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1

Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus  

PubMed Central

Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become popular due to inherent advantages over other resurfacing techniques. Cartilage viability is one of the most important factors for successful clinical outcomes after transplantation of osteochondral allografts and is related to storage length and intra-operative factors. While there is abundant literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee, there are few papers about this procedure in the talus. Failure of non-operative management, initial debridement, curettage or microfractures are an indication for resurfacing. Patients should have a functional ankle motion, closed growth plates, absence of cartilage lesions on the tibial side. This paper reviews the published literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the talus focusing on indications, pre-operative planning, surgical approaches, postoperative management, results and complications of this procedure. PMID:25328456

Bisicchia, Salvatore; Rosso, Federica; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-01-01

2

Imaging of osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a localized process that affects the subchondral bone and can progress to the overlying articular cartilage. The cause of this lesion remains elusive. With the vague clinical symptoms and signs of OCD, imaging plays a vital role in making the diagnosis and helping with the prognosis of OCD lesions. This article reviews current imaging modalities for the assessment of OCD including conventional radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) and MR arthrography. The role of imaging in evaluating healing of the OCD and articular congruity after surgical and nonsurgical management is discussed. PMID:22480469

Moktassi, Aiden; Popkin, Charles A; White, Lawrence M; Murnaghan, M Lucas

2012-04-01

3

How I Manage Osteochondritis Dissecans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osteochondritis dissecans, a lesion found most often on the femur at the knee joint, occurs most frequently in active adolescents. This article describes treatment for preadolescents, adolescents, and adults. Osteochondritus dissecans of the patella is also presented. (MT)

DiStefano, Vincent J.

1986-01-01

4

Pain in osteochondral lesions.  

PubMed

Pain is the key symptom of patients suffering from osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle joint. Routine radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis and staging of OCL fail to visualize the pain-inducing focus within the joint. SPECT-CT (Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography) is a new hybrid imaging technique allowing exact digital fusion of scintigraphic and computer tomographic images. This allows precise localization and size determination of an OCL within the joint. Using this novel imaging method, we conducted a study to evaluate the correlation between pathological uptake within an OCL and pain experienced by patients suffering from this condition; 15 patients were assessed in the orthopaedic ambulatory clinic for unilateral OCL of the ankle joint. Pain status was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A SPECT-CT was performed. All patients underwent CT-guided ankle injection with a local anesthetic and iodine contrast medium. The VAS score assessed immediately postinfiltration was compared with the preinterventional VAS score obtained in the outpatient clinic. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of the VAS score to ?50% of the preinterventional score, if expected immediately after infiltration. Pain relief was found in all 15 patients. The results of our study show that there is a highly significant correlation between pain and pathological uptake seen on SPECT-CT, indicating that pathologically remodeled bone tissue is an important contributor to pain in OCL. Adequate addressing of involved bone tissue needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a surgical treatment method. PMID:21321364

Wiewiorski, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Rasch, Helmut; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Valderrabano, Victor

2011-04-01

5

Osteochondritis dissecans of the talus  

PubMed Central

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is an acquired idiopathic lesion of subchondral bone that can produce delamination and sequestration with or without articular cartilage involvement and instability. The cause of OCD is still debated: the most recognized etiology is the occurrence of repetitive micro-traumas associated with vascular impairment, causing progressive ankle pain and dysfunction in skeletally immature and young adult patients. Ankle OCD is classically located in the medial part of the talus, while lateral and posterior involvement is less frequent. Diagnosis of OCD, based on MRI findings, is quite straightforward; MRI examination can also be very useful for dating the defect and obtaining information about the associated bone bruise. Osteochondritis dissecans, if not recognized and treated appropriately, may lead to secondary osteoarthritis with pain and functional limitation. Surgical treatment is mandatory especially in young patients with unstable cartilage fragments. There are various surgical options: fixation, microfracture, or substitution using autologous chondrocyte implantation techniques. PMID:25606554

ZANON, GIACOMO; DI VICO, GIOVANNI; MARULLO, MATTEO

2014-01-01

6

Osteochondral autograft transplantation for osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum in nonthrowing athletes.  

PubMed

In this report, we present the cases of 3 nonthrowing athletes with osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum. Preoperatively, they complained of elbow pain during rhythmic gymnastics, table tennis, and basketball, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a completely separated osteochondral fragment or a full-thickness cartilage defect. All 3 patients were treated with transplantation of an osteochondral autograft harvested from the lateral femoral condyle. They returned fully to their sports activities within 6 months of surgery. The continuity of the cartilage layer between the osteochondral graft and the capitellum was shown on magnetic resonance images taken at 12 months postoperatively. We believe that osteochondral autograft transplantation provides successful results for nonthrowing athletes with end-stage osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum. PMID:16226661

Tsuda, Eiichi; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Hideki; Yamamoto, Yuji; Toh, Satoshi

2005-10-01

7

Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24698045

Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

2014-04-01

8

Salvage techniques in osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

The central objective in the treatment of any osteochondritis dissecans lesion is to preserve the native articular cartilage and bone. Unfortunately, there are those cases that either fail to heal despite appropriate treatment or present in such a deteriorated state that primary fixation is not possible. This situation is generally determined by the condition of the progeny fragment. Primary fixation may not be the most viable option. In the case of an unsalvageable fragment, the surgeon is faced with several options, which are discussed in this article. PMID:24698047

Polousky, John D; Albright, Jay

2014-04-01

9

Posterosuperior osteochondritis of the calcaneus.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis of the posterosuperior area of the talocalcaneal surface is a relatively uncommon injury, and only 1 case has been described in the literature. We present a 37-year-old man who complained of pain in the tarsal canal area during walking and when standing up. The magnetic resonance imaging study showed an osteochondral signal in the posterosuperior medial area of the calcaneus on the talocalcaneal surface. The persistence of pain and lack of improvement with conservative treatment made arthroscopic debridement of the injury necessary. The arthroscopic procedure was performed through 2 medial portals, made under fluoroscopy, marked with needles, and dissected with mosquito clamps, and the affected surface could be fully visualized, showing a chondral lesion. Debridement of the osteonecrotic area was performed, and the Steadman technique was used on the injured bone surface. The patient was pain-free, and limited activity (i.e., standing up and walking without symptoms) was allowed. After 24 months, the patient remains asymptomatic with weight-bearing working activities and when standing. Arthroscopic curettage and scission of the injury have been shown to yield good or excellent outcomes in 75% to 80% of patients with regard to the talar surface. PMID:17868846

Cugat, Ramón; Cuscó, Xavier; García, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto

2007-09-01

10

Osteochondral lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients.  

PubMed

Osteochondral lesions are acquired, potentially reversible injuries of the subchondral bone with or without associated articular cartilage involvement. Injury results in delamination and potential sequestration of the affected bone. Although an association with mechanical and traumatic factors has been established, the etiology remains poorly understood. These lesions commonly occur in the knee; articular surfaces of the elbow, ankle, hip, and shoulder are also affected. Osteochondral lesions are relatively common in children and adolescents, and the incidence is increasing. Prognosis of these lesions depends on stability, location, and size of the lesion.Imaging has an essential role in the diagnosis, staging, and management of osteochondral lesions. Many of these lesions are first diagnosed by plain film. MRI adds value by identifying unstable lesions that require surgical intervention. This review focuses on the clinical and imaging features of osteochondral lesions of the knee, elbow, and ankle. Imaging criteria for staging and management are also reviewed. PMID:25350829

Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Griggs, Rachel; Hall, Theodore; Motamedi, Kambiz; Boechat, M Ines

2014-11-01

11

Unusual Appearance of an Osteochondral Lesion Accompanying Medial Meniscus Injury  

PubMed Central

An osteochondral lesion in the knee joint is caused by a focal traumatic osteochondral defect, osteochondritis dissecans, an isolated degenerative lesion, or diffuse degenerative disease. An osteochondral lesion with a cleft-like appearance accompanying medial meniscus injury is rare without trauma. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who complained of right knee pain and swelling, with radiographic findings of an osteochondral defect. Arthroscopic inspection showed an osteochondral lesion in the medial condyle of the femur and tibial plateau accompanying a partial medial meniscus discoid tear. Partial meniscectomy was performed, and a microfracture procedure was carried out on the osteochondral defect. The patient was asymptomatic at 2 years' follow-up. This technique is a relatively easy, completely arthroscopic procedure that spares the bone and cartilage and has yielded a good clinical outcome in a skeletally immature patient who had an osteochondral lesion with a cleft-like appearance. PMID:24749028

Mine, Takatomo; Ihara, Koichiro; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Date, Ryo; Chagawa, Kazuki

2014-01-01

12

Osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans affects the elbow of many young, skeletally immature athletes. The incidence of OCD in the elbow is second to its occurrence in the knee and similar to the incidence in the ankle. Young, athletically active individuals are at increased risk for developing this problem. There is a predilection for those involved in overhead-dominant sports and sports that require the arm to be a weight-bearing limb. The diagnosis is occurring earlier because of an increased awareness of the entity and the increased use of advanced imaging techniques, primarily magnetic resonance imaging. This earlier diagnosis has led to an increase in treatment ideas and modalities and ultimately improved care and outcomes. PMID:24698041

Nissen, Carl W

2014-04-01

13

Preparation of a biphasic scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering has been developed as a prospective approach for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Engineered osteochondral implants can facilitate the fixation and integration with host tissue, and therefore promote the regeneration of osteochondral defects. A biphasic scaffold with a stratified two-layer structure for osteochondral tissue engineering was developed from biodegradable synthetic and naturally derived polymers. The upper layer

Guoping Chen; Takashi Sato; Junzo Tanaka; Tetsuya Tateishi

2006-01-01

14

Evaluation of synthetic osteochondral implants.  

PubMed

This translational animal model study was designed to assess function, bone ingrowth and integration, and joint pathology associated with two different synthetic, bilayered osteochondral implants over a 3-month period after implantation into the femoral condyles of dogs. SynACart-Titanium (n?=?6) and SynACart-PEEK (n?=?6) (Arthrex, Naples, FL, and Sites Medical, Columbia City, IN) implants were press-fit into the lateral or medial femoral condyle (alternating location) of purpose-bred adult research dogs. Dogs were humanely euthanized 3 months after surgery and the operated knees were assessed radiographically, arthroscopically, grossly, and histologically. Based on all assessments, both types of implants were well tolerated and safe with no evidence for infection, migration, or rejection. Half of the SynACart-PEEK implants showed radiographic and histologic evidence of poor incorporation with all of these being in the lateral femoral condyle. SynACart-Titanium implants were considered effective in terms of integration into bone, lack of damage to surrounding and apposing articular cartilage, and maintenance of implant integrity and architecture for the duration of the study. PMID:24281985

Cook, James L; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Stoker, Aaron M; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Cook, Cristi R

2014-08-01

15

Augmentation of osteochondral repair with hyperbaric oxygenation: a rabbit study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for osteochondral injuries often result in suboptimal healing. We hypothesized that the combination of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and fibrin would be superior to either method alone in treating full-thickness osteochondral defects. METHODS: Osteochondral repair was evaluated in 4 treatment groups (control, fibrin, HBO, and HBO+fibrin groups) at 2-12 weeks after surgical injury. Forty adult male New Zealand

Alvin Chao-Yu Chen; Mel S Lee; Song-Shu Lin; Leou-Chuan Pan; Steve Wen-Neng Ueng

2010-01-01

16

Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft of the shoulder  

PubMed Central

Purpose to describe an original technique and preliminary results of bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation for the treatment of end-stage glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Methods three patients underwent bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation to the shoulder. Clinical and radiographical evaluations were carried out periodically through to final follow-up. Results constant Score increased from 38.3 ± 2.9 pre-operatively to 78.7 ± 16.2 at 12 months, 72.3 ±15.3 at 24 months, and 59.3 ± 22.0 at 34 months. Arthritis and partial reabsorption of the implanted surfaces were evident radiographically. Conclusions the clinical results obtained in these patients seem to support the applicability of bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft implantation in the shoulder in subjects with severe post-traumatic arthritis and intact rotator cuff. The development of arthritis of the implanted surfaces, while not impacting the clinical result, is a cause of concern. Level of evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606526

GIANNINI, SANDRO; SEBASTIANI, ELISA; SHEHU, ALBA; BALDASSARRI, MATTEO; MARALDI, SUSANNA; VANNINI, FRANCESCA

2013-01-01

17

Recent progress in interfacial tissue engineering approaches for osteochondral defects.  

PubMed

This review provides a brief synopsis of the anatomy and physiology of the osteochondral interface, scaffold-based and non-scaffold based approaches for engineering both tissues independently as well as recent developments in the manufacture of gradient constructs. Novel manufacturing techniques and nanotechnology will be discussed with potential application in osteochondral interfacial tissue engineering. PMID:22677924

Castro, Nathan J; Hacking, S Adam; Zhang, Lijie Grace

2012-08-01

18

A computer assisted surgical technique for retrograde autologous osteochondral grafting in talar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): a cadaveric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a new method for the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the medial talar dome. Ten cadaveric lower extremities were used to develop and evaluate a retrograde osteochondral grafting technique applying computer-assisted surgery. With the help of a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system, a guide wire was placed from the lateral talar process into the posteromedial talar

Christian Hoser; Oliver Bichler; Reto Bale; Ralph Rosenberger; Michael Rieger; Peter Kovacs; Thomas Lang; Christian Fink

2004-01-01

19

Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration) and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries. PMID:25518022

Danieli, Marcus Vinicius; da Rosa Pereira, Hamilton; de Sá Carneiro, Carlos Augusto; Felisbino, Sérgio Luiz; Deffune, Elenice

2014-01-01

20

Fluoroquinolone Use in a Child Associated with Development of Osteochondritis Dissecans  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Several etiological theories have been proposed for the development of osteochondritis dissecans. Cartilage toxicity after fluoroquinolone use has been well documented in vitro. We present a case report of a 10-year-old child who underwent a prolonged 18-month course of ciprofloxacin therapy for chronic urinary tract infections. This patient later developed an osteochondritis dissecans lesion of the medial femoral condyle. We hypothesize that the fluoroquinolone therapy disrupted normal endochondral ossification, resulting in development of osteochondritis dissecans. The etiology of osteochondritis dissecans is still unclear, and this case describes an association between fluoroquinolone use and osteochondritis dissecans development. PMID:25228675

Jacobs, John; Shea, Kevin; Oxford, Julia; Carey, James

2014-01-01

21

The knee: internal fixation techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

For the athlete with a newly diagnosed osteochondritis dissecans of the knee, the first step in formulating a treatment plan is determining the stability of the lesion. When the lesion is found to be unstable but salvageable, several methods for fixation are available. Fixation of osteochondritis dissecans in the athletic population has been described and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Determining the most appropriate method for fixation depends on several variables and should include the athlete's level of play, sport, and overall goals. PMID:24698046

Grimm, Nathan L; Ewing, Christopher K; Ganley, Theodore J

2014-04-01

22

Atraumatic Osteochondral Fracture and Osteoarthritis in a Collegiate Volleyball Player: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the case of a collegiate athlete with an atraumatic osteochondral fracture influenced by the presence of osteoarthritis. Background: Osteochondral fractures are fairly common occurrences in athletes, although it can be difficult to recognize such an injury in the absence of a traumatic event. Osteoarthritis is 1 condition that can increase an athlete's susceptibility to an atraumatic osteochondral fracture. However, because of the atraumatic nature of the injury, the possibility of an osteochondral fracture may be overlooked. Differential Diagnosis: Meniscal damage, osteochondritis dissecans, patellofemoral disorders. Treatment: The osteochondral fragment was surgically removed, and fibrous growth was encouraged by drilling and laser smoothing. Uniqueness: Osteochondral fractures are usually associated with some type of traumatic mechanism, such as a rotational and compressive force. Also, osteoarthritis is not common in young collegiate athletes. However, this 20-year-old volleyball player had no apparent injury and lacked the usual signs and symptoms (eg, locking, giving way, crepitus, loss of range of motion) associated with an osteochondral fracture. The athlete's susceptibility to an osteochondral fracture was increased by the presence of osteoarthritis. Conclusions: The athletic trainer should consider the possibility of an osteochondral fracture in an athlete with persistent effusion and pain in the absence of a traumatic mechanism of injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:16558614

Baum, Jessica S.; Deivert, Richard G.

2000-01-01

23

Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that

Daniel L. Cohen; Jeffrey I. Lipton; Lawrence J. Bonassar; Hod Lipson

2010-01-01

24

Three-dimensional osteochondral microtissue to model pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent form of arthritis, affects up to 15% of the adult population and is principally characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage component of the joint, often with accompanying subchondral bone lesions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OA is important for the rational development of disease-modifying OA drugs. While most studies on OA have focused on the investigation of either the cartilage or the bone component of the articular joint, the osteochondral complex represents a more physiologically relevant target because the disease ultimately is a disorder of osteochondral integrity and function. In our current investigation, we are constructing an in vitro three-dimensional microsystem that models the structure and biology of the osteochondral complex of the articular joint. Osteogenic and chondrogenic tissue components are produced using adult human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose seeded within biomaterial scaffolds photostereolithographically fabricated with defined internal architecture. A three-dimensional-printed, perfusion-ready container platform with dimensions to fit into a 96-well culture plate format is designed to house and maintain the osteochondral microsystem that has the following features: an anatomic cartilage/bone biphasic structure with a functional interface; all tissue components derived from a single adult mesenchymal stem cell source to eliminate possible age/tissue-type incompatibility; individual compartments to constitute separate microenvironment for the synovial and osseous components; accessible individual compartments that may be controlled and regulated via the introduction of bioactive agents or candidate effector cells, and tissue/medium sampling and compositional assays; and compatibility with the application of mechanical load and perturbation. The consequences of mechanical injury, exposure to inflammatory cytokines, and compromised bone quality on degenerative changes in the cartilage component are examined in the osteochondral microsystem as a first step towards its eventual application as an improved and high-throughput in vitro model for prediction of efficacy, safety, bioavailability, and toxicology outcomes for candidate disease-modifying OA drugs. PMID:24564995

Lozito, Thomas P; Alexander, Peter G; Lin, Hang; Gottardi, Riccardo; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Tuan, Rocky S

2013-01-01

25

A cadaveric analysis of contact stress restoration after osteochondral transplantation of a cylindrical cartilage defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteochondral transplantation is a successful treatment for full-thickness cartilage defects, which without treatment would\\u000a lead to early osteoarthritis. Restoration of surface congruency and stability of the reconstruction may be jeopardized by\\u000a early mobilization. To investigate the biomechanical effectiveness of osteochondral transplantation, we performed a standardized\\u000a osteochondral transplantation in eight intact human cadaver knees, using three cylindrical plugs on a full-thickness

Niels B. Kock; José M. H. Smolders; Job L. C. van Susante; Pieter Buma; Albert van Kampen; Nico Verdonschot

2008-01-01

26

Osteochondral lesion of the bilateral femoral heads in a young athletic patient.  

PubMed

Osteochondral lesions of the femoral head are uncommon and few studies have reported their imaging findings. Since joints are at risk of early degeneration after osteochondral damage, timely recognition is important. Osteochondral lesions of femoral head may often be necessary to differentiate from avascular necrosis. Here, we report a case of osteochondral lesions on bilateral femoral heads. This lesion manifested as subchondral cysts in initial radiographs, which led to further evaluation by computed tomography arthrography and magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed overlying cartilage defects. PMID:25469091

Lee, Jung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Cho, Yoon Je; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook; Lee, Kyung Ryeol

2014-01-01

27

Osteochondral Lesion of the Bilateral Femoral Heads in a Young Athletic Patient  

PubMed Central

Osteochondral lesions of the femoral head are uncommon and few studies have reported their imaging findings. Since joints are at risk of early degeneration after osteochondral damage, timely recognition is important. Osteochondral lesions of femoral head may often be necessary to differentiate from avascular necrosis. Here, we report a case of osteochondral lesions on bilateral femoral heads. This lesion manifested as subchondral cysts in initial radiographs, which led to further evaluation by computed tomography arthrography and magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed overlying cartilage defects. PMID:25469091

Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Cho, Yoon Je; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook; Lee, Kyung Ryeol

2014-01-01

28

Osteochondritis dissecans of the patellofemoral groove in athletes: unusual cases of patellofemoral pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five athletes who developed osteochondritis dissecans in the patellofemoral groove in the course of sports events at high school and college league level are described. They were male athletes complaining of anterior knee pain. When examining young people engaged in violent sports, it is well to remember that they might have osteochondritis dissecans in the patellofemoral groove. Clinically, four of

Y. Mori; M. Kubo; J. Shimokoube; Y. Kuroki

1994-01-01

29

Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum: Report of 5 female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum of the adolescent elbow is still controversial. We report on 5 cases of female high-level athletes aged from 10 to 19 years (4 gymnasts, 1 waterpolo player). All these athletes had a symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, which was treated arthroscopically in all cases. Follow-up time averaged 5 months (1 to

Matthijs R. Krijnen; Liesbeth Lim; W. Jaap Willems

2003-01-01

30

Femoral osteochondral fracture--a non-contact injury in martial arts? A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of a case of osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in a patient doing a karate kick. The problems related to fixation of osteochondral fragments with protruding screws are highlighted and the suitability of Herbert screw fixation noted.

C E Mbubaegbu; A J Percy

1994-01-01

31

Femoral osteochondral fracture--a non-contact injury in martial arts? A case report.  

PubMed Central

A report of a case of osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in a patient doing a karate kick. The problems related to fixation of osteochondral fragments with protruding screws are highlighted and the suitability of Herbert screw fixation noted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8000822

Mbubaegbu, C E; Percy, A J

1994-01-01

32

Management of recurrent multiple osteochondral lesions of the talus (OCLT) in a young active patient  

PubMed Central

Management of recurrent osteochondral lesion of talus in a young active male is a challenging problem. We present one such case of recurrent talar osteochondral lesions treated by Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC). Patient had a good functional outcome at short-term follow up. We also describe the technique and review the literature regarding this novel technique.

Syed, Farhan; Nunag, Perrico; Pillai, Anand

2014-01-01

33

Osteochondral Tissue Cell Viability Is Affected by Total Impulse during Impaction Grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Osteochondral graft transplantation has garnered significant attention because of its ability to replace the lesion with true hyaline cartilage. However, surgical impaction of the graft to anchor it into the defect site can be traumatic and lead to cell death and cartilage degeneration. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that increasing impulse magnitude during impaction of osteochondral plugs

Paul Balash; Richard W. Kang; Thorsten Schwenke; Brian J. Cole; Markus A. Wimmer

2010-01-01

34

Isolated slipped-retroverted osteochondral fracture of second metatarsal head.  

PubMed

Although metatarsal fractures are common, isolated intraarticular metatarsal head fractures are rare, and retroversion of the fracture segment is even rarer. Herein, a retroverted fracture of the second metatarsal head, which happened with a direct trauma from jumping from a height, was discussed with treatment options and finally a simple surgical trick was advised. There are only a few cases of isolated osteochondral and retroverted fractures of the metatarsal head in literature. The following is a rare case report of such an injury in a 19-year-old male. PMID:24252398

Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Cicek, Engin Ilker; Kose, Ozkan

2013-12-01

35

Nonoperative treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans is a potentially devastating cause of knee pain in adolescents and adults. Prognosis and treatment depends on the stability of the lesion and the age of the patient. Skeletally immature patients with stable lesions are amenable for nonoperative treatment. Nonoperative treatment is less predictable in skeletally mature patients and patients with unstable lesions. Lesion size, location, stability along with symptomatology should all be considered before initiating treatment. Modalities of nonoperative treatment can range from activity modification to complete immobilization. Close follow-up is recommended to monitor healing progression and symptom resolution. PMID:24698044

Yang, Justin S; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Wright, Rick W

2014-04-01

36

Salvage of a post-traumatic arthritic wrist using the scaphoid as an osteochondral graft.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of post-traumatic wrist arthritis with an osteochondral defect in the scaphoid fossa of the radius. The patient was treated with proximal row carpectomy, radial styloidectomy and reconstruction of the defect using the proximal half of the scaphoid as an autologous osteochondral graft. Pain relief was achieved while wrist motion and strength were improved. The carpal bones are a source of osteochondral grafts and can be used to expand the indications of motion-preserving wrist salvage procedures. PMID:25034309

Marcuzzi, A; Ozben, H; Russomando, A

2014-09-01

37

The golf ball sign: arthroscopic localization of an osteochondritis dissecans lesion of the knee.  

PubMed

We report on the arthroscopic treatment of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with an osteochondral defect of the medial femoral condyle. He underwent arthroscopic fixation of the defect, and during the surgery, a blunt trocar was used to localize the lesion. The trocar created a transient dimpling effect on the cartilage overlying the osteochondral defect that resembled the surface of a golf ball. This "golf ball sign" then served as a visual guide during placement of a chondral dart. When present, it is believed that this sign can benefit arthroscopists by helping to improve intraoperative localization of an osteochondral defect. PMID:25126500

Piposar, Jonathan; Sutton, Karen

2014-06-01

38

Bone Marrow Aspiration Concentrate and Platelet Rich Plasma for Osteochondral Repair in a Porcine Osteochondral Defect Model  

PubMed Central

Background Bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) may possess a high potency for cartilage and osseous defect healing because it contains stem cells and multiple growth factors. Alternatively, platelet rich plasma (PRP), which contains a cocktail of multiple growth factors released from enriched activated thrombocytes may potentially stimulate the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow to proliferate and differentiate. Methods A critical size osteochondral defect (10×6 mm) in both medial femoral condyles was created in 14 Goettinger mini-pigs. All animals were randomized into the following four groups: biphasic scaffold alone (TRUFIT BGS, Smith & Nephew, USA), scaffold with PRP, scaffold with BMAC and scaffold in combination with BMAC and PRP. After 26 weeks all animals were euthanized and histological slides were cut, stained and evaluated using a histological score and immunohistochemistry. Results The thrombocyte number was significantly increased (p?=?0.049) in PRP compared to whole blood. In addition the concentration of the measured growth factors in PRP such as BMP-2, BMP-7, VEGF, TGF-?1 and PDGF were significantly increased when compared to whole blood (p<0.05). In the defects of the therapy groups areas of chondrogenic tissue were present, which stained blue with toluidine blue and positively for collagen type II. Adding BMAC or PRP in a biphasic scaffold led to a significant improvement of the histological score compared to the control group, but the combination of BMAC and PRP did not further enhance the histological score. Conclusions The clinical application of BMAC or PRP in osteochondral defect healing is attractive because of their autologous origin and cost-effectiveness. Adding either PRP or BMAC to a biphasic scaffold led to a significantly better healing of osteochondral defects compared with the control group. However, the combination of both therapies did not further enhance healing. PMID:23951201

Betsch, Marcel; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Thuns, Simon; Herten, Monika; Sager, Martin; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael

2013-01-01

39

A functional agarose-hydroxyapatite scaffold for osteochondral interface regeneration  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of the osteochondral interface is critical for integrative and functional cartilage repair. This study focuses on the design and optimization of a hydrogel-ceramic composite scaffold of agarose and hydroxyapatite (HA) for calcified cartilage formation. The first study objective was to compare the effects of HA on non-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes cultured in the composite scaffold. Specifically, cell growth, biosynthesis, hypertrophy, and scaffold mechanical properties were evaluated. Next, the ceramic phase of the scaffold was optimized in terms of particle size (200 nm vs. 25 µm) and dose (0–6 w/v%). It was observed that while deep zone chondrocyte (DZC) biosynthesis and hypertrophy remained unaffected, hypertrophic chondrocytes measured higher matrix deposition and mineralization potential with the addition of HA. Most importantly, higher matrix content translated into significant increases in both compressive and shear mechanical properties. While cell hypertrophy was independent of ceramic size, matrix deposition was higher only with the addition of micron-sized ceramic particles. In addition, the highest matrix content, mechanical properties and mineralization potential were found in scaffolds with 3% micro-HA, which approximates both the mineral aggregate size and content of the native interface. These results demonstrate that the biomimetic hydrogel-ceramic composite is optimal for calcified cartilage formation and is a promising design strategy for osteochondral interface regeneration. PMID:22531222

Khanarian, Nora T.; Haney, Nora M.; Burga, Rachel A.; Lu, Helen H.

2013-01-01

40

Osteochondral tissue engineering: scaffolds, stem cells and applications  

PubMed Central

Osteochondral tissue engineering has shown an increasing development to provide suitable strategies for the regeneration of damaged cartilage and underlying subchondral bone tissue. For reasons of the limitation in the capacity of articular cartilage to self-repair, it is essential to develop approaches based on suitable scaffolds made of appropriate engineered biomaterials. The combination of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics in a variety of composite structures is promising in this area, whereby the fabrication methods, associated cells and signalling factors determine the success of the strategies. The objective of this review is to present and discuss approaches being proposed in osteochondral tissue engineering, which are focused on the application of various materials forming bilayered composite scaffolds, including polymers and ceramics, discussing the variety of scaffold designs and fabrication methods being developed. Additionally, cell sources and biological protein incorporation methods are discussed, addressing their interaction with scaffolds and highlighting the potential for creating a new generation of bilayered composite scaffolds that can mimic the native interfacial tissue properties, and are able to adapt to the biological environment. PMID:22452848

Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Salih, Vehid; Beier, Justus P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

2012-01-01

41

Suture Bridge Fixation of a Femoral Condyle Traumatic Osteochondral Defect  

PubMed Central

Internal fixation of a traumatic osteochondral defect presents a challenge in terms of obtaining anatomic reduction, fixation, and adequate compression for healing. Fixation with countersunk intraarticular screws, Herbert screws, bioabsorbable screws and pins, mini-cancellous screws, and glue tissue adhesive have been reported with varying results. We present an alternative fixation method used in two patients for femoral condylar defects that achieved anatomic reduction with compression via a cruciate-shaped suture bridge construct tied down over a bony bridge. This fixation method allowed early passive range of motion and permitted high-quality MRI for followup of fracture healing and articular cartilage integrity. Arthroscopic examination of one of two patients at 6 months followup showed the gross appearance of a healed, anatomically reduced fracture. With 1 year followup for one patient and 2 years for the other, the patients have resumed activity as tolerated with full, painless range of motion at the knee. Longer-term outcomes are unknown. However, the suture bridge is an alternative means of fixation with encouraging early results for treatment of traumatic osteochondral fragments in the knee. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18584263

Bowers, Andrea L.

