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Sample records for orthogonal injection tof

  1. Fundamental studies of MALDI with an orthogonal TOF mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hui

    The interaction between the matrix and analyte molecules are studied with a high resolution MALDI imaging technique in an orthogonal-injection time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The analyte incorporation and distribution patterns have been clearly demonstrated. Purified protein analytes were found to be homogeneously incorporated in large single crystals of DHB and sinapinic acid matrices, with no evidence for preferred crystal faces. Segregation of some species was observed and appeared to correlate with analyte hydrophobicity, and to a lesser extent analyte mass or mobility. Similar segregation phenomena were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy of the same analytes labeled with fluorescent dyes in 2,5-DHB single crystals. The above investigations may shed some light on optimizing sample preparation with different matrices. The influence of incident laser parameters on sensitivity in MALDI has been investigated using orthogonal-injection TOF instruments. A qualitative comparison was first made between the beam profiles obtained with a N 2 laser and a Nd:YAG laser using 2-m long optical fibers. The N 2 laser gives better sensitivity, consistent with a more uniform fluence distribution and therefore better coverage of the N2 laser profile. Most of the difference disappears when a 30-m long fiber is used or when the fibers are twisted during irradiation to smooth out the fluence distribution. In more systematic measurements, the total integrated ion yield from a single spot (a measure of sensitivity) was found to increase rapidly with fluence to a maximum, and then saturate or decrease slightly. Thus, the optimum sensitivity is achieved at high fluence. For a fluence near threshold, the integrated yield has a steep (cubic) dependence on the spot size, but the yield saturates at higher fluence for smaller spots. The area dependence is much weaker (close to linear) for fluence values above saturation, with the result that the highest integrated yields

  2. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  3. MALDI-TOF and nESI Orbitrap MS/MS identify orthogonal parts of the phosphoproteome.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Roesli, Christoph; Lemeer, Simone; Kuster, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorylation is a reversible posttranslational protein modification which plays a pivotal role in intracellular signaling. Despite extensive efforts, phosphorylation site mapping of proteomes is still incomplete motivating the exploration of alternative methods that complement existing workflows. In this study, we compared tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and nano-electrospray ionization (nESI) Orbitrap instruments with respect to their ability to identify phosphopeptides from complex proteome digests. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tryptic digests of cell lines using Fe-IMAC column chromatography and subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. We found that the two analytical workflows exhibited considerable orthogonality. For instance, MALDI-TOF MS/MS favored the identification of phosphopeptides encompassing clear motif signatures for acidic residue directed kinases. The extent of orthogonality of the two LC-MS/MS systems was comparable to that of using alternative proteases such as Asp-N, Arg-C, chymotrypsin, Glu-C and Lys-C on just one LC-MS/MS instrument. Notably, MALDI-TOF MS/MS identified an unexpectedly high number and percentage of phosphotyrosine sites (∼20% of all sites), possibly as a direct consequence of more efficient ionization. The data clearly show that LC-MALDI MS/MS can be a useful complement to LC-nESI MS/MS for phosphoproteome mapping and particularly so for acidic and phosphotyrosine containing peptides. PMID:26990019

  4. Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gatare, I.; Panajotov, K.; Sciamanna, M.

    2007-02-15

    We report theoretically on a pure frequency-induced polarization bistability in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the master laser light polarization is orthogonal to that of the slave VCSEL. As the frequency detuning is scanned from negative to positive values and for a fixed injected power, the VCSEL exhibits two successive and possibly bistable polarization switchings. The first switching (from the slave laser polarization to the injected light polarization) exhibits a bistable region whose width is maximum for a given value of the injected power. Such a dependency of hysteresis width on the injected power is similar to that recently found experimentally by Hong et al.[Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000)]. The bistability accompanying the second switching (from the injected light polarization back to the slave laser free-running polarization) exhibits, however, significantly different features related to the occurrence of optical chaos. Interestingly, the width of the bistable region can be tuned over a large range not only by modifying the injection parameters but also by modifying the device parameters, in particular the VCSEL linewidth enhancement factor.

  5. Rapid Identification and Assignation of the Active Ingredients in Fufang Banbianlian Injection Using HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Jiang, Haixiu; Tong, Lingkun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-08-01

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula composed of three herbal medicines. However, the systematic investigation on its chemical components has not been reported yet. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detector, and coupled to an electrospray ionization with ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS) method, was established for the identification of chemical profile in FBI. Sixty-six major constituents (14 phenolic acids, 14 iridoids, 20 flavonoids, 2 benzylideneacetone compounds, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, 1 coumarin, 1 lignan, 3 nucleosides, 1 amino acids, 1 monosaccharides, 2 oligosaccharides, 3 alduronic acids and citric acid) were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of standards or literature data. Finally, all constituents were further assigned in the individual herbs (InHs), although some of them were from multiple InHs. As a result, 11 compounds were from Lobelia chinensis Lour, 33 compounds were from Scutellaria barbata D. Don and 38 compounds were from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. In conclusion, the developed HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS method is a rapid and efficient technique for analysis of FBI sample, and could be a valuable method for the further study on the quality control of the FBI. PMID:27107094

  6. Orthogonal Injection Ion Funnel Interface Providing Enhanced Performance for Selected Reaction Monitoring-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Prost, Spencer A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-24

    The electrodynamic ion funnel facilitates efficient focusing and transfer of charged particles in the higher pressure regions (e.g. ion source interfaces) of mass spectrometers, and thus providing increased sensitivity. An “off-axis” ion funnel design has been developed to reduce the source contamination and interferences from, e.g. ESI droplet residue and other poorly focused neutral or charged particles with very high mass-to charge ratios. In this study a dual ion funnel interface consisting of an orthogonal higher pressure electrodynamic ion funnel (HPIF) and an ion funnel trap combined with a triple quadruple mass spectrometer was developed and characterized. An orthogonal ionmore » injection inlet and a repeller plate electrode was used to direct ions to an ion funnel HPIF at 9-10 Torr pressure. Several critical factors for the HPIF were characterized, including the effects of RF amplitude, DC gradient and operating pressure. Compared to the triple quadrupole standard interface more than 4-fold improvement in the limit of detection for the direct quantitative MS analysis of low abundance peptides was observed. Lastly, the sensitivity enhancement in liquid chromatography selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses of low abundance peptides spiked into a highly complex mixture was also compared with that obtained using a both commercial s-lens interface and a in-line dual ion funnel interface.« less

  7. Orthogonal Injection Ion Funnel Interface Providing Enhanced Performance for Selected Reaction Monitoring-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Prost, Spencer A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-24

    The electrodynamic ion funnel facilitates efficient focusing and transfer of charged particles in the higher pressure regions (e.g. ion source interfaces) of mass spectrometers, and thus providing increased sensitivity. An “off-axis” ion funnel design has been developed to reduce the source contamination and interferences from, e.g. ESI droplet residue and other poorly focused neutral or charged particles with very high mass-to charge ratios. In this study a dual ion funnel interface consisting of an orthogonal higher pressure electrodynamic ion funnel (HPIF) and an ion funnel trap combined with a triple quadruple mass spectrometer was developed and characterized. An orthogonal ion injection inlet and a repeller plate electrode was used to direct ions to an ion funnel HPIF at 9-10 Torr pressure. Several critical factors for the HPIF were characterized, including the effects of RF amplitude, DC gradient and operating pressure. Compared to the triple quadrupole standard interface more than 4-fold improvement in the limit of detection for the direct quantitative MS analysis of low abundance peptides was observed. Lastly, the sensitivity enhancement in liquid chromatography selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses of low abundance peptides spiked into a highly complex mixture was also compared with that obtained using a both commercial s-lens interface and a in-line dual ion funnel interface.

  8. Orthogonal Injection Ion Funnel Interface Providing Enhanced Performance for Selected Reaction Monitoring-Triple Quadruple Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Prost, Spencer A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-07-21

    The electrodynamic ion funnel facilitates efficient focusing and transfer of charged particles in the higher pressure regions (e.g. ion source interfaces) of mass spectrometers, and thus providing increased sensitivity. An “off-axis” ion funnel design has been developed to reduce the source contamination and interferences from, e.g. ESI droplet residue and other poorly focused neutral or charged particles with very high mass-to charge ratios. In this study a dual ion funnel interface consisting of an orthogonal higher pressure electrodynamic ion funnel (HPIF) and an ion funnel trap combined with a triple quadruple mass spectrometer was developed and characterized. An orthogonal ion injection inlet and a repeller plate electrode was used to direct ions to an ion funnel HPIF at 9-10 Torr pressure. Several critical factors for the HPIF were characterized, including the effects of RF amplitude, DC gradient and operating pressure. Compared to the triple quadrupole standard interface more than 4-fold improvement in the limit of detection for the direct quantitative MS analysis of low abundance peptides was observed. The sensitivity enhancement in liquid chromatography selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses of low abundance peptides spiked into a highly complex mixture was also compared with that obtained using a both commercial s-lens interface and a in-line dual ion funnel interface.

  9. Stability-indicating HPLC method development and structural elucidation of novel degradation products in posaconazole injection by LC-TOF/MS, LC-MS/MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidi; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Fei; Li, Wei; Wu, Ying; Ding, Li

    2016-06-01

    Stress testing was carried out under acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions to evaluate the intrinsic stability of posaconazole injection. A total of four degradation products were detected and the drug was found to be susceptible to oxidative and thermal degradations. Three unknown degradants formed under oxidative stress condition were isolated by preparative HPLC and unambiguously elucidated by LC-TOF/MS, LC-MS/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR techniques. Based on the spectrometric and spectroscopic information, these novel degradation products were unequivocally assigned as the N-oxides of posaconazole. Probable mechanisms for the formation of the degradants were proposed. A new and selective HPLC method was developed and validated to separate, detect and quantify all the degradants in posaconazole injection. PMID:27023129

  10. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations. PMID:26058547

  11. Comprehensive identification of 125 multifarious constituents in Shuang-huang-lian powder injection by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyang; Liu, Meixian; Lin, Zongtao; Jiang, Haixiu; Niu, Yanyan; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2015-11-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS) method was established for excellent separation and structural identification of constituents in Shuang-huang-lian powder injection (SHLPI). The typical ultraviolet absorptions, accurate empirical molecular formula and reasonable fragmentation mechanisms of these ingredients were used for their structural elucidation. In consequence, 125 constituents (33 phenolic acids, 29 flavonoids, 32 phenylethanoid glycosides, 15 iridoid glycosides, 8 lignans, 3 amino acids and 2 purines nucleosides, 2 quinoid glycosides and 1 alkylbenzene glycoside) were either unequivocally identified or tentatively characterized by comparing authentic standards or published data. The result showed that this study could provide valuable information for the quality control and further investigation of SHLPI formula. PMID:26177215

  12. Identification of schisandrin as a vascular endothelium protective component in YiQiFuMai Powder Injection using HUVECs binding and HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Tan, Yi-Sha; Chen, Hong-Lin; Yan, Yan; Zhai, Ke-Feng; Li, Da-Peng; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2015-09-01

    YiQiFuMai Powder Injection (YQFM) is a re-developed preparation based on the well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-mai-san. It has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with definite clinical efficacy in China, but its bioactive molecules remain obscure. In this study, an effective method has been employed as a tool for screening active components in YQFM, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). Nine compounds, which could interact with HUVECs, were identified as ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1/Rg5 and schisandrin by comparing with reference substances or literature. In vitro assays showed that schisandrin at concentrations of 10-100 μM protected HUVECs from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, increased cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) content and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malonaldehyde (MDA) content and ROS generation. Moreover, schisandrin pretreatment inhibited cell apoptosis, as evidenced by inhibiting activation of caspase-3 and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data indicate that HUVECs biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis is a reliable method for screening potential bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines. Meanwhile, the vascular endothelium protective property of schisandrin might be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26452526

  13. Screening and identification of multi-components in Re Du Ning injections using LC/TOF-MS coupled with UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhenzhong; Peng, Ying; Fu, Xiaohuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Xiao, Wei; Song, Shaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-UV-irradiation (HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in Re Du Ning Injections (RDNI). A total of 20 potentially bioactive compounds including 10 caffeoylquinic acids and 10 iridoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized in RDNI by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. In particular, UV-irradiation was employed in the identification of the cis/trans isomers of caffeoylquinic acids. Furthermore, each compound was assigned to the individual raw materials (Artemisia annua L., Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) present in RDNI. This is the first time that an HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV analytical method has been used for the identification of caffeoylquinic acids in RDNI. PMID:25265866

  14. Orthogonal polynomials and tolerancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2011-10-01

    Previous papers have established the inadvisability of applying tolerances directly to power-series aspheric coefficients. The basic reason is that the individual terms are far from orthogonal. Zernike surfaces and the new Forbes surface types have certain orthogonality properties over the circle described by the "normalization radius." However, at surfaces away from the stop, the optical beam is smaller than the surface, and the polynomials are not orthogonal over the area sampled by the beam. In this paper, we investigate the breakdown of orthogonality as the surface moves away from the aperture stop, and the implications of this to tolerancing.

