the face) in the environment is suboptimal. PMID:19429962

  8. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  9. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  10. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces-but not monkey faces-efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model. PMID:26180944

  11. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device for mounting between two surfaces to provide an airtight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  12. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  13. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication. PMID:23136442

  14. Neural correlates of face detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaokun; Biederman, Irving

    2014-06-01

    Although face detection likely played an essential adaptive role in our evolutionary past and in contemporary social interactions, there have been few rigorous studies investigating its neural correlates. MJH, a prosopagnosic with bilateral lesions to the ventral temporal-occipital cortices encompassing the posterior face areas (fusiform and occipital face areas), expresses no subjective difficulty in face detection, suggesting that these posterior face areas do not mediate face detection exclusively. Despite his normal contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in foveal vision, the present study nevertheless revealed significant face detection deficits in MJH. Compared with controls, MJH showed a lower tolerance to noise in the phase spectrum for faces (vs. cars), reflected in his higher detection threshold for faces. MJH's lesions in bilateral occipito-temporal cortices thus appear to have produced a deficit not only in face individuation, but also in face detection. PMID:23365211

  15. Pose estimation and frontal face detection for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eng Thiam; Wang, Jiangang; Xie, Wei; Ronda, Venkarteswarlu

    2005-05-01

    This paper proposes a pose estimation and frontal face detection algorithm for face recognition. Considering it's application in a real-world environment, the algorithm has to be robust yet computationally efficient. The main contribution of this paper is the efficient face localization, scale and pose estimation using color models. Simulation results showed very low computational load when compare to other face detection algorithm. The second contribution is the introduction of low dimensional statistical face geometrical model. Compared to other statistical face model the proposed method models the face geometry efficiently. The algorithm is demonstrated on a real-time system. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient.

  16. Left face matching bias: right hemisphere dominance or scanning habits?

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Havard, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    A large body of work report a leftward bias in face processing. However, it is not clear whether this leftward bias purely reflects the dominance of the right hemisphere or is influenced by scanning habits developed by reading directions. Here, we report two experiments examining how well native readers of right to left Arabic scripts (Egyptians) could match (for identity) a target face that appeared with a companion to a line-up of 10 faces. There was a significant advantage for matching faces that appeared on the left. However, Experiment 2 found that the magnitude of this left face matching bias was almost three times weaker than the magnitude of the leftward bias shown by native readers of left to right English scripts (British). Accordingly, we suggest that the right hemisphere dominance for face processing underlies the leftward face perception bias, but with the interaction of scanning habits. PMID:21204307

  17. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  18. Iterative closest normal point for 3D face recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    The common approach for 3D face recognition is to register a probe face to each of the gallery faces and then calculate the sum of the distances between their points. This approach is computationally expensive and sensitive to facial expression variation. In this paper, we introduce the iterative closest normal point method for finding the corresponding points between a generic reference face and every input face. The proposed correspondence finding method samples a set of points for each face, denoted as the closest normal points. These points are effectively aligned across all faces, enabling effective application of discriminant analysis methods for 3D face recognition. As a result, the expression variation problem is addressed by minimizing the within-class variability of the face samples while maximizing the between-class variability. As an important conclusion, we show that the surface normal vectors of the face at the sampled points contain more discriminatory information than the coordinates of the points. We have performed comprehensive experiments on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database, which is presently the largest available 3D face database. We have achieved verification rates of 99.6 and 99.2 percent at a false acceptance rate of 0.1 percent for the all versus all and ROC III experiments, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, have seven and four times less error rates, respectively, compared to the best existing methods on this database. PMID:22585097

  19. Informal Face-to-Face Interaction Improves Mood State Reflected in Prefrontal Cortex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS). We also observed that the verbal working memory (WM) task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity accompanied by WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:27199715

  20. Informal Face-to-Face Interaction Improves Mood State Reflected in Prefrontal Cortex Activity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS). We also observed that the verbal working memory (WM) task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity accompanied by WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:27199715