2008-01-01

42

A functional agarose-hydroxyapatite scaffold for osteochondral interface regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration of the osteochondral interface is critical for integrative and functional cartilage repair. This study focuses on the design and optimization of a hydrogel-ceramic composite scaffold of agarose and hydroxyapatite (HA) for calcified cartilage formation. The first study objective was to compare the effects of HA on non-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes cultured in the composite scaffold. Specifically, cell growth, biosynthesis, hypertrophy, and scaffold mechanical properties were evaluated. Next, the ceramic phase of the scaffold was optimized in terms of particle size (200 nm vs. 25 ?m) and dose (0-6 w/v%). It was observed that while deep zone chondrocyte (DZC) biosynthesis and hypertrophy remained unaffected, hypertrophic chondrocytes measured higher matrix deposition and mineralization potential with the addition of HA. Most importantly, higher matrix content translated into significant increases in both compressive and shear mechanical properties. While cell hypertrophy was independent of ceramic size, matrix deposition was higher only with the addition of micron-sized ceramic particles. In addition, the highest matrix content, mechanical properties and mineralization potential were found in scaffolds with 3% micro-HA, which approximates both the mineral aggregate size and content of the native interface. These results demonstrate that the biomimetic hydrogel-ceramic composite is optimal for calcified cartilage formation and is a promising design strategy for osteochondral interface regeneration. PMID:22531222

Khanarian, Nora T; Haney, Nora M; Burga, Rachel A; Lu, Helen H

2012-07-01

43

Repair mechanism of osteochondral defect promoted by bioengineered chondrocyte sheet.  

PubMed

Cell sheet engineering has developed as a remarkable method for cell transplantation. In the field of cartilage regeneration, several studies previously reported that cartilage defects could be regenerated by transplantation of a chondrocyte sheet using cell sheet engineering. However, it remains unclear how such a thin cell sheet could repair a deep cartilage defect. We, therefore, focused on the mechanism of cartilage repair using cell sheet engineering in this study. Chondrocyte sheets and synovial cell sheets were fabricated using cell sheet engineering, and these allogenic cell sheets were transplanted to cover an osteochondral defect in a rat model. Macroscopic and histological evaluation was performed at 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation. Analysis of the gene expression of each cell sheet and of the regenerated tissue at 1 week after transplantation was performed. In addition, green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats were used as donors (transplanted chondrocyte sheets) or recipients (osteochondral defect models) to identify the cell origin of regenerated cartilage. Cartilage repair was significantly better in the group implanted with a chondrocyte sheet than in that with a synovial cell sheet. The results of gene expression analysis suggest that the possible factor contributing to cartilage repair might be TGF?1. Cell tracking experiments using GFP transgenic rats showed that the regenerated cartilage was largely composed of cells derived from the transplanted chondrocyte sheets. PMID:25396711

Shimizu, Ryo; Kamei, Naosuke; Adachi, Nobuo; Hamanishi, Michio; Kamei, Goki; Mahmoud, Elhussein Elbadry; Nakano, Tomohiro; Iwata, Takanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Ochi, Mitsuo

2015-03-01

44

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering for the TMJ Condyle Using a Novel Gradient Scaffold  

E-print Network

, and in vitro studies with human umbilical cord stem cells provided promising results for osteochondral tissue regeneration. By encapsulating nanoparticles in the microspheres, a proof-of-concept was provided for creating functional scaffolds with a gradient...

Singh, Milind

2008-10-22

45

Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in an Osteochondral Environment Is Mediated by the Subchondral Bone  

PubMed Central

In articular cartilage repair, cells that will be responsible for the formation of repair tissue are often exposed to an osteochondral environment. To study cartilage repair mechanisms in vitro, we have recently developed a bovine osteochondral biopsy culture model in which cartilage defects can be simulated reproducibly. Using this model, we now aimed at studying the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in an osteochondral environment. In contrast to standard in vitro chondrogenesis, it was found that supplementing transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) to culture medium was not required to induce chondrogenesis of hBMSCs in an osteochondral environment. hBMSC culture in defects created in osteochondral biopsies or in bone-only biopsies resulted in comparable levels of cartilage-related gene expression, whereas culture in cartilage-only biopsies did not induce chondrogenesis. Subcutaneous implantation in nude mice of osteochondral biopsies containing hBMSCs in osteochondral defects resulted in the formation of more cartilaginous tissue than hBMSCs in chondral defects. The subchondral bone secreted TGF?; however, the observed results could not be attributed to TGF?, as either capturing TGF? with an antibody or blocking the canonical TGF? signaling pathway did not result in significant changes in cartilage-related gene expression of hBMSCs in the osteochondral culture model. Inhibition of BMP signaling did not prevent chondrogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that chondrogenesis of hBMSCs is induced by factors secreted from the bone. We have strong indications that this is not solely mediated by members of the TGF? family but other, yet unknown, factors originating from the subchondral bone appeared to play a key role. PMID:23980750

de Vries–van Melle, Marloes L.; Narcisi, Roberto; Kops, Nicole; Koevoet, Wendy J.L.M.; Bos, P. Koen; Murphy, J. Mary; Verhaar, Jan A.N.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

2014-01-01

46

Arthroscopic Delivery of Cancellous Tibial Autograft for Unstable Osteochondral Lesions in the Adolescent Knee  

PubMed Central

The appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of unstable osteochondral lesions of the knee remains unclear and had been traditionally described with an open arthrotomy. Administration of bone grafting material in the knee may be performed for a variety of pathologic conditions, including unstable osteochondritis dissecans, traumatic osteochondral defects, or subchondral fracture nonunion, or for preparation of residual tunnels during revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Although various grafting materials have been described in the literature, cancellous autograft remains the gold standard for treatment safety and efficacy. We describe a successful technique for arthroscopic delivery of autogenous bone graft during fixation of unstable osteochondral lesions of the knee. When the indication for grafting is established, cancellous autograft is harvested from the proximal tibia, undergoes morcellation, and is soaked in bone marrow aspirate obtained through the harvest window. The bone graft is then packed into a modified tuberculin syringe. After arthroscopic preparation of the unstable osteochondral fragment and the respective donor surface, the tuberculin syringe is placed through a standard arthroscopy portal and the bone graft is introduced into the defect under direct visualization, followed by an appropriate osteochondral fixation technique. PMID:25126499

Espinoza, Chris; Ellis, Henry B.; Wilson, Philip

2014-01-01

47

Approach alternatives for treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus.  

PubMed

Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries, especially in the athletic population. Although multiple etiologies exist, lateral lesions have a higher incidence of association with a specific traumatic event. It has been postulated that lateral lesions are produced when the anterolateral aspect of the talar dome impacts the fibula on application of an inversion or dorsiflexion stress to the ankle [2]. There is general agreement that surgery should be performed only in symptomatic cases, as osteochondral lesions of the talar dome show little tendency to progression and do not seem to lead to osteoarthritis [10,42]. Appropriate preoperative imaging is extremely important. Standard radiographs of the ankle supplemented with lateral plantar flexion and dorsiflexion views and CT or Mr imaging can be helpful in evaluating the size, depth, and exact location of the lesion. This information is essential in planning the appropriate surgical procedure. Although many stage I and II lesions respond well to conservative therapy and a period of immobilization, some higher-grade lesions (stage III and IV) eventually require surgical intervention. Most lesions can be approached arthroscopically. Many arthroscopic procedures have been shown to be successful, including debridement with abrasion chondroplasty, subchondral drilling, and microfracture [18-20]. But certain larger or refractory lesions may require an open approach to the ankle joint to restore the articular cartilage. Most lateral lesions have an anterior location and are easily accessible through a standard anterolateral approach. Most medial lesions are located on the posterior talar dome, and a medial malleolar osteotomy is usually required. Osteotomies, in particular of the medial malleolus, should be approached carefully. The possible complications of nonunion and malunion can lead to progressive arthritis of the ankle joint. PMID:12512414

Navid, David O; Myerson, Mark S

2002-09-01

48

Repairing the Osteochondral Defect in Goat with the Tissue-Engineered Osteochondral Graft Preconstructed in a Double-Chamber Stirring Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

To investigate the reparative efficacy of tissue-engineered osteochondral (TEO) graft for repairing the osteochondral defect in goat, we designed a double-chamber stirring bioreactor to construct the bone and cartilage composites simultaneously in one ?-TCP scaffold and observed the reparative effect in vivo. The osteochondral defects were created in goats and all the animals were divided into 3 groups randomly. In groups A, the defect was treated with the TEO which was cultured with mechanical stimulation of stir; in group B, the defect was treated with TEO which was cultured without mechanical stimulation of stir; in groups C, the defect was treated without TEO. At 12 weeks and 24 weeks after operation, the reparative effects in different groups were assessed and compared. The results indicated that the reparative effect of the TEO cultured in the bioreactor was better than the control group, and mechanical stimulation of stir could further improve the reparative effect. We provided a feasible and effective method to construct the TEO for treatment of osteochondral defect using autologous BMSCs and the double-chamber bioreactor. PMID:25061604

Pei, Yang; Fan, Jun-jun; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Yu, Min

2014-01-01

49

Tissue-engineered constructs: the effect of scaffold architecture in osteochondral repair.  

PubMed

Cartilage has a poor regenerative capacity. Tissue-engineering approaches using porous scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes may improve cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and pore interconnectivity on cartilage repair in osteochondral defects treated with different scaffolds seeded with allogenic chondrocytes. Scaffolds consisting of 55 wt% poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate) and 45 wt% poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) with different pore sizes and interconnectivities were made, using a compression moulding (CM) and a three-dimensional fibre (3DF) deposition technique. In these scaffolds, allogenic chondrocytes were seeded, cultured for 3 weeks and implanted in osteochondral defects of skeletally mature rabbits. At 3 weeks no difference in cartilage repair between an empty osteochondral defect, CM or 3DF scaffolds was found. Three months post-implantation, cartilage repair was significantly improved after implantation of a 3DF scaffold compared to a CM scaffold. Although not significant, Mankin scores for osteoarthritis (OA) indicated less OA in the 3DF scaffold group compared to empty defects and CM-treated defects. It is concluded that scaffold pore size and pore interconnectivity influences osteochondral repair and a decreased pore interconnectivity seems to impair osteochondral repair. PMID:22438217

Emans, P J; Jansen, E J P; van Iersel, D; Welting, T J M; Woodfield, T B F; Bulstra, S K; Riesle, J; van Rhijn, L W; Kuijer, R

2013-09-01

50

Hierarchical Structure of Articular Bone-Cartilage Interface and Its Potential Application for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The artificial biodegradable osteochondral construct is one of mostly promising lifetime substitute in the joint replacement. And the complex hierarchical structure of natural joint is important in developing the osteochondral construct. However, the architecture features of the interface between cartilage and bone, in particular those at the micro-and nano-structural level, remain poorly understood. This paper investigates these structural data of the cartilage-bone interface by micro computerized tomography (?CT) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result of ?CT shows that important bone parameters and the density of articular cartilage are all related to the position in the hierarchical structure. The conjunctions of bone and cartilage were defined by SEM. All of the study results would be useful for the design of osteochondral construct further manufactured by nano-tech. A three-dimensional model with gradient porous structure is constructed in the environment of Pro/ENGINEERING software.

Bian, Weiguo; Qin, Lian; Li, Dichen; Wang, Jin; Jin, Zhongmin

2010-09-01

51

Arthroscopic Particulated Juvenile Cartilage Allograft Transplantation for the Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus  

PubMed Central

Several options exist for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Particulated juvenile cartilage allograft transplantation (PJCAT) has become a viable treatment modality for osteochondral lesions of the talus that are not amenable to microfracture or for which microfracture has failed. Arthroscopic placement of this type of graft obviates the need for osteotomy or plafondplasty and does not prevent additional procedures from being performed through an anterior approach. Special instrumentation and setup are not required to perform this procedure. Our arthroscopic technique for placement of particulated juvenile cartilage into osteochondral lesions of the talus is described. Case series and outcomes after arthroscopic ankle PJCAT are currently not reported within the literature; however, it is believed that the outcomes are at least similar to those of open ankle PJCAT. PMID:25264516

Adams, Samuel B.; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A.; Parekh, Selene G.; Easley, Mark E.; Robbins, Justin

2014-01-01

52

Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts  

PubMed Central

Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

2014-01-01

53

Chronic, painful ankle instability in skeletally immature athletes. Ununited osteochondral fractures of the distal fibula.  

PubMed

We report 10 cases of chronic, painful ankle instability in skeletally immature athletes associated with ununited osteochondral fragments of the distal fibula. All the patients experienced multiple inversion injuries with recurrent pain and instability that failed to improve after a supervised exercise and rehabilitation program. Osteochondral fragments of the distal fibula were visible on all standard radiographs of the affected ankles. Treatment consisted of operative excision of the bony fragment and an anatomic nonaugmented repair of the lateral ligament complex and capsule. All 10 patients were available for long-term followup an average of 6.5 years (+/-2) after surgery; all ankles improved functionally, with no recurrences of instability. PMID:8883686

Busconi, B D; Pappas, A M

1996-01-01

54

Osteochondral lesions: medial versus lateral, persistent pain, cartilage restoration options and indications.  

PubMed

Chronic giving way and ankle dysfunction are common after ankle sprains. In our approach to chronic ankle pain and giving way, one must consider the differential diagnosis before treatment can be directed appropriately. One of the common diagnoses associated with ankle injury is osteochondral lesions of the talus. The advent of MRI has allowed us to make the diagnosis of occult lesions more readily. Arthroscopic and open management of these lesions continues to evolve. This article discusses osteochondral lesions of the talus, treatment options, and resurfacing techniques. PMID:19501804

Amendola, Annunziato; Panarella, Ludovico

2009-06-01

55

Extra-articular, Intraepiphyseal Drilling for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the knee frequently occur in skeletally immature patients. When conservative treatment fails, retro-articular drilling, also known as intraepiphyseal extra-articular drilling, becomes a viable treatment option. The purpose of this article is to describe our surgical technique and postoperative management of patients with stable osteochondritis dissecans lesions involving the femoral condyles. This technique is reproducible, uses readily available equipment, and has yielded good clinical outcomes with high healing rates and relatively early return to sports. PMID:24265990

Pennock, Andrew T.; Bomar, James D.; Chambers, Henry G.

2013-01-01

56

Chondroblastoma of the Knee Treated with Resection and Osteochondral Allograft Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Case. This case report describes the operative management of 16-year-old male with a symptomatic chondroblastoma of the distal femur with breach of the chondral surface. Following appropriate imaging and core needle biopsy, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The patient then underwent intralesional curettage and osteochondral allograft reconstruction of the defect. At one-year follow-up the patient was pain-free and has obtained excellent range of motion. There is radiographic evidence of allograft incorporation and no evidence of local recurrence. Conclusion. Osteochondral allograft reconstruction is an effective option following marginal resection and curettage of chondroblastoma involving the chondral surface of the distal femur. PMID:25548701

Fitzgerald, Judd; Broehm, Cory; Treme, Gehron

2014-01-01

57

[Articular reconstructions by a costochondral grafting (or osteochondral costal grafting)].  

PubMed

We describe a novel technique of costochondral autografting for the treatment of trapeziometacarpal arthritis, radioscaphoid osteoarthritis, malunion of the distal end of the radius, and osteoarticular loss of the MP joints of long fingers. The costal graft harvest technique is always the same. A 5-cm horizontal incision is made over the 9th rib, and the rib is exposed at the osteocartilaginous junction. Cartilaginous grafts are harvested with a scalpel, and osteocartilaginous grafts with a saw. Since 1992, 116 patients with trapezio-metacarpal arthritis have been treated by partial trapeziectomy and autologous rib cartilage grafting. One hundred patients were reviewed with an average follow-up of 5.6 years. The results were better than those of trapeziectomy with tendon interposition or ligamentous reconstruction, owing to good stability of the thumb ray height. For the treatment of radioscaphoid osteoarthritis following scaphoid non union or chronic scapholunate instability, partial carpal arthrodesis and resection of the first row are the classical techniques. As an alternative to these procedures, 18 patients were treated by resection of the proximal portion of the scaphoid and insertion of an osteochondral costal autograft. Mean follow-up is 4.1 years. The results are excellent or good in 15 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case (luxation of the graft). Four patients with articular malunion of the distal radius received an osteocartilaginous costal graft to reconstruct the articular surface of the radius while avoiding partial or total arthrodesis of the wrist. Four patients with segmental osteoarticular loss of the longfingers were treated with the same technique, thereby avoiding silicone arthroplasty. We review the literature on cartilaginous rib grafts in maxillofajcial and orthopaedic surgery. In our experience, MRI and biopsy show viable cartilage but also histologic changes such as revascularization, fibrous transformation and bone metaplasia. PMID:17450679

Tropet, Yves; Lepage, Daniel; Gallinet, David; Obert, Laurent; Garbuio, Patrick; Vichard, Philippe

2006-10-01

58

A Hydrogel-Mineral Composite Scaffold for Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering  

E-print Network

A Hydrogel-Mineral Composite Scaffold for Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering Nora T on the response of chondrocytes were determined, fo- cusing on changes in matrix production and mineralization compressive and shear moduli relative to the mineral-free control. Presence of HA also promoted chondrocyte

Linhardt, Robert J.

59

Integrated trilayered silk fibroin scaffold for osteochondral differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.  

PubMed

Repairing osteochondral defects (OCD) remains a formidable challenge due to the high complexity of native osteochondral tissue and the limited self-repair capability of cartilage. Osteochondral tissue engineering is a promising strategy for the treatment of OCD. In this study, we fabricated a novel integrated trilayered scaffold using silk fibroin and hydroxyapatite by combining paraffin-sphere leaching with a modified temperature gradient-guided thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. This biomimetic scaffold is characterized by three layers: a chondral layer with a longitudinally oriented microtubular structure, a bony layer with a 3D porous structure and an intermediate layer with a dense structure. Live/dead and CCK-8 tests indicated that this scaffold possesses good biocompatibility for supporting the growth, proliferation, and infiltration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Histological and immunohistochemical stainings and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the ADSCs could be induced to differentiate toward chondrocytes or osteoblasts in vitro at chondral and bony layers in the presence of chondrogenic- or osteogenic-induced culture medium, respectively. Moreover, the intermediate layer could play an isolating role for preventing the cells within the chondral and bony layers from mixing with each other. In conclusion, the trilayered and integrated osteochondral scaffolds can effectively support cartilage and bone tissue generation in vitro and are potentially applicable for OC tissue engineering in vivo. PMID:25210952

Ding, Xiaoming; Zhu, Meifeng; Xu, Baoshan; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhao, Yanhong; Ji, Shenglu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Lianyong; Li, Xiulan; Kong, Deling; Ma, Xinlong; Yang, Qiang

2014-10-01

60

Bioactive Stratified Polymer Ceramic-Hydrogel Scaffold for Integrative Osteochondral Repair  

E-print Network

Bioactive Stratified Polymer Ceramic-Hydrogel Scaffold for Integrative Osteochondral Repair JIE of polylactide- co-glycolide (PLGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) was fabricated and optimized for chondrocyte to the articular surface.37,68 These methods include abrasion arthroplasty,2,76 Pridie dril- ling,8 microfracture

Lu, Helen H.

61

Biomaterials 27 (2006) 41204131 Repair of osteochondral defects with biphasic cartilage-calcium  

E-print Network

diameter full thickness osteochondral defects in the trochlear groove of sheep stifles. The implants in sheep. Importantly the mechanical properties of the implanted cartilage improved significantly after-calcium polyphosphate constructs in a Sheep model R.A. Kandela,b,Ã, M. Grynpasa,b , R. Pilliarb , J. Leea , J. Wangb , S

Waldman, Stephen D.

2006-01-01

62

Nanomechanical mapping of the osteochondral interface with contact resonance force microscopy and nanoindentation.  

PubMed

The bone-cartilage, or osteochondral, interface resists remarkably high shear stresses and rarely fails, yet its mechanical characteristics are largely unknown. A complete understanding of this hierarchical system requires mechanical-property information at the length scales of both the interface and the connecting tissues. Here, we combined nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods to investigate the multiscale mechanical properties across the osteochondral region. The nanoindentation modulus M ranged from that of the subchondral bone (M=22.8±1.8GPa) to that of hyaline articular cartilage embedded in PMMA (M=5.7±1.0GPa) across a narrow transition region <5?m wide. Contact resonance force microscopy (CR-FM), which measures the frequency and quality factor of the AFM cantilever's vibrational resonance in contact mode, was used to determine the relative storage modulus and loss tangent of the osteochondral interface. With better spatial resolution than nanoindentation, CR-FM measurements indicated an even narrower interface width of 2.3±1.2?m. Furthermore, CR-FM revealed a 24% increase in the viscoelastic loss tangent from the articular calcified cartilage into the PMMA-embedded hyaline articular cartilage. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging provided complementary measurement of mineral content. Our results provide insight into the multiscale functionality of the osteochondral interface that will advance understanding of disease states such as osteoarthritis and aid in the development of biomimetic interfaces. PMID:22877818

Campbell, Sara E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Hurley, Donna C

2012-12-01

63

Design of a multiphase osteochondral scaffold. I. Control of chemical composition.  

PubMed

This is the first in a series of articles that describe the design and development of a family of osteochondral scaffolds based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan (collagen-GAG) and calcium phosphate technologies, engineered for the regenerative repair of defects in articular cartilage. The osteochondral scaffolds consist of two layers: a mineralized type I collagen-GAG scaffold designed to regenerate the underlying subchondral bone and a nonmineralized type II collagen-GAG scaffold designed to regenerate cartilage. The subsequent articles in this series describe the fabrication and properties of a mineralized scaffold as well as a two-layer (one mineralized, the other not) osteochondral scaffold for regeneration of the underlying bone and cartilage, respectively. This article describes a technology through which the chemical composition-particularly the calcium phosphate mass fraction-of triple coprecipitated nanocomposites of collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and calcium phosphate can be accurately and reproducibly varied without the need for titrants or other additives. Here, we describe how the mineral:organic ratio can be altered over a range that includes that for articular cartilage (0 wt % mineral) and for bone (75 wt % mineral). This technology achieves the objective of mimicking the composition of two main tissue types found in articular joints, with particular emphasis on the osseous compartment of an osteochondral scaffold. Exclusion of titrants avoids the formation of potentially harmful contaminant phases during freeze-drying steps crucial for scaffold fabrication, ensuring that the potential for binding growth factors and drugs is maintained. PMID:19301264

Lynn, Andrew K; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E; Harley, Brendan A; Yannas, Ioannis V; Gibson, Lorna J; Bonfield, William

2010-03-01

64

In Vivo Tracking of Mesechymal Stem Cells Using Fluorescent Nanoparticles in an Osteochondral Repair Model  

PubMed Central

We devised and tested an in vivo system to monitor the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the marrow cavity. In vitro studies confirmed that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA had the most potent chemotactic effect of the tested factors, and possessed the greatest number of receptors in MSCs. MSCs were labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and injected into the marrow cavity of nude rats through osteochondral defects created in the distal femur. The defects were sealed with HCF (heparin-conjugated fibrin) or PDGF-AA-loaded HCF. In the HCF-only group, the nanoparticle-labeled MSCs dispersed outside the marrow cavity within 3 days after injection. In the PDGF-AA-loaded HCF group, the labeled cells moved time-dependently for 14 days toward the osteochondral defect. HCF-PDGF in low dose (LD; 8.5 ng/µl) was more effective than HCF-PDGF in high dose (HD; 17 ng/µl) in recruiting the MSCs to the osteochondral defect. After 21 days, the defects treated with PDGF and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-loaded HCF showed excellent cartilage repair compared with other groups. Further studies confirmed that this in vivo osteochondral MSCs tracking system (IOMTS) worked for other chemoattractants (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and PDGF-BB). IOMTS can provide a useful tool to examine the effect of growth factors or chemokines on endogenous cartilage repair. PMID:22491215

Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Haeshin; Im, Gun-Il

2012-01-01

65

Effect of Impaction Sequence on Osteochondral Graft DamageThe Role of Repeated and Varying Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Osteochondral autografts and allografts require mechanical force for proper graft placement into the defect site; however, impaction compromises the tissue. This study aimed to determine the effect of impaction force and number of hits to seat the graft on cartilage integrity.Hypothesis: Under constant impulse conditions, higher impaction load magnitudes are more detrimental to cell viability, matrix integrity, and collagen

Richard W. Kang; Nicole A. Friel; James M. Williams; Brian J. Cole; Markus A. Wimmer

2010-01-01

66

Midterm results of biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling in osteochondritis dissecans  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) primarily affects subchondral bone. Multiple drilling, fixation implant or autogenous osteochondral grafts are reported as treatment options. We present the midterm results of cases in which an OCD lesion was treated by osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling. Materials and Methods: Between 2002 and 2006, 14 knees with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS-OCD) type II and III lesions were treated in our clinic using osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling by arthroscopic or open surgery. The average age of our patients was 22.14 years (range 17-29 years) and average followup was of 24.3 months (range 11-40 months). Lesion type was ICRS type II in five patients (35.7%) and ICRS type III in nine patients (64.3%). In cases with ICRS-OCD type II lesions, in situ fixation was applied following circumferential multiple drilling, while mosaicplasty was done following debridement and multiple drilling in cases with ICRS-OCD type III lesion. Mosaicplasty was performed in the lesion area by an average of 2.5 (range 1-3) cylindrical osteochondral autografts. Patients were not allowed to perform loading activities for 3 weeks in the postoperative period; movement was initiated by using CPM device in the early phase; full range of motion was achieved in third week, and full weight bearing was permitted in 6 to 8 weeks Results: While 6 and 8 patients were classified preoperatively as fair and poor, respectively, according to Hughston scale, excellent and good results were obtained postoperatively in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. During the followup, no problems were detected in any of the patients in the regions where osteochondral graft was harvested. Conclusion: Biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling as a technique to treatment of the lesion in OCD by osteochondral autograft transfer has resulted in good and excellent clinical outcomes in our patients and it is considered that providing blood flow to subchondral bone by circumferencial drilling leads to an increase in the robustness of biological internal fixation and shortens the duration of recovery. PMID:21886927

Emre, Tuluhan Yunus; Cift, Hakan; Seyhan, Bahadir; Ceyhan, Erman; Uzun, Macit

2011-01-01

67

Transient Patellar Dislocation Resulting in Simultaneous Osteochondral Fractures of Patella and Lateral Femoral Condyle – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Transient Patellar dislocations are commonly associated with bony contusions or osteochondral fractures involving the medial facet of patella or lateral femoral condyle. Simultaneous osteochondral fractures are rare and have not been reported in the adult. The authors report a case of combined osteochondral fracture of patella and lateral femoral condyle following acute patellar dislocation in an adult, which was misdiagnosed as meniscal injury. Both the osteochondral fracture fragments were rigidly fixed with headless compression screws and repair of the medial retinaculum was done. At latest follow up after two years, patient had regained full range of motion with no further episodes of patellar dislocation. The rarity of this combination of injury along with difficulty in interpreting radiographs makes this case interesting. PMID:25478378

Morey, Vivek Machhindra; Mittal, Ravi; Pannu, Chaitanya Dev

2014-01-01

68

Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle with autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of combined bone grafting and matrix-supported autologous\\u000a chondrocyte transplantation in patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Between January 2003 and March 2005, 21\\u000a patients (mean age 29.33 years) with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the medial or lateral condyle (grade III\\u000a or IV) of the knee underwent reconstruction

Joern Steinhagen; Juergen Bruns; Georg Deuretzbacher; Wolfgang Ruether; Martin Fuerst; Oliver Niggemeyer

2010-01-01

69

A novel injectable hydrogel in combination with a surgical sealant in a rat knee osteochondral defect model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteochondral defects are frequent, painful, debilitating and expensive to treat, often resulting in poor results. The goal\\u000a of the present study was to synthesize and characterize a novel biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel comprised of poly(ethylene\\u000a glycol), gelatin, and genipin, and examine the hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial in combination with a cyanoacrylate-based\\u000a surgical sealant for cartilage repair. An osteochondral knee

Natasa D. Miljkovic; Yen-Chih Lin; Mario Cherubino; Danielle Minteer; Kacey G. Marra

2009-01-01

70

Primary Stability of Press-Fit-Implanted Osteochondral GraftsInfluence of Graft Size, Repeated Insertion, and Harvesting Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fixation strength of press-fit-implanted osteochondral grafts with respect to graft size (length and diameter), the effect of repeated insertion after pullout, and harvesting technique. Experiments were performed using the Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System on porcine femoral condyles. Failure loads of 10-mm-long grafts (mean, 47 N) were significantly lower than failure loads

Jochen Duchow; Thomas Hess; Dieter Kohn

2000-01-01

71

Biochemical, ECF18R, and RYR1 gene polymorphisms and their associations with osteochondral diseases and production traits in pigs.  