  15. PHENIX Fast TOF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aria; Chiu, Mickey; Mannel, Eric; Stoll, Sean; Lynch, Don; Boose, Steve; Northacker, Dave; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James; Chujo, Tatsuya; Inaba, Motoi; Nonaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Wataru; Sakatani, Ikumi; Hirano, Masahiro; Choi, Ihnjea

    2014-01-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.

  16. Orthogonal Regression and Equivariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    Ordinary least-squares regression treats the variables asymmetrically, designating a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. When it is not obvious how to make this distinction, a researcher may prefer to use orthogonal regression, which treats the variables symmetrically. However, the usual procedure for orthogonal regression is…

  17. Coherent orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-08-15

    We discuss a fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials, like the existence of a Lie algebra behind them, which can be added to their other relevant aspects. At the basis of the complete framework for orthogonal polynomials we include thus–in addition to differential equations, recurrence relations, Hilbert spaces and square integrable functions–Lie algebra theory. We start here from the square integrable functions on the open connected subset of the real line whose bases are related to orthogonal polynomials. All these one-dimensional continuous spaces allow, besides the standard uncountable basis (|x〉), for an alternative countable basis (|n〉). The matrix elements that relate these two bases are essentially the orthogonal polynomials: Hermite polynomials for the line and Laguerre and Legendre polynomials for the half-line and the line interval, respectively. Differential recurrence relations of orthogonal polynomials allow us to realize that they determine an infinite-dimensional irreducible representation of a non-compact Lie algebra, whose second order Casimir C gives rise to the second order differential equation that defines the corresponding family of orthogonal polynomials. Thus, the Weyl–Heisenberg algebra h(1) with C=0 for Hermite polynomials and su(1,1) with C=−1/4 for Laguerre and Legendre polynomials are obtained. Starting from the orthogonal polynomials the Lie algebra is extended both to the whole space of the L{sup 2} functions and to the corresponding Universal Enveloping Algebra and transformation group. Generalized coherent states from each vector in the space L{sup 2} and, in particular, generalized coherent polynomials are thus obtained. -- Highlights: •Fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials (OP): existence of a Lie algebra. •Differential recurrence relations of OP determine a unitary representation of a non-compact Lie group. •2nd order Casimir originates a 2nd order differential equation that defines

  18. Orthogonal tensor decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamara G. Kolda

    2000-03-01

    The authors explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multi-dimensional arrays or n-way arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. They present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. They conclude with a counterexample to a tensor extension of the Eckart-Young SVD approximation theorem by Leibovici and Sabatier [Linear Algebra Appl. 269(1998):307--329].

  19. Reengineering orthogonally selective riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Neil; Duncan, John N; Geerlings, Torsten; Dunstan, Mark S; McCarthy, John E G; Leys, David; Micklefield, Jason

    2010-02-16

    The ability to independently control the expression of multiple genes by addition of distinct small-molecule modulators has many applications from synthetic biology, functional genomics, pharmaceutical target validation, through to gene therapy. Riboswitches are relatively simple, small-molecule-dependent, protein-free, mRNA genetic switches that are attractive targets for reengineering in this context. Using a combination of chemical genetics and genetic selection, we have developed riboswitches that are selective for synthetic "nonnatural" small molecules and no longer respond to the natural intracellular ligands. The orthogonal selectivity of the riboswitches is also demonstrated in vitro using isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray crystallography. The riboswitches allow highly responsive, dose-dependent, orthogonally selective, and dynamic control of gene expression in vivo. It is possible that this approach may be further developed to reengineer other natural riboswitches for application as small-molecule responsive genetic switches in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:20133756

  20. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  1. Accelerated time-of-flight (TOF) PET image reconstruction using TOF bin subsetization and TOF weighting matrix pre-computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Kotasidis, Fotis; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-02-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) technology has recently regained popularity in clinical PET studies for improving image quality and lesion detectability. Using TOF information, the spatial location of annihilation events is confined to a number of image voxels along each line of response, thereby the cross-dependencies of image voxels are reduced, which in turns results in improved signal-to-noise ratio and convergence rate. In this work, we propose a novel approach to further improve the convergence of the expectation maximization (EM)-based TOF PET image reconstruction algorithm through subsetization of emission data over TOF bins as well as azimuthal bins. Given the prevalence of TOF PET, we elaborated the practical and efficient implementation of TOF PET image reconstruction through the pre-computation of TOF weighting coefficients while exploiting the same in-plane and axial symmetries used in pre-computation of geometric system matrix. In the proposed subsetization approach, TOF PET data were partitioned into a number of interleaved TOF subsets, with the aim of reducing the spatial coupling of TOF bins and therefore to improve the convergence of the standard maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) and ordered subsets EM (OSEM) algorithms. The comparison of on-the-fly and pre-computed TOF projections showed that the pre-computation of the TOF weighting coefficients can considerably reduce the computation time of TOF PET image reconstruction. The convergence rate and bias-variance performance of the proposed TOF subsetization scheme were evaluated using simulated, experimental phantom and clinical studies. Simulations demonstrated that as the number of TOF subsets is increased, the convergence rate of MLEM and OSEM algorithms is improved. It was also found that for the same computation time, the proposed subsetization gives rise to further convergence. The bias-variance analysis of the experimental NEMA phantom and a clinical

  2. Orthogonal Regression: A Teaching Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A well-known approach to linear least squares regression is that which involves minimizing the sum of squared orthogonal projections of data points onto the best fit line. This form of regression is known as orthogonal regression, and the linear model that it yields is known as the major axis. A similar method, reduced major axis regression, is…

  3. The Orthogonal Transfer CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Burke, Barry E.; Schechter, Paul L.

    1997-10-01

    We have designed and built a new type of CCD that we call an orthogonal transfer CCD (OTCCD), which permits parallel clocking horizontally as well as vertically. The device has been used successfully to remove image motion caused by atmospheric turbulence at rates up to 100 Hz, and promises to be a better, cheaper way to carry out image motion correction for imaging than by using fast tip/tilt mirrors. We report on the device characteristics, and find that the large number of transfers needed to track image motion does not significantly degrade the image either because of charge transfer inefficiency or because of charge traps. For example, after 100 sec of tracking at 100 Hz approximately 3% of the charge would diffuse into a skirt around the point spread function. Four nights of data at the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) 2.4-m telescope also indicate that the atmosphere is surprisingly benign, in terms of both the speed and coherence angle of image motion. Image motion compensation improved image sharpness by about 0.5'' in quadrature with no degradation over a field of at least 3 arcminutes. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  4. "Orthogonality" in Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David

    2014-01-01

    This chapter proposes a simple framework, "orthogonality," to help clarify what stakeholders think about learning in college, how we assess outcomes, and how clear assessment methods might help increase confidence in returns on investment.

  5. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  6. Orthogonal polynomials and deformed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    In the example of the Fibonacci oscillator, we discuss the construction of oscillator-like systems associated with orthogonal polynomials. We also consider the question of the dimensions of the corresponding Lie algebras.

  7. Nonlocality of orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal product basis quantum states in d ⊗d . In 3 ⊗3 , Bennett et al. [ Phys. Rev. A 59, 1070 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1070] presented nine orthogonal product basis quantum states which cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). In the work by Zhang et al. [Z.-C. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022313 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.022313], this result was generalized in d ⊗d , where d is odd. In this paper, we aim to construct locally indistinguishable orthogonal product basis quantum states in d ⊗d . For the general d ⊗d (d >2 ) quantum system, we first construct 4 d -4 orthogonal product states, and prove these states are locally indistinguishable using a very simple but quite effective method. Then, based on these states, we construct some classes of locally indistinguishable orthogonal product basis quantum states (OPBS) in d ⊗d (d >2 ) . Finally, we construct some LOCC indistinguishable OPBS in multipartite quantum systems. All of the above results demonstrate the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement.

  8. Biomedical studies by TOF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Bich, Claudia; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled to time-of-flight mass analysis (TOF-SIMS) is a method of which the applications have greatly increased since 10 years. Taking advantage of the development of cluster ion sources, TOF-SIMS offers images of molecular ions at a micrometer lateral resolution or slightly below and does not require complex sample preparation. Although TOF-SIMS has been primarily dedicated to surface analysis of inorganic or polymeric samples, several groups have successfully demonstrated that TOF-SIMS imaging is also perfectly suited for mapping organic compounds, such as drugs or lipids, directly on tissue sections from animals or from human biopsies. This minireview will enlighten some of these developments in the field of biomedical applications. PMID:25708628

  9. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  10. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  11. High sensitive and throughput screening of Aflatoxin using MALDI-TOF-TOF-PSD-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have achieved sensitive and efficient detection of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF) and post-source decay (PSD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an acetic acid – a-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic a...

  12. Generalized orthogonal wavelet phase reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Axtell, Travis W; Cristi, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Phase reconstruction is used for feedback control in adaptive optics systems. To achieve performance metrics for high actuator density or with limited processing capabilities on spacecraft, a wavelet signal processing technique is advantageous. Previous derivations of this technique have been limited to the Haar wavelet. This paper derives the relationship and algorithms to reconstruct phase with O(n) computational complexity for wavelets with the orthogonal property. This has additional benefits for performance with noise in the measurements. We also provide details on how to handle the boundary condition for telescope apertures. PMID:23695316

  13. Time-resolved proper orthogonal decomposition of liquid jet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arienti, Marco; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2009-11-01

    New insight into the mechanism of liquid jet in crossflow atomization is provided by an analysis technique based on proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. Data are provided in the form of high-speed videos of the jet near field from experiments over a broad range of injection conditions. For each condition, proper orthogonal modes (POMs) are generated and ordered by intensity variation relative to the time average. The feasibility of jet dynamics reduction by truncation of the POM series to the first few modes is then examined as a function of crossflow velocity for laminar and turbulent liquid injection. At conditions where the jet breaks up into large chunks of liquid, the superposition of specific orthogonal modes is observed to track long waves traveling along the liquid column. The temporal coefficients of these modes can be described as a bandpass spectrum that shifts toward higher frequencies as the crossflow velocity is increased. The dynamic correlation of these modes is quantified by their cross-power spectrum density. Based on the frequency and wavelength extracted from the videos, the observed traveling waves are linked to the linearly fastest growing wave of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The gas boundary layer thickness at the gas-liquid shear layer emerges at the end of this study as the dominant length scale of jet dynamics at moderate Weber numbers.

  14. Nonambipolarity, orthogonal conductivity, poloidal flow, and torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, G.W.; Perkins, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    Nonambipolar processes, such as neutral injection onto trapped orbits or ripple-diffusion loss of ..cap alpha..-particles, act to charge a plasma. A current j/sub r/ across magnetic surfaces must arise in the bulk plasma to maintain charge neutrality. An axisymmetric, neoclassical model of the bulk plasma shows that these currents are carried by the ions and exert a j/sub r/B/sub theta/R/c torque in the toroidal direction. A driven poloidal flow V/sub theta/ = E/sub r/'c/B must also develop. The average current density is related to the radial electric field E/sub r/' = E/sub r/ + v/sub /phi//B/sub theta//c in a frame moving with the plasma via the orthogonal conductivity = sigma/sub /perpendicular//E/sub r/', which has the value sigma/sub /perpendicular// = (1.65epsilon/sup 1/2/)(ne/sup 2/..nu../sub ii//M..cap omega../sub theta//sup 2/) in the banana regime. If an ignited plasma loses an appreciable fraction ..delta.. of its thermonuclear ..cap alpha..-particles by banana ripple diffusion, then the torque will spin the plasma to sonic rotation in a time /tau//sub s/ approx. 2/tau//sub E//..delta.., /tau//sub E/ being the energy confinement time. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Orthogonality catastrophe in quantum sticking.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Dennis P; Zhang, Yanting

    2012-09-21

    We show that the orthogonality catastrophe can dramatically affect the probability with which an ultralow energy atom or ion will stick to a surface. We predict new energy-dependent scaling laws for the sticking probability in this low-energy regime. We provide numerical results of this theory for the case of ultracold electrons sticking to the surface of highly porous silicon and show that the sticking probability can differ substantially from that calculated with perturbation theory. We then generalize our results for finite surface temperatures and find surprisingly that the sticking probability can change sharply, vanishing below a critical incident energy that varies with the surface temperature. We describe in detail this superreflective surface phase for ultralow energy matter waves where the reflection coefficient is strictly equal to one. PMID:23005925

  16. Orthogonality Catastrophe in Quantum Sticking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis P.; Zhang, Yanting

    2012-09-01

    We show that the orthogonality catastrophe can dramatically affect the probability with which an ultralow energy atom or ion will stick to a surface. We predict new energy-dependent scaling laws for the sticking probability in this low-energy regime. We provide numerical results of this theory for the case of ultracold electrons sticking to the surface of highly porous silicon and show that the sticking probability can differ substantially from that calculated with perturbation theory. We then generalize our results for finite surface temperatures and find surprisingly that the sticking probability can change sharply, vanishing below a critical incident energy that varies with the surface temperature. We describe in detail this superreflective surface phase for ultralow energy matter waves where the reflection coefficient is strictly equal to one.