  1. Gabor wavelet associative memory for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Zhang, Bailing; Huang, Weimin; Tian, Qi

    2005-01-01

    This letter describes a high-performance face recognition system by combining two recently proposed neural network models, namely Gabor wavelet network (GWN) and kernel associative memory (KAM), into a unified structure called Gabor wavelet associative memory (GWAM). GWAM has superior representation capability inherited from GWN and consequently demonstrates a much better recognition performance than KAM. Extensive experiments have been conducted to evaluate a GWAM-based recognition scheme using three popular face databases, i.e., FERET database, Olivetti-Oracle Research Lab (ORL) database and AR face database. The experimental results consistently show our scheme's superiority and demonstrate its very high-performance comparing favorably to some recent face recognition methods, achieving 99.3% and 100% accuracy, respectively, on the former two databases, exhibiting very robust performance on the last database against varying illumination conditions. PMID:15732406

  2. Becoming a Lunari or Taiyo expert: learned attention to parts drives holistic processing of faces.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Faces are processed holistically, but the locus of holistic processing remains unclear. We created two novel races of faces (Lunaris and Taiyos) to study how experience with face parts influences holistic processing. In Experiment 1, subjects individuated Lunaris wherein the top, bottom, or both face halves contained diagnostic information. Subjects who learned to attend to face parts exhibited no holistic processing. This suggests that individuation only leads to holistic processing when the whole face is attended. In Experiment 2, subjects individuated both Lunaris and Taiyos, with diagnostic information in complementary face halves of the two races. Holistic processing was measured with composites made of either diagnostic or nondiagnostic face parts. Holistic processing was only observed for composites made from diagnostic face parts, demonstrating that holistic processing can occur for diagnostic face parts that were never seen together. These results suggest that holistic processing is an expression of learned attention to diagnostic face parts. PMID:24588261

  3. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  4. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  5. Workforce Issues Facing HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force issues facing human resource development (HRD). "Contributing Factors to the Success of Women and People of Color in Leadership Roles: A Message to HRD Professionals" (Jean R. McFarland, Gary Leske, Caroline S. V. Turner) reports the results of a survey in which nonwhite males, nonwhite…

  6. Lightweight Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  7. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  8. Workforce Issues Facing HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium facilitated by Eugene Andette on work force issues facing human resources development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Meaning Construction and Personal Transformation: Alternative Dimensions of Job Loss" (Terri A. Deems) reports a study conducted to explore the ways…

  9. TACOMA FACES SCHOOL SEGREGATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALEY, FRED T.

    THE CHAIRMAN OF THE TACOMA, WASHINGTON, BOARD OF EDUCATION PRESENTS HIS VIEWS ON THE PROBLEMS TO BE FACED BY THE CITY OF TACOMA IN THE AREA OF DE FACTO SEGREGATION. TACOMA'S POPULATION FROM 1950 TO 1960 INCREASED 3 PERCENT. VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE INCREASE WAS NONWHITE. IT IS HELD THAT THE MAGNITUDE OF THE EXPLOSIVE GROWTH OF THE NEGRO POPULATION IS…

  10. Many Faces Have I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilliox, Joseph T.; Lowery, Shannon G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an extended investigation of polygons and polyhedra which was conducted in response to a challenge posed in Focus, a newsletter from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA). Students were challenged to construct a polyhedron with faces that measure more than 13 inches to a side. Outlines the process, including the questions posed…

  11. Facing the Not Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to face the not knowing and offers a strategy to fill the gap of not knowing. In coping with constant change, he describes a strategy for library staff that might help in the absence of certainty. This includes: (a) guarding the data with one's life; (b) build not for longevity, but obsolescence; (c)…

  12. Repetition priming and face processing: priming occurs within the system that responds to the identity of a face.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A W; Young, A W; Flude, B M