PubMed

This study reports the association of five blood types, three enzymes, two proteins, Escherichia coli F18 receptor gene (ECF18R), and the Ryanodin receptor (RYR1) gene with six production traits, four meat quality traits, and two osteochondral diseases in Swiss pig populations. Data on on-farm traits (daily weight gain, percent premium cuts, and backfat) and on station-tested traits (daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, meat quality, and osteochondral lesions) were available on 3,918 and 303 animals, respectively. A mixed linear model with allele substitution effects was used for each trait by marker analysis (144 analyses). Significant marker-trait associations and allele substitution effects are presented. In general, heritability estimates for production and meat quality traits were higher than those for osteochondral lesions. Blood types lack significant associations with many traits except H and S types. Enzymes (mainly, glucose phosphate isomerase) and protein polymorphisms show significant associations with daily weight gain, premium cuts, and backfat as well as osteochondral lesions. The RYR and ECF18R genes significantly affected all growth, production, and lean meat content traits and osteochondral lesions; RYR also affected pH values. This study reports many novel marker-trait associations, particularly between the incidence of osteochondral lesions and polymorphisms at glucose phosphate isomerase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, postalbumin 1A, RYR, and ECF18R loci. These results should be useful in selection and for further functional genomics and proteomics investigations. PMID:17943437

Kadarmideen, Haja N

2008-02-01

72

Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella  

PubMed Central

Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove. PMID:25506015

Inoue, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Satoru; Ichimaru, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

73

Arthroscopic anatomic humeral head reconstruction with osteochondral allograft transplantation for large hill-sachs lesions.  

PubMed

Anatomic reconstruction of the humeral head with osteochondral allograft has been reported as a solution for large Hill-Sachs lesions with or without glenoid bone loss. However, to date, varying techniques have been used. This technical note describes an arthroscopic reconstruction technique using fresh-frozen, side- and size-matched osteochondral humeral head allograft. Allograft plugs are press fit into the defect without internal fixation and seated flush with the surrounding articular surface. This technique restores the native articular contour of the humeral head without compromising shoulder range of motion. Potential benefits of this all-arthroscopic approach include minimal trauma to the soft tissue and articular surface without the need for hardware or staged reoperation. PMID:24266001

Snir, Nimrod; Wolfson, Theodore S; Hamula, Mathew J; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Meislin, Robert J

2013-01-01

74

Treatment of capitellar osteochondritis dissecans with a tendon graft: a case report.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl who was engaged in farming was admitted with the complaints of right elbow pain and limited range of motion in the elbow joint. Plain radiograph revealed capitellar osteochondritis dissecans. After the loose fragment was removed from the capitellum and the defect was curetted, a palmaris longus tendon graft harvested from the same hand was implanted into the capitellar defect. Elbow joint was immobilized for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that tendon graft was successfully adapted into defect. The range of motion was preserved and she had no pain in the elbow joint. In conclusion, we suggest that tendon autograft can be used in the treatment of capitellar osteochondritis dissecans. PMID:22448833

Ayd?n, Haf?z; Karahasano?lu, Ilker; Kerimo?lu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet U?ur

2012-04-01

75

Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented.Objectives. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up.Materials and methods. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls;

Jacqueline A. Hughes; Jane V. Cook; Mark A. Churchill; Mary E. Warren

2003-01-01

76

The Clinical Utility and Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Identification and Classification of Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common clinical tool used to diagnose and monitor the progression and/or healing of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is MRI a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable imaging modality to identify knee osteochondritis dissecans compared with arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to characterize lesion severity and stability of osteochondritis dissecans fragments in the knee? Methods: A systematic search was performed in December 2010 with use of PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), Scopus (from 1996), and EMBASE (from 1974) databases. Results: Seven studies, four Level-II and three Level-III investigations, met the specified inclusion criteria. No randomized controlled studies were identified. Because of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed. Conclusions: The limited available evidence, methodological inconsistencies in imaging techniques, and lack of standardized grading criteria used in current studies prevent clear conclusions regarding the diagnostic and specific staging equivalency of MRI with arthroscopy. However, available evidence supports the use of MRI to detect the stability or instability of the lesion. Given the benefits of the use of MRI as a noninvasive tool to diagnose, predict lesion progression, and assess clinical outcomes of treatment, there is a pressing need for high-level, systematic, sound, and thorough studies related to the clinical utility of MRI for assessing osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22637210

Quatman, Carmen E.; Quatman-Yates, Catherine C.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Paterno, Mark V.

2012-01-01

77

Repair of large osteochondral defects with mix-mosaicplasty in a goat model.  

PubMed

Osteochondral defects in weight-bearing regions must be repaired with cartilage and subchondral bone support simultaneously, as well as the integration between the 2, particularly in young, active patients. In this study, a new method called mix-mosaicplasty was used to reconstruct large osteochondral defects (6-mm diameter) in the weight-bearing region of the femoral condyle of goats. Two periosteum-bone plugs and 1 osteochondral plug harvested from the proximal tibia and intertrochlea groove were assembled to fill the defects in a mosaic mode. The goats were euthanized 16 weeks postoperatively, and the result of the repair process was assessed using macroscopy, morphologic analysis, electron microscope observation, glycosaminoglycan assay, and magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, the superficial surface of the defective region was covered with regenerated cartilage, and the periosteum-bone plugs were combined with each other. However, cleavage between cartilage plugs was noted. The donor site, which was filled with periosteum-bone plugs, was regenerated with fibrocartilage-like tissue. The repaired tissue was composed of small chondrocyte-like cells arranged tightly within an evenly distributed extracellular matrix containing type II collagen. Cells of the regenerated tissue in periosteum-bone plugs were smaller and distributed more densely. Electron microscopy demonstrated regular matrix fibers and abundant organelles within the repaired tissue. No significant differences of glycosaminoglycan content were observed between reconstructed tissue and normal hyaline cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the healing process between plugs other than the control group. The new technique of mix-mosaicplasty can reconstruct full-thickness osteochondral compound defects in the weight-bearing region of the femoral condyle. PMID:23464953

Leng, Ping; Wang, Ying-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Ning

2013-03-01

78

Stem cell-based microphysiological osteochondral system to model tissue response to interleukin-1?.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the articular joint that involves both bone and cartilage degenerative changes. An engineered osteochondral tissue within physiological conditions will be of significant utility in understanding the pathogenesis of OA and testing the efficacy of potential disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs). In this study, a multichamber bioreactor was fabricated and fitted into a microfluidic base. When the osteochondral construct is inserted, two chambers are formed on either side of the construct (top, chondral; bottom, osseous) that is supplied by different medium streams. These medium conduits are critical to create tissue-specific microenvironments in which chondral and osseous tissues will develop and mature. Human bone marrow stem cell (hBMSCs)-derived constructs were fabricated in situ and cultured within the bioreactor and induced to undergo spatially defined chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation for 4 weeks in tissue-specific media. We observed tissue specific gene expression and matrix production as well as a basophilic interface suggesting a developing tidemark. Introduction of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) to either the chondral or osseous medium stream induced stronger degradative responses locally as well as in the opposing tissue type. For example, IL-1? treatment of the osseous compartment resulted in a strong catabolic response in the chondral layer as indicated by increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity, and tissue-specific gene expression. This induction was greater than that seen with IL-1? application to the chondral component directly, indicative of active biochemical communication between the two tissue layers and supporting the osteochondral nature of OA. The microtissue culture system developed here offers novel capabilities for investigating the physiology of osteochondral tissue and pathogenic mechanisms of OA and serving as a high-throughput platform to test potential DMOADS. PMID:24830762

Lin, Hang; Lozito, Thomas P; Alexander, Peter G; Gottardi, Riccardo; Tuan, Rocky S

2014-07-01

79

Percutaneous CT-Guided Treatment of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Sacroiliac Joint  

SciTech Connect

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a joint disorder that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, most commonly at the knee. OCD of the sacroiliac joint is extremely rare. Management of OCD remains controversial, and surgery is often needed, especially when conservative treatment fails. We present a rare case of OCD involving the left sacroiliac joint successfully treated by percutaneous computed tomography-guided retrograde drilling and debridement.

Becce, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.becce@chuv.ch [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Mouhsine, Elyazid [Clinique Hirslanden Bois-Cerf, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Switzerland); Mosimann, Pascal John; Anaye, Anass [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Letovanec, Igor [University Institute of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Theumann, Nicolas [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland)

2012-08-15

80

Current strategies in multiphasic scaffold design for osteochondral tissue engineering: A review.  

PubMed

The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This article gives an overview of some of the current strategies in multiphasic/gradient-based scaffold architectures and compositions for tissue engineering of osteochondral defects. In addition, the application of finite element analysis (FEA) in scaffold design and simulation of in vitro and in vivo cell growth outcomes has been briefly covered. FEA-based approaches can potentially be coupled with computer-assisted fabrication systems for controlled deposition and additive manufacturing of the simulated patterns. Finally, a summary of the existing challenges associated with the repair of osteochondral defects as well as some recommendations for future directions have been brought up in the concluding section of this article. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25345589

Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra; Hoque, Md Enamul; Prasad, Rangabhatala G S V; Uth, Nicholas

2014-10-23

81

Osteochondral multiple autograft transfer (OMAT) for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee joint.  

PubMed

The ideal articular cartilage repair tissue should be durable and well-integrated. We have been performing osteochondral multiple autograft transfers (OMAT) since 1996 with the experience we had using carbon fiber implants. We call this technique OMAT instead of mosaicplasty because we use uniform osteochondral autografts. Osteochondral multiple autograft transfer (OMAT) was performed either by arthrotomy or arthroscopy on 12 patients (6 male and 6 female) for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee joint. The patients ranged in age from 20 to 63 years (mean: 38 years). All had weightbearing-related pain or decrease in the range of motion. None had instability or malalignment. The average follow-up time was 4 years (range: 2 to 8 years). Clinical results were satisfactory. All of the paients were improved initially by the procedure and 85% are still pain free. The mean Lysholm knee rating score was 56 points preoperatively and 86 points postoperatively. Second-look arthroscopy (five patients) demonstrated a normal shiny appearance and color of the grafted area. We observed slight joint effusion postoperatively that disappeared in two months. There was no donor site morbidity. OMAT is a promising surgical technique for the treatment ofarticular cartilage defects. Long-term follow-up with more patients and histological and biomechanical evaluation of chondral interfaces are the subjects of our continuing study. PMID:16536217

Atik, O Sahap; Uslu, M Murad; Eksioglu, Fatih

2005-01-01

82

The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs  

PubMed Central

In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been shown to yield engineered cartilaginous tissue with native Young's modulus (EY) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. By day 42 in culture the incorporation of a bony base significantly reduced these properties (EY = 87 ± 12 kPa, GAG = 1.9 ± 0.8%ww) compared to the gel-alone group (EY = 642 ± 97 kPa, GAG = 4.6 ± 1.4%ww). Similarly, the mechanical and biochemical properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs were inhibited when co-cultured adjacent to bone (unattached), suggesting that soluble factors rather than direct cell–bone interactions mediate the chondro-inhibitory bone effects. Altering the method of bone preparation, including demineralization, or the timing of bone introduction in co-culture did not ameliorate the effects. In contrast, osteochondral constructs with native cartilage properties (EY = 730 ± 65 kPa, GAG = 5.2 ± 0.9%ww) were achieved when a porous tantalum metal base material was adopted instead of bone. This work suggests that devitalized bone may not be a suitable substrate for long-term cultivation of osteochondral grafts. PMID:18718655

Lima, Eric G.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Bal, B. Sonny; Cook, James L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T.

2008-01-01

83

Knee salvage procedures: The indications, techniques and outcomes of large osteochondral allografts  

PubMed Central

The overall incidence of osteochondral defect in the general population is estimated to be 15 to 30 per 100000 people. These lesions can become symptomatic causing pain, swelling and decreased function of the knee, and may eventually progress to osteoarthritis. In the young and active population, partial or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rarely the treatment of choice due to risk of early failure. Osteochondral allograft transplantation has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment of large osteochondral and chondral defects of the knee in appropriately selected patients. The treatment reduces pain, improves function and is a viable limb salvage procedure for patients, especially young and active patients for whom TKA is not recommended. Either large dowels generated with commercially available equipment or free hand shell allografts can be implanted in more posterior lesions. Current recommendations for fresh allografts stored at 4C advise implantation within 21-28 d of procurement for optimum chondrocyte viability, following screening and testing protocols. Higher rates of successful allograft transplantation are observed in younger patients, unipolar lesions, normal or corrected malalignment, and defects that are treated within 12 mo of symptom onset. Patients with bipolar lesions, uncorrectable malalignment, advanced osteoarthritis, and those over 40 tend to have less favourable outcomes.

Chui, Karen; Jeys, Lee; Snow, Martyn

2015-01-01

84

Development and characterisation of a decellularised bovine osteochondral biomaterial for cartilage repair.  

PubMed

It is proposed that an acellular natural osteochondral scaffold will provide a successful repair material for the early intervention treatment of cartilage lesions, to prevent or slow the progression of cartilage deterioration to osteoarthritis. Here, we investigated the efficacy of methods for the decellularisation of bovine osteochondral plugs. The plugs were subject to four freeze/thaw cycles followed by two cycles of washes in hypotonic solution and low concentration (0.1 % w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate with protease inhibitors. Plugs were treated with nuclease (DNase and RNase) treatment followed by sterilization in peracetic acid. Full tissue decellularisation was achieved as confirmed by histological analysis and DNA quantification, however the resultant acellular matrix had reduced glycosaminoglycan content which led to an increased percent deformation of cartilage. Furthermore, the acellular scaffold was not reproducibly biocompatible. Additional terminal washes were included in the process to improve biocompatibility, however, this led to visible structural damage to the cartilage. This damage was found to be minimised by reducing the cut edge to cartilage area ratio through decellularisation of larger cuts of osteochondral tissue. PMID:25893393

Fermor, Hazel L; Russell, Serena L; Williams, Sophie; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

2015-05-01

85

Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans in a 13-year-old male athlete: A case report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the clinical management of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee and highlight the importance of a timely diagnosis to optimize the time needed for less invasive, non-operative therapy. Clinical Features: A 13-year-old provincial level male soccer player presenting with recurrent anterior knee pain despite ongoing manual therapy. Intervention and Outcome: A multidisciplinary, non-operative treatment approach was utilized to promote natural healing of the osteochondral lesion. The plan of management consisted of patient education, activity modification, manual therapy, passive modalities and rehabilitation, while being overseen by an orthopaedic surgeon. Conclusions: Considering the serious consequences of misdiagnosing osteochondritis dissecans, such as the potential for future joint instability and accelerated joint degeneration, a high degree of suspicion should be considered with young individuals presenting with nonspecific, recurrent knee pain. A narrative review of the literature is provided to allow practitioners to apply current best practices to appropriately manage juvenile OCD and become more cognizant of the common knee differential diagnoses in the young athletic population. PMID:25550663

D’Angelo, Kevin; Kim, Peter; Murnaghan, M. Lucas

2014-01-01

86

A novel, visible light-induced, rapidly cross-linkable gelatin scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Osteochondral injuries remain difficult to repair. We developed a novel photo-cross-linkable furfurylamine-conjugated gelatin (gelatin-FA). Gelatin-FA was rapidly cross-linked by visible light with Rose Bengal, a light sensitizer, and was kept gelled for 3 weeks submerged in saline at 37°C. When bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) were suspended in gelatin-FA with 0.05% Rose Bengal, approximately 87% of the cells were viable in the hydrogel at 24?h after photo-cross-linking, and the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was maintained for up to 3 weeks. BMP4 fusion protein with a collagen binding domain (CBD) was retained in the hydrogels at higher levels than unmodified BMP4. Gelatin-FA was subsequently employed as a scaffold for BMSCs and CBD-BMP4 in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. In both cases, the defect was repaired with articular cartilage-like tissue and regenerated subchondral bone. This novel, photo-cross-linkable gelatin appears to be a promising scaffold for the treatment of osteochondral injury. PMID:24662725

Mazaki, Tetsuro; Shiozaki, Yasuyuki; Yamane, Kentaro; Yoshida, Aki; Nakamura, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Zhou, Di; Kitajima, Takashi; Tanaka, Masato; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsukawa, Akihiro

2014-01-01

87

A novel, visible light-induced, rapidly cross-linkable gelatin scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Osteochondral injuries remain difficult to repair. We developed a novel photo-cross-linkable furfurylamine-conjugated gelatin (gelatin-FA). Gelatin-FA was rapidly cross-linked by visible light with Rose Bengal, a light sensitizer, and was kept gelled for 3 weeks submerged in saline at 37°C. When bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) were suspended in gelatin-FA with 0.05% Rose Bengal, approximately 87% of the cells were viable in the hydrogel at 24?h after photo-cross-linking, and the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was maintained for up to 3 weeks. BMP4 fusion protein with a collagen binding domain (CBD) was retained in the hydrogels at higher levels than unmodified BMP4. Gelatin-FA was subsequently employed as a scaffold for BMSCs and CBD-BMP4 in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. In both cases, the defect was repaired with articular cartilage-like tissue and regenerated subchondral bone. This novel, photo-cross-linkable gelatin appears to be a promising scaffold for the treatment of osteochondral injury. PMID:24662725

Mazaki, Tetsuro; Shiozaki, Yasuyuki; Yamane, Kentaro; Yoshida, Aki; Nakamura, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Zhou, Di; Kitajima, Takashi; Tanaka, Masato; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsukawa, Akihiro

2014-01-01

88

Retrograde Percutaneous Drilling for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Head of the Talus: Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Osteochondral lesions of the talus might be a more common cause of pain than previously recognized, especially among those involved in athletic activities. However, the location of an osteochondral lesion on the talar head is much less common than such lesions localized to the dome of the talus and can pose diagnostic difficulties. We present the case of a 14-year-old soccer player who complained of longstanding pain in his left foot. After unsuccessful conservative treatment consisting of rest and bracing, he was ultimately treated with retrograde percutaneous drilling of the talar head performed by a medial approach. This was followed by casting and non-weightbearing for 6 weeks, after which physical therapy was undertaken. He was able to return to full activity and remained asymptomatic during a 5-year observation period. Although rare, osteochondritis dissecans of the talar head should be considered in young athletes with persistent foot pain that is unresponsive to reasonable therapy. PMID:25459089

Corominas, Laura; Sanpera, Ignacio; Masrouha, Karim; Sanpera-Iglesias, Julia

2014-10-31

89

OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT KNEE WITH MACROSCOPIC GRADIENTS OF BIOACTIVE SIGNALS  

PubMed Central

To date, most interfacial tissue engineering approaches have utilized stratified designs, in which there are two or more discrete layers comprising the interface. Continuously-graded interfacial designs, where there is no discrete transition from one tissue type to another, are gaining attention as an alternative to stratified designs. Given that osteochondral regeneration holds the potential to enhance cartilage regeneration by leveraging the healing capacity of the underlying bone, we endeavored to introduce a continuously graded approach to osteochondral regeneration. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the New Zealand White rabbit femoral condyle. Bioactive plugs were constructed from poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a continuous gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. At six and 12 weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue, and the gradient in bioactive signaling may have been beneficial for bone and cartilage regeneration compared to the blank control implant, as evidenced by histology. In addition, the effects of pre-seeding gradient scaffolds with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs) from the Wharton’s jelly of New Zealand White rabbits were evaluated. Results indicated that there may be regenerative benefits to pre-localizing UCMSCs within scaffold interiors. The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for defect repair in the femoral condyle. PMID:22009693

Dormer, Nathan H.; Singh, Milind; Zhao, Liang; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

90

Effect of Impaction Sequence on Osteochondral Graft Damage: The Role of Repeated and Varying Loads  

PubMed Central

Background Osteochondral autografts and allografts require mechanical force for proper graft placement into the defect site; however, impaction compromises the tissue. This study aimed to determine the effect of impaction force and number of hits to seat the graft on cartilage integrity. Hypothesis Under constant impulse conditions, higher impaction load magnitudes are more detrimental to cell viability, matrix integrity and collagen network organization and will result in proteoglycan loss and nitric oxide release. Study Design Controlled laboratory study Methods Osteochondral explants, harvested from fresh bovine trochleas, were exposed to a series of consistent impact loads delivered by a pneumatically driven device. Each plug received the same overall impulse of 7 Ns, reflecting the mean of 23 clinically inserted plugs. Impaction loads of 37.5N, 75N, 150N, and 300N were matched with 74, 37, 21, and 11 hits respectively. Following impaction, the plugs were harvested and cartilage was analyzed for cell viability, histology by safranin-o and picosirius red, and release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and nitric oxide. Data were compared with non-impacted control. Results Impacted plugs had significantly lower cell viability than non-impacted plugs. A dose response relationship in loss of cell viability with respect to load magnitude was seen immediately and after 4 days but lost after 8 days. Histologic analysis revealed intact cartilage surface in all samples (loaded or control), with loaded samples showing alterations in birefringence. While the sulfated GAG release was similar across varying impaction loads, release of nitric oxide increased with increasing impaction magnitudes and time. Conclusions Impaction loading parameters have a direct effect on the time course of the viability of the cartilage in the graft tissue. Clinical Relevance Optimal loading parameters for surgical impaction of osteochondral grafts are those with lower load magnitudes and a greater number of hits to ensure proper fit. PMID:19915099

Kang, Richard W.; Friel, Nicole A.; Williams, James M.; Cole, Brian J.; Wimmer, Markus A.

2013-01-01

91

The Role of Erythropoietin and Bone Marrow Concentrate in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in Mini-Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background All available treatment options for osteochondral and chondral defects do not restore hyaline cartilage and are limited to decreasing associated pain, and maintaining or improving joint function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of erythropoietin (EPO) in combination with bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) in the treatment of osteochondral defects of mini-pigs. Methods 14 Goettinger mini-pigs, in which a 6×10 mm osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle of both knee joints was created, were randomized into four groups: biphasic scaffold alone, scaffold with EPO, scaffold with BMAC and scaffold in combination with EPO and BMAC. After 26 weeks all animals were euthanized and histological slides were evaluated using a modified ÓDriscoll Score. Results In the therapy groups, areas of chondrogenic tissue that contained collagen II were present. Adding EPO (p?=?0.245) or BMAC (p?=?0.099) alone to the scaffold led to a non-significant increase in the score compared to the control group. However, the combination of EPO and BMAC in the implanted scaffold showed a significant improvement (p?=?0.02) in the histological score. Conclusion The results of our study show that in mini-pigs, the combination of EPO and BMAC leads to an enhanced osteochondral healing. However, additional research is necessary to further improve the repair tissue and to define the role of MSCs and EPO in cartilage repair. PMID:24676029

Betsch, Marcel; Thelen, Simon; Santak, Laila; Herten, Monika; Jungbluth, Pascal; Miersch, Daniel; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael

2014-01-01

92

Osteochondral lesions of the talus in a sports medicine clinicA new radiographic technique and surgical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of 11 patients seen at the Uni versity of British Columbia Sports Medicine Clinic with osteochondral lesions of the talus was undertaken. From our data, a number of points became apparent. There was a predominance of posteromedial talar dome lesions. A flexion-inversion ankle injury could be docu mented in the majority of cases. There was frequently a

J. Paul Thompson; Richard L. Loomer

1984-01-01

93

Chondrolysis of the Ankle Joint following Ankle Arthroscopy and Microfracture of the Osteochondral Lesion of the Talar Dome.  

PubMed

Chondrolysis of the ankle is a very rare condition. We report a case of chondrolysis of the ankle following ankle arthroscopy and microfracture of the osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. The patient's symptoms were relieved after articulated distraction arthroplasty. PMID:24369518

Choi, Tsz Lung; Lui, Tun Hing

2013-01-01

94

Chondrolysis of the Ankle Joint following Ankle Arthroscopy and Microfracture of the Osteochondral Lesion of the Talar Dome  

PubMed Central

Chondrolysis of the ankle is a very rare condition. We report a case of chondrolysis of the ankle following ankle arthroscopy and microfracture of the osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. The patient's symptoms were relieved after articulated distraction arthroplasty. PMID:24369518

Lui, Tun Hing

2013-01-01

95

The effect of interface microstructure on interfacial shear strength for osteochondral scaffolds based on biomimetic design and 3D printing.  

PubMed

Interface integration between chondral phase and osseous phase is crucial in engineered osteochondral scaffolds. However, the integration was poorly understood and commonly failed to meet the need of osteochondral scaffolds. In this paper, a biphasic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffold with enhanced interfacial integration was developed. The chondral phase was a PEG hydrogel. The osseous phase was a ?-TCP ceramic scaffold. The PEG hydrogel was directly cured on the ceramic interface layer by layer to fabricate osteochondral scaffolds by 3D printing technology. Meanwhile, a series of interface structure were designed with different interface pore area percentages (0/10/20/30/40/50/60%), and interfacial shear test was applied for interface structure optimization (n=6 samples/group). The interfacial shear strength of 30% pore area group was nearly three folds improved compared with that of 0% pore area percentage group, and more than fifty folds improved compared with that of traditional integration (5.91±0.59 kPa). In conclusion, the biomimetic PEG/?-TCP scaffolds with interface structure enhanced integration show promising potential application for osteochondral tissue engineering. PMID:25491954

Zhang, Weijie; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; Jin, Zhongmin

2015-01-01

96

Positive effect of oral supplementation with glycosaminoglycans and antioxidants on the regeneration of osteochondral defects in the knee joint.  

PubMed

The effect of oral supplementation with glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and radical scavengers (vitamin E/selenium) on the regeneration of osteochondral defects was investigated in rabbits. After introduction of defined osteochondral defects in the knee joint, groups of ten animals were given a GAG/vitamin E/selenium mixture or a placebo (milk sugar) for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, histological and histochemical analysis was performed. The amount of synovial fluid was increased in the placebo group, while the viscosity of the synovial fluid was significantly enhanced in the GAG group. The amount of sulfated GAG in the osteochondral regenerates (8.8 +/- 3.6 % vs. 6.0 +/- 5.6 %; p <0.03) was significantly higher in the GAG group. In both groups, the GAG amount in the cartilage of the operated knee was significantly higher than in the non-involved knee (p <0.05). Histological analysis of the regenerates in the GAG group was superior in comparison with the placebo group. For the first time, a biological effect following oral supplementation with GAG was demonstrated in healing of osteochondral defects in vivo. These findings support the known positive clinical results. PMID:16555950

Handl, M; Amler, E; Bräun, K; Holzheu, J; Trc, T; Imhoff, A B; Lytvynets, A; Filová, E; Kolárová, H; Kotyk, A; Martínek, V

2007-01-01

97

Effect of tissue culture storage on the in vivo survival of canine osteochondral allografts.  

PubMed

In vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of osteochondral grafts can be preserved for as long as 28 days under tissue culture conditions. This study represents an attempt to extend these results to an in vivo model. In adult mongrel dogs, either an autograft, a fresh allograft, or a stored allograft was placed in a standardized defect on the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle. The stored grafts were kept at 4 degrees C in tissue culture medium for 14 days prior to implantation. The animals were killed at 12 weeks. Cartilage from the contralateral knee served as a control. The modulus and permeability of the cartilage were assessed with confined compression creep tests. The collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were measured, and the cartilage was analyzed histologically with hematoxylin and eosin and safranin O stains. Grossly, the cartilage appeared viable at harvest. The histologic results were similar in the treatment groups, with the same spectrum of mild degenerative changes being noted in each group. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly less in the autograft group than in its control group and than in the fresh allograft group. The glycosaminoglycan content did not differ significantly between fresh and stored allografts. The collagen content, modulus, and permeability did not differ either between experimental and control groups or between graft types. Our results support the conclusion that osteochondral allografts can be stored for as many as 14 days without significantly affecting the results of the procedure. PMID:7674072

Oates, K M; Chen, A C; Young, E P; Kwan, M K; Amiel, D; Convery, F R

1995-07-01

98

Three-dimensional osteogenic and chondrogenic systems to model osteochondral physiology and degenerative joint diseases.  

PubMed

Tissue engineered constructs have the potential to function as in vitro pre-clinical models of normal tissue function and disease pathogenesis for drug screening and toxicity assessment. Effective high throughput assays demand minimal systems with clearly defined performance parameters. These systems must accurately model the structure and function of the human organs and their physiological response to different stimuli. Musculoskeletal tissues present unique challenges in this respect, as they are load-bearing, matrix-rich tissues whose functionality is intimately connected to the extracellular matrix and its organization. Of particular clinical importance is the osteochondral junction, the target tissue affected in degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA), which consists of hyaline articular cartilage in close interaction with subchondral bone. In this review, we present an overview of currently available in vitro three-dimensional systems for bone and cartilage tissue engineering that mimic native physiology, and the utility and limitations of these systems. Specifically, we address the need to combine bone, cartilage and other tissues to form an interactive microphysiological system (MPS) to fully capture the biological complexity and mechanical functions of the osteochondral junction of the articular joint. The potential applications of three-dimensional MPSs for musculoskeletal biology and medicine are highlighted. PMID:24994814

Alexander, Peter G; Gottardi, Riccardo; Lin, Hang; Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

2014-09-01

99

Repair of articular cartilage in rabbit osteochondral defects promoted by extracorporeal shock wave therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the stimulative effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the articular cartilage regeneration in the rabbit osteochondral defect model for the first time. An osteochondral defect, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth, was drilled in the patellar groove at the distal end of each femur in 24 mature New Zealand rabbits. The right patellar defects received 500 impulses of shock waves of (at 14 kV) at 1 week after surgery and were designated as the experimental samples; the left patellar defects served as control. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESWT, cartilage repair was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using a semiquantitative grading scale. The total scores of the macroscopic evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the experimental group were superior to those in the control group (statistical significance level ). As to the total scores of the histologic evaluation, the experimental group showed a tendency toward a better recovery than the control group at 4 weeks (). At 8 and 12 weeks the differences between the experimental and control groups became mild and had no significance on statistical analysis. These findings suggested that regeneration of articular cartilage defects might be promoted by ESWT, especially at the early stage. The easy and safe ESWT is potentially viable for clinical application.