  17. Orthogonal separations: Comparison of orthogonality metrics by statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schure, Mark R; Davis, Joe M

    2015-10-01

    Twenty orthogonality metrics (OMs) derived from convex hull, information theory, fractal dimension, correlation coefficients, nearest neighbor distances and bin-density techniques were calculated from a diverse group of 47 experimental two-dimensional (2D) chromatograms. These chromatograms comprise two datasets; one dataset is a collection of 2D chromatograms from Peter Carr's laboratory at the University of Minnesota, and the other dataset is based on pairs of one-dimensional chromatograms previously published by Martin Gilar and coworkers (Waters Corp.). The chromatograms were pooled to make a third or combined dataset. Cross-correlation results suggest that specific OMs are correlated within families of nearest neighbor methods, correlation coefficients and the information theory methods. Principal component analysis of the OMs show that none of the OMs stands out as clearly better at explaining the data variance than any another OM. Principal component analysis of individual chromatograms shows that different OMs favor certain chromatograms. The chromatograms exhibit a range of quality, as subjectively graded by nine experts experienced in 2D chromatography. The subjective (grading) evaluations were taken at two intervals per expert and demonstrated excellent consistency for each expert. Excellent agreement for both very good and very bad chromatograms was seen across the range of experts. However, evaluation uncertainty increased for chromatograms that were judged as average to mediocre. The grades were converted to numbers (percentages) for numerical computations. The percentages were correlated with OMs to establish good OMs for evaluating the quality of 2D chromatograms. Certain metrics correlate better than others. However, these results are not consistent across all chromatograms examined. Most of the nearest neighbor methods were observed to correlate poorly with the percentages. However, one method, devised by Clark and Evans, appeared to work

  18. Experimental stability maps of a 1550nm-VCSEL subject to polarized optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, A.; Schires, K.; Khan, N.; Quirce, A.; Valle, A.; Pesquera, L.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J.

    2010-02-01

    We report an experimental study of the injection locking properties and nonlinear dynamics of a 1550nm-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel and to orthogonal polarized optical injection into the two orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental transverse mode of the device. A rich variety of nonlinear dynamics have been observed for both parallel and orthogonal optical injection outside the stable locking range, including limit cycle, period doubling, chaos and polarization switching. Additionally, for the case of orthogonal optical injection, we report a first experimental observation of the change in the shape of the stability map as the applied bias current is increased well above threshold.

  19. MAP reconstruction for Fourier rebinned TOF-PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bing; Lin, Yanguang; Zhu, Wentao; Ren, Ran; Li, Quanzheng; Dahlbom, Magnus; DiFilippo, Frank; Leahy, Richard M.

    2014-02-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) information improves the signal-to-noise ratio in positron emission tomography (PET). The computation cost in processing TOF-PET sinograms is substantially higher than for nonTOF data because the data in each line of response is divided among multiple TOF bins. This additional cost has motivated research into methods for rebinning TOF data into lower dimensional representations that exploit redundancies inherent in TOF data. We have previously developed approximate Fourier methods that rebin TOF data into either three-dimensional (3D) nonTOF or 2D nonTOF formats. We refer to these methods respectively as FORET-3D and FORET-2D. Here we describe maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators for use with FORET rebinned data. We first derive approximate expressions for the variance of the rebinned data. We then use these results to rescale the data so that the variance and mean are approximately equal allowing us to use the Poisson likelihood model for MAP reconstruction. MAP reconstruction from these rebinned data uses a system matrix in which the detector response model accounts for the effects of rebinning. Using these methods we compare the performance of FORET-2D and 3D with TOF and nonTOF reconstructions using phantom and clinical data. Our phantom results show a small loss in contrast recovery at matched noise levels using FORET compared to reconstruction from the original TOF data. Clinical examples show FORET images that are qualitatively similar to those obtained from the original TOF-PET data but with a small increase in variance at matched resolution. Reconstruction time is reduced by a factor of 5 and 30 using FORET3D+MAP and FORET2D+MAP respectively compared to 3D TOF MAP, which makes these methods attractive for clinical applications.

  20. Cherenkov TOF PET with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenec, R.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Pestotnik, R.

    2015-12-01

    As previously demonstrated, an excellent timing resolution below 100 ps FWHM is possible in time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) if the detection method is based on the principle of detecting photons of Cherenkov light, produced in a suitable material and detected by microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). In this work, the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were tested for the first time as the photodetectors in Cherenkov TOF PET. The high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of SiPMs led to a large improvement in detection efficiency. On the other hand, the time response of currently available SiPMs is not as good as that of MCP PMTs. The SiPM dark counts introduce a new source of random coincidences in Cherenkov method, which would be overwhelming with present SiPM technology at room temperature. When the apparatus was cooled, its performance significantly improved.

  1. Characterization of honeybee venom by MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-QqTOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Kokot, Zenon J

    2011-01-25

    The aim of the study was to comprehensively characterize different honeybee venom samples applying two complementary mass spectrometry methods. 41 honeybee venom samples of different bee strains, country of origin (Poland, Georgia, and Estonia), year and season of the venom collection were analyzed using MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-QqTOF-MS. It was possible to obtain semi-quantitative data for 12 different components in selected honeybee venom samples using MALDI-TOF method without further sophisticated and time consuming sample pretreatment. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) has shown that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition between honeybee venom samples collected over different years. It has also been demonstrated that MALDI-TOF spectra can be used as a "protein fingerprint" of honeybee venom in order to confirm the identity of the product. NanoESI-QqTOF-MS was applied especially for identification purposes. Using this technique 16 peptide sequences were identified, including melittin (12 different breakdown products and precursors), apamine, mast cell degranulating peptide and secapin. Moreover, the significant achievement of this study is the fact that the new peptide (HTGAVLAGV+Amidated (C-term), M(r)=822.53Da) has been discovered in bee venom for the first time. PMID:20850943

  2. [Orthogonal Vector Projection Algorithm for Spectral Unmixing].

    PubMed

    Song, Mei-ping; Xu, Xing-wei; Chang, Chein-I; An, Ju-bai; Yao, Li

    2015-12-01

    Spectrum unmixing is an important part of hyperspectral technologies, which is essential for material quantity analysis in hyperspectral imagery. Most linear unmixing algorithms require computations of matrix multiplication and matrix inversion or matrix determination. These are difficult for programming, especially hard for realization on hardware. At the same time, the computation costs of the algorithms increase significantly as the number of endmembers grows. Here, based on the traditional algorithm Orthogonal Subspace Projection, a new method called. Orthogonal Vector Projection is prompted using orthogonal principle. It simplifies this process by avoiding matrix multiplication and inversion. It firstly computes the final orthogonal vector via Gram-Schmidt process for each endmember spectrum. And then, these orthogonal vectors are used as projection vector for the pixel signature. The unconstrained abundance can be obtained directly by projecting the signature to the projection vectors, and computing the ratio of projected vector length and orthogonal vector length. Compared to the Orthogonal Subspace Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms, this method does not need matrix inversion, which is much computation costing and hard to implement on hardware. It just completes the orthogonalization process by repeated vector operations, easy for application on both parallel computation and hardware. The reasonability of the algorithm is proved by its relationship with Orthogonal Sub-space Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms. And its computational complexity is also compared with the other two algorithms', which is the lowest one. At last, the experimental results on synthetic image and real image are also provided, giving another evidence for effectiveness of the method. PMID:26964231

  3. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  4. Analytic TOF PET reconstruction algorithm within DIRECT data partitioning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matej, Samuel; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2016-05-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms are routinely used for clinical practice; however, analytic algorithms are relevant candidates for quantitative research studies due to their linear behavior. While iterative algorithms also benefit from the inclusion of accurate data and noise models the widespread use of time-of-flight (TOF) scanners with less sensitivity to noise and data imperfections make analytic algorithms even more promising. In our previous work we have developed a novel iterative reconstruction approach (DIRECT: direct image reconstruction for TOF) providing convenient TOF data partitioning framework and leading to very efficient reconstructions. In this work we have expanded DIRECT to include an analytic TOF algorithm with confidence weighting incorporating models of both TOF and spatial resolution kernels. Feasibility studies using simulated and measured data demonstrate that analytic-DIRECT with appropriate resolution and regularization filters is able to provide matched bias versus variance performance to iterative TOF reconstruction with a matched resolution model.

  5. Fragmentation of Multiply-Charged Intact Protein Ions Using MALDI TOF-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Schey, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    Top down proteomics in a TOF-TOF instrument was further explored by examining the fragmentation of multiply charged precursors ions generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Evaluation of sample preparation conditions allowed selection of solvent/matrix conditions and sample deposition methods to produce sufficiently abundant doubly and triply charged precursor ions for subsequent CID experiments. As previously reported, preferential cleavage was observed at sites C-terminal to acidic residues and N-terminal to proline residues for all ions examined. An increase in non-preferential fragmentation as well as additional low mass product ions was observed in the spectra from multiply charged precursor ions providing increased sequence coverage. This enhanced fragmentation from multiply charged precursor ions became increasingly important with increasing protein molecular weight and facilitates protein identification using database searching algorithms. The useable mass range for MALDI TOF-TOF analysis of intact proteins has been expanded to 18.2 kDa using this approach. PMID:17693096

  6. Orthogonality and distinguishability: Criterion for local distinguishability of arbitrary orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2003-12-01

    We consider the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multipartite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

  7. PTR-QMS versus PTR-TOF comparison in a region with oil and natural gas extraction industry in the Uintah Basin in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Veres, P.; Murphy, S. M.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Graus, M. G.; Koss, A.; Li, S.-M.; Li, R.; Yuan, B.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we compare volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements using a standard proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) with a new proton-transfer-reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF) during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2013 (UBWOS2013) field experiment in an oil and gas field in the Uintah Basin, Utah. The PTR-QMS uses a quadrupole, which is a mass filter that lets one mass to charge ratio pass at a time, whereas the PTR-TOF uses a time of flight mass spectrometer, which takes full mass spectra with typical 0.1 s-1 min integrated acquisition times. The sensitivity of the PTR-QMS in units of counts per ppbv (parts per billion by volume) is about a factor of 10-35 times larger than the PTR-TOF, when only one VOC is measured. The sensitivity of the PTR-TOF is mass dependent because of the mass discrimination caused by the sampling duty cycle in the orthogonal-acceleration region of the TOF. For example, the PTR-QMS on mass 33 (methanol) is 35 times more sensitive than the PTR-TOF and for masses above 120 amu less than 10 times more. If more than 10-35 compounds are measured with PTR-QMS, the sampling time per ion decreases and the PTR-TOF has higher signals per unit measuring time for most masses. For UBWOS2013 the PTR-QMS measured 34 masses in 37 s and on that timescale the PTR-TOF is more sensitive for all masses. The high mass resolution of the TOF allows for the measurements of compounds that cannot be separately detected with the PTR-QMS, such as oxidation products from alkanes and cycloalkanes emitted by oil and gas extraction. PTR-TOF masses do not have to be preselected, allowing for identification of unanticipated compounds. The measured mixing ratios of the two instruments agreed very well (R2 ≥ 0.92 and within 20%) for all compounds and masses monitored with the PTR-QMS.