    1990-08-01

    A familiar stimulus that has recently been recognized will be recognized a second time more quickly and more accurately than if it had not been primed by the earlier encounter. This is the phenomenon of "repetition priming". Four experiments on repetition priming of face recognition suggest that repetition priming is a consequence of changes within the system that responds to the familiarity of a stimulus. In Experiment 1, classifying familiar faces by occupation facilitated subsequent responses to the same faces in a familiarity decision task (Is this face familiar or unfamiliar?) but not in an expression decision task (Is this face smiling or unsmiling?) or a sex decision task (Is this face male or female?). In Experiment 2, familiar faces showed repetition priming in a familiarity decision task, regardless of whether a familiarity judgment or an expression judgment had been required when the faces were first encountered. Expression decisions to familiar faces again failed to show repetition priming. In Experiment 3, familiar faces showed repetition priming in a familiarity decision task, regardless of whether a familiarity judgment or a sex judgment had been asked for when the faces were first encountered. Sex decisions to familiar faces again failed to show repetition priming. In Experiment 4, familiarity decisions continued to show repetition priming when a brief presentation time with encouragement to respond while the face was displayed reduced response latencies to speeds comparable to those for sex and expression judgments in Experiments 1 to 3. The results are problematic for theories that propose that repetition priming is mediated by episodic records of previous acts of stimulus encoding. PMID:2236632

  13. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    PubMed

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally. PMID:25151105

  14. A Unique Look at Face Processing: The Impact of Masked Faces on the Processing of Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment utilized a masked priming paradigm to explore the early processes involved in face recognition. The first experiment investigated implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in an upright face, using prime durations of 33 and 50 ms. The results demonstrate implicit processing of both the eyes and mouth, and support the configural…

  15. CRADA ORNL 91-0046B final report: Assessment of IBM advanced computing architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with IBM to assess their advanced computer architectures. Over the course of this project three different architectures were evaluated. The POWER/4 RIOS1 based shared memory multiprocessor, the POWER/2 RIOS2 based high performance workstation, and the J30 PowerPC based shared memory multiprocessor. In addition to this hardware several software packages where beta tested for IBM including: ESSO scientific computing library, nv video-conferencing package, Ultimedia multimedia display environment, FORTRAN 90 and C++ compilers, and the AIX 4.1 operating system. Both IBM and ORNL benefited from the research performed in this project and even though access to the POWER/4 computer was delayed several months, all milestones were met.

  16. Sensor integation using concurrent computing on-board the ORNL mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Jones, J.P.; Beckerman, M.; Glover, C.W.; Farkas, L.; Einstein, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The mobile robot prototypes developed at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are equipped with sonar sensors, CCD cameras and a laser range camera that are used to support autonomous navigation and inspection tasks in an a priori unknown and unstructured dynamic environment. This paper summarizes work directed at extracting information from data collected with these sensors and integrating it, in order to produce reliable descriptions of the robot's environment. The approach consists in studying different world models and mappings among them, sensor models and parallel algorithms for sensor information processing, and appropriate integration strategies. Specifically, the paper describes the integration of two-dimensional vision and sonar range information, and the integration of laser range and luminance images. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Thermal and stress analysis of the Faraday shield for the ORNL/TFTR rf antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, C.J.; Nelson, B.E.; Walls, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Baity, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The rf antenna designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is an ion cyclotron resonance heating antenna operating in the 40- to 80-MHz frequency range with a power output of 4 MW for a 2-s pulse. The antenna was delivered to Princeton in November 1987. A review of the antenna design began in early 1988 to ensure compatibility with D-T operation of TFTR. Owing to the serious consequences of a water leak during D-T operation and to other concerns, it was concluded that the Faraday shield of the antenna should be rebuilt. In addition, because of increased heat loads and more stringent acceptance criteria, a new thermal and stress analysis of the shield was authorized. 1 ref., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL lithium hydroxide fire and impact shield

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.H.; Eversole, R.E.; Just, R.A.; Schaich, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL Lithium Hydroxide Fire and Impact Shield and its packaging were designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to permit the transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material and limited quantities of fissionable material. The shield and its packaging were evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and that evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the shield relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the shield and its packaging are in compliance with the applicable regulations. 16 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, R. C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace.