Chu, C.-H.; Yen, Y.-S.; Chen, P.-L.; Wen, C.-Y.

2015-03-01

100

Joint laminate degradation assessed by reflected ultrasound from the cartilage surface and osteochondral junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to quantify and qualify the progression of joint degeneration is becoming increasingly important in surgery. This paper examines the patterns of relative ultrasound reflection from normal, artificially and naturally degraded cartilage-on-bone, particularly investigating the potential of the ratio of reflection coefficients from the surface and osteochondral junction in distinguishing normal from osteoarthritic tissue. To this end, the reflection coefficients from the articular surface and osteochondral junction of normal cartilage-on-bone samples were calculated and compared to samples after the removal of proteoglycans, disruption of the collagen meshwork, delipidization of the articular surface and mechanical abrasion. Our results show that the large variation across normal and degraded joint samples negates the use of an isolated bone reflection measurement and to a lesser extent, an isolated surface reflection. The relative surface to bone reflections, calculated as a ratio of reflection coefficients, provided a more consistent and statistically significant (p < 0.001) method for distinguishing each type of degradation, especially osteoarthritic degradation, and due to the complementary relationship between surface and bone reflections was found to be an effective method for distinguishing degraded from normal tissue in the osteoarthritic joint, independent of the site of initiation of the osteoarthritic process.

Brown, C. P.; Hughes, S. W.; Crawford, R. W.; Oloyede, A.

2008-08-01

101

Retro-articular drilling and bone grafting of juvenile knee osteochondritis dissecans: a technical description.  

PubMed

The goal of the surgery in stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is to promote revascularization and reossification of the osteochondral fragment by creating channels, linking the subchondral bone to the OCD lesion. Retro-articular and trans-articular drilling of OCD lesions has up to a 33 % failure rate based on complete radiographic healing. Healing may be improved with the delivery of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the lesion. We describe a technically simple procedure for retro-articular drilling with the addition of percutaneous iliac crest bone graft placement for stable juvenile OCD lesions of the knee. By using a bone marrow biopsy needle, the bone grafting can be performed in a reproducible manner and in shorter time than in previously described techniques. The proposed technique represents a promising adjunct for the management of stable juvenile OCD lesions that fail to heal after 3-6 months of non-operative treatment and for non-displaced, unstable OCD lesions that undergo internal fixation. PMID:23328989

Lykissas, Marios G; Wall, Eric J; Nathan, Senthil

2014-02-01

102

Effects of cryopreservation on the depth-dependent elastic modulus in articular cartilage and implications for osteochondral grafting.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of articular cartilage is often used in storage of experimental samples and osteochondral grafts, but the depth-dependence and concentration of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) are significantly altered when cryogenically stored without a cryoprotectant, which will reduce cartilage stiffness and affect osteochondral graft function and long-term viability. This study investigates our ability to detect changes due to cryopreservation in the depth-dependent elastic modulus of osteochondral samples. Using a direct-visualization method requiring minimal histological alterations, unconfined stepwise stress relaxation tests were performed on four fresh (never frozen) and three cryopreserved (-20?°C) canine humeral head osteochondral slices 125?±?5??m thick. Applied force was measured and tissue images were taken at the end of each relaxation phase using a 4× objective. Intratissue displacements were calculated by tracking chondrocytes through consecutive images for various intratissue depths. The depth-dependent elastic modulus was compared between fresh and cryopreserved tissue for same-depth ranges using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post-test with a 95% confidence interval. Cryopreservation was found to significantly alter the force-displacement profile and reduce the depth-dependent modulus of articular cartilage. Excessive collagen fiber folding occurred at 40-60% relative depth, producing a "black line" in cryopreserved tissue. Force-displacement curves exhibited elongated toe-region in cryopreserved tissue while fresh tissue had nonmeasurable toe-region. Statistical analysis showed significant reduction in the elastic modulus and GAG concentration throughout the tissue between same-depth ranges. This method of cryopreservation significantly reduces the depth-dependent modulus of canine humeral osteochondral samples. PMID:25412272

Kahn, David; Les, Clifford; Xia, Yang

2015-05-01

103

Post-traumatic malunion of the distal radial intra-articular fractures treated with autologous costal osteochondral grafts and bioabsorbable plates.  

PubMed

Intra-articular distal radial fractures with partial bone loss at the wrist were reconstructed using osteochondral grafts in 2 patients who were followed up for at least 18 months. Both patients experienced posttraumatic arthrosis of the wrist joint. The materials of the intra-articular fixation were bioabsorbable plates and screws. Reconstruction of a partially destroyed articular surface using a costal osteochondral graft is reliable and allows filling and resurfacing an articular cartilage void. PMID:24240625

Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori; Menuki, Kunitaka; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

2014-03-01

104

A novel computer navigation system for retrograde drilling of osteochondral lesions.  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) represents an important clinical entity in orthopedic sports medicine. Once surgical intervention is required, retrograde drilling for OCD lesions remains technically challenging. A novel electromagnetic navigation system was developed to be a radiation-free navigation tool providing spatiotemporal real-time information to the surgeon without the need for a stationary patient tracker and without relevant setup and calibration times. The novel system was tested for arthroscopically assisted retrograde drilling of cadaveric OCD lesions of the knee and talus and compared with the gold standard fluoroscopy-guided retrograde drilling procedure in a controlled laboratory study setup. The novel method considerably improves on the standard operating procedure in terms of safety, operation time, and radiation exposure and will be available for further surgical indications. PMID:25370876

Hoffmann, Michael; Schroeder, Malte; Rueger, Johannes M

2014-12-01

105

Arthroscopic removal of discrete palmar carpal osteochondral fragments in horses: 25 cases (1999-2013).  

PubMed

Objective-To characterize discrete palmar carpal osteochondral fragmentation in horses and to document the effect of osteoarthritis and surgical removal of these fragments on functional outcome. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-25 horses. Procedures-Medical records and radiographic views were reviewed to identify horses that had radiographic evidence of palmar carpal fragmentation, which was subsequently treated by arthroscopic removal. Information collected included cause of fracture, initial and long-term clinical and radiographic findings, and functional outcome. Results-Palmar carpal fragmentation of 30 carpal bones was identified in 25 unilaterally affected horses. A known traumatic event was reported to cause the fragmentation in 17 of the 25 (68%) horses. Of the 25 horses, 17 (68%) had fragmentation involving the antebrachiocarpal joint, 7 (28%) had fragmentation involving the middle carpal joint, and 1 (4%) had fragmentation involving the carpometacarpal joint. The proximal aspect of the radial carpal bone was the most commonly affected site (12/30 fragments), followed by the accessory carpal bone (6/30). Of the 25 horses, 19 (76%) were not lame (sound) after surgery and returned to their intended use, 4 (16%) were considered pasture sound, and 2 were euthanized (because of severe postoperative osteoarthritis or long bone fracture during recovery from anesthesia). Eight of the 14 horses with preoperative evidence of osteoarthritis returned to function after surgery. Twelve of 17 horses with antebrachiocarpal joint fragments and 6 of 7 horses with middle carpal joint fragments returned to their previous use. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the prognosis for horses after arthroscopic removal of palmar carpal osteochondral fragments is good. Early intervention, before the development of osteoarthritis, is recommended. PMID:25875672

Lang, Hayley M; Nixon, Alan J

2015-05-01

106

Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee with a biomimetic scaffold. A prospective multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Purpose the aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee with a type-I collagen-hydroxyapatite nanostructural biomimetic osteochondral scaffold. Methods twenty-three patients affected by symptomatic knee OCD of the femoral condyles, grade 3 or 4 of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scale, underwent biomimetic scaffold implantation. The site of the defect was the medial femoral condyle in 14 patients, whereas in 9 patients the lateral femoral condyle was involved. The average size of the defects was 3.5±1.43 cm2. All patients were clinically evaluated using the ICRS subjective score, the IKDC objective score, the EQ-VAS and the Tegner Activity Score. Minimum follow-up was two years. MRI was performed at 12 and 24 months after surgery and then every 12 months thereafter. Results the ICRS subjective score improved from the baseline value of 50.93±20.6 to 76.44±18.03 at the 12 months (p<0.0005) and 82.23± 17.36 at the two-year follow-up (p<0.0005). The IKDC objective score confirmed the results. The EQ-VAS showed a significant improvement from 3.15±1.09 to 8.15±1.04 (p<0.0005) at two years of follow-up. The Tegner Activity Score improvement was statistically significant (p<0.0005). Conclusions biomimetic scaffold implantation was a good procedure for treating grade 3 and 4 OCD, in which other classic techniques are burdened by different limitations. This open one-step surgery gave promising stable results at short-term follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606552

DELCOGLIANO, MARCO; MENGHI, AMERIGO; PLACELLA, GIACOMO; SPEZIALI, ANDREA; CERULLI, GIULIANO; CARIMATI, GIULIA; PASQUALOTTO, STEFANO; BERRUTO, MASSIMO

2014-01-01

107

Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and ER-stress in the physiopathology of equine osteochondritis dissecans (OCD).  

PubMed

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental bone disorder affecting several mammalian species including the horse. Equine OC is described as a focal disruption of endochondral ossification, leading to osteochondral lesions (osteochondritis dissecans, OCD) that may release free bodies within the joint. OCD lesions trigger joint swelling, stiffness and lameness and affects about 30% of the equine population. OCD is considered as multifactorial but its physiopathology is still poorly understood and genes involved in genetic predisposition are still unknown. Our study compared two healthy and two OC-affected 18-month-old French Trotters diagnosed with OCD lesions at the intermediate ridge of the distal tibia. A comparative shot-gun proteomic analysis of non-wounded cartilage and sub-chondral bone from healthy (healthy samples) and OC-affected foals (predisposed samples) identified 83 and 53 modulated proteins, respectively. These proteins are involved in various biological pathways including matrix structure and maintenance, protein biosynthesis, folding and transport, mitochondrial activity, energy and calcium metabolism. Transmission electron microscopy revealed typical features of mitochondrial swelling and ER-stress, such as large, empty mitochondria, and hyper-dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, in the deep zone of both OC lesions and predisposed cartilage. Abnormal fibril organization surrounding chondrocytes and abnormal features at the ossification front were also observed. Combining these findings with quantitative trait loci and whole genome sequencing results identified about 140 functional candidate genes carrying putative damaging mutations in 30 QTL regions. In summary, our study suggests that OCD lesions may result from defective hypertrophic terminal differentiation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and ER-stress, leading to impaired cartilage and bone biomechanical properties, making them prone to fractures. In addition, 11 modulated proteins and several candidate mutations located in QTL regions were identified, bringing new insight into the molecular physiopathology and genetic basis of OCD. PMID:24657499

Desjardin, Clémence; Chat, Sophie; Gilles, Mailys; Legendre, Rachel; Riviere, Julie; Mata, Xavier; Balliau, Thierry; Esquerré, Diane; Cribiu, Edmond P; Betch, Jean-Marc; Schibler, Laurent

2014-06-01

108

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a hyaluronan scaffold for treatment of an osteochondral defect in a rabbit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a hyaluronan scaffold for\\u000a repair of an osteochondral defect in rabbit knee. Bone marrow was harvested from the posterior iliac crest in 11 New Zealand\\u000a White rabbits. MSC were isolated and cultured in autologous serum for 28 days and transferred to a hyaluronan scaffold

S. Løken; R. B. Jakobsen; A. Årøen; S. Heir; A. Shahdadfar; J. E. Brinchmann; L. Engebretsen; F. P. Reinholt

2008-01-01

109

Platelet autologous growth factors decrease the osteochondral regeneration capability of a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold in a sheep model  

PubMed Central

Background Current research aims to develop innovative approaches to improve chondral and osteochondral regeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to enhance the repair process of a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold in osteochondral defects in a sheep model. Methods PRP was added to a new, multi-layer gradient, nanocomposite scaffold that was obtained by nucleating collagen fibrils with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Twenty-four osteochondral lesions were created in sheep femoral condyles. The animals were randomised to three treatment groups: scaffold, scaffold loaded with autologous PRP, and empty defect (control). The animals were sacrificed and evaluated six months after surgery. Results Gross evaluation and histology of the specimens showed good integration of the chondral surface in both treatment groups. Significantly better bone regeneration and cartilage surface reconstruction were observed in the group treated with the scaffold alone. Incomplete bone regeneration and irregular cartilage surface integration were observed in the group treated with the scaffold where PRP was added. In the control group, no bone and cartilage defect healing occurred; defects were filled with fibrous tissue. Quantitative macroscopic and histological score evaluations confirmed the qualitative trends observed. Conclusions The hydroxyapatite-collagen scaffold enhanced osteochondral lesion repair, but the combination with platelet growth factors did not have an additive effect; on the contrary, PRP administration had a negative effect on the results obtained by disturbing the regenerative process. In the scaffold + PRP group, highly amorphous cartilaginous repair tissue and poorly spatially organised underlying bone tissue were found. PMID:20875101

2010-01-01

110

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

111

Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle with autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of combined bone grafting and matrix-supported autologous chondrocyte transplantation in patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Between January 2003 and March 2005, 21 patients (mean age 29.33 years) with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the medial or lateral condyle (grade III or IV) of the knee underwent reconstruction of the joint surface by autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Patients were followed up at three, six, 12 and 36 months to determine outcomes by clinical evaluation based on Lysholm score, IKDC and ICRS score. Clinical results showed a significant improvement of Lysholm-score and IKDC score. With respect to clinical assessment, 18 of 21 patients showed good or excellent results 36 months postoperatively. Our study suggests that treatment of OCD with autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocytes is a possible alternative to osteochondral cylinder transfer or conventional ACT. PMID:19626325

Bruns, Juergen; Deuretzbacher, Georg; Ruether, Wolfgang; Fuerst, Martin; Niggemeyer, Oliver

2009-01-01

112

Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle with autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocytes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of combined bone grafting and matrix-supported autologous chondrocyte transplantation in patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Between January 2003 and March 2005, 21 patients (mean age 29.33 years) with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the medial or lateral condyle (grade III or IV) of the knee underwent reconstruction of the joint surface by autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Patients were followed up at three, six, 12 and 36 months to determine outcomes by clinical evaluation based on Lysholm score, IKDC and ICRS score. Clinical results showed a significant improvement of Lysholm-score and IKDC score. With respect to clinical assessment, 18 of 21 patients showed good or excellent results 36 months postoperatively. Our study suggests that treatment of OCD with autologous bone grafts and matrix-supported autologous chondrocytes is a possible alternative to osteochondral cylinder transfer or conventional ACT. PMID:19626325

Steinhagen, Joern; Bruns, Juergen; Deuretzbacher, Georg; Ruether, Wolfgang; Fuerst, Martin; Niggemeyer, Oliver

2010-08-01

113

Comparative study of depth-dependent characteristics of equine and human osteochondral tissue from the medial and lateral femoral condyles.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage defects are common after joint injuries. When left untreated, the biomechanical protective function of cartilage is gradually lost, making the joint more susceptible to further damage, causing progressive loss of joint function and eventually osteoarthritis (OA). In the process of translating promising tissue-engineering cartilage repair approaches from bench to bedside, pre-clinical animal models including mice, rabbits, goats, and horses, are widely used. The equine species is becoming an increasingly popular model for the in vivo evaluation of regenerative orthopaedic approaches. As there is also an increasing body of evidence suggesting that successful lasting tissue reconstruction requires an implant that mimics natural tissue organization, it is imperative that depth-dependent characteristics of equine osteochondral tissue are known, to assess to what extent they resemble those in humans. Therefore, osteochondral cores (4-8 mm) were obtained from the medial and lateral femoral condyles of equine and human donors. Cores were processed for histology and for biochemical quantification of DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content. Equine and human osteochondral tissues possess similar geometrical (thickness) and organizational (GAG, collagen and DNA distribution with depth) features. These comparable trends further underscore the validity of the equine model for the evaluation of regenerative approaches for articular cartilage. PMID:22781206

Malda, J; Benders, K E M; Klein, T J; de Grauw, J C; Kik, M J L; Hutmacher, D W; Saris, D B F; van Weeren, P R; Dhert, W J A

2012-10-01

114

Primary stability of press-fit-implanted osteochondral grafts. Influence of graft size, repeated insertion, and harvesting technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fixation strength of press-fit-implanted osteochondral grafts with respect to graft size (length and diameter), the effect of repeated insertion after pullout, and harvesting technique. Experiments were performed using the Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System on porcine femoral condyles. Failure loads of 10-mm-long grafts (mean, 47 N) were significantly lower than failure loads of 15-mm-long grafts (mean, 93 N) and 20-mm-long grafts (mean, 110 N) (all grafts, 11 mm in diameter). Reinsertion of the 15-mm-long grafts after initial pullout resulted in a significant reduction of failure loads (mean, 93 N versus 44 N). Failure loads of 8-mm-diameter grafts (mean, 41 N) were significantly lower than those of 11-mm-diameter grafts (mean, 92 N) (all 15 mm long). Levering of the tubular chisel during graft harvest significantly decreased press-fit stability as compared with simple turning of the chisel (mean, 32 N versus 52 N) (8-mm diameter and 15-mm length). These results suggest that primary fixation strength of press-fit-inserted osteochondral grafts depends on the size of the grafts and that repeated pullout and reinsertion of grafts as well as a nonoptimal harvesting technique (levering) will reduce primary stability. PMID:10653539

Duchow, J; Hess, T; Kohn, D

2000-01-01

115

Repair of large osteochondral defects with allogeneic cartilaginous aggregates formed from bone marrow-derived cells using RWV bioreactor.  

PubMed

Our objective was to examine the technique of regenerating cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells by three-dimensional (3D) culture using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Three-dimensional and cylindrical aggregates of allogeneic cartilage with dimensions of 10 x 5 mm (height x diameter) formed by the RWV bioreactor were transplanted into osteochondral defects of Japanese white rabbits (Group T, n = 15). For the control, some osteochondral defects were left empty (Group C, n = 18). At 4, 8, and 12 weeks postimplantation, the reparative tissues were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. In Group T at as early as 4 weeks, histological observation, especially via safranin-O staining, suggested that the reparative tissues resembled hyaline cartilage. And we observed no fibrous tissues between reparative tissue and adjacent normal tissues. In the deeper portion of the bony compartment, the osseous tissues were well remodeled. At 4 and 8 weeks postimplantation, the mean histological score of Group T was significantly better than that of Group C (p < 0.05). The glycosaminoglycans (GAG)/DNA ratio in both groups increased gradually from 4 to 8 weeks and then decreased from 8 to 12 weeks. We herein report the first successful regeneration of cartilage in osteochondral defects in vivo using allogeneic cartilaginous aggregates derived from bone marrow-derived cells by 3D culture using the RWV bioreactor. PMID:17549704

Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Mishima, Hajime; Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Sakai, Shinsuke; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Ishii, Tomoo; Kojima, Hiroko; Tanaka, Junzo; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa

2007-10-01

116

Effect of tenascin-C on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in rabbits.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tenascin-C (TNC) on the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects of articular cartilage in vivo. We used a gellan-gellan-sulfate sponge (Gellan-GS) to maintain a TNC-rich environment in the cartilage defects. We implanted Gellan-GS soaked in PBS only (Group 1), Gellan-GS soaked in 10?µg/ml of TNC (Group 2), and Gellan-GS soaked in 100?µg/ml of TNC (Group 3) into a full-thickness osteochondral defect of the patellar groove of rabbits. The defect area was examined grossly and histologically 4-12 weeks after surgery. Sections of synovium were also immunohistochemically investigated. Histologically as well as macroscopically, the defects in Group 2 showed better repair than the other groups at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Inflammation of the synovium tended to diminish over time in all groups, and the degree of synovitis was the same for all three groups at each time point. In conclusion, Gellan-GS soaked in TNC can be used as a novel scaffold for the repair of articular cartilage defects. This study also indicates that TNC promotes the repair of full-thickness osteochondral defects in vivo. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:563-571, 2015. PMID:25428773

Ikemura, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

2015-04-01

117

In Vivo Efficacy of Fresh vs. Frozen Osteochondral Allografts in the Goat at 6 Months is Associated with PRG4 Secretion  

PubMed Central

The long-term efficacy of osteochondral allografts is due to the presence of viable chondrocytes within graft cartilage. Chondrocytes in osteochondral allografts, especially those at the articular surface that normally produce the lubricant proteoglycan-4 (PRG4), are susceptible to storage-associated death. The hypothesis of this study was that the loss of chondrocytes within osteochondral grafts leads to decreased PRG4 secretion, after graft storage and subsequent implant. The objectives were to determine the effect of osteochondral allograft treatment (FROZEN vs. FRESH) on secretion of functional PRG4 after (i) storage, and (ii) 6months in vivo in adult goats. FROZEN allograft storage reduced PRG4 secretion from cartilage by ~85% compared to FRESH allograft storage. After 6months in vivo, the PRG4-secreting function of osteochondral allografts was diminished with prior FROZEN storage by ~81% versus FRESH allografts and by ~84% versus non-operated control cartilage. Concomitantly, cellularity at the articular surface in FROZEN allografts was ~96% lower than FRESH allografts and non-operated cartilage. Thus, the PRG4-secreting function of allografts appears to be maintained in vivo based on its state after storage. PRG4 secretion may be not only a useful marker of allograft performance, but also a biological process protecting the articular surface of grafts following cartilage repair. PMID:23362152

Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Chen, Albert C.; Temple-Wong, Michele M.; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

2014-01-01

118

Refixation of Osteochondral Fractures by an Ultrasound-Activated Pin System – An Ovine In Vivo Examination Using CT and Scanning Electron Microscope  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteochondral injuries, if not treated appropriately, often lead to severe osteoarthritis of the affected joint. Without refixation of the osteochondral fragment, human cartilage only repairs these defects imperfectly. All existing refixation systems for chondral defects have disadvantages, for instance bad MRI quality in the postoperative follow-up or low anchoring forces. To address the problem of reduced stability in resorbable implants, ultrasound-activated pins were developed. By ultrasound-activated melting of the tip of these implants a higher anchoring is assumed. Aim of the study was to investigate, if ultrasound-activated pins can provide a secure refixation of osteochondral fractures comparing to conventional screw and conventional, resorbable pin osteosynthesis. CT scans and scanning electron microscopy should proovegood refixation results with no further tissue damage by the melting of the ultrasound-activated pins in comparison to conventional osteosynthesis. Methods: Femoral osteochondral fragments in sheep were refixated with ultrasound-activated pins (SonicPin™), Ethipins® and screws (Asnis™). The quality of the refixated fragments was examined after three month of full weight bearing by CT scans and scanning electron microscopy of the cartilage surface. Results: The CT examination found almost no statistically significant difference in the quality of refixation between the three different implants used. Concerning the CT morphology, ultrasound-activated pins demonstrated at least the same quality in refixation of osteochondral fragments as conventional resorbable pins or screws. The scanning electron microscopy showed no major surface damage by the three implants, especially any postulated cartilage damage induced by the heat of the ultrasound-activated pin. The screws protruded above the cartilage surface, which may affect the opposingtibial surface. Conclusion: Using CT scans and scanning electron microscopy, the SonicPin™, the Ethipin® and screws were at least equivalent in refixation quality of osteochondral fragments. PMID:25674184

H, Neumann; A.P, Schulz; S, Breer; A, Unger; B, Kienast

2015-01-01

119

Osteochondral articular defect repair using auricle-derived autologous chondrocytes in a rabbit model.  

PubMed

Hypothesizing that the implantation of non-articular (heterotopic) chondrocytes might be an alternative approach to support articular cartilage repair, we analyzed joint cartilage defect healing in the rabbit model after implantation of autologous auricle-derived (auricular) chondrocytes. Autologous lapine articular and auricular chondrocytes were cultured for 3 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds before being implanted into critical sized osteochondral defects of the rabbit knee femoropatellar groove. Cell-free PGA scaffolds and empty defects served as controls. Construct quality was determined before implantation and defect healing was monitored after 6 and 12 weeks using vitality assays, macroscopical and histological score systems. Neo-cartilage was formed in the PGA constructs seeded with both articular and auricular chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. At the histological level, cartilage repair was slightly improved when using autologous articular chondrocyte seeded constructs compared to empty defects and was significantly superior compared to defects treated with auricular chondrocytes 6 weeks after implantation. Although only the immunohistological differences were significant, auricular chondrocyte implantation induced an inferior healing response compared with the empty defects. Elastic auricular chondrocytes might maintain some tissue-specific characteristics when implanted into joint cartilage defects which limit its repair capacity. PMID:24812031

Lohan, Anke; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Haisch, Andreas; Müller, Riccarda Dolores; Kohl, Benjamin; Stölzel, Katharina; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

2014-09-01

120

OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT MANDIBULAR CONDYLE WITH BIOACTIVE SIGNAL GRADIENTS  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety over the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing literature on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, is sparse. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle. MATERIALS AND METHODS Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand White rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. RESULTS At six weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue as evidenced by histology and 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ. PMID:21470747

Dormer, Nathan H.; Busaidy, Kamal; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

121

A new approach to scaffold fixation by magnetic forces: Application to large osteochondral defects.  

PubMed

Scaffold fixation represents one of the most serious challenges in osteochondral defect surgery. Indeed, the fixation should firmly hold the scaffold in the implanted position as well as it should guaranty stable bone/scaffold interface for efficient tissue regeneration. Nonetheless successful results have been achieved for small defect repair, the fixation remains really problematic for large defects, i.e. defects with areas exceeding 2cm(2). This paper advances an innovative magnetic fixation approach based on application of magnetic scaffolds. Finite element modeling was exploited to investigate the fixation efficiency. We considered three magnetic configurations: (1) external permanent magnet ring placed around the leg near the joint; (2) four small permanent magnet pins implanted in the bone underlying the scaffold; (3) four similarly implanted stainless steel pins which magnetization was induced by the external magnet. It was found that for most appropriate magnetic materials and optimized magnet-scaffold positioning all the considered configurations provide a sufficient scaffold fixation. In addition to fixation, we analyzed the pressure induced by magnetic forces at the bone/scaffold interface. Such pressure is known to influence significantly the bone regeneration and could be used for magneto-mechanical stimulation. PMID:22381395

Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Casino, Daniela; Lopomo, Nicola; Strazzari, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alessandro; Visani, Andrea; Dediu, Valentin; Marcacci, Maurilio

2012-11-01

122

Displaced osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle associated with an acute anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture: a corollary of "the lateral femoral notch sign".  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is usually accompanied by bone contusions resulting from impact of tibia on femur. The injury sometimes becomes manifest as a depression on the lateral femoral condyle giving rise to "lateral femoral notch" sign. The authors describe a rare case of impaction of the tibia and femur resulting in an osteochondral fracture rather than the usual bone contusion, which frequently occurs with ACL rupture. Open reduction and internal fixation of both the ACL avulsion fracture and the osteochondral fracture from the lateral femoral condyle were done, and the patient had a good outcome at 1-year follow-up. Level of evidence V. PMID:22113226

Sharma, Gaurav; Naik, V Anand; Pankaj, Amite

2012-08-01

123

In vitro chondrogenesis and in vivo repair of osteochondral defect with human induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic features of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and examine the differences in the chondrogenesis between hiPSCs and human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMMSCs). Embryoid bodies (EBs) were formed from undifferentiated hiPSCs. After EBs were dissociated into single cells, chondrogenic culture was performed in pellets and alginate hydrogel. Chondro-induced hiPSCs were implanted in osteochondral defects created on the patellar groove of immunosuppressed rats and evaluated after 12 weeks. The ESC markers NANOG, SSEA4 and OCT3/4 disappeared while the mesodermal marker BMP-4 appeared in chondro-induced hiPSCs. After 21 days of culture, greater glycosaminoglycan contents and better chondrocytic features including lacuna and abundant matrix formation were observed from chondro-induced hiPSCs compared to chondro-induced hBMMSCs. The expression of chondrogenic markers including SOX-9, type II collagen, and aggrecan in chondro-induced hiPSCs was comparable to or greater than chondro-induced hBMMSCs. A remarkably low level of hypertrophic and osteogenic markers including type X collagen, type I collagen and Runx-2 was noted in chondro-induced hiPSCs compared to chondro-induced hBMMSCs. hiPSCs had significantly greater methylation of several CpG sites in COL10A1 promoter than hBMMSCs in either undifferentiated or chondro-induced state, suggesting an epigenetic cause of the difference in hypertrophy. The defects implanted with chondro-induced hiPSCs showed a significantly better quality of cartilage repair than the control defects, and the majority of cells in the regenerated cartilage consisted of implanted hiPSCs. PMID:24462354

Ko, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kyung-Il; Park, Siyeon; Im, Gun-Il

2014-04-01

124

Evaluation of chitosan-GP hydrogel biocompatibility in osteochondral defects: an experimental approach  

PubMed Central

Background Articular cartilage, because of its avascular nature, has little capacity for spontaneous healing, and tissue engineering approaches, employing different biomaterials and cells, are under development. Among the investigated biomaterials are the chitosan-based hydrogels. Although thoroughly studied in other mammalian species, studies are scarce in equines. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biocompatibility of chitosan-GP in horse joints submitted to high mechanical loads. Results An osteochondral defect was created by arthroscopy in the medial surface of lateral trochlea of talus of left or right leg, randomly selected, from six healthy geldings. The defect was filled up with chitosan-GP. The contralateral joint received an identical defect with no implant. The chondral fragment removed to produce the defect was collected, processed and used as the “Initial” sample (normal cartilage) for histology, immunohistochemistry, and metabolic labelling of PGs. After 180 days, the repair tissues were collected, and also analyzed. At the end of the experiment (180 days after lesion), the total number of cells per field in repair tissues was equal to control, and macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells were not detected, suggesting that no significant inflammation was present. These cells were able to synthesize type II collagen and proteoglycans (PGs). Nevertheless, the cell population in these tissues, both in presence of chitosan-GP and in untreated controls, were heterogeneous, with a lower proportion of type II collagen-positives cells and some with a fibroblastic aspect. Moreover, the PGs synthesized in repair tissues formed in presence or absence of chitosan-GP were similar to those of normal cartilage. However, the chitosan-GP treated tissue had an disorganized appearance, and blood vessels were present. Conclusions Implanted chitosan-GP did not evoke an important inflammatory reaction, and permitted cell growth. These cells were able to synthesize type II collagen and PGs similar to those synthesized in normal cartilage and in healing tissue without implant, indicating its chondrocyte nature. PMID:25160583

2014-01-01

125

Photocrosslinked layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel with graded compositions for osteochondral defect repair.  