  8. PTR-QMS vs. PTR-TOF comparison in a region with oil and natural gas extraction industry in the Uintah Basin in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Murphy, S. M.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Graus, M. G.; Koss, A.; Li, S.-M.; Li, R.; Yuan, B.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Here we compare volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements using a standard Proton-Transfer-Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-QMS) with a new Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF) during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2013 (UBWOS2013) field experiment in an oil and gas field in the Uintah Basin, Utah. The PTR-QMS uses a quadrupole, which is a mass filter that lets one mass pass at a time, whereas the PTR-TOF uses a Time Of Flight mass spectrometer, which takes full mass spectra with typical 0.1 s to 1 min integrated acquisition times. The sensitivity of the PTR-QMS in units of counts per ppbv is about a factor of 10-35 times larger than the PTR-TOF, when only one VOC is measured. The sensitivity of the PTR-TOF is mass dependent because of the mass discrimination caused by the sampling duty cycle in the orthogonal-acceleration region of the TOF. For example, the PTR-QMS on mass 33 (methanol) is 35 times more sensitive than the PTR-TOF and for masses above 120 amu less than 10 times more. If more than 10-35 compounds are measured with PTR-QMS, the sampling time per ion decreases and the PTR-TOF has higher signals per unit measuring time for most masses. For UBWOS2013 the PTR-QMS measured 34 masses in 37 s and on that time-scale the PTR-TOF is more sensitive for all masses. The high mass resolution of the TOF allows for the measurements of compounds that cannot be separately detected with the PTR-QMS, such as oxidation products from alkanes and cycloalkanes emitted by oil and gas extraction. PTR-TOF masses do not have to be pre-selected allowing for identification of unanticipated compounds. The measured mixing ratios of the two instruments agreed very well (R2 ≥ 0.92 and within 20%) for all compounds and masses monitored with the PTR-QMS.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS in Prenatal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prenatal diagnosis aims either to provide the reassurance to the couples at risk of having an affected child by timely appropriate therapy or to give the parents a chance to decide the fate of the unborn babies with health problems. Invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) is accurate, however, carrying a risk of miscarriage. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been developed based on the existing of fetal genetic materials in maternal circulation; however, a minority fetal DNA in majority maternal background DNA hinders the detections of fetal traits. Different protocols and assays, such as homogenous MassEXTEND (hME), single allele base extension reaction (SABER), precise measuring copy number variation of each allele, and quantitative methylation and expression analysis using the high-throughput sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), allow NIPD for single gene disorders, fetal blood group genotyping and fetal aneuploidies as well as the development of fetal gender-independent biomarkers in maternal circulation for management of pathological pregnancies. In this review, we summarise the use of MALDI-TOF MS in prenatal genomics. PMID:21049077

  10. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  11. Top-down proteomic identification of bacterial protein biomarkers and toxins using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS and post-source decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS)has provided new capabilities for the rapid identification of digested and non-digested proteins. The tandem (MS/MS) capability of TOF-TOF instruments allows precursor ion selection/isolation...

  12. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  13. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile. PMID:25230186

  14. Nonlocality of orthogonal product basis quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Tian, Guo-Jing; Cao, Tian-Qing; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal product basis quantum states in the high-dimensional quantum systems. In the Hilbert space of 3⊗3, Walgate and Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 147901 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.147901] presented a very simple proof for nonlocality of nine orthogonal product basis quantum states which are given by Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1070 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1070]. In the quantum system of d⊗d, where d is odd, we construct d2 orthogonal product basis quantum states and prove these states are locally indistinguishable. Then we are able to construct some locally indistinguishable product basis quantum states in the multipartite systems. All these results reveal the phenomenon of "nonlocality without entanglement."

  15. Orthogonal rational functions and tridiagonal matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, A.; González-Vera, P.; Hendriksen, E.; Njåstad, O.

    2003-04-01

    We study the recurrence relation for rational functions whose poles are in a prescribed sequence of numbers that are real or infinite and that are orthogonal with respect to an Hermitian positive linear functional. We especially discuss the interplay between finite and infinite poles. The recurrence relation will also be described in terms of a tridiagonal matrix which is a generalization of the Jacobi. matrix of the polynomial situation which corresponds to placing all the poles at infinity. This matrix not only describes the recurrence relation, but it can be used to give a determinant expression for the orthogonal rational functions and it also allows for the formulation of a generalized eigenvalue problem whose eigenvalues are the zeros of an orthogonal rational function. These nodes can be used in rational Gauss-type quadrature formulas and the corresponding weights can be obtained from the first components of the corresponding eigenvectors.

  16. Thermotriggered Catalyst-Free Modification of a Glass Surface with an Orthogonal Agent Possessing Nitrile N-Oxide and Masked Ketene Functions.

    PubMed

    Cheawchan, Sumitra; Uchida, Satoshi; Sogawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Yasuhito; Takata, Toshikazu

    2016-01-12

    The thermotriggered modification of surfaces was performed under catalyst-free conditions using an orthogonal agent possessing both nitrile N-oxide and Meldrum's acid moieties. The nitrile N-oxide moiety of the orthogonal agent successfully underwent catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to unsaturated bonds of glass surfaces to produce Meldrum's acid-functionalized surfaces. The subsequent thermal decomposition of Meldrum's acid moiety in the presence of nucleophiles afforded versatile nucleophile-modified surfaces (e.g., wet, waterproof, and photoactive surfaces). Surface characteristics were investigated with the water contact angle, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the surface modification of silica nanoparticles using the orthogonal agent was also achieved to evaluate the density of the functional group concentration on the surface. PMID:26652940

  17. Investigating the microstructure of keratin extracted from wool: peptide sequence (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and protein conformation (FTIR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin was extracted from wool by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. It was isolated as intact keratin and characterized by its similar molecular weight, protein composition, and secondary structure to native keratin. Gel electrophoresis patterns and MALDI-TOF/TOF peptide sequences provided the ide...

  18. Top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol and discussion of top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and web-based software developed in the Pro...

  19. MALDI-TOF and cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging of Fabry disease biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, David; Roy, Sandrine; Germain, Dominique P.; Chaminade, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Laprevote, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism, in which a partial or total deficiency of [alpha]-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme, results in the progressive accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids (globotriaosylceramide and digalactosylceramide) in most fluids and tissues of the body. Few information is available about the composition and distribution in tissues of the accumulated glycosphingolipids species. Mass spectrometry imaging is an innovative technique, which can provide pieces of information about the distribution of numerous biological compounds, such as lipids, directly on the tissue sections. MALDI-TOF and cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging approaches were used to study the localization of lipids (cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, vitamin E, glycosphingolipids ...) on skin and kidney sections of patients affected by the Fabry disease. Numerous information on pathophysiology were enlightened by both techniques.

  20. MALDI-TOF/TOF CID Study of Poly(1,4-dihydroxybenzene terephthalate) Fragmentation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Anthony P.; Stow, Sarah M.; McLean, John A.; Hercules, David M.

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF/TOF collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were conducted on model aromatic polyester oligomers. CID fragmentation studies identified initial fracture of the ester bond and subsequent CO loss as a major pathway, consistent with the general fragmentation mechanism used to explain the origin of poly(p-phenylenediamine terephthalamide) (PPD-T) fragment ions. Specifically, both charge-remote and charge-site fragmentation were observed. Different parent-ion species were observed, the major ones being carboxyl-hydroxyl, di-carboxyl, di-hydroxyl, and phenyl-carboxyl terminated. One species observed was hydroxyl-diethylamine terminated caused by reaction of carboxyl groups with triethylamine added to the synthesis reaction mixture. Fragment ions reflected the end groups of the parent oligomers. Some MALDI fragment-ion spectra were obtained for species showing exchange between Li and H at the carboxyl end group. Bond energy calculations provide further insight into suggested fragmentation mechanisms. PMID:26195848

  1. Actinobaculum schaalii: identification with MALDI-TOF

    PubMed Central

    Tuuminen, T; Suomala, P; Harju, I

    2014-01-01

    Actinobaculum schaalii is an emerging uropathogen. So far, its identification has been performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing or PCR. The diagnosis has often been delayed due to fastidious growth and identification problems. Eleven clinical isolates of A. schaalii from bloodstream infections that were initially identified with 16S rRNA sequencing analysis were recovered and later identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). We present a review of bacteriological data of these patients, an algorithm for fast laboratory work-up and advocate the use of sensitized culture of urine to allow better recovery of A. schaalii in susceptible patients. PMID:25356339

  2. Improved piecewise orthogonal signal correction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Feudale, Robert N; Tan, Huwei; Brown, Steven D

    2003-10-01

    Piecewise orthogonal signal correction (POSC), an algorithm that performs local orthogonal filtering, was recently developed to process spectral signals. POSC was shown to improve partial leastsquares regression models over models built with conventional OSC. However, rank deficiencies within the POSC algorithm lead to artifacts in the filtered spectra when removing two or more POSC components. Thus, an updated OSC algorithm for use with the piecewise procedure is reported. It will be demonstrated how the mathematics of this updated OSC algorithm were derived from the previous version and why some OSC versions may not be as appropriate to use with the piecewise modeling procedure as the algorithm reported here. PMID:14639746

  3. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  4. Three-Dimensional Orthogonal Co-ordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, J.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic approach to general orthogonal co-ordinates, suitable for use near the end of a beginning vector analysis course, is presented. It introduces students to tensor quantities and shows how equations and quantities needed in classical problems can be determined. (Author/LS)

  5. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics. PMID:26676997

  6. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  7. Nonlinear Submodels Of Orthogonal Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Gordon G.

    1973-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to suggest the orthogonal analysis of variance as a device for simplifying either the analytic or iterative problem of finding LS (least squares) estimates for the parameters of particular nonlinear models. (Author/RK)

  8. Multipartite invariant states. II. Orthogonal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-06-15

    We construct a class of multipartite states possessing orthogonal symmetry. This new class contains multipartite states which are invariant under the action of local unitary operations introduced in our preceding paper [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062314 (2006)]. We study basic properties of multipartite symmetric states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.

  9. The Rigid Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Berge, Jos M. F.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of rotating a matrix orthogonally to a best least squares fit with another matrix of the same order has a closed-form solution based on a singular value decomposition. The optimal rotation matrix is not necessarily rigid, but may also involve a reflection. In some applications, only rigid rotations are permitted. Gower (1976) has…

  10. Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)

  11. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  12. MALDI-Q-TOF mass spectrometric determination of gold and platinum in tissues using their diethyldithiocarbamate chelate complexes.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Kayoko; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Gonmori, Kunio; Suzuki, Masako; Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2014-02-01

    A rapid determination method is presented for gold (Au(3+)) and platinum (Pt(4+)) in tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Q-TOF-MS). Au and Pt ions in wet-ashed tissue solution were reacted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), and the resulting chelate complex ions Au(DDC)2 (+) and Pt(DDC)3 (+) were detected by MALDI-Q-TOF-MS using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as a matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.8 ng/g tissue and the quantification range was 2-400 ng/g for Au, and the LOD was 6 ng/g tissue and the quantification range was 20-4,000 ng/g for Pt. The Pt levels detected by MALDI-Q-TOF-MS in several tissues of a patient overdosed with cisplatin were nearly the same as those detected by flow-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The LODs of Au and Pt were 0.04 pg per well (sample spot) and 0.3 pg per well, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify Au(3+) and Pt(4+) ions in tissues by MALDI-Q-TOF-MS. PMID:23455689

  13. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  14. SS{sub p}G: A strongly orthogonal geminal method with relaxed strong orthogonality

    SciTech Connect

    Cagg, Brett A. Rassolov, Vitaly A.

    2014-10-28

    Strong orthogonality is an important constraint placed on geminal wavefunctions in order to make variational minimization tractable. However, strong orthogonality prevents certain, possibly important, excited configurations from contributing to the ground state description of chemical systems. The presented method lifts strong orthogonality constraint from geminal wavefunction by computing a perturbative-like correction to each geminal independently from the corrections to all other geminals. The method is applied to the Singlet-type Strongly orthogonal Geminals variant of the geminal wavefunction. Comparisons of this new SS{sub p}G method are made to the non-orthogonal AP1roG and the unconstrained Geminal Mean-Field Configuration Interaction method using small atomic and molecular systems. The correction is also compared to Density Matrix Renormalization Group calculations performed on long polyene chains in order to assess its scalability and applicability to large strongly correlated systems. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that although the perturbative correction is small, it may be a necessary first step in the systematic improvement of any strongly orthogonal geminal method.