  1. Treatment options and flow sheets for ORNL low-level liquid waste supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.

    1991-12-01

    Low-level liquid waste (LLLW) is currently contained in ten 50,000-gal storage and process tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and as residual heels in an number of older tanks that are no longer in active use. Plans are being formulated to treat these wastes, along with similar LLLW that will be generated in the future, to yield decontaminated effluents that can be disposed of and stable solid waste forms that can be permanently stored. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of the most promising separations processes that are appropriate for treatment of the LLLW supernate solution to remove the two dominant radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr; to indicate how they can be integrated into an effective flowsheet; and to estimate the expected performance of such flowsheets in comparison to waste treatment requirements.

  2. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. PMID:26607479

  3. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  4. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  5. Summary and analsysis of the 1986 ORNL personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Weng, P.S.; Sims, C.S.; Yeh, S.H.

    1987-04-01

    The Twelfth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during April 14 to 17, 1986. Objectives of this study were to determine neutron dosimeter performance characteristics at neutron dose equivalent levels near the minimum specified for accreditation testing programs and to provide several radiation fields different from those that have been considered in prior ORNL intercomparisons. Dosimeter badges from 49 participating organizations were mounted on Lucite block phantoms and exposed to six mixed-radiation fields (five using the Health Physics Research Reactor and one using a PuBe source) with neutron dose equivalents of about 1.5 mSv and gamma dose equivalents between 0.04 and 5.37 mSv. Results of this study indicated that participants had no difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron exposure at dose equivalent levels of about 1.5 mSv. Average neutron results for all dosimeter types were within approximately 60% of reference values with hard spectra being more accurately measured than soft spectra. Considering all irradiations, albedo and direct interaction TLD systems provided about the same performance characteristics. With regard to precision, about 58% of the reported neutron results had single standard deviations within 10% at the means which indicates that precision was not a problem relative to accuracy for over half of the participants. Average gamma results varied from 0.98 to 2.22 times reference values for all exposures with TLD systems being more accurate than film. Some participants, especially those using film, had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of gamma exposures at dose equivalent levels lower than 0.09 mSv. About 69% of all neutron results and 77% of all gamma results met regulatory standards for measurement accuracy and approximately 65% of all neutron data satisfied national dosimetry accreditation criteria for accuracy plus precision. 18 refs., 1 fig., 30 tabs.

  6. ORNL production of the experimental alpha emitters bismuth-213 and actinium-225 for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, O.F.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Yong, L.K.

    1998-09-01

    Due to their short range in tissue (50 to 80 {micro}m), alpha emitters are of considerable interest for certain radioimmunotherapy applications. These applications require the destruction of single cells or small clusters of cells. The radioisotope {sup 213}Bi, which is milked from {sup 225}Ac, is an alpha emitter that is currently being used in phase-1 human leukemia trials at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The most readily achievable route for producing {sup 225}Ac generators involves separating ingrown {sup 229}Th daughters from the {sup 233}U parent. Thorium-229 is then used as a parent generator for {sup 225}Ac. Thorium-229 is easier to handle than {sup 233}U, which is fissile and typically contains trace concentrations of {sup 232}U. Uranium-232 has a radioactive daughter, {sup 208}Tl, which emits a high-energy (2.6-MeV) photon when it decays. An alternative method for producing {sup 229}Th is through neutron irradiation of {sup 227}Ra. However, this method is less desirable due to the production of very high levels of {sup 228}Th. Thorium-229 accumulates in stored {sup 233}U oxides by natural decay. The current ORNL process for extracting {sup 229}Th from stored {sup 233}U oxides includes dissolution, strong-acid anion exchange, and calcination of the uranium. This ORNL process has provided high-purity {sup 225}Ac generators to medical researchers. Bismuth-213 has been extracted and used in initial human trials and already has demonstrated a potency and specificity for attacking cancerous cells.