PubMed

A layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel with graded composition was prepared via photocrosslinking to simulate the polysaccharide/collagen composition of the natural tissue and mimic the multi-layered gradient structure of the cartilage-bone interface tissue. Firstly, gelatin and carboxymethyl chitosan were reacted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to obtain methacrylated gelatin (Gtn-GMA) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CS-GMA). Then, the mixed solutions of Gtn-GMA in different methacrylation degrees with CS-GMA were prepared to form the superficial, transitional and deep layers of the hydrogel, respectively under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, while polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane was introduced in the deep layer to improve the mechanical properties. Results suggested that the pore sizes of the superficial, transitional and deep layers of the layered hydrogel were 115 ± 30, 94 ± 34, 51 ± 12 ?m, respectively and their porosities were all higher than 80 %. The compressive strengths of them were 165 ± 54, 565 ± 50 and 993 ± 108 kPa, respectively and the strain of the gradient hydrogel decreased along the thickness direction, similar to the natural tissue. The in vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the hydrogel had good cytocompatibility and the in vivo repair results of osteochondral defect demonstrated remarkable recovery by using the gradient gelatin-chitosan hydrogel, especially when the hydrogel loading transforming growth factor-?1. Therefore, it was suggested that the prepared layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel in this study could be potentially used to promote cartilage-bone interface tissue repair. PMID:25786398

Han, Fengxuan; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

2015-04-01

126

Outcomes are favorable after arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus has resulted in outcomes as good as, or better than, those after arthrotomy. We noted a lack of prospective studies investigating the outcomes of arthroscopic treatment. As such, we conducted a prospective study investigating the functional outcomes, pain scores, patient satisfaction, and expectation scores of patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment of OCD of the talus, hypothesizing that these patients would have good outcomes and satisfaction. A total of 61 patients underwent arthroscopic chondroplasty, removal of loose bodies, and microfracture for OCD of the talus and completed ?1 year of follow-up. We evaluated patients pre- and postoperatively at 6 and 12 months using the Ankle-Hindfoot score, visual analog scale for pain, and Medical Outcomes Study short-form 36 questionnaires. We also evaluated the patients' expectations and satisfaction. The mean Ankle-Hindfoot score improved significantly from 53.0 ± 14.3 points preoperatively to 77.8 ± 19.1 at 6 months and 83.1 ± 18.3 at 12 months after arthroscopic treatment (p < .001). The overall scores at the final follow-up visit were excellent for 30 (49%), good for 6 (10%), fair for 18 (30%), and poor for 7 (11%). The patients also experienced significant improvement in the visual analog scale score and physical component score of the short-form 36 questionnaire (p < .001). Of the 61 patients, 67% had their expectations fulfilled and 74% were satisfied with their surgery at 12 months of follow-up. Arthroscopic treatment of OCD of the talus continues to be a successful procedure to alleviate pain and loss of function. It is also associated with improvements to quality of life and good patient satisfaction. PMID:25441271

Goh, Graham Seow Hng; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Mitra, Amit Kanta

2015-01-01

127

A system for engineering an osteochondral construct in the shape of an articular surface: preliminary results.  

PubMed

A tissue-engineered articular condyle could provide a new alternative approach to joint replacement. This study describes progress made towards engineering an articular condyle in vitro using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in a biphasic matrix. hBMSCs were transferred to a rat collagen-I hydrogel which was then pressed onto a bovine cancellous bone matrix. The gel/cell suspensions, each at a density of approximately 5 x 10(5)cells/ml containing fourth passage cells pressed into an adult human tibial condyle form using CT scan based moulds. The osteochondral constructs fabricated in vitro were stimulated in a bioreactor using cyclic compression and continuous perfusion. Penetration and cell distribution were demonstrated as homogeneous and cells were found to be viable after gel compression. The filamentous structure of the collagen fibres was more dense and homogeneous using compression. Mechanical tests showed a significant enhancement of primary matrix stability after initial compression. Stiffness was not observed to increase significantly over 7 days under loading in a bioreactor. The successful integration of mechanical stimulation in the tissue engineering process leads to an improvement in the structural and biomechanical properties of these tissues and offers new possibilities in the management of joint injuries and degenerative diseases. Remarkably, the stiffness was enhanced in our setting after initial compression of the construct in the glass cylinder without observing a negative influence on cell viability. Further studies need to clarify the influence of compression and various mechanical and hydrostatic stress patterns over different periods of time. PMID:18462930

Haasper, Carl; Colditz, Michael; Kirsch, Ludger; Tschernig, Thomas; Viering, Jörg; Graubner, Götz; Runtemund, Anette; Zeichen, Johannes; Meller, Rupert; Glasmacher, Birgit; Windhagen, Henning; Krettek, Christian; Hurschler, Christof; Jagodzinski, Michael

2008-01-01

128

The effect of cartilage and bone density of mushroom-shaped, photooxidized, osteochondral transplants: an experimental study on graft performance in sheep using transplants originating from different species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differences in overall performance of osteochondral photooxidized grafts were studied in accordance of their species origin and a new, more rigorous cleansing procedure using alcohol during preparation. METHODS: Photooxidized mushroom-shaped grafts of bovine, ovine, human and equine origin were implanted in the femoral condyles of 32 sheep (condyles: n = 64). No viable chondrocytes were present at the time

Anja C Waselau; Daniel Nadler; Jessika MV Müller; Katalin Zlinszky; Monika Hilbe; Jörg A Auer; Brigitte von Rechenberg

2005-01-01

129

Cartilage Repair and Subchondral Bone Migration Using 3D Printing Osteochondral Composites: A One-Year-Period Study in Rabbit Trochlea  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidences show that subchondral bone may play a significant role in the repair or progression of cartilage damage in situ. However, the exact change of subchondral bone during osteochondral repair is still poorly understood. In this paper, biphasic osteochondral composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technology using PEG hydrogel and ?-TCP ceramic and then implanted in rabbit trochlea within a critical size defect model. Animals were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 52 weeks after implantation. Histological results showed that hyaline-like cartilage formed along with white smooth surface and invisible margin at 24 weeks postoperatively, typical tidemark formation at 52 weeks. The repaired subchondral bone formed from 16 to 52 weeks in a “flow like” manner from surrounding bone to the defect center gradually. Statistical analysis illustrated that both subchondral bone volume and migration area percentage were highly correlated with the gross appearance Wayne score of repaired cartilage. Therefore, subchondral bone migration is related to cartilage repair for critical size osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the subchondral bone remodeling proceeds in a “flow like” manner and repaired cartilage with tidemark implies that the biphasic PEG/?-TCP composites fabricated by 3D printing provides a feasible strategy for osteochondral tissue engineering application. PMID:25177697

Li, Dichen; Wang, Kunzheng; Hao, Dingjun; Bian, Weiguo; He, Jiankang; Jin, Zhongmin

2014-01-01

130

Ectopic osteochondral formation of biomimetic porous PVA-n-HA/PA6 bilayered scaffold and BMSCs construct in rabbit.  

PubMed

In this work, the novel poly vinyl alcohol/gelatin-nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide6 (PVA-n-HA/PA6) bilayered scaffold with biomimetic properties for articular cartilage and subchondral bone is developed. Furthermore, when these osteochondral scaffolds were seeded with induced bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and implanted at ectopic sites, showed the potential for an engineered cartilage tissue and the corresponding subchondral bone. BMSCs were expanded in vitro and induced to chondrogenic or osteogenic potential by culturing in suitable media for 14 days. Subsequently, these induced cells were seeded into PVA-n-HA/PA6 separately, and the constructs were implanted into the rabbit muscle pouch for upto 12 weeks. Ectopic neocartilage formation in the PVA layer and reconstitution of the subchondral bone which remained confined within the n-HA/PA6 layer with the alteration of the cellular phenotype were identified with Masson's trichrome stain. Simultaneously, the RT-PCR results confirmed the expression of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers for cartilaginous tissue, such as collagen type II (Col-II), or alternatively, markers for osteoid tissue, such as collagen type I (Col-I) at the corresponding layers. During ectopic implantation, the underlying subchondral bone layer was completely integrated with the cartilage layer. The result from the ectopic osteochondral scaffolds implantation suggests that PVA-n-HA/PA6 with induced BMSCs is a possible substitute with potential in cartilage repair strategies. PMID:20967773

Qu, Dan; Li, Jihua; Li, Yubao; Khadka, Ashish; Zuo, Yi; Wang, Hang; Liu, Yiming; Cheng, Lin

2011-01-01

131

Banking of osteochondral allografts. Part I. Viability assays adapted for osteochondrol and cartilage studies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to adapt a reliable, reproducible and simple viability assay for cartilage and osteochondral studies. The previous assays (radioisotope uptake, assessment of matrix components, histological methods, oxygen consumption etc.) were complex, laborious, time consuming or suffer from difficulty of interpretation. MTT assay was chosen because it has been widely and successfully used in different cell and tissue studies, but has not been published on human solid articular cartilage. Fresh intact cartilage samples of human tali were tested to investigate the assay. The reliability of the MTT assay was also tested by an fluorescent dye combination. The MTT assay is based on the production of purple formazan pigment from methyltetrazolium salt by the mitochondrial enzymes of viable chondrocytes. The enzyme kinetics of the reaction was also investigated because it was unknown in the case of cartilage. The amount of pigment formed can be measured by spectrophotometry after extraction by methyl cellosolve. The color density is proportional to mitochondrial enzyme activity, reflecting the number of viable chondrocytes. The optimal reagent concentration, biopsy size, and incubation period were established. There is a linear relationship between the cartilage weight and the pigment production activity. A 9.8% nonspecific raction was observed in the negative controls. The enzyme kinetics of the reaction was also investigated. The MTT clevage up to 0.1% (w/v) follows the Michaelis kinetics. We calculated the Michaelis constant (2835 +/- 130 microM), the maximal velocity (36 +/- 3.2 x 10(-5)microMsec(-1)) and the velocity constant (1.27 +/- 0.2 x 10(-7)sec(-1)) of the reaction. The latter is a significant marker for each tissue type. The viability of cartilage was also assessed and calculated by a fluorescent dye combination comprising 1 microg/ml propidium iodide (PI) and 4 microM/ml SYTO-16 stains. The PI stains dead cells (red fluorescence), the SYTO-16 stains live cells (green fluorescence). The staining can be visualised simultaneously, and the live/dead ratio can be calculated by image analysis software from saved image files. The MTT assay is a simple, non-expensive, efficient, reliable, reproducible, sensitive viability test for cartilage studies. The MTT reduction assay and the staining method were corrobative. PMID:15256876

Csönge, Lajos; Bravo, Daniel; Newman-Gage, Helen; Rigley, Theodore; Conrad, Ernest U; Bakay, András; Strong, D Michael; Pellet, Sándor

2002-01-01

132

Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Treated by the AO Hook Fixation System: A Four Year Follow-Up of an Alternative Technique  

PubMed Central

Surgical fixation is recommended for stable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions that have failed nonoperative management and for all unstable lesions. In this study we set out to describe and evaluate an alternative method of surgical fixation for such lesions. Five knees with unstable OCD lesions in four male adolescent patients with open physes were treated with the AO Hook Fixation System. The outcome was evaluated both clinically and with three separate outcome systems (IKDC 2000, KOOS, Lysholm) at one and a mean four year follow-up. We demonstrated excellent clinical results in all patients. At four years, all scoring systems demonstrated statistically significant improvement when compared to the preoperative status. Our study suggests that the AO Hook Fixation System is an alternative method of surgical intervention with comparable medium term results with other existing modes of fixation and the added biomechanical advantage of the absence of distracting forces during hardware removal. PMID:25067976

Pengas, Ioannis P; Assiotis, Angelos; Kokkinakis, Michail; Khan, Wasim S; Meyers, Paul; Arbuthnot, James; Mcnicholas, Michael J

2014-01-01

133

Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel Irradiated and Acetalized for Osteochondral Defect Repair: Mechanical, Chemical, and Histological Evaluation after Implantation in Rat Knees  

PubMed Central

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) hydrogel plugs were implanted in artificial osteochondral defects on the trochlear groove of rat knees. After 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks of followup, samples containing the implants were mechanically evaluated by creep indentation test, chemically, and histologically by optical microscopy. The mechanical test pointed towards an increase of the implant creep modulus and the chemical analysis exhibited an increasing concentration of calcium and phosphorus within the implants over time. Optical microscopy showed no foreign body reaction and revealed formation, differentiation, and maintenance of new tissue at the defect/implant interface. The absence of implant wear indicated that the natural articular lubrication process was not disturbed by the implant. The performance of the irradiated and acetalized PVA was considered satisfactory for the proposed application. PMID:23197982

Batista, N. A.; Rodrigues, A. A.; Bavaresco, V. P.; Mariolani, J. R. L.; Belangero, W. D.

2012-01-01

134

Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities.  

PubMed

Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA) in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining) and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC), articular calcified cartilage (ACC), subchondral bone (SCB) and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints. PMID:24668595

Ley, C J; Ekman, S; Hansson, K; Björnsdóttir, S; Boyde, A

2014-01-01

135

Classification of histologically scored human knee osteochondral plugs by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images at 3T.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the ability of quantitative MRI to discriminate between normal and pathological human osteochondral plugs characterized by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histological system. Normal and osteoarthritic human osteochondral plugs were scored using the OARSI histological system and imaged at 3 T using MRI sequences producing T1 and T2 contrast and measuring T1 , T2 , and T2 * relaxation times, magnetization transfer, and diffusion. The classification accuracies of quantitative MRI parameters and corresponding weighted image intensities were evaluated. Classification models based on the Mahalanobis distance metric for each MRI measurement were trained and validated using leave-one-out cross-validation with plugs grouped according to OARSI histological grade and score. MRI measurements used for classification were performed using a region-of-interest analysis which included superficial, deep, and full-thickness cartilage. The best classifiers based on OARSI grade and score were T1 - and T2 -weighted image intensities, which yielded accuracies of 0.68 and 0.75, respectively. Classification accuracies using OARSI score-based group membership were generally higher when compared with grade-based group membership. MRI-based classification-either using quantitative MRI parameters or weighted image intensities-is able to detect early osteoarthritic tissue changes as classified by the OARSI histological system. These findings suggest the benefit of incorporating quantitative MRI acquisitions in a comprehensive clinical evaluation of OA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:640-650, 2015. PMID:25641500

Lukas, Vanessa A; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Lin, Ping-Chang; Schär, Michael; Schneider, Erika; Neu, Corey P; Spencer, Richard G; Reiter, David A

2015-05-01

136

Pulsed electromagnetic fields after arthroscopic treatment for osteochondral defects of the talus: double-blind randomized controlled multicenter trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteochondral talar defects usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracturing. Although this is mostly successful, early sport resumption is difficult to achieve, and it can take up to one year to obtain clinical improvement. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) may be effective for talar defects after arthroscopic treatment by promoting tissue healing, suppressing inflammation, and relieving pain. We hypothesize that PEMF-treatment compared to sham-treatment after arthroscopy will lead to earlier resumption of sports, and aim at 25% increase in patients that resume sports. Methods/Design A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in five centers throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. 68 patients will be randomized to either active PEMF-treatment or sham-treatment for 60 days, four hours daily. They will be followed-up for one year. The combined primary outcome measures are (a) the percentage of patients that resume and maintain sports, and (b) the time to resumption of sports, defined by the Ankle Activity Score. Secondary outcome measures include resumption of work, subjective and objective scoring systems (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society – Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, Foot Ankle Outcome Score, Numeric Rating Scales of pain and satisfaction, EuroQol-5D), and computed tomography. Time to resumption of sports will be analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Discussion This trial will provide level-1 evidence on the effectiveness of PEMFs in the management of osteochondral ankle lesions after arthroscopy. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1636) PMID:19591674

van Bergen, Christiaan JA; Blankevoort, Leendert; de Haan, Rob J; Sierevelt, Inger N; Meuffels, Duncan E; d'Hooghe, Pieter RN; Krips, Rover; van Damme, Geert; van Dijk, C Niek

2009-01-01

137

A rare case of an osteochondral lesion of the tarsal navicular with a subacute stress fracture in a high level athlete.  

PubMed

In this report, an osteochondral lesion of the tarsal navicular associated with a subacute stress fracture in a professional basketball player surgical treatment is presented. The surgical technique involved extra-articular curettage, bone grafting and plate stabilisation. Postoperative CT scan confirmed that both the osteochondral lesion and the stress fracture healed. The talonavicular joint showed no signs of arthritis on imaging. Clinical foot scores showed marked improvement after surgery. At 6 months patient managed to return to competitive play without pain in the foot and ankle. The outcome of this case indicates that the combination of curettage, bone grating and plate stabilisation works well for this rare and potentially career ending dual lesions. PMID:25175976

Nunag, Perrico; Quah, Colin; Pillai, Anand

2014-12-01

138

One-Step Surgical Procedure for the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Caprine Knee Defect: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Regenerative therapies offer attractive alternatives for the treatment of osteochondral defects. Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells allow the development of one-step surgical procedures by their abundant availability and high frequency. In this pilot study we evaluated the in vivo safety, feasibility, and efficacy of this concept using scaffolds seeded with freshly isolated (SVF) or cultured adipose stem cells (ASCs), and compared these to their acellular counterparts. Osteochondral defects were created in medial condyles and trochlear grooves in knees of eight goats. Defects were filled with acellular collagen I/III scaffolds or scaffolds seeded with SVF cells or cultured ASCs. Osteochondral regeneration was evaluated after 1 and 4 months by macroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biomechanical analysis, microCT analysis, and biochemistry. After 1 month, no adverse effects were noted. Microscopic, but not macroscopic evaluation showed considerable yet not significant differences, with cell-loaded constructs showing more extensive regeneration. After 4 months, acellular constructs displayed increased regeneration, however, to a lesser degree than cell-treated constructs. The latter exhibited more extensive collagen type II, hyaline-like cartilage, and higher elastic moduli, and their glycosaminoglycan content in the cartilaginous layer better approached native tissue values. Moreover, their defect regions contained higher levels of regenerated, mature subchondral bone with more intense collagen type I staining. SVF cells tended to perform best on all parameters. In summary, this pilot study demonstrated the preclinical safety and feasibility of a one-step surgical procedure for osteochondral defect regeneration. Similar regeneration was found between freshly isolated SVF cells and cultured ASCs. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to substantiate these findings. PMID:23914338

Jurgens, Wouter J.F.M.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; van Dijk, Annemieke; Renders, Greetje A.P.; Smit, Theo H.; van Milligen, Florine J.; Ritt, Marco J.P.F.

2013-01-01

139

Association of 3-Dimensional Cartilage and Bone Structure with Articular Cartilage Properties in and Adjacent to Autologous Osteochondral Grafts after 6 and 12 months in a Goat Model  

PubMed Central

Objective The articular cartilage of autologous osteochondral grafts is typically different in structure and function from local host cartilage and thereby presents a remodeling challenge. The hypothesis of this study was that properties of the articular cartilage of trochlear autografts and adjacent femoral condyle are associated with the 3-D geometrical match between grafted and contralateral joints at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Design Autografts were transferred unilaterally from the lateral trochlea (LT) to the medial femoral condyle (MFC) in adult Spanish goats. Operated and contralateral Non-Operated joints were harvested at 6 and 12 months, and analyzed by indentation testing, micro-computed tomography, and histology to compare (1) histological indices of repair, (2) 3-D structure (articular surface deviation, bone-cartilage interface deviation, cartilage thickness), (3) indentation stiffness, and (4) correlations between stiffness and 3-D structure. Results Cartilage deterioration was present in grafts at 6 months and more severe at 12 months. Cartilage thickness and normalized stiffness of Operated MFC were lower than Non-Operated MFC within the graft and proximal adjacent host regions. Operated MFC articular surfaces were recessed relative to Non-Operated MFC and exhibited lower cartilage stiffness with increasing recession. Sites with large bone-cartilage interface deviations, both proud and recessed, were associated with recessed articular surfaces and low cartilage stiffness. Conclusion The effectiveness of cartilage repair by osteochondral grafting is associated with the match of 3-D cartilage and bone geometry to the native osteochondral structure. PMID:24224069

Chan, Elaine F.; Liu, I-Ling; Semler, Eric J.; Aberman, Harold M.; Simon, Timothy M.; Chen, Albert C.; Truncale, Kate G.; Sah, Robert L.

2012-01-01

140

Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed.

Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

2012-08-01

141

Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel  

PubMed Central

Background Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN) gel at the bottom of the defect. Methods Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I), 2.5-mm depth (in Group II), or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III) was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. Results The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p < 0.012). The relative expression level of type-2 collagen, aggrecan, and SOX9 mRNAs was significantly greater in Group II than in the control group (p < 0.023). Conclusions This study demonstrated that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle. PMID:21338528

2011-01-01

142

A Novel Ultrasound Technique for Detection of Osteochondral Defects in the Ankle Joint: A Parametric and Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

(Osteo)chondral defects (OCDs) in the ankle are currently diagnosed with modalities that are not convenient to use in long-term follow-ups. Ultrasound (US) imaging, which is a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative, has limited ability to discriminate OCDs. We aim to develop a new diagnostic technique based on US wave propagation through the ankle joint. The presence of OCDs is identified when a US signal deviates from a reference signal associated with the healthy joint. The feasibility of the proposed technique is studied using experimentally-validated 2D finite-difference time-domain models of the ankle joint. The normalized maximum cross correlation of experiments and simulation was 0.97. Effects of variables relevant to the ankle joint, US transducers and OCDs were evaluated. Variations in joint space width and transducer orientation made noticeable alterations to the reference signal: normalized root mean square error ranged from 6.29% to 65.25% and from 19.59% to 8064.2%, respectively. The results suggest that the new technique could be used for detection of OCDs, if the effects of other parameters (i.e., parameters related to the ankle joint and US transducers) can be reduced. PMID:25609040

Sarkalkan, Nazli; Loeve, Arjo J.; van Dongen, Koen W. A.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Zadpoor, Amir A.

2015-01-01

143

Influence of Intra-Articular Administration of Trichostatin A on Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) is a method for articular cartilage repair. However, several disadvantages of this method have been reported, such as transplanted cartilage degeneration and the lack of a connection between the grafted and adjacent cartilage tissues. To evaluate the effect of intra-articular administration of trichostatin A (TSA) on AOT, we conducted a case control study in a rabbit model. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) macroscopic scores, the modified O'Driscoll histology scores, and real-time PCR were utilized to evaluate the results. At 4 weeks, both macroscopic and histological assessments showed that there was no significant difference between the TSA and control groups. However, the mean macroscopic and histological scores for the TSA-treated group were significantly higher than the scores for the control group at 12 weeks. TSA was shown to directly reduce collagen type II (COL2), aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS-5) expression and to simultaneously repress the upregulation of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 levels induced by interleukin 1? (IL-1?) in chondrocytes. In conclusion, TSA protects AOT grafts from degeneration, which may provide a benefit in the repair of articular cartilage injury.

Hou, Huacheng; Zheng, Ke; Wang, Guanghu; Ikegawa, Shiro; Zheng, Minghao; Gao, Xiang; Qin, Jinzhong; Teng, Huajian; Jiang, Qing

2015-01-01

144

Citrate cross-linked gels with strain reversibility and viscoelastic behavior accelerate healing of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model.  

PubMed

Most living tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Self-repair due to the dissipation of energy by reversible bonds prevents the rupture of the molecular backbone in these tissues. Recent studies, therefore, have aimed to synthesize biomaterials that approximate the mechanical performance of biological materials with self-recovery properties. We report an environmentally friendly method for the development of ionotropically cross-linked viscoelastic chitosan gels with a modulus comparable to that of living tissues. The strain recovery property was found to be highest for the gels with the lowest cross-linking density. The force-displacement curve showed significant hysteresis due to the presence of reversible bonds in the cross-linked gels. Nanoindentation studies demonstrated the creep phenomenon for the cross-linked chitosan gels. Creep, hysteresis, and plasticity index confirmed the viscoelastic behavior of the cross-linked gels. The viscoelastic gels were implanted at osteochondral defect sites to assess the tissue regeneration ability. In vivo results demonstrated early cartilage formation and woven bone deposition for defects filled with the gels compared to nontreated defects. PMID:24971647

Ghosh, Paulomi; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Dhara, Santanu

2014-07-22

145

Indications for surgical management of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee in the pediatric population: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Several case series have been published exploring the surgical management of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee in pediatric patients. This systemic review was performed to identify the surgical indications for this condition. A search of the Embase and Ovid Medline databases was performed to identify clinical studies reporting outcomes of surgical management of OCD in the knee in this patient population. A quality assessment of the included articles was conducted independently by two reviewers using a quality assessment tool developed by Yang et al. A total of 25 articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed; 40% of studies did not clearly describe their surgical indications. The remainder of the studies had a failure of nonoperative management with or without the concomitant use of imaging as their indication for surgery, or used lesion stability itself as the indication for surgery. This review outlines several surgical indications presented in the literature for the treatment of OCD lesions of the knee in the pediatric population. The most common indication for surgery was a failure of a trial of nonoperative treatment with or without the concomitant use of serial imaging. Although the quality of the case series was high, inconsistencies in reporting radiographic and arthroscopic classification of the OCD lesion were common. PMID:24234552

Salci, Lauren; Ayeni, Olufemi; Abouassaly, Marcel; Farrokhyar, Forough; D'Souza, Joanne Abigail; Bhandari, Mohit; Peterson, Devin

2014-04-01

146

Evaluation of early-stage osteochondral defect repair using a biphasic scaffold based on a collagen-glycosaminoglycan biopolymer in a caprine model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate a new collagen-GAG-calcium phosphate biphasic scaffold for the repair of surgically created osteochondral defects in goats. Comparison of morphological, histological and mechanical performance of the repair tissue was made with defects repaired using a synthetic polymer scaffold. Defects were created in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) and lateral trochlear sulcus (LTS) of Boer Cross goats and evaluated at 12 and 26 weeks. It was found that the total histology score of the collagen-GAG based biomaterial (23.8; SD 1.7) provided a significant improvement (p<0.05) over the biphasic PLGA material (19;3) and the empty control defect (17.3;1.2) in the LTS. The overall trajectory of histological and morphological improvement between 12 and 26 weeks was found to be higher for the collagen-GAG scaffold compared to the PLGA material. The occurrence of sub-chondral bone cysts was lower for the collagen-GAG scaffold with an incidence of 17% of defects, compared to 67% for the PLGA material at 26 weeks. The cartilage repair tissue for both materials evaluated was superior after 26 weeks implantation than the empty control with 75% of the collagen-GAG-treated defects showing markedly more hyaline-like cartilage and 50% of the PLGA sites exhibiting hyaline-like appearances, compared to 17% for the empty control. These early stage data indicate biphasic scaffolds based on collagen-GAG and PLGA both provide indications of satisfactory development of a structural repair to surgically prepared osteochondral defects. Furthermore, the biomaterial composition of the collagen-GAG may provide a more favourable environment for osteochondral repair. PMID:21620711

Getgood, Alan M J; Kew, Simon J; Brooks, Roger; Aberman, Harold; Simon, Timothy; Lynn, Andrew K; Rushton, Neil

2012-08-01

147

[Preliminary studies on repairing osteochondral defects in the rabbit knee joint by using porous PA66/n-HA combination mesenchymal stem cells].  