  15. Impact of radar systematic error on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing chirp waveform orthogonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Liang, Xingdong; Chen, Longyong; Ding, Chibiao

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) chirp waveform, which is composed of two successive identical linear frequency modulated subpulses, is a newly proposed orthogonal waveform scheme for multiinput multioutput synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. However, according to the waveform model, radar systematic error, which introduces phase or amplitude difference between the subpulses of the OFDM waveform, significantly degrades the orthogonality. The impact of radar systematic error on the waveform orthogonality is mainly caused by the systematic nonlinearity rather than the thermal noise or the frequency-dependent systematic error. Due to the influence of the causal filters, the first subpulse leaks into the second one. The leaked signal interacts with the second subpulse in the nonlinear components of the transmitter. This interaction renders a dramatic phase distortion in the beginning of the second subpulse. The resultant distortion, which leads to a phase difference between the subpulses, seriously damages the waveform's orthogonality. The impact of radar systematic error on the waveform orthogonality is addressed. Moreover, the impact of the systematic nonlinearity on the waveform is avoided by adding a standby between the subpulses. Theoretical analysis is validated by practical experiments based on a C-band SAR system.

  16. Controlled electron injection into laser wakefields with a perpendicular injection laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.-M.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Zhang, J.

    2008-11-17

    Electron injection into laser wakefields for acceleration by two orthogonally directed laser pulses is investigated theoretically. It is found that efficient injection occurs provided the two pulses are collinearly polarized, even if the injection pulse is much weaker than the pump pulse driving wakefields. Compared with the head-on colliding injection geometry, this scheme allows for a shorter propagation distance less than a Rayleigh length for the injection pulse, before its overlapping with the pump pulse. Moreover, it can generate electron beams stably with comparable low energy spread and emittance, as demonstrated by particle-in-cell simulations. The optimization of laser parameters is also investigated.

  17. Applications of MALDI-TOF MS in environmental microbiology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-05-10

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technique for microbial identification, characterization, and typing. The single colony method can be used for obtaining a protein fingerprint or profile unique to each microorganism. This technique has been mainly used in the clinical field, but it also has significant potential in the environmental field. The applications of MALDI-TOF MS in environmental microbiology are discussed in this review. An overview on the use of MALDI-TOF MS for environmental proteomics and metabolomics is given as well as its use for bacterial strain typing and bioremediation research. A more detailed review on the use of this technique for the identification, differentiation, and categorization of environmental microorganisms is given. Some of the parameters that can influence the results and reproducibility of MALDI-TOF MS are also discussed. PMID:27072574

  18. The NIF 4.5-m nTOF Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Y

    2012-05-07

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring DD and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield benchmarks from below 1E9 (DD) to nearly 1E15 (DT). The detectors demonstrated DT yield measurement precisions better than 5%, but the absolute accuracy relies on cross calibration with independent measurements of absolute neutron yield. The 4.5-m nTOF data have provided a useful testbed for testing improvements in nTOF data processing, especially with respect to improving the accuracies of the detector impulse response functions. The resulting improvements in data analysis methods have produced more accurate results. In summary, results from the NIF 4.5-m nTOF detectors have provided consistent measurements of DD and DT neutron yields from laser-fusion implosions.

  19. Ion dispersion near parallel wire grids in orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry: predicting the effect of the approach angle on resolution.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Mark; Guilhaus, Michael; Wildgoose, Jason; Hoyes, John; Bateman, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Ions experience small deflections in the vicinity of grids in accelerators and ion mirrors in time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers. Recent experiments with an orthogonal acceleration (oa) TOF instrument have verified that the effect can significantly degrade resolution when ions approach grids at an angle deviating from 90 degrees. The phenomenon becomes significant only when ions have components of velocity at right angles to the wires of the grids. A model is presented in this study to predict this phenomenon for parallel wire grids. The fractional energy spread of ions (calculated in the static TOF-spectrometer frame of reference) scales directly with the approach angle of ions to the grid (as measured from normal approach). The energy spread also scales with the range of angles that is a consequence of the focusing effect in each gap between the wires of the grid. The equations imply that closely spaced parallel wire grids are best for deployment in oa-TOF systems where non-zero approach angles are unavoidable. Such grids are relatively impractical to manufacture and support but rectangular repeat cell grids with relatively few wires at right angles to the source axis are shown experimentally to introduce minimal energy spread. When these grids are rotated by 90 degrees, the resolution measured in a Q-TOF spectrometer is degraded in approximate agreement with the parallel wire model. A practical implication of this work is that grid transmissions in oa-TOF systems may be significantly increased without loss of resolution. Improvements of approximately 200% (V-mode) and approximately 400% (W-mode) in ion transmission were obtained in this study without compromising resolution. This was achieved with approximately 73% transmission grids and greater potential improvements in transmission are being realised since this study with approximately 89% transmission grids having similar geometry. PMID:11870899

  20. Orthogonal photoswitching in a multifunctional molecular system

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; Velema, Willem A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    The wavelength-selective, reversible photocontrol over various molecular processes in parallel remains an unsolved challenge. Overlapping ultraviolet-visible spectra of frequently employed photoswitches have prevented the development of orthogonally responsive systems, analogous to those that rely on wavelength-selective cleavage of photo-removable protecting groups. Here we report the orthogonal and reversible control of two distinct types of photoswitches in one solution, that is, a donor–acceptor Stenhouse adduct (DASA) and an azobenzene. The control is achieved by using three different wavelengths of irradiation and a thermal relaxation process. The reported combination tolerates a broad variety of differently substituted photoswitches. The presented system is also extended to an intramolecular combination of photoresponsive units. A model application for an intramolecular combination of switches is presented, in which the DASA component acts as a phase-transfer tag, while the azobenzene moiety independently controls the binding to α-cyclodextrin. PMID:27401266

  1. Orthogonal gradient networks via post polymerization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnayan Kannan, Pandiyarajan; Genzer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel synthetic route to generate orthogonal gradient networks through post polymerization reaction using pentaflurophenylmethacrylate (PFPMAc) active ester chemistry. These chemoselective monomers were successfully copolymerized with 5 mole% of the photo (methacryloyloxybenzophenone) and thermal (styrenesulfonylazide) crosslinkers. Subsequently, the copolymers were modified by a series of amines having various alkyl chain lengths. The conversion of post polymerization reaction was monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and noticed that almost all pentaflurophenyl moieties are substituted by amines within in an hour without affecting the crosslinkers. In addition, the incorporation of photo and thermal crosslinkers in the polymer enabled us to achieve stable and covalently surface-bound polymer gradient networks (PGN) in an orthogonal manner, i.e. complete control over the crosslink density of the network in two opposite directions (i.e. heat vs photo). The network properties such as wettability, swelling and tensile modulus of the gradient coatings are studied and revealed in the paper.

  2. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand. PMID:26390483

  3. Describing freeform surfaces with orthogonal functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochse, D.; Uhlendorf, K.; Reichmann, L.

    2015-09-01

    In optical design with freeform surfaces descriptions of the surfaces are needed that use only few parameters and are suitable for optimisation. Depending on the merit function - spot size or wavefront error - and the position of the surface in the system, different surface types can yield different optimisation performance. It has been demonstrated by G. Forbes that slope orthogonal polynomials are an advantageous freeform description. From literature on Gaussian moments it is known that this can be achieved using differences of Zernike polynomials, which are easy to compute and implement with recent algorithms. We will demonstrate the benefits of Zernike polynomials with optimisation examples. Furthermore we present an orthogonal surface representation on a rectangular aperture based on Chebyshev polynomials. This description is very convenient when the aperture has a very high aspect ratio, or when designing a system with a rectangular pupil.

  4. Orthogonalized operators for the f shell

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.R.; Crosswhite, H.

    1984-04-01

    Orthogonalized operators are introduced in the atomic configurations f/sup N/ in order to yield parameters that are more precisely defined and more stable than the conventional ones. Of the four Racah operators e/sub 0/, e/sub 1/, e/sub 2/, only e/sub 1/ needs adjusting. The set of two-electron scalars is made complete by the generalized Trees operators e/sub ..cap alpha../', e/sub ..beta../', and e/sub ..gamma../'. Of the three-electron scalars t/sub i/, only t/sub 2/ requires alteration. The theory is illustrated for f/sup 3/ by adding the orthogonalized operators in successive steps and comparing the fits with those obtained if the conventional operators are used.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS quantification of coccidiostats in poultry feeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Sporns, P

    2000-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a relatively new technique that is having a great impact on analyses. This study is the first to demonstrate the use of linear MALDI-TOF MS to identify and quantify coccidiostats in poultry feeds. 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found to be the best matrix. In MALDI-TOF MS, coccidiostats form predominantly [M + Na](+) ions, with additional small amounts of [M + K](+) and [M - H + 2Na](+) ions, and no obvious fragment ions. Salinomycin and narasin were unstable in the concentrated DHB matrix solution but were stable when dried on the MALDI-TOF MS probe. A simple fast Sep-pak C18 cartridge purification procedure was developed for the MALDI-TOF MS quantification of coccidiostats in poultry feeds. The MALDI-TOF MS limit of detection for lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin standards was 251, 22, 24, and 24 fmol, respectively. The method detection limit for salinomycin and narasin in poultry feeds was 2.4 microgram/g. PMID:10898626

  6. Orthogonal nilpotent superfields from linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Karlsson, Anna; Mosk, Benjamin; Murli, Divyanshu

    2016-05-01

    We derive supersymmetry/supergravity models with constrained orthogonal nilpotent superfields from the linear models in the formal limit where the masses of the sgoldstino, inflatino and sinflaton tend to infinity. The case where the sinflaton mass remains finite leads to a model with a `relaxed' constraint, where the sinflaton remains an independent field. Our procedure is equivalent to a requirement that some of the components of the curvature of the moduli space tend to infinity.

  7. Stochastic processes with orthogonal polynomial eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Bob

    2009-12-01

    Markov processes which are reversible with either Gamma, Normal, Poisson or Negative Binomial stationary distributions in the Meixner class and have orthogonal polynomial eigenfunctions are characterized as being processes subordinated to well-known diffusion processes for the Gamma and Normal, and birth and death processes for the Poisson and Negative Binomial. A characterization of Markov processes with Beta stationary distributions and Jacobi polynomial eigenvalues is also discussed.

  8. Orthogonal rational functions and quadrature on an interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deun, J.; Bultheel, A.

    2003-04-01

    Rational functions with real poles and poles in the complex lower half-plane, orthogonal on the real line, are well known. Quadrature formulas similar to the Gauss formulas for orthogonal polynomials have been studied. We generalize to the case of arbitrary complex poles and study orthogonality on a finite interval. The zeros of the orthogonal rational functions are shown to satisfy a quadratic eigenvalue problem. In the case of real poles, these zeros are used as nodes in the quadrature formulas.

  9. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  10. Functional systems with orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam; Gasparini, Giulio; Matile, Stefan

    2014-03-21

    This review summarizes the use of orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds to build functional systems. Dynamic covalent bonds are unique because of their dual nature. They can be as labile as non-covalent interactions or as permanent as covalent bonds, depending on conditions. Examples from nature, reaching from the role of disulfides in protein folding to thioester exchange in polyketide biosynthesis, indicate how dynamic covalent bonds are best used in functional systems. Several synthetic functional systems that employ a single type of dynamic covalent bonds have been reported. Considering that most functional systems make simultaneous use of several types of non-covalent interactions together, one would expect the literature to contain many examples in which different types of dynamic covalent bonds are similarly used in tandem. However, the incorporation of orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds into functional systems is a surprisingly rare and recent development. This review summarizes the available material comprehensively, covering a remarkably diverse collection of functions. However, probably more revealing than the specific functions addressed is that the questions asked are consistently quite unusual, very demanding and highly original, focusing on molecular systems that can self-sort, self-heal, adapt, exchange, replicate, transcribe, or even walk and "think" (logic gates). This focus on adventurous chemistry off the beaten track supports the promise that with orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds we can ask questions that otherwise cannot be asked. The broad range of functions and concepts covered should appeal to the supramolecular organic chemist but also to the broader community. PMID:24287608

  11. Nested Krylov methods and preserving the orthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desturler, Eric; Fokkema, Diederik R.