  7. Characterization of the Radioactive Sludge from the ORNL MVST Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.

    2001-10-24

    Over the last several years most of the sludge and liquid from the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL has been transferred and consolidated in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The contents of the MVST tanks at the time the sludge samples were collected for this report included the original inventory in the MVSTs along with the sludge and liquid from the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Old Hydrofracture (OHF) tanks, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). During the summer of 2001 full core samples of sludge were collected from the MVST tanks. The purpose of this sampling campaign was to characterize and validate that the current radiochemical and chemical contents of the MVST sludge, which was needed to meet the contract agreements prior to the transfer of the waste to another DOE contractor for processing. This report only discusses the analytical characterization of the sludge from the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were ''denatured'' as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the MVST sludge was found to be hazardous by RCRA characteristics based on total analysis of chromium, mercury, and lead. Also, the alpha activity due to transuranic isotopes was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in previous reports and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP. Therefore, the WIPP WAC limits were not evaluated for this set of samples.

  8. The ORNL Basemapping and Imagery Project: Data collection, processing and dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, M.; Pace, P.

    1996-04-01

    Over the past three years, the GIS and Computer Modeling (GCM) Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been engaged in creating a very comprehensive geospatial data base for Department of Energy (DOE) installations managed by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). This effort encompasses topographic, planimetric, land use/land cover, flood plain, digital elevation, and digital imagery data for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding areas. The ORR covers approximately 34,800 acres and includes ORNL, the K-25 Site and the Y-12 Plant. The geographic extent of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project covers the ORR and surrounding area and two other DOE plants (Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky) for a total of 166,000 acres. The resulting data represent a major improvement in the spatial accuracy and currency of data which are used as a foundation for environmental restoration, facility studies, and other GIS data applications. A GIS data server was also created in order to store and disseminate the new basemapping data. This paper describes the history of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project with emphasis on the logistical aspects of data quality assessment. data tracking, and data product work flow for a large comprehensive spatial data base. The paper then describes the evolution of the GIS data server including its design from an FTP server to a NetScape-based World Wide Web interface. This combination of data and data access provides the ORR environmental community with a carefully configured and managed GIS dataset.

  9. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker's face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals' face processing abilities differ from monolinguals'. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  10. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  11. Is naming faces different from naming objects? Semantic interference in a face- and object-naming task.

    PubMed

    Marful, Alejandra; Paolieri, Daniela; Bajo, M Teresa

    2014-04-01

    A current debate regarding face and object naming concerns whether they are equally vulnerable to semantic interference. Although some studies have shown similar patterns of interference, others have revealed different effects for faces and objects. In Experiment 1, we compared face naming to object naming when exemplars were presented in a semantically homogeneous context (grouped by their category) or in a semantically heterogeneous context (mixed) across four cycles. The data revealed significant slowing for both face and object naming in the homogeneous context. This semantic interference was explained as being due to lexical competition from the conceptual activation of category members. When focusing on the first cycle, a facilitation effect for objects but not for faces appeared. This result permits us to explain the previously observed discrepancies between face and object naming. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, with the exception that half of the stimuli were presented as face/object names for reading. Semantic interference was present for both face and object naming, suggesting that faces and objects behave similarly during naming. Interestingly, during reading, semantic interference was observed for face names but not for object names. This pattern is consistent with previous assumptions proposing the activation of a person identity during face name reading. PMID:24129442

  12. The own-age face recognition bias is task dependent.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) in face recognition (more accurate recognition of own-age than other-age faces) is robust among young adults but not older adults. We investigated the OAB under two different task conditions. In Experiment 1 young and older adults (who reported more recent experience with own than other-age faces) completed a match-to-sample task with young and older adult faces; only young adults showed an OAB. In Experiment 2 young and older adults completed an identity detection task in which we manipulated the identity strength of target and distracter identities by morphing each face with an average face in 20% steps. Accuracy increased with identity strength and facial age influenced older adults' (but not younger adults') strategy, but there was no evidence of an OAB. Collectively, these results suggest that the OAB depends on task demands and may be absent when searching for one identity. PMID:25491773