PubMed

We have investigated the effects of repairing knee osteochondral defects in rabbit by using porous polyamide 66/nano-Hydroxyapatite (PA66/n-HA) combination bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Eighteen 6-month-old New Zealand rabbits were used to produce the models of 4 mm x 4 mm osteochondral defect in the middle trochlea groove of femur. These models were randomly divided into 3 groups: PA66/n-HA + MSCs Group (Group A), PA66/n-HA group (Group B) and Operation control-group (Group C) in which operation for osteochondral defects was performed but neither material nor cells were implanted. The materials in Group A were seeded with MSCs (5 x 10(5)) in vitro before being implanted in to defects. The materials in groups A and B were 0.5 - 0.8 mm lower than normal cartilage. The animals were killed 1 and 4 months after operation. We assessed the effects by means of macroscopic observation, HE staining, toluidine blue staining, immunohistochemistry assay for type I and type II collagen. Group A displayed a little effect at the 1 month, but at the 4th month, Group A showed better results,compared to Groups B and C. At this time point, the repair tissue of Group A was regular; it presented more metachromatic substance visualized by toluidine blue staining, and it expressed type II collagen(+ +) and type I collagen(+). These results demonstrate that the repair tissue in Group A is nearly hyaline cartilage. So we presume that porous PA66/n-HA provides biomechanical support, and at the same time, MSCs enhance the repair effects. PMID:19166207

Wu, Jiaqi; Yang, Tianfu; Liu, Yang; Guo, Tao; Mu, Yuanhua; Li, Yubao

2008-12-01

148

A one-step treatment for chondral and osteochondral knee defects: clinical results of a biomimetic scaffold implantation at 2 years of follow-up.  

PubMed

The increasing interest in the role of subchondral bone with regard to articular surface disease led to the development of new bioengineered strategies. Aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and MRI outcome after the implantation of a nanostructured biomimetic three-phasic collagen-hydroxyapatite construct for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee in a large cohort of patients. Seventy-nine patients (63 M, 16 W), affected by grade III-IV femoral condyle or trochlea chondral lesions or osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) were consecutively treated. Mean age was 31.0 ± 11.3 years, mean lesion size was 3.2 ± 2.0 cm(2). Fifty patients underwent previous surgeries, concurrent procedures were necessary in 39 cases. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the IKDC and Tegner scores at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. At follow-up times an MRI was performed and evaluated with the MOCART score. All the scores improved significantly from the baseline. IKDC subjective score showed a further increase between 12 and 24 months of follow-up, and 82.2% of the patients improved their symptoms at the final evaluation. Patients affected by OCDs had better results than those with degenerative lesions. Some abnormal MRI findings were present, even though no correlation was found with the clinical outcome. This one-step biomimetic approach developed to favor osteochondral tissue regeneration is effective in treating knees affected by damages of the articular surface, leading to a significant clinical improvement. However, abnormal MRI findings were present, even if not correlated with the clinical outcome. PMID:24599553

Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Perdisa, Francesco; Di Martino, Alessandro; Busacca, Maurizio; Balboni, Federica; Sessa, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

2014-10-01

149

The osteochondral interface as a gradient tissue: From development to the fabrication of gradient scaffolds for regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

The osteochondral (OC) interface is not only the interface between two tissues, but also the evolution of hard and stiff bone tissue to the softer and viscoelastic articular cartilage covering the joint surface. To generate a smooth transition between two tissues with such differences in many of their characteristics, several gradients are recognizable when moving from the bone side to the joint surface. It is, therefore, necessary to implement such gradients in the design of scaffolds to regenerate the OC interface, so to mimic the anatomical, biological, and physicochemical properties of bone and cartilage as closely as possible. In the past years, several scaffolds were developed for OC regeneration: biphasic, triphasic, and multilayered scaffolds were used to mimic the compartmental nature of this tissue. The structure of these scaffolds presented gradients in mechanical, physicochemical, or biological properties. The use of gradient scaffolds with already differentiated or progenitor cells has been recently proposed. Some of these approaches have also been translated in clinical trials, yet without the expected satisfactory results, thus suggesting that further efforts in the development of constructs, which can lead to a functional regeneration of the OC interface by presenting gradients more closely resembling its native environment, will be needed in the near future. The aim of this review is to analyze the gradients present in the OC interface from the early stage of embryonic life up to the adult organism, and give an overview of the studies, which involved gradient scaffolds for its regeneration. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 105:34-52, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25777257

Di Luca, Andrea; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

2015-03-01

150

Arthroscopic surgery for osteochondral chip fragments and other lesions not requiring internal fixation in the carpal and fetlock joints of the equine athlete: What have we learned in 20 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine carpal and fetlock joints have been the most frequent sites for arthroscopic surgical procedures and were the initial locations where techniques were developed. The primary indication for surgical treatment of chip fragments in the equine athlete is normalization of the interior of the joint and prevention of osteoarthritis. Osteochondral chip fragments in the equine carpus are common in racehorses.

C. Wayne McIlwraith

2002-01-01

151

Effects of bilayer gelatin/?-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and platelet rich plasma on osteochondral defects of the talus in horses.  

PubMed

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common and clinically important joint disorder in horses. However, repair of the OC region is difficult because of the avascular nature of cartilage. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of bilayer gelatin/?-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), chondrocytes, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the repair of osteochondral defects of the talus in horses. Full-thickness osteochondral defects were created on both the lateral trochlear ridges of the talus (n = 6). In the test group, a basic GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 (MSC/BMP2/GT) was inserted into the lower part of the defect, and an acidic GT sponge loaded with chondrocyte, MSCs, and PRP (Ch/MSC/PRP/GT) was inserted into the upper part of the defect. In the control group, the defect was treated only with bilayer GT sponges. Repair of osteochondral defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and macroscopic and histological evaluation. The test group showed significantly higher radiographic, QCT, macroscopic, and histological scores than the control group. This study demonstrated that the bilayer scaffolds consisting of Ch/MSC/PRP/GT for the chondrogenic layer and MSC/BMP2/GT for the osteogenic layer promoted osteochondral regeneration in an equine model. The bilayer scaffolds described here may be useful for treating horses with OC. PMID:24054973

Seo, Jong-Pil; Tanabe, Takafumi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

2013-12-01

152

Xenoimplantation of an Extracellular-Matrix-Derived, Biphasic, Cell-Scaffold Construct for Repairing a Large Femoral-Head High-Load-Bearing Osteochondral Defect in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to develop an ECM-derived biphasic scaffold and to investigate its regeneration potential loaded with BM-MSCs in repair of large, high-load-bearing osteochondral defects of the canine femoral head. The scaffolds were fabricated using cartilage and bone ECM as a cartilage and bone layer, respectively. Osteochondral constructs were fabricated using induced BM-MSCs and the scaffold. Osteochondral defects (11?mm diameter × 10?mm depth) were created on femoral heads of canine and treated with the constructs. The repaired tissue was evaluated for gross morphology, radiography, histological, biomechanics at 3 and 6 months after implantation. Radiography revealed that femoral heads slightly collapsed at 3 months and severely collapsed at 6 months. Histology revealed that some defects in femoral heads were repaired, but with fibrous tissue or fibrocartilage, and femoral heads with different degrees of collapse. The bone volume fraction was lower for subchondral bone than normal femoral bone at 3 and 6 months. Rigidity was lower in repaired subchondral bone than normal femoral bone at 6 months. The ECM-derived, biphasic scaffold combined with induced BM-MSCs did not successfully repair large, high-load-bearing osteochondral defects of the canine femoral head. However, the experience can help improve the technique of scaffold fabrication and vascularization. PMID:24737955

Qiang, Yang; Yanhong, Zhao; Jiang, Peng; Shibi, Lu; Quanyi, Guo; Xinlong, Ma; Qun, Xia; Baoshan, Xu; Bin, Zhao; Aiyuan, Wang; Li, Zhang; Wengjing, Xu; Chao, Zeng

2014-01-01

153

Articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells seeded on biodegradable scaffolds for the repair of cartilage in a rat osteochondral defect model.  

PubMed

This work investigated the ability of co-cultures of articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair articular cartilage in osteochondral defects. Bovine articular chondrocytes and rat MSCs were seeded in isolation or in co-culture onto electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds and implanted into an osteochondral defect in the trochlear groove of 12-week old Lewis rats. Additionally, a blank PCL scaffold and untreated defect were investigated. After 12 weeks, the extent of cartilage repair was analyzed through histological analysis, and the extent of bone healing was assessed by quantifying the total volume of mineralized bone in the defect through microcomputed tomography. Histological analysis revealed that the articular chondrocytes and co-cultures led to repair tissue that consisted of more hyaline-like cartilage tissue that was thicker and possessed more intense Safranin O staining. The MSC, blank PCL scaffold, and empty treatment groups generally led to the formation of fibrocartilage repair tissue. Microcomputed tomography revealed that while there was an equivalent amount of mineralized bone formation in the MSC, blank PCL, and empty treatment groups, the defects treated with chondrocytes or co-cultures had negligible mineralized bone formation. Overall, even with a reduced number of chondrocytes, co-cultures led to an equal level of cartilage repair compared to the chondrocyte samples, thus demonstrating the potential for the use of co-cultures of articular chondrocytes and MSCs for the in vivo repair of cartilage defects. PMID:24927682

Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kinard, Lucas A; Lam, Johnny; Needham, Clark J; Lu, Steven; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2014-08-01

154

Fresh immature articular cartilage allografts. A study on the integration of chondral and osteochondral grafts both in normal and in papain-treated knee joints of rabbits.  

PubMed

The integration of immature cartilage allografts to knee joints of both normal rabbits and those submitted to arthritis through papain was studied for a period of up to 9 months. Two types of grafts were compared: chondral--constituted only by cartilage, and osteochondral--cartilage plus a thin layer of subchondral bone. The integration of the grafts was analyzed through inspection of the articular surface and histologic sections. The viability of the grafts was checked through the incorporation of 35SO4 on the chondral matrix. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) A large member of the grafted cartilages were well accepted without histological evidence of immunological rejection, and metabolically active 9 months after transplantation. (2) The chondral graft was found to be superior to the osteochondral one regarding the integration, but both showed tendency to degeneration with time. (3) The presence of arthritis previously induced by papain affected the integration of the grafts causing a higher precentage of degeneration on the grafts causing a higher precentage of degeneration on the grafted cartilage. PMID:380514

Paccola, C A; Xavier, C A; Goncalves, R P

1979-04-30

155

Controlled Release Strategies for Bone, Cartilage, and Osteochondral Engineering—Part II: Challenges on the Evolution from Single to Multiple Bioactive Factor Delivery  

PubMed Central

The development of controlled release systems for the regeneration of bone, cartilage, and osteochondral interface is one of the hot topics in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the majority of the developed systems consider only the release of a single growth factor, which is a limiting step for the success of the therapy. More recent studies have been focused on the design and tailoring of appropriate combinations of bioactive factors to match the desired goals regarding tissue regeneration. In fact, considering the complexity of extracellular matrix and the diversity of growth factors and cytokines involved in each biological response, it is expected that an appropriate combination of bioactive factors could lead to more successful outcomes in tissue regeneration. In this review, the evolution on the development of dual and multiple bioactive factor release systems for bone, cartilage, and osteochondral interface is overviewed, specifically the relevance of parameters such as dosage and spatiotemporal distribution of bioactive factors. A comprehensive collection of studies focused on the delivery of bioactive factors is also presented while highlighting the increasing impact of platelet-rich plasma as an autologous source of multiple growth factors. PMID:23249320

Santo, Vítor E.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

2013-01-01

156

Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects in the Goat with Frozen Versus Fresh Osteochondral Allografts: Effects on Cartilage Stiffness, Zonal Composition, and Structure at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Background: Understanding the effectiveness of frozen as compared with fresh osteochondral allografts at six months after surgery and the resultant consequences of traditional freezing may facilitate in vivo maintenance of cartilage integrity. Our hypothesis was that the state of the allograft at implantation affects its performance after six months in vivo. Methods: The effect of frozen as compared with fresh storage on in vivo allograft performance was determined for osteochondral allografts that were transplanted into seven recipient goats and analyzed at six months. Allograft performance was assessed by examining osteochondral structure (cartilage thickness, fill, surface location, surface degeneration, and bone-cartilage interface location), zonal cartilage composition (cellularity, matrix content), and cartilage biomechanical function (stiffness). Relationships between cartilage stiffness or cartilage composition and surface degeneration were assessed with use of linear regression. Results: Fresh allografts maintained cartilage load-bearing function, while also maintaining zonal organization of cartilage cellularity and matrix content, compared with frozen allografts. Overall, allograft performance was similar between fresh allografts and nonoperative controls. However, cartilage stiffness was approximately 80% lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 87%) in the frozen allografts than in the nonoperative controls or fresh allografts. Concomitantly, in frozen allografts, matrix content and cellularity were approximately 55% (95% CI, 22% to 92%) and approximately 96% (95% CI, 94% to 99%) lower, respectively, than those in the nonoperative controls and fresh allografts. Cartilage stiffness correlated positively with cartilage cellularity and matrix content, and negatively with surface degeneration. Conclusions: Maintenance of cartilage load-bearing function in allografts is associated with zonal maintenance of cartilage cellularity and matrix content. In this animal model, frozen allografts displayed signs of failure at six months, with cartilage softening, loss of cells and matrix, and/or graft subsidence, supporting the importance of maintaining cell viability during allograft storage and suggesting that outcomes at six months may be indicative of long-term (dys)function. Clinical Relevance: Fresh versus frozen allografts represent the “best versus worst” conditions with respect to chondrocyte viability, but “difficult versus simple” with respect to acquisition and distribution. The outcomes described from these two conditions expand the current understanding of in vivo cartilage remodeling and describe structural properties (initial graft subsidence), which may have implications for impending graft failure. PMID:23138239

Pallante, Andrea L.; Görtz, Simon; Chen, Albert C.; Healey, Robert M.; Chase, Derek C.; Ball, Scott T.; Amiel, David; Sah, Robert L.; Bugbee, William D.

2012-01-01

157

Controlled Release Strategies for Bone, Cartilage, and Osteochondral Engineering—Part I: Recapitulation of Native Tissue Healing and Variables for the Design of Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

The potential of growth factors to stimulate tissue healing through the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation is undeniable. However, critical parameters on the design of adequate carriers, such as uncontrolled spatiotemporal presence of bioactive factors, inadequate release profiles, and supraphysiological dosages of growth factors, have impaired the translation of these systems onto clinical practice. This review describes the healing cascades for bone, cartilage, and osteochondral interface, highlighting the role of specific growth factors for triggering the reactions leading to tissue regeneration. Critical criteria on the design of carriers for controlled release of bioactive factors are also reported, focusing on the need to provide a spatiotemporal control over the delivery and presentation of these molecules. PMID:23268651

Santo, Vítor E.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

2013-01-01

158

Percutaneous osteoplasty for the treatment of a painful osteochondral lesion of the talus: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

An osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is a lesion involving the talar articular cartilage and its subchondral bone. OLT is a known cause of chronic ankle pain after ankle sprains in the active population. The lesion causes deep ankle pain associated with weight-bearing, impaired function, limited range of motion, stiffness, catching, locking, and swelling. There are 2 common patterns of OLTs. Anterolateral talar dome lesions result from inversion and dorsiflexion injuries of the ankle at the area impacting against the fibula. Posteromedial lesions result from inversion, plantar flexion, and external rotation injuries of the ankle at the area impacting against the tibial ceiling of the ankle joint. Early diagnosis of an OLT is particularly important because the tibiotalar joint is exposed to more compressive load per unit area than any other joint in the body. Failure of diagnosis can lead to the evolution of a small, stable lesion into a larger lesion or an unstable fragment, which can result in chronic pain, joint instability, and premature osteoarthritis. A 43-year-old man, with a history of ankle sprain one year previously, visited our pain clinic for continuous right ankle pain after walking or standing for more than 30 minutes. There was a focal tenderness on the posteromedial area of the right talus. Imaging studies revealed a posteromedial OLT classified as having a geode form according to the FOG (fractures, osteonecroses, geodes) radiological classification and categorized as a stage 2a lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was scheduled for aspiration and osteoplasty with hydroxyapatite under arthroscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A 26-gauge needle was inserted to infiltrate local anesthetics into the skin over the cyst and ankle joint. An arthroscope was placed into the joint to approach the OLT. The arthroscopic view showed that there was no connection between the OLT and the cyst of the talus body. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted into the cyst, and aspiration was performed. Aspirated fluid from the cyst was originally white and clear; however, it changed to a blood-tinged, reddish color due to mixing with the incisional blood. After aspiration, contrast medium was injected, and the shape of the spread was observed. Bone cement comprising hydroxyapatite was injected to fill the bone defect of the cyst. A 1.5 mL volume of cement was injected into the talus under vigilant fluoroscopic and arthroscopic monitoring to prevent its dissemination into the joint. There was no cement leakage into the vessels or articular space. Postoperative fluoroscopy and computed tomography images showed bone cement filling of the defect. In the present case, arthroscopic and fluoroscopic guidance was used for aspiration of an OLT and for performing percutaneous osteoplasty with hydroxyapatite for one defect; this treatment decreased pain upon weight bearing and enabled a return to work without any restrictions one week after the procedure. The purpose of this report was to highlight the presence of OLT in chronic ankle pain and to review its management strategies. PMID:22996869

Seo, Sung-Suk; Park, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Jin; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

2012-01-01

159

Type IX collagen gene mutations can result in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia that is associated with osteochondritis dissecans and a mild myopathy  

PubMed Central

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and matrilin-3: COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COMP, and MATN3, respectively. Splicing mutations have been identified in all three genes encoding type IX collagen and are restricted to specific exons encoding an equivalent region of the COL3 domain in all three ?(IX) chains. MED has been associated with mild myopathy in some families, in particular one family with a COL9A3 mutation and two families with C-terminal COMP mutations. In this study we have identified COL9A2 mutations in two families with MED that also have osteochondritis dissecans and mild myopathy. This study therefore extends the range of gene-mutations that can cause MED-related myopathy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20358595

Jackson, Gail C; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verrips, Aad; Taylor, Jacqueline A; Briggs, Michael D

2010-01-01

160

The effect of cartilage and bone density of mushroom-shaped, photooxidized, osteochondral transplants: an experimental study on graft performance in sheep using transplants originating from different species  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in overall performance of osteochondral photooxidized grafts were studied in accordance of their species origin and a new, more rigorous cleansing procedure using alcohol during preparation. Methods Photooxidized mushroom-shaped grafts of bovine, ovine, human and equine origin were implanted in the femoral condyles of 32 sheep (condyles: n = 64). No viable chondrocytes were present at the time of implantation. Grafts were evaluated at 6 months using plastic embedded sections of non-decalcified bone and cartilage specimens. Graft incorporation, the formation of cyst-like lesions at the base of the cartilage junction as well as cartilage morphology was studied qualitatively, semi-quantitatively using a score system and quantitatively by performing histomorphometrical measurements of percentage of bone and fibrous tissue of the original defects. For statistical analysis a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA- test) was applied. Results Differences of graft performance were found according to species origin and cleansing process during graft preparation. According to the score system cartilage surface integrity was best for equine grafts, as well as dislocation or mechanical stability. The equine grafts showed the highest percentage for bone and lowest for fibrous tissue, resp. cystic lesions. The new, more rigorous cleansing process decreased cartilage persistence and overall graft performance. Conclusion Performance of grafts from equine origin was better compared to bovine, ovine and human grafts. The exact reason for this difference was not proven in the current study, but could be related to differences in density of cartilage and subchondral bone between species. PMID:16356173

Waselau, Anja C; Nadler, Daniel; Müller, Jessika MV; Zlinszky, Katalin; Hilbe, Monika; Auer, Jörg A; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

2005-01-01

161

Improved quality of cartilage repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of an osteochondral defect in a cynomolgus macaque model  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Integration of repaired cartilage with surrounding native cartilage is a major challenge for successful tissue-engineering strategies of cartilage repair. We investigated whether incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the collagen scaffold improves integration and repair of cartilage defects in a cynomolgus macaque model. Methods Cynomolgus macaque bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and incorporated into type-I collagen gel. Full-thickness osteochondral defects (3 mm in diameter, 5 mm in depth) were created in the patellar groove of 36 knees of 18 macaques and were either left untreated (null group, n = 12), had collagen gel alone inserted (gel group, n = 12), or had collagen gel incorporating MSCs inserted (MSC group, n = 12). After 6, 12, and 24 weeks, the cartilage integration and tissue response were evaluated macroscopically and histologically (4 null, 4 gel, and 4 MSC knees at each time point). Results The gel group showed most cartilage-rich reparative tissue covering the defect, owing to formation of excessive cartilage extruding though the insufficient subchondral bone. Despite the fact that a lower amount of new cartilage was produced, the MSC group had better-quality cartilage with regular surface, seamless integration with neighboring naïve cartilage, and reconstruction of trabecular subchondral bone. Interpretation Even with intensive investigation, MSC-based cell therapy has not yet been established in experimental cartilage repair. Our model using cynomolgus macaques had optimized conditions, and the method using MSCs is superior to other experimental settings, allowing the possibility that the procedure might be introduced to future clinical practice. PMID:25175660

Araki, Susumu; Imai, Shinji; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Mimura, Tomohiro; Nishizawa, Kazuya; Ueba, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Kousuke; Kubo, Mitsuhiko; Mori, Kanji; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Matsusue, Yoshitaka

2015-01-01

162

Bioreactor cultivation of osteochondral grafts.  

PubMed

The clinical utility of tissue engineering depends upon our ability to direct cells to form tissues with characteristic structural and mechanical properties across different hierarchical scales. Ideally, an engineered graft should be tailored to (re)establish the structure and function of the native tissue being replaced. Engineered grafts of such high fidelity would also foster fundamental research by serving as physiologically relevant models for quantitative in vitro studies. The approach discussed here involves the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) cultured on custom-designed scaffolds (providing a structural and logistic template for tissue development) in bioreactors (providing environmental control, biochemical and mechanical cues). Cartilage, bone and ligaments have been engineered by using hMSC, highly porous protein scaffolds (collagen; silk) and bioreactors (perfused cartridges with or without mechanical loading). In each case, the scaffold and bioreactor were designed to recapitulate some aspects of the environment present in native tissues. Medium flow facilitated mass transport to the cells and thereby enhanced the formation of all three tissues. In the case of cartilage, dynamic laminar flow patterns were advantageous as compared to either turbulent steady flow or static (no flow) cultures. In the case of bone, medium flow affected the geometry, distribution and orientation of the forming bone-like trabeculae. In the case of ligament, applied mechanical loading (a combination of dynamic stretch and torsion) markedly enhanced cell differentiation, alignment and functional assembly. Taken together, these studies provide a basis for the ongoing work on engineering osreochondral grafts for a variety of potential applications, including those in the craniofacial complex. PMID:16022723

Vunjak-Novakovic, G; Meinel, L; Altman, G; Kaplan, D

2005-08-01

163

Influence of the gel thickness on in vivo hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by double-network gel implanted at the bottom of a large osteochondral defect: Short-term results  

PubMed Central

Background A double-network (DN) gel, which is composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly(N,N’-dimethyl acrylamide), can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the thickness of the implanted DN gel on the induction ability of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Methods Thirty-eight mature rabbits were used in this study. We created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 4.3-mm in the patellofemoral joint. The knees were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: 0.5-mm thick gel, Group II: 1.0-mm thick gel, Group III: 5.0-mm thick gel, and Group IV: untreated control). Animals in each group were further divided into 3 sub-groups depending on the gel implant position (2.0-, 3.0-, or 4.0-mm depth from the articular surface) in the defect. The regenerated tissues were evaluated with the Wayne’s gross and histological grading scales and real time PCR analysis of the cartilage marker genes at 4 weeks. Results According to the total Wayne’s score, when the depth of the final vacant space was set at 2.0 mm, the scores in Groups I, II, and III were significantly greater than that Group IV (p?

2013-01-01

164

Engineering custom-designed osteochondral tissue grafts  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering is expected to help us outlive the failure of our organs by enabling the creation of tissue substitutes capable of fully restoring the original tissue function. Degenerative joint disease, which affects one-fifth of the US population and is the country’s leading cause of disability, drives current research of actively growing, functional tissue grafts for joint repair. Toward this goal, living cells are used in conjunction with bio-material scaffolds (serving as instructive templates for tissue development) and bioreactors (providing environmental control and molecular and physical regulatory signals). In this review, we discuss the requirements for engineering customized, anatomically-shaped, stratified grafts for joint repair and the challenges of designing these grafts to provide immediate functionality (load bearing, structural support) and long-term regeneration (maturation, integration, remodeling). PMID:18299159

Grayson, Warren L.; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Marolt, Darja; Kaplan, David L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

165

Genetics Home Reference: Familial osteochondritis dissecans  

MedlinePLUS

... other components of cartilage, organizing the network of molecules that gives cartilage its strength. In addition, aggrecan attracts water molecules and gives cartilage its gel-like structure. This ...

166

An in vitro tissue-engineered model for osteochondral repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main topics of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is to address the problem of lesions involving articular\\u000a cartilage. In fact, these lesions do not heal spontaneously and often lead to osteoarthritis, which causes chronic pain and\\u000a worsens quality of life. Moreover, the only available treatment for osteoarthritis is symptomatic therapy and prosthetic replacement,\\u000a with far from satisfactory

G. M. Peretti; M. Buragas; C. Scotti; L. Mangiavini; C. Sosio; A. Di Giancamillo; C. Domeneghini; G. Fraschini

2006-01-01

167

Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering using Macroscopic Gradients of Physicochemical Signals  

E-print Network

The field of tissue engineering has continually been described as "cells, signals, and scaffolds." The current thesis work describes the evaluation of a continuously-graded microsphere-based scaffold technology for the regeneration...

Dormer, Nathan Henry

2011-04-25

168

Harnessing Cell–Biomaterial Interactions for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage that is damaged or diseased often requires surgical intervention to repair the tissue; therefore, tissue engineering strategies have been developed to aid in cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering approaches often require the integration of cells, biomaterials, and growth factors to direct and support tissue formation. A variety of cell types have been isolated from adipose, bone marrow, muscle, and skin tissue to promote cartilage regeneration. The interaction of cells with each other and with their surrounding environment has been shown to play a key role in cartilage engineering. In tissue engineering approaches, biomaterials are commonly used to provide an initial framework for cell recruitment and proliferation and tissue formation. Modifications of the properties of biomaterials, such as creating sites for cell binding, altering their physicochemical characteristics, and regulating the delivery of growth factors, can have a significant influence on chondrogenesis. Overall, the goal is to completely restore healthy cartilage within an articular cartilage defect. This chapter aims to provide information about the importance of cell–biomaterial interactions for the chondrogenic differentiation of various cell populations that can eventually produce functional cartilage matrix that is indicative of healthy cartilage tissue. PMID:21975954

Kim, Kyobum; Yoon, Diana M.; Mikos, Antonios G.

2013-01-01

169

Histological and biomechanical assessment of articular cartilage from stored osteochondral shell allografts.  

PubMed

Normal and stored articular cartilage from the medial tibial plateaus of mature canine knee joints were evaluated histologically and biomechanically. The medial plateaus from the right knee (control) were assessed fresh, while the left (stored) were preserved in culture media at 4 degrees C for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days and then evaluated. Biomechanically, confined compression tests were performed on all specimens to determine the aggregate modulus and apparent permeability of the articular cartilage. Histologically, Safranin O- and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections were evaluated. All stored cartilage specimens had an aggregate modulus on average lower than normal, but the differences were not significant (p greater than 0.10). The apparent permeability was on average higher than but also not significantly different from normal (p greater than 0.10). Time in storage (up to 28 days) did not have a significant effect on the biomechanical properties of stored cartilage normalized by control values (p greater than 0.50). Safranin O and H&E histological evaluation also showed no overall changes in cell appearance or staining of the stored cartilage when compared with control for the time periods studied. PMID:2474640

Kwan, M K; Wayne, J S; Woo, S L; Field, F P; Hoover, J; Meyers, M

1989-01-01

170

Cartilage defect repair by osteochondral allografts : role of tissue surfaces and interfaces  

E-print Network

to bone volume fraction of the underlying trabecular bonetrabecular architecture in samples with visible bone cysts, especially bone volume fraction,volume fraction (BV/TV, %), bone surface density (BS/TV, mm -1 ), trabecular

Pallante, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

171

The potential of encapsulating "raw materials" in 3D osteochondral gradient scaffolds.  