    1993-01-01

    Recently the GMRESR inner-outer iteraction scheme for the solution of linear systems of equations was proposed by Van der Vorst and Vuik. Similar methods have been proposed by Axelsson and Vassilevski and Saad (FGMRES). The outer iteration is GCR, which minimizes the residual over a given set of direction vectors. The inner iteration is GMRES, which at each step computes a new direction vector by approximately solving the residual equation. However, the optimality of the approximation over the space of outer search directions is ignored in the inner GMRES iteration. This leads to suboptimal corrections to the solution in the outer iteration, as components of the outer iteration directions may reenter in the inner iteration process. Therefore we propose to preserve the orthogonality relations of GCR in the inner GMRES iteration. This gives optimal corrections; however, it involves working with a singular, non-symmetric operator. We will discuss some important properties, and we will show by experiments that, in terms of matrix vector products, this modification (almost) always leads to better convergence. However, because we do more orthogonalizations, it does not always give an improved performance in CPU-time. Furthermore, we will discuss efficient implementations as well as the truncation possibilities of the outer GCR process. The experimental results indicate that for such methods it is advantageous to preserve the orthogonality in the inner iteration. Of course we can also use iteration schemes other than GMRES as the inner method; methods with short recurrences like GICGSTAB are of interest.

  12. Constrained predictive control using orthogonal expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, C.K. ); Wahlberg, B. . Dept. of Automatic Control); Ydstie, B.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Orthogonal expansion is routinely used for multivariable predictive control and optimization in the chemical and petrochemical manufacturing industries. In this article, the authors approximate bounded operators by orthogonal expansion. The rate of convergence depends on the choice of basis functions. Markov-Laguerre functions give rapid convergence for open-loop stable systems with long delay. The Markov-Kautz model can be used for lightly damped systems, and a more general orthogonal expansion is developed for modeling multivariable systems with widely scattered poles. The finite impulse response model is a special case of these models. A-priori knowledge about dominant time constants, time delay and oscillatory modes is used to reduce the model complexity and to improve conditioning of the parameter estimation algorithm. Algorithms for predictive control are developed, as well as conditions for constraint compatibility, closed-loop stability and constraint satisfaction for the ideal case. An H[infinity]--like design technique proposed guarantees robust stability in the presence of input constraints; output constraints may give chatter. A chatter-free algorithm is proposed.

  13. Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J.; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S.; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M.; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M.; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly. PMID:27090146

  14. 2D-HPLC and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis of barley proteins glycated during brewing.

    PubMed

    Petry-Podgórska, Inga; Zídková, Jitka; Flodrová, Dana; Bobálová, Janette

    2010-11-15

    The barley proteins have been the subject of interests of many research groups dealing with barley grains, malt and beer. The proteins which remain intact after harsh malting conditions influence the quality and flavor of beer. The characteristic feature of the proteins present in malt and beer is their extensive modification with carbohydrates, mainly glucose that comes from the starch degradation during technological processes. The degree of the protein glycation has an effect on the quality of malt and beer and on the properties of the beer foam. A combination of two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) was used for the analysis of the protein extracts that were reduced, alkylated, and degraded enzymatically without prior protein separation. This so-called "shot-gun" approach enabled us to determine glycation sites in one third of the proteins identified in the study and to propose potential glycation markers for fast and efficient monitoring during malting. PMID:20956095

  15. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Koehbach, Johannes; Gruber, Christian W; Becker, Christian; Kreil, David P; Jilek, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  16. High-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation by MALDI TOF/TOF Causes Charge-Remote Fragmentation of Steroid Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yuetian; Ubukata, Masaaki; Cody, Robert B.; Holy, Timothy E.; Gross, Michael L.

    2014-08-01

    A method for structural elucidation of biomolecules dating to the 1980s utilized high-energy collisions (~10 keV, laboratory frame) that induced charge-remote fragmentations (CRF), a class of fragmentations particularly informative for lipids, steroids, surfactants, and peptides. Unfortunately, the capability for high-energy activation has largely disappeared with the demise of magnetic sector instruments. With the latest designs of tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF/TOF), however, this capability is now being restored to coincide with the renewed interest in metabolites and lipids, including steroid-sulfates and other steroid metabolites. For these metabolites, structure determinations are required at concentration levels below that appropriate for NMR. To meet this need, we explored CRF with TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for two groups of steroid sulfates, 3-sulfates and 21-sulfates. We demonstrated that the current generation of MALDI TOF/TOF instruments can generate charge-remote fragmentations for these materials. The resulting collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra are useful for positional isomer differentiation and very often allow the complete structure determination of the steroid. We also propose a new nomenclature that directly indicates the cleavage sites on the steroid ring with carbon numbers.

  17. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  19. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  1. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  2. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  4. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  5. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  7. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  10. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  11. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  12. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  13. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  14. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  15. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  16. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  17. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  18. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  19. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  20. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  3. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  5. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  6. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  7. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  8. Momentum space orthogonal polynomial projection quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, C. R.; Vrinceanu, D.; Marth, C. B.; Gupta, R.

    2016-04-01

    The orthogonal polynomial projection quantization (OPPQ) is an algebraic method for solving Schrödinger’s equation by representing the wave function as an expansion {{\\Psi }}(x)={\\displaystyle \\sum }n{{{Ω }}}n{P}n(x)R(x) in terms of polynomials {P}n(x) orthogonal with respect to a suitable reference function R(x), which decays asymptotically not faster than the bound state wave function. The expansion coefficients {{{Ω }}}n are obtained as linear combinations of power moments {μ }{{p}}=\\int {x}p{{\\Psi }}(x) {{d}}x. In turn, the {μ }{{p}}'s are generated by a linear recursion relation derived from Schrödinger’s equation from an initial set of low order moments. It can be readily argued that for square integrable wave functions representing physical states {{lim}}n\\to ∞ {{{Ω }}}n=0. Rapidly converging discrete energies are obtained by setting Ω coefficients to zero at arbitrarily high order. This paper introduces an extention of OPPQ in momentum space by using the representation {{Φ }}(k)={\\displaystyle \\sum }n{{{\\Xi }}}n{Q}n(k)T(k), where Q n (k) are polynomials orthogonal with respect to a suitable reference function T(k). The advantage of this new representation is that it can help solving problems for which there is no coordinate space moment equation. This is because the power moments in momentum space are the Taylor expansion coefficients, which are recursively calculated via Schrödinger’s equation. We show the convergence of this new method for the sextic anharmonic oscillator and an algebraic treatment of Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear equation.

  9. Analysis of chromatograph systems using orthogonal collocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    Research is generating fundamental engineering design techniques and concepts for the chromatographic separator of a chemical analysis system for an unmanned, Martian roving vehicle. A chromatograph model is developed which incorporates previously neglected transport mechanisms. The numerical technique of orthogonal collocation is studied. To establish the utility of the method, three models of increasing complexity are considered, the latter two being limiting cases of the derived model: (1) a simple, diffusion-convection model; (2) a rate of adsorption limited, inter-intraparticle model; and (3) an inter-intraparticle model with negligible mass transfer resistance.

  10. Heisenberg algebra, umbral calculus and orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Levi, D.; Winternitz, P.

    2008-05-15

    Umbral calculus can be viewed as an abstract theory of the Heisenberg commutation relation [P,M]=1. In ordinary quantum mechanics, P is the derivative and M the coordinate operator. Here, we shall realize P as a second order differential operator and M as a first order integral one. We show that this makes it possible to solve large classes of differential and integrodifferential equations and to introduce new classes of orthogonal polynomials, related to Laguerre polynomials. These polynomials are particularly well suited for describing the so-called flatenned beams in laser theory.

  11. Noncommutative Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Artamonov, Dmitrii V; Golubeva, Valentina A

    2012-12-31

    Commutators of Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra are found in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N}. A generating function of Pfaffians is proved to satisfy the reflection equation. A relation between Pfaffians in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N} is established. Using these results we construct an integrable equation of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type using the Capelli central elements in U(o{sub N}), which are sums of squares of the considered Pfaffians. A classical limit of the obtained Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type equation turns out to be a very specific system of equations of isomonodromic deformations. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  12. Observations on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkooz, Gal

    1992-01-01

    The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (P.O.D.), also known as the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, is a procedure for decomposing a stochastic field in an L(2) optimal sense. It is used in diverse disciplines from image processing to turbulence. Recently the P.O.D. is receiving much attention as a tool for studying dynamics of systems in infinite dimensional space. This paper reviews the mathematical fundamentals of this theory. Also included are results on the span of the eigenfunction basis, a geometric corollary due to Chebyshev's inequality and a relation between the P.O.D. symmetry and ergodicity.

  13. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach to study the cellular immunotoxicity of deoxynivalenol on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Sun, Jiadi; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Shuang; Sun, Chao; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-08-25

    Gas chromatography-time of fly/mass spectrum (GC-TOF/MS) based complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome strategy, including the endo-metabolome and the exo-metabolome, ANA-1 cell viability assays and apoptosis induced by diverse concentrations of DON were evaluated for selection of an optimized dose for in-depth metabolomic research. Using the optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal componentanalysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. The data sets were screened with a t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, similarity value > 500, leaving 16 exo-metabolite variables and 11 endo-metabolite variables for further pathway analysis. Implementing the integration of key metabolic pathways, the metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominating types, metabolism of amino acid and glycometabolism. Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the significant amino acids affected by the metabolic pathways, indicating statistically significant fold changes including pyruvate, serine, glycine, lactate and threonine. Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism, belonging to glycometabolism, were the pathways that were found to be primarily affected, resulting in abnormal metabolites such as glucose-1P, Glucose, gluconic acid, myo-inositol, sorbitol and glycerol. PMID:27350164

  14. Discovery of human urinary biomarkers of aronia-citrus juice intake by HPLC-q-TOF-based metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Llorach, Rafael; Medina, Sonia; García-Viguera, Cristina; Zafrilla, Pilar; Abellán, José; Jauregui, Olga; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Metabolomics has emerged in the field of food and nutrition sciences as a powerful tool for doing profiling approaches. In this context, HPLC-q-TOF-based metabolomics approach was applied to unveil changes in the urinary metabolome in human subjects (n = 51, 23 men and 28 women) after regular aronia-citrus juice (AC-juice) intake (250 mL/day) during 16 weeks compared to individuals given a placebo beverage. Samples were analyzed by HPLC-q-TOF followed by multivariate data analysis (orthogonal signal filtering-partial least square discriminant analysis) that discriminated relevant mass features related to AC-juice intake. The results showed that biomarkers of AC-juice intake including metabolites coming from metabolism of food components as proline betaine, ferulic acid, and two unknown mercapturate derivatives were identified. Discovery of new biomarkers of food intake will help in the building up of the food metabolome and facilitate future insights into the mechanisms of action of dietary components in population health. PMID:24616048

  15. Geometric reconstruction of biological orthogonal plywoods.

    PubMed

    Aguilar Gutierrez, Oscar F; Rey, Alejandro D

    2016-01-28

    In this paper we focus on the structural determination of biological orthogonal plywoods, fiber-like composite analogues of liquid crystalline phases, where the fibrils of the building blocks show sharp 90° orientation jumps between fibers in adjacent domains. We present an original geometric and computational modelling that allows us to determine the fibrillary orientation in biological plywoods from periodic herringbone patterns commonly observed in cross-sections. Although herringbone patterns were long reported, the specific and quantitative relationships between herringbones and the orthogonal plywoods were absent or at best incomplete. Here we provide an efficient and new procedure to perform an inverse problem that connects two specific features of the herringbone patterns (aperture angle and wavelength) with the 3D morphology of the structure, whose accuracy and validity were ascertained through in silico simulations and also with real specimens ("Eremosphaera viridis"). This contribution extends significantly the better known characterization methods of 2D cross sections, such as the arced patterns observed in biological helicoidal plywoods, and with the present proposed methodology it adds another characterization tool for a variety of biological fibrous composites that form cornea-like tissues. PMID:26583687

  16. TOF-SIMS imaging of lipids on rat brain sections.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Since several decades, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) coupled to time of flight (TOF) is used for atomic or small inorganic/organic fragments imaging on different materials. With the advent of polyatomic ion sources leading to a significant increase of sensitivity in combination with a reasonable spatial resolution (1-10 μm), TOF-SIMS is becoming a more and more popular analytical platform for MS imaging. Even if this technique is limited to small molecules (typically below 1,000 Da), it offers enough sensitivity to detect and locate various classes of lipids directly on the surface of tissue sections. This chapter is thus dedicated to the TOF-SIMS analysis of lipids in positive and negative ion modes on rat brain tissue sections using a bismuth cluster ion source. PMID:25361663