  13. Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not arise from low-level image differences (Experiments 2 and 3). In addition, the spontaneous preference for attractive tiger faces influenced performance in a recognition memory task involving attractive versus unattractive tiger face pairings (Experiment 4). The findings suggest that infant preference for attractive faces reflects the activity of general processing mechanisms rather than a specific adaptation to mate choice. PMID:18171370

  14. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

  15. Adjusting external doses from the ORNL and Y-12 facilities for the Oak Ridge Nuclear Facilities mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.P.; Cragle, D.L.; West, C.M.; Tankersley, W.G.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents specific procedures used for adjusting radiation doses to radiation personnel at the ORNL and Y-12 plants during the early years. Topics discussed include: background information; selection of employment years to be considered; hardcopy monitoring methods and records; pocket meter data; and replacement of 1943 unmonitored employment years. These topics were discussed for both years.

  16. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  17. CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), under funding from NASA, participated in the CRYSTAL/FACE field campaign in July, 2002 with measurements of cirrus cloud hydrometeors in the size range from 0.5 to 1600 microns. The measurements were made with the DMT Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) that was flown on NASA's WB57F. With the exception of the first research flight when the data system failed two hours into the mission, the measurement system performed almost flawlessly during the thirteen flights. The measurements from the CAPS have been essential for interpretation of cirrus cloud properties and their impact on climate. The CAPS data set has been used extensively by the CRYSTAL/FACE investigators and as of the date of this report, have been included in five published research articles, 10 conference presentations and six other journal articles currently in preparation.

  18. 'Happy Face' Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-361, 15 May 2003

    Every day, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments obtain a global view of the planet to help monitor weather and seasonal patterns of frost deposition and removal. The two pictures shown here are taken from the same daily global image mosaic (the only difference is that each was processed slightly differently). The pictures show Galle Crater, informally known as 'Happy Face,' as it appeared in early southern winter. The white-ish gray surfaces are coated with wintertime carbon dioxide frost. The pattern of frost distribution gives the appearance that 'Happy Face' has opened its mouth. Galle Crater is located on the east rim of Argyre at 51oS, 31oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. Galle Crater is 230 km (143 mi) across.

  19. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  20. Ventilatory drive during face immersion in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M R; Patrick, J M

    1986-01-01

    Four series of experiments have been performed in normal subjects to determine whether face immersion gives rise to a reduction in ventilatory drive. Such a response might be advantageous, like the cardiovascular components of the 'diving response', in prolonging breath-hold diving. In the first series, ventilatory drive was measured indirectly as the maximal voluntary breath-holding time, starting each breath-hold at the same alveolar partial pressures and at the same lung volume. When the face was immersed in cold water, breath-holding times were increased by 14%. The breaking point occurred at a higher alveolar PCO2 and the rate of rise of PCO2 was not affected. Control immersions in warm water had no effect. In the second and third series, subjects lay prone and breathed either air or 5% CO2 through a valve in the bottom of a bowl. Minute ventilation was measured before, during and after 5 min of face immersion in cold water. Transient hypoventilations of 13% and 10% respectively were seen, accompanied by small rises in alveolar PCO2. In control experiments, immersion of the forearm in cold water produced the opposite responses. In the fourth series, a cold wet pack was applied to the face during moderate steady-state exercise. A small irregular hypoventilation was seen, but not in control experiments when a warm pack was applied. Face temperatures fell by about 10 degrees C in these experiments. No material changes were found in the temperatures of the inspired air or of the aural canal. It is concluded that face immersion in cold water causes a modest reduction in ventilatory drive in man. This appears to be a component of the 'diving response'. PMID:3083097