PubMed

Scaffolds with continuous gradients in material composition and bioactive signals enable a smooth transition of properties at the interface. Components like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) in 3D scaffolds may serve as "raw materials" for synthesis of new extracellular matrix (ECM), and may have the potential to completely or partially replace expensive growth factors. We hypothesized that scaffolds with gradients of ECM components would enable superior performance of engineered constructs. Raw material encapsulation altered the appearance, structure, porosity, and degradation of the scaffolds. They allowed the scaffolds to better retain their 3D structure during culture and provided a buffering effect to the cells in culture. Following seeding of rat mesenchymal stem cells, there were several instances where glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, or calcium contents were higher with the scaffolds containing raw materials (CS or BG) than with those containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. It was also noteworthy that a combination of both CS and TGF-?3 increased the secretion of collagen type II. Moreover, cells seeded in scaffolds containing opposing gradients of CS/TGF-?3 and BG/BMP-2 produced clear regional variations in the secretion of tissue-specific ECM. The study demonstrated raw materials have the potential to create a favorable microenvironment for cells; they can significantly enhance the synthesis of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) components when compared to expensive growth factors; either alone or in combination with growth factors they can enhance the secretion of tissue specific matrix proteins. Raw materials are promising candidates that can be used to either replace or be used in combination with growth factors. Success with raw materials in lieu of growth factors could have profound implications in terms of lower cost and faster regulatory approval for more rapid translation of regenerative medicine products to the clinic. PMID:24293388

Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banupriya; Sutherland, Amanda; Detamore, Michael S

2014-04-01

172

632. Retrovirally Transduced Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Facilitate Repair of Osteochondral Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their limited intrinsic ability for self-repair, articular cartilage defects caused by inflammation or articular fractures do not fully heal. Skeletal muscle represents a potential source of cells for use in cartilage tissue engineering applications. Subpopulation of muscle-derived stem cells isolated from mouse skeletal muscle (MDSCs), possess the ability of multipotent differentiation and have been found capable to enhance

Ryosuke Kuroda; Arvydas Usas; Hairong Peng; Masamitsu Sakamoto; Johnny Huard

2004-01-01

173

Evaluating osteochondral defect repair potential of autologous rabbit bone marrow cells on type II collagen scaffold  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using genipin cross-linked type II collagen scaffold with rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (RBMSCs) to repair cartilage defect was herein studied. Induction of RBMSCs into chondrocytic phenotype on type II collagen scaffold in vitro was conducted using TGF-? 3 containing medium. After 3-weeks of induction, chondrocytic behavior, including marker genes expression and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, was observed. In the in vivo evaluation experiment, the scaffolds containing RBMSCs without prior induction were autologous implanted into the articular cartilage defects made by subchondral drilling. The repairing ability was evaluated. After 2 months, chondrocyte-like cells with lacuna structure and corresponding ECM were found in the repaired sites without apparent inflammation. After 24 weeks, we could easily find cartilage structure the same with normal cartilage in the repair site. In conclusion, it was shown that the scaffolds in combination of in vivo conditions can induce RBMSCs into chondrocytes in repaired area and would be a possible method for articular cartilage repair in clinic and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:20972620

Chen, Wei-Chuan; Yao, Chao-Ling

2010-01-01

174

Disease-specific clinical problems associated with the subchondral bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subchondral bone is involved in a variety of diseases affecting both the articular cartilage and bone. Osteochondral defects\\u000a in distinct locations and of variable sizes are the final results of different etiologies. These include traumatic osteochondral\\u000a defects, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Traumatic osteochondral defects are caused by osteochondral\\u000a fractures, separating an osteochondral fragment that includes articular cartilage and

Dietrich Pape; Giuseppe Filardo; Elisaveta Kon; C. Niek van Dijk; Henning Madry

2010-01-01

175

Image-Guided Techniques Improve the Short-term Outcome of Autologous Osteochondral Cartilage Repair Surgeries -An  

E-print Network

, Gudas et al. (20) found significantly better clinical outcomes and histology using mosaic arthroplasty to compare the reconstructed versus the native pre-injury joint surfaces. For each repaired defect, macroscopic (ICRS) and histological repair (ICRS II) scores were assessed. All results were statistically

Stewart, James

176

Percutaneous Achilles Tendon Lengthening  

MedlinePLUS

... Bulk Allograft Transplantation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Insertional Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction ... Ankle Stabilization Mosaicplasty for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Peroneus Longus to Achilles Tendon Transfer Pilon Fracture ...

177

A novel osteochondral composite consisting of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel and 3D printed polycaprolactone scaffold : potential for articular cartilage repair  

E-print Network

Degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis, and traumatic injuries are both prominent causes of cartilage defects. Due to its avascular nature, adult human cartilage displays limited capacity for regeneration. Current ...

Saatchi, Sanaz, 1980-

2004-01-01

178

Up-regulation of the chemo-attractive receptor ChemR23 and occurrence of apoptosis in human chondrocytes isolated from fractured calcaneal osteochondral fragments.  

PubMed

To study the expression level of a panel of pro/anti-apoptotic factors and inflammation-related receptors in chondral fragments from patients undergoing surgical treatment for intra-articular calcaneal fractures, cartilage fragments were retrieved from calcaneal fractures of 20 patients subjected to surgical treatment. Primary cultures were performed using chondral fragments from fractured and control patients. Chondrocyte cultures from each patient of the fractured and control groups were subjected to immunofluorescence staining and quantitatively analyzed under confocal microscopy. Proteins extracted from the cultured chondrocytes taken from the fractured and control groups were processed for Western blot experiments and densitometric analysis. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using the cleaved PARP-1 antibody. The proportion of labelled cells was 35% for fractured specimens, compared with 7% for control samples. Quantification of caspase-3 active and Bcl-2 proteins in chondrocyte cultures showed a significant increase of the apoptotic process in fractured specimens compared with control ones. Fractured chondrocytes were positively stained for ChemR23 with statistically significant differences with respect to control samples. Densitometric evaluation of the immunoreactive bands confirmed these observations. Human articular chondrocytes obtained from patients with intra-articular calcaneal fractures express higher levels of pivotal pro-apoptotic factors, and of the chemo-attractive receptor ChemR23, compared with control cultures. On the basis of these observations, the authors hypothesize that consistent prolonged chondrocyte death, associated with the persistence of high levels of pro-inflammatory factors, could enhance the deterioration of cartilage tissue with consequent development of post-traumatic arthritis following intra-articular bone fracture. PMID:24689495

Sena, Paola; Manfredini, Giuseppe; Benincasa, Marta; Mariani, Francesco; Smargiassi, Alberto; Catani, Fabio; Palumbo, Carla

2014-06-01

179

Cartilage lesions in patellofemoral dislocations: Incidents/locations/when to treat  

PubMed Central

Patellofemoral dislocations are frequently associated with chondral injury. Chondral and osteochondral lesions are often associated with traumatic (high energy) patellofemoral dislocations whereas atraumatic (low energy) patellofemoral dislocations in patients with significant patellofemoral risk factors have a much lower incidence of osteochondral damage. This article provides a historical overview and delineates the current state of radiographic and clinical outcomes of osteochondral lesions after patellofemoral dislocation. The importance of understanding risk factors of redislocation is emphasized and the current treatment options for these cartilage lesions associated with patellofemoral dislocation are briefly summarized. PMID:22878659

Covell, D. Jeff; Lattermann, Christian

2014-01-01

180

Overview of cartilage biology and new trends in cartilage stimulation.  

PubMed

This article reviews the basics of articular cartilage biology, which provide a necessary foundation for understanding the evolving field of articular cartilage injury and repair. The currently popular treatment options for osteochondral injury (microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer system, osteochondral allograft, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and the use of scaffolds with autologous chondrocyte implantation) document the significant advances made in this area in the past 2 decades. Integration of newly available information and technology derived from advances in molecular biology and tissue engineering holds even greater promise for continued advances in optimal management of this challenging problem. PMID:23465945

Triche, Rachel; Mandelbaum, Bert R

2013-03-01

181

Chondrocyte death in injured articular cartilage – in vitro evaluation of chondroprotective strategies using confocal laser scanning microscopy   

E-print Network

A reproducible in vitro model of mechanically injured (scalpel cut) articular cartilage was developed in this work utilising bovine and human osteochondral tissue. Using fluorescence-mode confocal laser scanning microscopy ...

Amin, Anish Kiritkumar

2011-07-05

182

Ankle Cheilectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... ankle cheilectomy removes a bone spur from the talus or tibia, which are bones of the ankle ... Bulk Allograft Transplantation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Insertional Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction ...

183

MRI of Cartilage: Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most important clinical indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are assessment of cartilage in osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA), chronic or acute osteochondral injury including sports injuries, osteochondritis dissecans, chondromalacia patellae,\\u000a and inflammatory arthropathies (in particular before invasive therapy). In addition dedicated cartilage imaging is required\\u000a after invasive cartilage repair procedures or conservative therapies, including pharmacological therapies, to monitor treatment\\u000a effect. MR

Thomas M. Link

184

What tissue bankers should know about the use of allograft tendons and cartilage in orthopaedics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tendon and osteochondral allograft are key requirements for reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. Their successful use has been\\u000a published repeatedly, however, they are associated with potential significant problems, which both patients and surgeons should\\u000a be aware of. This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages associated with the clinical use of both tendon and osteochondral\\u000a allograft. Particular emphasis is paid to graft immunogenicity,

Alan Getgood; Steve Bollen

2010-01-01

185

Operative arthroscopy of the ankle.  

PubMed

The long-term results of 30 operative arthroscopies of the ankle performed from 1983 to 1989 are the basis of this study. The most frequent lesions are synovitis and osteochondral defects of the talus. The treatment consists of lavage, synovial debridement, osteochondral debridement, and the removal of loose bodies. Of the 30 cases, 86.7% obtained excellent or good results and 88% of the athletes returned to their sport. PMID:1466718

Cerulli, G; Caraffa, A; Buompadre, V; Bensi, G

1992-01-01

186

Dynamic impact force and association with structural damage to the knee joint: an ex-vivo study.  

PubMed

No systematic, histologically confirmed data are available concerning the association between magnitude of direct dynamic impact caused by vertical impact trauma and the resulting injury to cartilage and subchondral bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dynamic impact and the resulting patterns of osteochondral injury in an ex-vivo model. A mechanical apparatus was employed to perform ex-vivo controlled dynamic vertical impact experiments in 110 pig knees with the femur positioned in a holding fixture. A falling body with a thrust plate and photo sensor was applied. The direct impact to the trochlear articular surface was registered and the resulting osteochondral injuries macroscopically and histologically correlated and categorized. The relationship between magnitude of direct impact and injury severity could be classified as stage I injuries (impact <7.3MPa): elastic deformation, no histological injury; stage II injuries (impact 7.3-9.6MPa): viscoelastic imprint of the cartilaginous surface, subchondral microfractures; stage III injuries (impact 9.6-12.7MPa): disrupted cartilage surface, chondral fissures and subchondral microfractures; stage IV injuries (impact >12.7MPa): osteochondral impression, histologically imprint and osteochondral macrofractures. The impact ranges and histologic injury stages determined from this vertical dynamic impact experiment allowed for a biomechanical classification of direct, acute osteochondral injury. In contrast to static load commonly applied in ex-vivo experiments, dynamic impact more realistically represents actual trauma to the knee joint. PMID:25175150

Brill, Richard; Wohlgemuth, Walther A; Hempfling, Harald; Bohndorf, Klaus; Becker, Ursula; Welsch, Ulrich; Kamp, Alexander; Roemer, Frank W

2014-12-01

187

In vivo maturation of scaffold-free engineered articular cartilage on hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is a promising approach, not only for cartilage, but also for osteochondral repair. Recent studies have demonstrated that scaffold-free cartilaginous tissue can be engineered using the alginate-recovered-chondrocyte (ARC) method. This method has also been applied to form osteochondral tissue using bovine articular chondrocytes and coralline hydroxyapatite (HA). The purpose of this study was to test whether osteochondral tissue, fabricated in vitro using the ARC method combined with a block of HA, would undergo maturation in vivo using a subcutaneous model in immunodeficient mice. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from the cartilage of New Zealand white rabbits and cultured in alginate beads. The cells with their associated matrix were recovered by dissolving the alginate beads with a sodium citrate buffer, resuspended in media and seeded onto a porous HA block. After 4 weeks of culture, some samples were analyzed, and others were implanted into subcutaneous pockets in nude mice. The analysis involved removing the cartilage portion of the de novo-formed ARC-HA graft and performing biochemical and histological examinations. Some samples were subjected to nondecalcified histology. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of cartilaginous tissue were performed at 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. Biochemical characteristics were examined at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. The size and shape of the implanted ARC osteochondral tissue changed with time. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue revealed that it contained a cartilage-like matrix that stained strongly with Toluidine blue and for collagen type II. The proteoglycan (PG) content had increased significantly at 4 weeks from baseline. However, by 8 weeks, the PG content had decreased from 4 weeks. The results presented here represent a possible approach to form a tissue-engineered osteochondral implant. Further studies are needed to improve biomechanical properties of the osteochondral implant to be suitable for surgical transplantation. PMID:18620479

Kitahara, Sota; Nakagawa, Koichi; Sah, Robert L; Wada, Yuichi; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Moriya, Hideshige; Masuda, Koichi

2008-11-01

188

Maioregen  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Osteochondral articular defects represent a key concern in orthopedic surgery. The objective of this pilot clinical study\\u000a was to test safety and performance of a newly developed type-I collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructural bio-mimetic osteochondral\\u000a (O.C.) scaffold which reproduces cartilage-subchondral bone morphology. A gradient composite O.C. scaffold, based on type-I\\u000a collagen-HA, was obtained by nucleating collagen fibrils with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles at physiological

M. Marcacci; S. Zaffagnini; E. Kon; M. Delcogliano; A. Di Martino; G. Filardo; G. Altadonna; F. Balbonie

2009-01-01

189

[Etiology and pathogenesis of osteochondrosis dissecans tali].  

PubMed

Osteochondritis dissecans of the talus is a particular form of osteochondral lesions of the talus. A trauma with subsequent osteochondral defect detected immediately by radiology has to be differentiated from osteochondritis dissecans of the talus. Osteochondritis dissecans (o.d.) is primarily a disease of the subchondral bone and can affect almost every joint in the human organism. After the knee and elbow, the talus is the third most common site of the disease accounting for 4% of all cases. It mostly arises in the 2nd decade but can occur at almost any age. Different etiological factors of osteochondritis dissecans (vascular, traumatic, infectious, endogenous, genetic) are discussed in general and in particular for the talus. In the literature, the etiopathogenetic mechanism of trauma is favored. Several studies show an anamnestic coincidence of distortsion and/or supination trauma prior to the onset of o.d. at the talus. The most common localization of the o.d. lesion is the middle and posterior third of the medial and less frequently anterior and middle third of the lateral talus. Biomechanical experiments demonstrated that these areas are those with the highest load under varus/valgus and pronation/supination stress. Trauma is held responsible for both the more frequent medial, cup-shaped lesion and the less frequent lateral, wafer-shaped lesion. Taking into consideration the complex motion patterns of the ankle joint, these conceptions should be abandoned and the exact pathomorphogenetic mechanism assessed more closely in future. Other possible etiological factors such as genetic, metabolic or infectious causes are discussed but are not yet substantiated by scientific and experimental evidence. The different stages of o.d. do not differ from the stages in other joints and from aseptic osteonecrosis. Theoretically, it seems that o.d. is initiated when an imaginary threshold value is reached so that a subchondral osteonecrosis occurs (stage I). Repetitive mechanical forces possibly interfere with the regeneration process of the lesions, resulting in the development of a subchondral sclerosis (stage II). Further disturbance of the regenerative process may lead to a demarcation of the osteochondral area (stage III) and eventually dissecation (stage IV) of the fragment with loose bodies in the joint. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific. Periarticular swelling, hydrarthrosis, reduced range of motion and sometimes joint locking are the most common clinical signs. Differentiation of o.d. from posttraumatic osteochondral lesions of the talus is sometimes difficult or even impossible. In contrast, other entities of the tibiotalar joint (such as talar necrosis or subchondral ganglion) can be easily distinguished. PMID:11227348

Steinhagen, J; Niggemeyer, O; Bruns, J

2001-01-01

190

Localisation and activity of cathepsins K and B in equine osteoclasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin K and cathepsin B were immunolocalised in equine osteoclasts (OC s) present in ex vivo cartilage\\/subchondral bone samples. Samples were obtained post mortem from the lateral trochlear ridge (LTR) of six horses and ponies aged between 303 days gestation to 8 months. Strong expression of cathepsin K was detected in OC s, particularly those located at the osteochondral junction,

A. W. Gray; M. E. Davies; L. B. Jeffcott

2002-01-01

191

Pulmonary Embolism After Knee Arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ymptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after knee arthroscopy is rare, particularly in the ambu- latory patient. In this report, we present an unusual case of bilateral pulmonary emboli after arthroscop- ic treatment of an osteochondral defect; this treatment included the microfracture technique. We also review the current literature and recommendations for prophylaxis against postarthroscopic DVT. The authors have obtained the

Joel Tucker; Kevin Doulens

2010-01-01

192

Arthroscopic Distal Clavicular Autograft for Treating Shoulder Instability With Glenoid Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Glenoid bone loss is a significant risk factor for failure after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization. Multiple options are available to reconstruct this bone loss, including coracoid transfer, iliac crest bone graft, and osteoarticular allograft. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses. Coracoid grafts are limited to anterior augmentation and, along with iliac crest, do not provide an osteochondral reconstruction. Osteochondral allografts do provide a cartilage source but are challenged by the potential for graft rejection, infection, cost, and availability. We describe the use of a distal clavicular osteochondral autograft for bony augmentation in cases of glenohumeral instability with significant bone loss. This graft has the advantages of being readily available and cost-effective, it provides an autologous osteochondral transplant with minimal donor-site morbidity, and it can be used in both anterior and posterior bone loss cases. The rationale and technical aspects of arthroscopic performance will be discussed. Clinical studies are warranted to determine the outcomes of the use of the distal clavicle as a graft in shoulder instability. PMID:25264509

Tokish, John M.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly; Cook, Jay B.; Mallon, William J.

2014-01-01

193

Mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite\\/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of bone, cartilage and osteochondral tissues by tissue engineering has attracted intense attention due to its potential advantages over the traditional replacement of tissues with synthetic implants. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of ideal or suitable scaffolds based on porous biomaterials, and the present study was undertaken to develop and evaluate a useful porous composite scaffold system. Here,

Xigeng Miao; Dawn Meifang Tan; Jian Li; Yin Xiao; Ross Crawford

2008-01-01

194

The use of carbon fiber pads inchondral injury and early osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Articular cartilage damage in young active individuals is a cause of pain and disability and may lead to earlyosteoarthritis. Methods proposed for treatment include intact cartilage grafting, osteochondral grafting, and isolated chondrocyte autografts. However, in some joints it is possible to repair the surface by stimulating the patient's repair mechanisms with techniques such as drilling and abrasion arthroplasty The repair

George Bentley; Doron Norman; Fares Haddad

2000-01-01

195

For centuries, it has been well known that damaged joint surfaces do not have the intrinsic ability to regenerate. In  

E-print Network

; histologic; knee * Address correspondence to Ellis K. Nam, MD, Chicago Ortho- paedics & Sports Medicine, 104 of Sports Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 2 DOI: 10.1177/0363546503259616 © 2004 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine DOI = 10.1177/0363546503259616 #12;Vol. 32, No. 2, 2004 Osteochondral Transplantation

196

Ultrasound assessment of articular cartilage: analysis of the frequency profile of reflected signals from naturally and artificially degraded samples.  

PubMed

This article investigates in vitro the hypothesis that the frequency profile of ultrasound reflections may be used to characterize degradation and osteoarthritic progression in articular cartilage, irrespective of the effects of transducer orientation. To this end, ultrasound echoes were taken in the time domain from the articular surface and osteochondral junction of normal, collagen meshwork-disrupted, proteoglycan-depleted, and osteoarthritic samples, converted to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transform and analyzed. Our results show the significant effects of specific enzymatic degradation programs on the ultrasound frequency profile of reflections from the cartilage surface and osteochondral junction, and their manifestation in the tissue surrounding a focal osteoarthritic defect. Collagen meshwork disruption was most apparent in the profile of reflections from the articular surface, while proteoglycan depletion was most clearly observed in the reflections from the osteochondral junction. The reflected signals from the osteochondral junction may further contain information about the subchondral bone. From these results we proposed that the analysis of specific frequencies of reflected ultrasound signals has the potential to differentiate normal from degraded articular cartilage-on-bone, when the angle of incidence can be controlled within a +/-1.2 degrees limit. This encourages further research into the effects of progressive artificial degradation of the cartilage matrix and subchondral bone on the spectral profile to quantify the relationship between the frequency profile and the level of specific degradation in naturally degraded joints. PMID:18075813

Brown, Cameron P; Hughes, Stephen W; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

2007-01-01

197

Mineral density and penetration strength of the subchondral bone plate of the talar dome: high correlation and specific distribution patterns.  

PubMed

The subchondral bone plate plays an important role in stabilizing the osteochondral joint unit and in the pathomechanism of osteochondral lesions and osteoarthritis. The objective of the present study was to measure the mineral density distribution and subchondral bone plate penetration strength of the talar dome joint facet to display and compare the specific distribution patterns. Ten cadaver specimens were used for computed tomography (CT) scans, from which densitograms were derived using CT-osteoabsorptiometry, and for mechanical indentation testing from which the penetration strength was obtained. Our results showed 2 different distribution patterns for mineral density and penetration strength. Of the 10 specimens, 6 (60%) showed bicentric maxima (anteromedially and anterolaterally), and 4 (40%) showed a monocentric maximum (either anteromedially or anterolaterally). A highly significant correlation (p < .0001) for both methods confirmed that the mineral density relied on local load characteristics. In conclusion, the biomechanical properties of the subchondral bone plate of the talar dome joint facet showed specific distribution patterns. CT-osteoabsorptiometry is a reliable method to display the mineral density distribution noninvasively. We recommend CT-osteoabsorptiometry for noninvasive analysis of the biomechanical properties of the subchondral bone plate in osteochondral joint reconstruction and the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25451205

Leumann, André; Valderrabano, Victor; Hoechel, Sebastian; Göpfert, Beat; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena

2015-01-01

198

Nutraceutical Therapies for Degenerative Joint Diseases: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition of the importance of nutritional factors in the maintenance of bone and joint health, and that nutritional imbalance combined with endocrine abnormalities may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Despite this, dietary programs have played a secondary role in the management of these connective tissue disorders. Articular cartilage is critically

Robert Goggs; Anne Vaughan-Thomas; Peter D. Clegg; Stuart D. Carter; John F. Innes; Ali Mobasheri; Mehdi Shakibaei; Wolfgang Schwab; Carolyn A. Bondy

2005-01-01

199

Natural history of bone bruises after acute knee injury: clinical outcome and histopathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the natural history of bone bruises and the experimental studies regarding the histopathological effects of impaction load on articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Bone bruises with subchondral or osteochondral injuries, or geographic bone bruises seemed to be persistent for years after trauma on MRI. Biopsy samples of the

Atsuo Nakamae; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr; Tron Krosshaug; Mitsuo Ochi

2006-01-01

200

Universittsmedizin Gttingen Publikationen und Hochschulschriften 2010  

E-print Network

resonance imaging characteristics of the medial patellofemoral ligament lesion in acute lateral patellar invasive dorsal approach to the medial femoral condyle as a donor site for osteochondral transfer of human parathyroid hormone hPTH (1-34) applied at different regimes on fracture healing and muscle

Gollisch, Tim

201

Outcomes in orthopedics and traumatology: translating research into practice  

PubMed Central

Clinical research is focused in generating evidence that is feasible to be applicable to practitioners. However, translating research-focused evidence into practice may be challenging and often misleading. This article aims is to pinpoint these challenges and suggest some methodological safeguards, taking platelet-rich plasma therapies and knee osteochondral injuries as examples. Studies and systematic reviews involving the following concepts will be investigated: clinically relevant outcomes, systematic errors on sample calculation, internal and external validity. Relevant studies on platelet-rich plasma for muscle-tendon lesions and updates on osteochondral lesions treatment were included in this analysis. Authors and clinicians should consider these concepts for the implementation and application of dissemination of the best evidence. Research results should be challenged by a weighted analysis of its methodological soundness and applicability. Level of Evidence V, Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:25538481

de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Ferrari, Paula Martins de Oliveira; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

2014-01-01

202

Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

2013-01-01

203

Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings in South Africa.  

PubMed

This study involves the evaluation of pre-purchase radiographic studies of South African Thoroughbred yearlings. Radiographic changes were recorded and compared with similar international studies. The study differs from other studies in that a lower prevalence of pedal osteitis (1.26%), dorsal osteochondral fragmentation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (1.60%), distal metacarpal sagittal ridge changes (15.7%), ulnar carpal bone lucencies (8.33%), carpal osteophytes (1.19%), distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joint radiographic changes (9.92%), tarsal osteochondrosis lesions (4.40%) and stifle osteochondrosis lesions (0.4%) was found. The prevalence of dorsal osteochondral fragments in the metacarpophalangeal joint was similar to other studies (1.60%). A higher prevalence of vascular channels as well as irregular borders and lucencies was evident in the proximal sesamoid bones. There was a higher prevalence of palmar metacarpophalangeal and plantar metatarsophalangeal osteochondral fragments (2% and 7.10% respectively). Palmar metacarpal disease, metacarpal supracondylar lysis, proximal sesamoid bone fractures and carpal osteochondral fragmentation were absent in the current study. Additional findings recorded in the current study were proximal interphalangeal joint hyperextension (left front 15.13%, right front 18.91%), the solar angle (right front 2.38 degrees, left front 2.79 degrees), the prevalence of carpal bone 1 (30.95%) and carpal bone 5 (1.59%). Management, nutrition and genetics in the various groups of Thoroughbred yearlings should be further investigated in order to explain the reasons for the differences recorded in the current study. PMID:22616432

Furniss, C; Carstens, A; van den Berg, S S

2011-12-01

204

[Treatment of flake fracture of the talus].  

PubMed

This is a report on 18 osteochondral lesions of the talar dome after sprained ankles and ruptured lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle. They were classified according to Berndt & Harty. The treatment of choice in recent flake fractures is the reduction and glueing with fibrine. Very good results were obtained according to Weber. The recommended treatment of ancient flake fractures frequently occurring to elder patients is the removal of the fragment and the drilling of the subchondral bone. PMID:2472036

Ittner, G; Jaskulka, R; Fasol, P

1989-01-01

205

Donor’s site evaluation after restoration with autografts or synthetic plugs in rabbits  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate donor site’s area histological and immunohistochemical knee cartilage appearances after resurfacing iatrogenic defects with biosynthetic plugs orautografts. METHODS: Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. A full-thickness cylindrical defect of 4.5 mm (diameter) × 7 mm (depth) was created with a hand drill in the femoral groove of every animal. In Group A (n = 10) the defect of the donor site was repaired with a biosynthetic osteochondral plug, in Group B (n = 10) with an osteochondral autograft, while in Group C (control group of 10) rabbits were left untreated. RESULTS: Twenty-four weeks postoperatively, smooth articular cartilage was found macroscopically in some trocleas’ surfaces; in all others, an articular surface with discontinuities was observed. Twenty-eight out of 30 animals were found with predominantly viable chondrocytes leaving the remaining two -which were found only in the control group- with partially viable chondrocytes. However, histology revealed many statistical differences between the groups as far as the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) categories are concerned. Immunofluoresence also revealed the presence of collagen II in all specimens of Group B, whereas in Group A collagen II was found in less specimens. In Group C collagen IIwas not found. CONCLUSION: The matrix, cell distribution, subchondral bone and cartilage mineralization ICRS categories showed statistically differences between the three groups. Group A was second, while group B received the best scores; the control group got the worst ICRS scores in these categories. So, the donor site area, when repairing osteochondral lesions with autografting systems, is better amended with osteochondral autograft rather than bone graft substitute implant. PMID:25232531

Intzoglou, Konstantinos S; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Korres, Dimitrios S; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Koulalis, Dimitrios; Babis, George C

2014-01-01

206

One-step bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in talarosteochondral lesions: mid-term results  

PubMed Central

Purpose to verify the capability of scaffold-supported bone marrow-derived cells to be used in the repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Methods using a device to concentrate bone marrow-derived cells, a scaffold (collagen powder or hyaluronic acid membrane) for cell support and platelet gel, a one-step arthroscopic technique was developed for cartilage repair. In a prospective clinical study, we investigated the ability of this technique to repair talar osteochondral lesions in 64 patients. The mean follow-up was 53 months. Clinical results were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale score. We also considered the influence of scaffold type, lesion area, previous surgery, and lesion depth. Results the mean preoperative AOFAS scale score was 65.2 ± 13.9. The clinical results peaked at 24 months, before declining gradually to settle at a score of around 80 at the maximum follow-up of 72 months. Conclusions the use of bone marrow-derived cells supported by scaffolds to repair osteochondral lesions of the talus resulted in significant clinical improvement, which was maintained over time. Level of Evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606518

BUDA, ROBERTO; VANNINI, FRANCESCA; CAVALLO, MARCO; BALDASSARRI, MATTEO; NATALI, SIMONE; CASTAGNINI, FRANCESCO; GIANNINI, SANDRO

2013-01-01

207

Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers.  