  17. Identification of flea species using MALDI-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Yssouf, Amina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Leulmi, Hamza; Kernif, Tahar; Bitam, Idir; Audoly, Gilles; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a molecular proteomics (MALDI-TOF/MS) approach was used as a tool for identifying flea vectors. We measured the MS spectra from 38 flea specimens of 5 species including Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Xenopsylla cheopis and Stenoponia tripectinata. A blind test performed with 24 specimens from species included in a library spectral database confirmed that MALDI-TOF/MS is an effective tool for discriminating flea species. Although fresh and 70% ethanol-conserved samples subjected to MALDI-TOF/MS in blind tests were correctly classified, only MS spectra of quality from fresh specimens were sufficient for accurate and significant identification. A cluster analysis highlighted that the MALDI Biotyper can be used for studying the phylogeny of fleas. PMID:24878069

  18. Speciation of surface gold in pressure oxidized carbonaceous gold ores by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, S. S.; Chryssoulis, S. L.; Sodhi, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt ever to speciate gold preg-robbed by carbonaceous matter using a surface sensitive microbeam technique. This approach enables the direct determination of gold species sorbed on carbonaceous particulates thus providing a new tool in understanding the chemistry of gold sorption on carbon. The reasoning behind this effort was to study the detrimental effect chloride ions have on gold recovery by pressure oxidation of carbonaceous sulfide ores, a technology largely used by the mining industry. The characterization of the sorbed gold species involved three surface sensitive microbeam analytical techniques (TOF-SIMS, TOF-LIMS and XPS) providing confirmatory results for better accuracy. Optimum conditions for detection of gold compounds with minimum fragmentation by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS mass spectrometers have been determined. A reference library of 16 major gold complexes with halogen, thiosulfate, cyanide and thiocyanate groups relevant to the gold recovery processes has been established. The most suitable of the microbeam techniques tested was found to be negative (-ve) ion TOF-LIMS, offering best sensitivity and a small analytical spot size.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of alkaloids in Uncaria species by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Qi, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Dan

    2014-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) method has been optimized and established for the rapid analysis of the alkaloids in 22 samples originating from five Uncaria (U.) species. The accurate mass measurement of all the protonated molecules and subsequent fragment ions offers higher quality structural information for the interpretation of fragmentation pathways of the various groups of alkaloids. A total of 19 oxindole alkaloids, 16 indole alkaloids and 1 flavone were identified by co-chromatography of the sample extract with authentic standards, comparison of the retention time, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions, or were tentatively identified by MS/MS determination. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of the 24 components within 10.5 min. The potential chemical markers were identified for classification of the U. species samples by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The results demonstrate the similarity and differences in alkaloids among the five U. species, which is helpful for the standardization and quality control of the medical materials of the U. Ramulus Cum Unics (URCU). Furthermore, with multivariate statistical analysis, the determined markers are more definite and useful for chemotaxonomy of the U. genus. PMID:25366313

  20. Fission of Actinides Induced by Neutrons at nTOF

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Moreau, C.

    2005-05-24

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233U, 234U, 232Th, 237Np, 209Bi, natPb have been measured on the nTOF facility at CERN, which allows an accurate energy measurement owing to the long path. Parallel plate avalanche counters were used to detect the 2 fission fragments in coincidence. This method allows an efficient discrimination of fission reactions among other types of reactions especially at high energies, and it is well suited for the very large energy range available at nTOF. The case of 234U will be used as an example of the quality of the data obtained in these measurements.

  1. How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reuse term definitions that others have already created rather than create their own definitions, thereby making the ontologies orthogonal. Methods We used a simple lexical algorithm to analyze the extent to which the set of OBO Foundry candidate ontologies identified from September 2009 to September 2010 conforms to this vision. Specifically, we analyzed (1) the level of explicit term reuse in this set of ontologies, (2) the level of overlap, where two ontologies define similar terms independently, and (3) how the levels of reuse and overlap changed during the course of this year. Results We found that 30% of the ontologies reuse terms from other Foundry candidates and 96% of the candidate ontologies contain terms that overlap with terms from the other ontologies. We found that while term reuse increased among the ontologies between September 2009 and September 2010, the level of overlap among the ontologies remained relatively constant. Additionally, we analyzed the six ontologies announced as OBO Foundry members on March 5, 2010, and identified that the level of overlap was extremely low, but, notably, so was the level of term reuse. Conclusions We have created a prototype web application that allows OBO Foundry ontology developers to see which classes from their ontologies overlap with classes from other ontologies in the OBO Foundry (http://obomap.bioontology.org). From our analysis, we conclude that while the OBO Foundry has made significant progress toward orthogonality during the period of this

  2. Beta-integrals and finite orthogonal systems of Wilson polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Neretin, Yu A

    2002-08-31

    The integral is calculated and the system of orthogonal polynomials with weight equal to the corresponding integrand is constructed. This weight decreases polynomially, therefore only finitely many of its moments converge. As a result the system of orthogonal polynomials is finite. Systems of orthogonal polynomials related to {sub 5}H{sub 5}-Dougall's formula and the Askey integral is also constructed. All the three systems consist of Wilson polynomials outside the domain of positiveness of the usual weight.

  3. Orthogonal canonical forms for second-order systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Laub, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that a linear second-order system with arbitrary damping cannot be reduced to Hessenberg-triangular form by means of orthogonal transformations. However, it is also shown that such an orthogonal reduction is always possible for the modal damping commonly assumed for models of flexible structures. It is shown that modally damped models can be orthogonally reduced to a new triangular second-order Schur form.

  4. Chemical Cross-linking and MALDI-TOF/TOF to Investigate Protein Interacting Domains

    PubMed Central

    Pottiez, G.; Ciborowski, P.; Wojtkiewicz, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mapping peptides modified by chemical cross-linker(s) provides clues about proteins' interacting domains. One complication is that such modification may result from intra- but not inter-molecular interactions. Western blot analyses showed an ability of pGSN to spontaneously form homo-dimers and homo-trimers, which we also detected in samples of human plasma. Therefore, main goal of this study was to use chemical cross-linking to map residues involved in inter- and/or intra-molecular interactions. METHODS: Two separate commercially available preparations were used in this study: recombinant expressed in E.coli (Cytoskeleton Inc.) and native purified from human plasma (Sigma, Inc.). Cross-linkers, Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)glutarate-d0 (BS2G-d0), Bis(sulfo-succinimidyl)suberate-d0 (BS3G-d0), Bis-N-succinimidyl(PEG)5 (BS(PEG)5) and 3,3′-Dithiobis (sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) (DTSSP) were from Thermo Scientific (San Jose, CA, USA). For mass spectrometry analyses we used ABSciex 4800 MALDI-TOF/TOF. RESULTS: We used cross-linkers with arm length ranging from 7.7Å to 21.7Å. We present that MALDI based mass spectrometry generates high quality data to show lysine residues modified by cross-linkers and combined with existing data based on crystallography (Protein Data Bank, PDB) can be used to discriminate between inter- and intra-molecular linking. Interestingly, a 12.0Å linker did not support complete intra-molecular cross-linking of monomer like 11.4Å cross-linker resulting in the presence of two bands in 1-DE analysis. CONCLUSIONS: When interpreting results of in vitro cross-linking interacting proteins, a possibility of self cross-linking of any of interacting proteins should be considered. Therefore, critical residues for forming hetero-complexes can be blocked and new and not biologically relevant interacting domains can be created. Flexibility of some regions within the protein polypeptide chain may lead to linking of distant residues where linker

  5. Description of sunspot cycles by orthogonal functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D. L.; Reichmann, E. J.; Wilson, R. M.

    1984-10-01

    Based on the principal component analysis technique and evidence for a 22-yr double-sunspot cycle periodicity. The time series of sunspot numbers is represented as a sum of mutually orthogonal eigenvectors in the time domain. It is shown that the first two eigenvectors account for about 90 percent of the cumulative 'signal power,' and that this is sufficient for reconstruction of the raw data curve. It is also noted that the second eigenvector behaves as the time derivative of the first, and that a phase-plane plot of these eigenvectors (i.e. a plot of a variable vs. its rate of change) suggests that the sun's sunspot cycle is driven by an oscillator; the implication is that, embedded within the sun, a chronometer is at work (e.g. Dicke, 1979).

  6. Description of sunspot cycles by orthogonal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teuber, D. L.; Reichmann, E. J.; Wilson, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the principal component analysis technique and evidence for a 22-yr double-sunspot cycle periodicity. The time series of sunspot numbers is represented as a sum of mutually orthogonal eigenvectors in the time domain. It is shown that the first two eigenvectors account for about 90 percent of the cumulative 'signal power,' and that this is sufficient for reconstruction of the raw data curve. It is also noted that the second eigenvector behaves as the time derivative of the first, and that a phase-plane plot of these eigenvectors (i.e. a plot of a variable vs. its rate of change) suggests that the sun's sunspot cycle is driven by an oscillator; the implication is that, embedded within the sun, a chronometer is at work (e.g. Dicke, 1979).

  7. Orthogonal polynomials for refinable linear functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Dirk; de Villiers, Johan

    2006-12-01

    A refinable linear functional is one that can be expressed as a convex combination and defined by a finite number of mask coefficients of certain stretched and shifted replicas of itself. The notion generalizes an integral weighted by a refinable function. The key to calculating a Gaussian quadrature formula for such a functional is to find the three-term recursion coefficients for the polynomials orthogonal with respect to that functional. We show how to obtain the recursion coefficients by using only the mask coefficients, and without the aid of modified moments. Our result implies the existence of the corresponding refinable functional whenever the mask coefficients are nonnegative, even when the same mask does not define a refinable function. The algorithm requires O(n^2) rational operations and, thus, can in principle deliver exact results. Numerical evidence suggests that it is also effective in floating-point arithmetic.

  8. Inverse solutions for tilting orthogonal double prisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Bian, Yongming; Liu, Liren

    2014-06-10

    An analytical reverse solution and actual examples are given to show how to direct a laser beam from a pair of orthogonal prisms to given targets in free space. Considering the influences of double-prism structural parameters, a lookup table method to seek the numerical reverse solution of each prism's tilting angle is also proposed for steering the double-prism orientation to track a target position located in the near field. Some case studies, as well as a specified elliptical target trajectory scanned by the cam-based driving double prisms, exhibit the significant application values of the theoretical derivation. The analytic reverse and numerical solutions can be generalized to investigate the synthesis of scanning patterns and the controlling strategy of double-prism tilting motion, the potentials of which can be explored to perform the orientation and position tracking functions in applications of precision engineering fields. PMID:24921137

  9. Multifunctional Surface Manipulation Using Orthogonal Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Karson; Yatvin, Jeremy; McNitt, Christopher D; Reese, R Alexander; Jung, Calvin; Popik, Vladimir V; Locklin, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Polymer brushes are excellent substrates for the covalent immobilization of a wide variety of molecules due to their unique physicochemical properties and high functional group density. By using reactive microcapillary printing, poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate) brushes with rapid kinetic rates toward aminolysis can be partially patterned with other click functionalities such as strained cyclooctyne derivatives and sulfonyl fluorides. This trireactive surface can then react locally and selectively in a one pot reaction via three orthogonal chemistries at room temperature: activated ester aminolysis, strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, and sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange, all of which are tolerant of ambient moisture and oxygen. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these reactions can also be used to create areas of morphologically distinct surface features on the nanoscale, by inducing buckling instabilities in the films and the grafting of nanoparticles. This approach is modular, and allows for the development of highly complex surface motifs patterned with different chemistry and morphology. PMID:27280689

  10. Confocal imaging with orthogonally polarized illumination beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    In confocal microscopy the polarization of the illumination beam plays an important role in determining the orientation of the fluorescent molecules being illuminated. The efficiency of the excitation depends on the angle between the excitation electric field and the direction of the molecular dipole. In order to determine the orientation of the fluorescent molecules in the focal plane the molecules are to be excited using two mutually orthogonal electric fields. In this paper we show how a computer generated holography technique can be implemented using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator to conveniently obtain two images of the same target once with an X polarized illumination beam and another with a Y polarized illumination beam.

  11. Response Surface Modeling Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; DeLoach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear modeling technique was used to characterize response surfaces for non-dimensional longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, based on wind tunnel data from a commercial jet transport model. Data were collected using two experimental procedures - one based on modem design of experiments (MDOE), and one using a classical one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. The nonlinear modeling technique used multivariate orthogonal functions generated from the independent variable data as modeling functions in a least squares context to characterize the response surfaces. Model terms were selected automatically using a prediction error metric. Prediction error bounds computed from the modeling data alone were found to be- a good measure of actual prediction error for prediction points within the inference space. Root-mean-square model fit error and prediction error were less than 4 percent of the mean response value in all cases. Efficacy and prediction performance of the response surface models identified from both MDOE and OFAT experiments were investigated.

  12. Measuring the orthogonality error of coil systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilig, B.; Csontos, A.; Pajunpää, K.; White, Tim; St. Louis, B.; Calp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a simple method was proposed for the determination of pitch angle between two coil axes by means of a total field magnetometer. The method is applicable when the homogeneous volume in the centre of the coil system is large enough to accommodate the total field sensor. Orthogonality of calibration coil systems used for calibrating vector magnetometers can be attained by this procedure. In addition, the method can be easily automated and applied to the calibration of delta inclination–delta declination (dIdD) magnetometers. The method was tested by several independent research groups, having a variety of test equipment, and located at differing geomagnetic observatories, including: Nurmijärvi, Finland; Hermanus, South Africa; Ottawa, Canada; Tihany, Hungary. This paper summarizes the test results, and discusses the advantages and limitations of the method.

  13. Orthogonal patterns in binary neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    A binary neural network that stores only mutually orthogonal patterns is shown to converge, when probed by any pattern, to a pattern in the memory space, i.e., the space spanned by the stored patterns. The latter are shown to be the only members of the memory space under a certain coding condition, which allows maximum storage of M=(2N) sup 0.5 patterns, where N is the number of neurons. The stored patterns are shown to have basins of attraction of radius N/(2M), within which errors are corrected with probability 1 in a single update cycle. When the probe falls outside these regions, the error correction capability can still be increased to 1 by repeatedly running the network with the same probe.

  14. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310

  15. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of (2k+i) ⊗ (2l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.'s construction and Zhang et al.'s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only (2k) ⊗ (2l) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l) but also (2k) ⊗ (2l+1) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l+1). We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of (2k) ⊗ (2l) in Wang et al.'s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310

  16. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement.

  17. The second level TOF trigger for the Obelix experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, A.; Musa, L.; Serci, S. )

    1994-08-01

    The authors describe a CAMAC module, named TRIG-GERK, performing the function of second level trigger in the TOF apparatus of the PS201 experiment at CERN. The module is realized on a single board and is implemented by using three XILINX PGAs. The internal architecture of the module as well as its programming capabilities and mode of usage is described.

  18. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  19. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  20. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  1. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  2. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  3. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  4. Corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry for monitoring of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Martin; Matejčík, Štefan

    2012-06-19

    We demonstrate the application of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry (CD IMS-oaTOF) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) monitoring. Two-dimensional (2D) IMS-oaTOF spectra of VOCs were recorded in nearly real time. The corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source was operated in positive mode in nitrogen and air. The CD ion source generates in air H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(n) and NO(+). The NO(+) offers additional possibility for selective ionization and for an increase of the sensitivity of monoaromatic compounds. In addition to H(3)O(+)(H(2)O)(n) and NO(+), we have carried out ionization of VOCs using acetone as dopant gas ((CH(3))(2)COH(+)). Sixteen model VOCs (tetrahydrofuran, butanol, n-propanol, iso-propano, acetone, methanol, ethanol, toluene, benzene, amomnia, dioxan, triethylamine, acetonitrile, formaldehyde, m-xylene, 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine) were tested using these ionization techniques. PMID:22594852

  5. The Gibbs Phenomenon for Series of Orthogonal Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Kloppers, P. Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    This note considers the four classes of orthogonal polynomials--Chebyshev, Hermite, Laguerre, Legendre--and investigates the Gibbs phenomenon at a jump discontinuity for the corresponding orthogonal polynomial series expansions. The perhaps unexpected thing is that the Gibbs constant that arises for each class of polynomials appears to be the same…

  6. A new method testing the orthogonality of different protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Ágoston, Károly; Ágoston, Ágnes; Dorgan, Colin R; Fügedi, Péter

    2015-12-11

    A new test was elaborated to identify a new set of orthogonal protecting groups. With the developed method eight different protecting groups were tested under various deprotection conditions and the complex reaction mixtures were analysed by HPLC. The developed method allows for quick identification of orthogonality using simple model structures. PMID:26580711

  7. Least-Squares Adaptive Control Using Chebyshev Orthogonal Polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Burken, John; Ishihara, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive control approach using Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials as basis functions in a least-squares functional approximation. The use of orthogonal basis functions improves the function approximation significantly and enables better convergence of parameter estimates. Flight control simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  8. Experimental quantum cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Since, in general, non-orthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a Quantum Communication scheme using non-orthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in Quantum Cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (7), pp. 12391243, 1995] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets which travel along separate channels, i.e. two different paths inside a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.

  9. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  10. Genuinely multipartite entangled states and orthogonal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-08-01

    A pure quantum state of N subsystems with d levels each is called k-multipartite maximally entangled state, which we call a k-uniform state, if all its reductions to k qudits are maximally mixed. These states form a natural generalization of N-qudit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states which belong to the class 1-uniform states. We establish a link between the combinatorial notion of orthogonal arrays and k-uniform states and prove the existence of several classes of such states for N-qudit systems. In particular, known Hadamard matrices allow us to explicitly construct 2-uniform states for an arbitrary number of N >5 qubits. We show that finding a different class of 2-uniform states would imply the Hadamard conjecture, so the full classification of 2-uniform states seems to be currently out of reach. Furthermore, we establish links between the existence of k-uniform states and classical and quantum error correction codes and provide a graph representation for such states.

  11. A reduced basis localized orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulle, Assyr; Henning, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    In this work we combine the framework of the Reduced Basis method (RB) with the framework of the Localized Orthogonal Decomposition (LOD) in order to solve parametrized elliptic multiscale problems. The idea of the LOD is to split a high dimensional Finite Element space into a low dimensional space with comparably good approximation properties and a remainder space with negligible information. The low dimensional space is spanned by locally supported basis functions associated with the node of a coarse mesh obtained by solving decoupled local problems. However, for parameter dependent multiscale problems, the local basis has to be computed repeatedly for each choice of the parameter. To overcome this issue, we propose an RB approach to compute in an "offline" stage LOD for suitable representative parameters. The online solution of the multiscale problems can then be obtained in a coarse space (thanks to the LOD decomposition) and for an arbitrary value of the parameters (thanks to a suitable "interpolation" of the selected RB). The online RB-LOD has a basis with local support and leads to sparse systems. Applications of the strategy to both linear and nonlinear problems are given.

  12. Directional lapped orthogonal transform: theory and design.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Shogo; Han, Dandan; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Kikuchi, Hisakazu

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a directional design method of 2-D nonseparable linear-phase paraunitary filter banks. The proposed method is based on a lattice structure consisting of the 2-D separable DCT block and nonseparable support extension processes. Because of the nonseparability, the bases are allowed to be directional with the critically fixed subsampling, overlapping, orthogonal, symmetric, real-valued, and compact support properties. First, a novel vanishing moment (VM) condition is introduced as a suitable directional constraint, where the moment is referred to as the trend VM. The condition forces wavelet filters, i.e., high-pass and bandpass filters, to annihilate trend-surface components. Second, some theoretical properties of TVMs are discussed for general 2-D paraunitary systems, and then, the properties are applied to the lattice parameters. In order to verify the significance, several design examples are shown, the trend-surface annihilation properties are numerically confirmed, and the denoising capability is evaluated for images through shrinkage. It is shown that our proposed transforms yield perceptually preferable results. PMID:22231175

  13. Anatomy of lithosphere necking during orthogonal rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal-state of rifted margin. The necking shape depends on several parameters, including the extensional strain-rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension, a quantitative description of the evolution of necking through time is still lacking. We used analogue modelling to simulate in three-dimension the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during orthogonal rifting. In our models we simulated a typical "cold and young" 4-layer lithosphere stratigraphy: brittle upper crust (loose quartz sand), ductile lower crust (silicon-barite mixture), brittle upper mantle (loose quartz sand), and ductile lower mantle (silicon-barite mixture). The experimental lithosphere rested on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. We monitored model evolution by periodic and coeval laser scanning of both the surface topography and the lithosphere base. After model completion, each of the four layers was removed and the top of the underlying layer was scanned. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for both the whole lithosphere (βz) and the crust (γ). The area of incremental effective stretching (βy) parallel to the extensional direction was obtained from the βz maps.

  14. The Representation and Parametrization of Orthogonal Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Ron; Brozell, Scott R; Gidofalvi, Gergely

    2015-07-16

    Four representations and parametrizations of orthogonal matrices Q ∈ R(m×n) in terms of the minimal number of essential parameters {φ} are discussed: the exponential representation, the Householder reflector representation, the Givens rotation representation, and the rational Cayley transform representation. Both square n = m and rectangular n < m situations are considered. Two separate kinds of parametrizations are considered: one in which the individual columns of Q are distinct, the Stiefel manifold, and the other in which only span(Q) is significant, the Grassmann manifold. The practical issues of numerical stability, continuity, and uniqueness are discussed. The computation of Q in terms of the essential parameters {φ}, and also the extraction of {φ} for a given Q are considered for all of the parametrizations. The transformation of gradient arrays between the Q and {φ} variables is discussed for all representations. It is our hope that developers of new methods will benefit from this comparative presentation of an important but rarely analyzed subject. PMID:25946418

  15. Approximate Orthogonal Sparse Embedding for Dimensionality Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2016-04-01

    Locally linear embedding (LLE) is one of the most well-known manifold learning methods. As the representative linear extension of LLE, orthogonal neighborhood preserving projection (ONPP) has attracted widespread attention in the field of dimensionality reduction. In this paper, a unified sparse learning framework is proposed by introducing the sparsity or L1-norm learning, which further extends the LLE-based methods to sparse cases. Theoretical connections between the ONPP and the proposed sparse linear embedding are discovered. The optimal sparse embeddings derived from the proposed framework can be computed by iterating the modified elastic net and singular value decomposition. We also show that the proposed model can be viewed as a general model for sparse linear and nonlinear (kernel) subspace learning. Based on this general model, sparse kernel embedding is also proposed for nonlinear sparse feature extraction. Extensive experiments on five databases demonstrate that the proposed sparse learning framework performs better than the existing subspace learning algorithm, particularly in the cases of small sample sizes. PMID:25955995

  16. Quantum nonlocality of multipartite orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei

    2016-03-01

    Local distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states is an area of active research in quantum information theory. However, most of the relevant results are about local distinguishability in bipartite Hilbert space and very little is known about the multipartite case. In this paper we present a generic method to construct a completable n -partite (n ≥3 ) product basis with only 2 n members, which exhibits nonlocality without entanglement with n parties, each holding a system of any finite dimension. We give an effective proof of the nonlocality of the completable multipartite product basis. In addition, we construct another incomplete multipartite product basis with a smaller number of members that cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication in a d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn quantum system, where n ≥3 and di≥2 for i =1 ,2 ,...,n . The results can lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement in any multipartite quantum system.

  17. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  18. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  19. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  20. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  1. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  2. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  3. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  4. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  5. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  6. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  7. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  8. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  9. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  10. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  11. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  12. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  13. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  14. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  15. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  16. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  17. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  18. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  19. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  20. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  1. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  2. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  3. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  4. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  6. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  7. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  8. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  9. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  11. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  12. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  13. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  14. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  15. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  16. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  17. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  18. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  19. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  20. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  1. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  2. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  3. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  4. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  5. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  6. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  7. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  8. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  9. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  10. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes with needles attached, and alcohol swab pads. Throw away needles, syringes, and vials ...

  11. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  12. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  14. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  15. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  16. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. ...

  17. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for CML and can no longer benefit from these medications or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is ... side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: ...

  18. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  19. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH; a rare inherited condition that ...

  20. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  1. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  2. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat in the stomach area in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body ... injection is in a class of medications called human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works ...

  3. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  4. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  5. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to ... stomach pain sudden weight loss paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes shortness of breath ...

  6. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment.You may receive methylprednisolone injection in a hospital or medical facility, or you may be given ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  7. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have.You may receive ampicillin injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  8. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, burning on urination, worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  9. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent ... tissues that may be caused when an anthracycline chemotherapy medication such as daunorubicin (Daunoxome, Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Doxil), ...

  10. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...