PubMed

Bioprinting allows the fabrication of living constructs with custom-made architectures by spatially controlled deposition of multiple bioinks. This is important for the generation of tissue, such as osteochondral tissue, which displays a zonal composition in the cartilage domain supported by the underlying subchondral bone. Challenges in fabricating functional grafts of clinically relevant size include the incorporation of cues to guide specific cell differentiation and the generation of sufficient cells, which is hard to obtain with conventional cell culture techniques. A novel strategy to address these demands is to combine bioprinting with microcarrier technology. This technology allows for the extensive expansion of cells, while they form multi-cellular aggregates, and their phenotype can be controlled. In this work, living constructs were fabricated via bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-laden polylactic acid microcarriers, obtained via static culture or spinner flask expansion, were encapsulated in gelatin methacrylamide-gellan gum bioinks, and the printability of the composite material was studied. This bioprinting approach allowed for the fabrication of constructs with high cell concentration and viability. Microcarrier encapsulation improved the compressive modulus of the hydrogel constructs, facilitated cell adhesion, and supported osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix deposition by MSCs. Bilayered osteochondral models were fabricated using microcarrier-laden bioink for the bone compartment. These findings underscore the potential of this new microcarrier-based biofabrication approach for bone and osteochondral constructs. PMID:25048797

Levato, Riccardo; Visser, Jetze; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Malda, Jos; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

2014-09-01

208

Trends in biological joint resurfacing  

PubMed Central

The treatment of osteochondral lesions and osteoarthritis remains an ongoing clinical challenge in orthopaedics. This review examines the current research in the fields of cartilage regeneration, osteochondral defect treatment, and biological joint resurfacing, and reports on the results of clinical and pre-clinical studies. We also report on novel treatment strategies and discuss their potential promise or pitfalls. Current focus involves the use of a scaffold providing mechanical support with the addition of chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or the use of cell homing to differentiate the organism’s own endogenous cell sources into cartilage. This method is usually performed with scaffolds that have been coated with a chemotactic agent or with structures that support the sustained release of growth factors or other chondroinductive agents. We also discuss unique methods and designs for cell homing and scaffold production, and improvements in biological joint resurfacing. There have been a number of exciting new studies and techniques developed that aim to repair or restore osteochondral lesions and to treat larger defects or the entire articular surface. The concept of a biological total joint replacement appears to have much potential. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:193–9. PMID:24043640

Myers, K. R.; Sgaglione, N. A.; Grande, D. A.

2013-01-01

209

Arthroscopic findings associated with the unstable ankle.  

PubMed

Before lateral ankle stabilization, arthroscopic surgery was performed on 54 patients (55 ankles) with chronic ankle instability. All patient charts, x-rays, operative reports, and surgical videotapes were reviewed. A detailed questionnaire was answered by all patients. The study population included 31 males and 23 females, with a mean age of 31 years (range, 14-64 years). The right ankle was involved in 64% of cases. Average follow-up was 9.6 months. Arthroscopic surgery was performed using small joint instrumentation including 30 degrees and 70 degrees 2.7-mm arthroscopes and a 30 degrees 1.9-mm arthroscope. At surgery, 51 ankles (93%) had intra-articular abnormalities including loose bodies (12), synovitis (38), osteochondral lesions of the talus (9), ossicles (14), osteophytes (6), adhesions (8), and chondromalacia (12). The most common arthroscopic procedures were synovectomy, removal of loose bodies and ossicles, excision and drilling of osteochondral lesions, debridement of the lateral gutter, excision of osteophytes, and removal of adhesions and scar tissue. There was a 25% incidence of chondral injuries, which differs considerably from the results of Taga et al., who found chondral injuries in 95% of ankles with lateral instability. Overall, there were excellent or good results in 96% of ankles. The incidence of excellent results was lower in the worker's compensation patients because of a greater incidence of complaints of pain with activity. There was no correlation between the presence of osteochondral lesions or amount of talar tilt and results. PMID:10582846

Komenda, G A; Ferkel, R D

1999-11-01

210

Glenohumeral joint preservation: current options for managing articular cartilage lesions in young, active patients.  

PubMed

This is a review of joint-preservation techniques for the shoulder. Whereas the management of diffuse articular cartilage loss in the glenohumeral joints of elderly and less active patients by total shoulder arthroplasty is well accepted, significant controversy persists in selecting and refining successful operative techniques to repair symptomatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions in the shoulders of young, active patients. The principal causes of focal and diffuse articular cartilage damage in the glenohumeral joint, including previous surgery, trauma, acute or recurrent dislocation, osteonecrosis, infection, chondrolysis, osteochondritis dissecans, inflammatory arthritides, rotator cuff arthropathy, and osteoarthritis, are discussed. Focal cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint are often difficult to diagnose and require a refined and focused physical examination as well as carefully selected imaging studies. This review offers a concise guide to surgical decision making and up-to-date summaries of the current techniques available to treat both focal chondral defects and more massive structural osteochondral defects. These techniques include microfracture, osteoarticular transplantation (OATS [Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System]; Arthrex, Naples, FL), autologous chondrocyte implantation, bulk allograft reconstruction, and biologic resurfacing. As new approaches to glenohumeral cartilage repair and shoulder joint preservation evolve, there continues to be a heightened need for collaborative research and well-designed outcomes analysis to facilitate successful patient care. PMID:20434669

Elser, Florian; Braun, Sepp; Dewing, Christopher B; Millett, Peter J

2010-05-01

211

Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for assessment of hemophilic arthropathy: MRI correlation.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability of interpretation of ultrasound findings according to data blinding in maturing hemophilic joints and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound compared with MRI for assessing joint components. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Ankles (n = 34) or knees (n = 25) of boys with hemophilia or von Willebrand disease (median age, 13 years; range, 5-17 years) were imaged by ultrasound, MRI, and radiography in two centers (Toronto, Canada, and Vellore, India). Ultrasound scans were performed by two operators (one blinded and one unblinded to MRI data) and were reviewed by four reviewers who were unblinded to corresponding MRI findings according to a proposed 0- to 14-item scale that matches 14 of 17 items of the corresponding MRI scale. MRI examinations were independently reviewed by two readers. RESULTS. When data were acquired by radiologists, ultrasound was highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue changes (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.98 for ankles and 0.97 for knees) and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes (ICC, 0.61 for ankles and 0.89 for knees). Ultrasound was highly sensitive (> 92%) for assessing synovial hypertrophy and hemosiderin in both ankles and knees but had borderline sensitivity for detecting small amounts of fluid in ankles (70%) in contrast to knees (93%) and variable sensitivity for evaluating osteochondral abnormalities (sensitivity range, 86-100% for ankles and 12-100% for knees). CONCLUSION. If it is performed by experienced radiologists using a standardized protocol, ultrasound is highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue abnormalities of ankles and knees and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes in these joints. PMID:25714320

Doria, Andrea S; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Mohanta, Arun; Jarrin, Jose; Blanchette, Victor; Srivastava, Alok; Moineddin, Rahim; Kavitha, M L; Hilliard, Pamela; Poonnoose, Pradeep; Gibikote, Sridhar

2015-03-01

212

Incorporation of bioactive polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine within bilayered collagen scaffolds enhances the differentiation and subchondral osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (Povidone-iodine, PVP-I) is widely used as an antiseptic agent for lavation during joint surgery; however, the biological effects of PVP-I on cells from joint tissue are unknown. This study examined the biocompatibility and biological effects of PVP-I on cells from joint tissue, with the aim of optimizing cell-scaffold based joint repair. Cells from joint tissue, including cartilage derived progenitor cells (CPC), subchondral bone derived osteoblast and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) were isolated. The concentration-dependent effects of PVP-I on cell proliferation, migration and differentiation were evaluated. Additionally, the efficacy and mechanism of a PVP-I loaded bilayer collagen scaffold for osteochondral defect repair was investigated in a rabbit model. A micromolar concentration of PVP-I was found not to affect cell proliferation, CPC migration or extracellular matrix production. Interestingly, micromolar concentrations of PVP-I promote osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSC, as evidenced by up-regulation of RUNX2 and Osteocalcin gene expression, as well as increased mineralization on the three-dimensional scaffold. PVP-I treatment of collagen scaffolds significantly increased fibronectin binding onto the scaffold surface and collagen type I protein synthesis of cultured BM-MSC. Implantation of PVP-I treated collagen scaffolds into rabbit osteochondral defect significantly enhanced subchondral bone regeneration at 6 weeks post-surgery compared with the scaffold alone (subchondral bone histological score of 8.80±1.64 vs. 3.8±2.19, p<0.05). The biocompatibility and pro-osteogenic activity of PVP-I on the cells from joint tissue and the enhanced subchondral bone formation in PVP-I treated scaffolds would thus indicate the potential of PVP-I for osteochondral defect repair. PMID:23707501

Jiang, Yangzi; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Shufang; Tong, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wanlu; Xu, Guowei; Tuan, Rocky S; Heng, Boon Chin; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin; Ouyang, Hong Wei

2013-09-01

213

Ankle and Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A 63-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of left ankle pain. She recalled a traumatic ankle sprain 6 months before.\\u000a Plain-film radiographs and MRI were obtained.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The name “osteochondral lesion” mainly describes a posttraumatic lesion involving an area of hyaline cartilage at an articular\\u000a surface and its underlying subchondral bone. This process can precipitate to loss of continuity at

Xavier Tomas; Ana Isabel Garcia

214

Science to practice: can stem cells be labeled inside the body instead of outside?  

PubMed

Instead of conventional labeling ex vivo in cell culture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were labeled in vivo with intravenous injection of ferumoxytol (Feraheme; AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, Mass), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved intravenous iron supplement. After their isolation and processing from bone marrow, the same MSCs were injected in rats with an osteochondral defect, allowing MR monitoring of their engraftment for at least 4 weeks. This straightforward labeling approach, avoiding several regulatory issues, may accelerate clinical translation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for stem cell tracking. PMID:24062557

Bulte, Jeff W M

2013-10-01

215

Elbow injuries in the young athlete--an orthopedic perspective.  

PubMed

Elbow injuries in young athletes are increasing with these athletes specializing in a single sport at an early age and participating in their chosen sport at a high level year-round. The majority of these injuries occur from valgus loading of the elbow, either repetitively causing an overuse injury or more acutely resulting in a fracture or dislocation. Capitellar osteochondritis dissecans, medial epicondyle injuries and ulnar collateral ligament injuries are three of the most common elbow injuries occurring in young athletes. PMID:23478928

Zellner, Benjamin; May, Megan M

2013-03-01

216

[Stimulation electromyography in evaluation of radicular disorders in lumbar osteochondrosis].  

PubMed

Using stimulation electromyography the state of the afferent and efferent parts of the reflectory arch was estimated at the lumbosacral level in 93 patients with lingering exacerbations of the syndromes of lumbar osteochondritis. In cases of radicular disturbances a lowering (statistically significant) of the speed of the stimulus transmission along the proximal parts of the motor fibres in the affected radicles was noted. A deterioration of the H-reflex of the musculus soleus pointed to the involvement of the first sacral radicle. PMID:6267851

Rozmarin, V Sh

1981-01-01

217

Arthroscopic surgery in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

PubMed

An 8-mo-old captive male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) developed an acute lameness (grade IV/V) of the right forelimb, with swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joint. A traumatic injury was suspected based on clinical, radiographic, and arthroscopic evaluation. Several abnormalities were identified arthroscopically, including synovitis, cartilage damage, and an osteochondral fragment. Medial collateral ligament damage was also suspected based on radiographic evaluation. Arthroscopy provided a means of diagnosis and treatment of the abnormalities identified. The lameness in this giraffe resolved within 6 wk following arthroscopic surgery. PMID:10572867

Radcliffe, R M; Turner, T A; Radcliffe, C H; Radcliffe, R W

1999-09-01

218

Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI)\\u000a with clinical and arthroscopic correlation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients  Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n?=?8) or a control condition (n?=?9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination\\u000a included the

C. L. McCarthy; D. J. Wilson; T. P. Coltman

2008-01-01

219

The chondrogenic potential of carbon fiber and carbon fiber periosteum implants: an ultrastructural study in the rabbit.  

PubMed

The articular tissue generated on carbon fiber rods in rabbit knee joints after 75 days of intermittent active motion was compared with tissue generated on carbon fiber rods whose articular surfaces were covered with a free reversed periosteal graft. Both methods were effective in generating articular tissue; however, tissue with ultrastructural characteristics similar to those of hyaline cartilage was noted more frequently on the composite implants. If such composite implants were clinically effective then they might be useful in treating symptomatic osteochondral defects. PMID:11550710

Curtin, W; Reville, W; Heapes, M; Lyons, J; Muckle, D

1994-12-01

220

[Acquired pathology of the hip in children].  

PubMed

Hip pathology is a frequent motive for consultation in the field of paediatrics. The clinical examination and the radio-imagery both play a central role in the diagnostic process. If acute benign synovitis is the principal cause in the child, it remains a diagnosis of exclusion and must not in any case lead to a missed diagnosis of septic arthritis. Other diagnoses should be evoked according to the age of the child: epiphysiolysis, true surgical emergency, primary osteochondritis of the hip, early inflammatory polyarthritidies. PMID:12001414

Guyot-Drouot, Marie-Hélène; Giard, Hervé; Barbier, Catherine; Mazingue, Françoise

2002-03-15

221

MR imaging of the elbow in the injured athlete.  

PubMed

This article summarizes key MR imaging findings in common athletic elbow injuries including little leaguer's elbow, Panner disease, osteochondritis dissecans, olecranon stress fracture, occult fracture, degenerative osteophyte formation, flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear, lateral ulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral ligament tear, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, biceps tear, bicipitoradial bursitis, triceps tear, olecranon bursitis, ulnar neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and radial tunnel syndrome. The article also summarizes important technical considerations in elbow MR imaging that enhance image quality and contribute to the radiologist's success. PMID:23472586

Wenzke, Daniel R

2013-03-01

222

Magnetic resonance imaging of sports injuries of the elbow.  

PubMed

Many abnormalities seen in the elbow result from trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon, where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. Lateral compression causes osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft-tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae. PMID:12606870

Thornton, Raymond; Riley, Geoffrey M; Steinbach, Lynne S

2003-02-01

223

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information regarding the elbow joint. Many abnormalities seen in the elbow are a result of trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. The lateral compression causes osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on MRI include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae. PMID:9430831

Steinbach, L S; Fritz, R C; Tirman, P F; Uffman, M

1997-11-01

224

Osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus.  

PubMed

We report a case of a painful accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus in an 11-year-old girl who was not involved in sports activities. The patient was treated conservatively, with complete clinical and radiographic healing of the medial malleolus 6 months after the first presentation. We ruled out the uncommon pathological conditions causing chronic pain in the medial malleolus during skeletal growth, such as traction apophysitis of the medial malleolus, osteochondrosis, osteochondritis or avascular necrosis of the distal tibial epiphysis. We speculate that this painful condition may be classified as an osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus. PMID:25438106

Farsetti, Pasquale; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto

2015-01-01

225

Fresh and frozen articular cartilage allografts.  

PubMed

Fresh and frozen cartilage allografts both function well to relieve joint pain due to cartilage injury. Fresh cartilage allografts appear to remain alive for many months and are most applicable to small injuries such as osteochondritis dissecans, traumatic defects, and osteonecrosis. Frozen cartilage allografts have been used mostly for treatment of bone tumors which most often involve the subchondral and the metaphyseal areas of the long bones, particularly around the knee and hip. Frozen cartilage allografts appear to survive well and maintain joint space for several years. Deterioration of either type of graft does not appear to result in joint pain, making these grafts useful for long periods of time. PMID:1409128

Tomford, W W; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

1992-10-01

226

Subchondral bone and cartilage disease: a rediscovered functional unit.  

PubMed

The role of subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of cartilage damage has likely been underestimated. Subchondral bone is not only an important shock absorber, but it may also be important for cartilage metabolism. Contrary to many drawings and published reports, the subchondral region is highly vascularized and vulnerable. Its terminal vessels have, in part, direct contact with the deepest hyaline cartilage layer. The perfusion of these vessels accounts for more than 50% of the glucose, oxygen, and water requirements of cartilage. Bony structure, local metabolism, hemodynamics, and vascularization of the subchondral region differ within a single joint and from one joint to another. Owing to these differences, repetitive, chronic overloading or perfusion abnormalities may result in no pathological reaction at all in one joint, while in another joint, these same conditions may lead to osteonecrosis, osteochondritis dissecans, or degenerative changes. According to this common etiological root, similar pathological reactions beginning with marrow edema and necrosis and followed by bone and cartilage fractures, joint deformity, and insufficient healing processes are found in osteonecrosis, osteochondritis dissecans, and degenerative disease as well. PMID:11041152

Imhof, H; Sulzbacher, I; Grampp, S; Czerny, C; Youssefzadeh, S; Kainberger, F

2000-10-01

227

Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of an articular cartilage extracellular matrix-hydroxyapatite bilayered scaffold with low permeability for interface tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Background Osteochondral interface regeneration is challenging for functional and integrated cartilage repair. Various layered scaffolds have been used to reconstruct the complex interface, yet the influence of the permeability of the layered structure on cartilage defect healing remains largely unknown. Methods We designed and fabricated a novel bilayered scaffold using articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ACECM) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), involving a porous, oriented upper layer and a dense, mineralised lower layer. By optimising the HAp/ACECM ratio, differing pore sizes and porosities were obtained simultaneously in the two layers. To evaluate the effects of permeability on cell behaviour, rabbit chondrocytes were seeded. Results Morphological observations demonstrated that a gradual interfacial region was formed with pore sizes varying from 128.2?±?20.3 to 21.2?±?3.1 ?m. The permeability of the bilayered scaffold decreased with increasing compressive strain and HAp content. Mechanical tests indicated that the interface was stable to bearing compressive and shear loads. Accordingly, the optimum HAp/ACECM ratio (7 w/v%) in the layer to mimic native calcified cartilage was found. Chondrocytes could not penetrate the interface and resided only in the upper layer, where they showed high cellularity and abundant matrix deposition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a bilayered scaffold with low permeability, rather than complete isolation, represents a promising candidate for osteochondral interface tissue engineering. PMID:24950704

2014-01-01

228

Novel nano-composite biomimetic biomaterial allows chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate derived cells.  

PubMed

In clinical orthopedics suitable materials that induce and restore biological functions together with the right mechanical properties are particularly needed for the regeneration of osteochondral lesions. For this purpose, the ideal scaffold should possess the right properties with respect to degradation, cell binding, cellular uptake, non-immunogenicity, mechanical strength, and flexibility. In addition, it should be easy to handle and serve as a template for chondrocyte and bone cells guiding both cartilage and bone formation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the chondrogenic and osteogenic capability of bone marrow concentrated derived cells seeded onto a novel nano-composite biomimetic material. These properties have been evaluated by means of histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses. The data obtained demonstrated that freshly harvested cells obtained from bone marrow were able, once seeded onto the biomaterial, to differentiate either down the chondrogenic and osteogenic pathways as evaluated by the expression and production of specific matrix molecules. These findings support the use, for the repair of osteochondral lesions, of this new nano-composite biomimetic material together with bone marrow derived cells in a "one step" transplantation procedure. PMID:25804305

Grigolo, Brunella; Cavallo, Carola; Desando, Giovanna; Manferdini, Cristina; Lisignoli, Gina; Ferrari, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Facchini, Andrea

2015-04-01

229

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells become antiangiogenic when chondrogenically or osteogenically differentiated: implications for bone and cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Osteochondral tissue repair requires formation of vascularized bone and avascular cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but it is not known if these proangiogenic properties change as a result of chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the angiogenic/antiangiogenic properties of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBMSCs) before and after differentiation in vitro. Conditioned media from chondrogenic and osteogenic cell pellets and undifferentiated cells was applied to endothelial tube formation assays using Matrigel™. Additionally, the cell secretome was analysed using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and screened for angiogenesis and neurogenesis-related factors using protein arrays. Endothelial tube-like formation was supported by conditioned media from undifferentiated eBMSCs. Conversely, chondrogenic and osteogenic conditioned media was antiangiogenic as shown by significantly decreased length of endothelial tube-like structures and degree of branching compared to controls. Undifferentiated cells produced higher levels of angiogenesis-related proteins compared to chondrogenic and osteogenic pellets. In summary, eBMSCs produce an array of angiogenesis-related proteins and support angiogenesis in vitro via a paracrine mechanism. However, when these cells are differentiated chondrogenically or osteogenically, they produce a soluble factor(s) that inhibits angiogenesis. With respect to osteochondral tissue engineering, this may be beneficial for avascular articular cartilage formation but unfavourable for bone formation where a vascularized tissue is desired. PMID:23895198

Bara, Jennifer J; McCarthy, Helen E; Humphrey, Emma; Johnson, William E B; Roberts, Sally

2014-01-01

230

Delayed presentation of a loose body in undisplaced paediatric talar neck fracture.  

PubMed

Fractures of the talus are rare in children. A high index of suspicion is needed to avoid missing such an injury, which is not an uncommon occurrence especially with undisplaced fractures. We present an unusual case of an undisplaced talar neck fracture in a five-year-old child leading to a delayed presentation of a symptomatic osteochondral loose body in the ankle joint. To our knowledge there are no reports in the literature of osteochondral loose bodies occurring in conjunction with an associated undisplaced talar neck fracture in either children or adults. The loose body was removed using anterior ankle arthroscopy. The child had an uneventful post operative recovery and regained full range of movement and function of his ankle joint and was discharged at one year follow-up. We aim to highlight the need to have a low threshold to further evaluate symptomatic children after fracture healing of an undisplaced talar neck fracture for a possible associated loose body in the ankle joint. PMID:25035846

Patel, Vishal; Bloch, Benjamin; Johnson, Nicholas; Mangwani, Jitendra

2014-07-18

231

Delayed presentation of a loose body in undisplaced paediatric talar neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the talus are rare in children. A high index of suspicion is needed to avoid missing such an injury, which is not an uncommon occurrence especially with undisplaced fractures. We present an unusual case of an undisplaced talar neck fracture in a five-year-old child leading to a delayed presentation of a symptomatic osteochondral loose body in the ankle joint. To our knowledge there are no reports in the literature of osteochondral loose bodies occurring in conjunction with an associated undisplaced talar neck fracture in either children or adults. The loose body was removed using anterior ankle arthroscopy. The child had an uneventful post operative recovery and regained full range of movement and function of his ankle joint and was discharged at one year follow-up. We aim to highlight the need to have a low threshold to further evaluate symptomatic children after fracture healing of an undisplaced talar neck fracture for a possible associated loose body in the ankle joint. PMID:25035846

Patel, Vishal; Bloch, Benjamin; Johnson, Nicholas; Mangwani, Jitendra

2014-01-01

232

Cartilage repair by local delivery of TGF-?1 or BMP-2 from a novel, segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic bilayered scaffold.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the in vitro and in vivo release kinetics and evaluate the grades of repair induced by either the release of 50 ng of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) or 2.5 or 5 µg of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from a bilayer scaffold of segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic (SPU/PLGA) in osteochondral defects, in a rabbit model. The scaffold consisted of a porous, bone-directed PLGA layer, overlaid with a cartilage-directed layer of growth factor (GF) loaded PLGA microspheres, dispersed in a matrix of SPU. The PLGA porous layer was fabricated by gas foaming. Microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion method. SPU was synthesized following the two-step method. GF release kinetics were assessed using iodinated ((125) I) GFs. The in vivo release profiles of both GFs fitted to zero order kinetics, demonstrating a consistently good control of their release rates by SPU. Cartilage-like tissue, characterized by histological analysis, scoring, and immunolabeling of chondrogenic differentiation markers, was only observed after 12 weeks, maintaining integrity up to at least 24 weeks, independently of the GF and the dose of BMP-2. The biocompatibility and the resulting good quality, hyaline repair cartilage convert this system into a promising candidate for future applications in osteochondral lesions. PMID:23630022

Reyes, R; Delgado, A; Solis, R; Sánchez, E; Hernández, A; San Román, J; Evora, C

2013-04-29

233

Cartilage repair by local delivery of transforming growth factor-?1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 from a novel, segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic bilayered scaffold.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the in vitro and in vivo release kinetics and evaluate the grades of repair induced by either the release of 50 ng of transforming growth factor-?1 or 2.5 or 5 ?g of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from a bilayer scaffold of segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic (SPU/PLGA) in osteochondral defects, in a rabbit model. The scaffold consisted of a porous, bone-directed PLGA layer, overlaid with a cartilage-directed layer of growth factor (GF)-loaded PLGA microspheres, dispersed in a matrix of SPU. The PLGA porous layer was fabricated by gas foaming. Microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion method. SPU was synthesized by following the two-step method. GF release kinetics were assessed using iodinated ((125)I) GFs. The in vivo release profiles of both GFs fitted to zero-order kinetics, demonstrating a consistently good control of their release rates by SPU. Cartilage-like tissue, characterized by histological analysis, scoring, and immunolabeling of chondrogenic differentiation markers, was observed only after 12 weeks, maintaining integrity up to at least 24 weeks, independently of the GF and the dose of BMP-2. The biocompatibility and the resulting good quality, hyaline repair cartilage convert this system into a promising candidate for future applications in osteochondral lesions. PMID:23766296

Reyes, Ricardo; Delgado, Araceli; Solis, Raul; Sanchez, Esther; Hernandez, Antonio; San Roman, Julio; Evora, Carmen

2014-04-01

234

Patella Dislocation with Vertical Axis Rotation: The “Dorsal Fin” Patella  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a “dorsal fin” appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the “dorsal fin” appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture.

Gamble, David; Carrothers, Andrew D.; Khanduja, Vikas

2015-01-01

235

PD98059-Impregnated Functional PLGA Scaffold for Direct Tissue Engineering Promotes Chondrogenesis and Prevents Hypertrophy from Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

In cartilage tissue engineering from mesenchymal stem cells, it is important to suppress hypertrophy to produce a neocartilage with stable phenotypes of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). The aim of this study was to develop and test the usefulness of functional chondrogenic scaffolds that serve the purpose of hypertrophy suppression. PD98059-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold is fabricated and compared with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2-immobilized scaffold. The PD98059 is continuously released from the scaffolds over 140 days in contrast to the rapid release in TGF-?2-immobilized scaffold. The in vitro culture results show that the PD98059-impregated scaffold is more effective in suppressing hypertrophy than the TGF-?2-immobilized scaffold while both scaffolds enhance chondrogenesis from human mesenchymal stem cells. After 10 weeks of in vivo implantation in rabbits, the osteochondral defects is successfully repaired in both PD98059-impregnated and TGF-?2-immobilized scaffold seeded with rabbit mesenchymal stem cells when evaluated grossly and microscopically. However, type X collagen is not observed from regenerated cartilage in PD98059-impregnated scaffold, whereas it is detected around chondrocytes in the TGF-?2-impregnated scaffolds. In addition, the PD98059-impregnated scaffold has better reconstitution of the subchondral plate. These results suggest that the use of the PD98059-impregnated scaffold leads to AC regeneration of better quality and prevents hypertrophy when implanted in the osteochondral defects. PMID:24188591

Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Jong Dae; Oh, Eun Jo; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Jin Ho

2014-01-01

236

Near-infrared spectroscopy correlates with established histological scores in a miniature pig model of cartilage regeneration.  

PubMed

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) could be of clinical relevance in modern cartilage regeneration.In a miniature pig model correlation of measurements and histologic scores have never been used before. The data analysis was part of an animal project that investigated the effects of seeding a chondrogenic and osteogenic scaffold with a bone-marrow-derived cell concentrate and reports the histological and mechanical properties. We created 20 osteochondral defects in the femoral condyles of 10 miniature pigs.The defects were left empty (E), filled with the grafted cylinder upside down (U), or with a combined scaffold (S) containing a spongy bone cylinder covered with a collagen membrane. In the fourth group, the same scaffolds were implanted but seeded with a stem cell concentrate (S+BMCC). The animals were euthanized after 3 months, and histologic and spectrometric analyses were performed. NIRS measurements were significantly higher in the central area of the defects of group S+BMCC compared to the central area of the defects of group U. In all groups, a correlation between NIRS and the histologic scores could be demonstrated though on different levels. In the central area, a good NIRS measurement correlates with low (good) histologic scores. In group E and group S, this negative correlation was significant (p=0.01). For the first time, NIRS was successfully used to evaluate osteochondral constructs in a miniature pig model. PMID:24895022

Guenther, Daniel; Liu, Chaoxu; Horstmann, Hauke; Krettek, Christian; Jagodzinski, Michael; Haasper, Carl

2014-01-01

237

Membrane culture of bone marrow stromal cells yields better tissue than pellet culture for engineering cartilage-bone substitute biphasic constructs in a two-step process.  

PubMed

Our long-term goal is to treat osteochondral lesions with bioengineered biphasic constructs. We have previously demonstrated that biphasic constructs, created in vitro with primary chondrocytes harvested from healthy joints and a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) substrate bone substitute, could successfully repair a focal defect in sheep joints. However, primary chondrocytes are limited in supply and cannot be used in engineering constructs large enough for clinical use. Thus, we developed a robust protocol to predifferentiate sheep bone marrow-derived stromal cells to chondrocytes on collagen-coated polytetrafluoroethane membrane inserts, and harvest the chondrocytes that develop and subsequently culturing these predifferentiated cells scaffold-free on the intended articulation surface of the CPP. Chondrocytes predifferentiated on membrane culture accumulated similar matrix as those in conventional pellet culture, but expressed less Col1a1 RNA. Membrane culture predifferentiated cells gave rise to a functionally superior hyaline cartilage tissue compared to pellet culture predifferentiated cells. Studies demonstrated that 2 weeks of membrane predifferentiation culture followed by 8 weeks of biphasic construct culture was the optimal culture period at which the compressive mechanical strength and the accumulation of extracellular matrix were maximized while avoiding tissue mineralization. This protocol will be used to generate implants for preclinical study to determine their ability to repair osteochondral lesions. PMID:21563981

Lee, Whitaik David; Hurtig, Mark B; Kandel, Rita A; Stanford, William L

2011-09-01

238

Evolution of Autologous Chondrocyte Repair and Comparison to Other Cartilage Repair Techniques  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage defects have been addressed using microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, or osteochondral grafting, but these strategies do not generate tissue that adequately recapitulates native cartilage. During the past 25 years, promising new strategies using assorted scaffolds and cell sources to induce chondrocyte expansion have emerged. We reviewed the evolution of autologous chondrocyte implantation and compared it to other cartilage repair techniques. Methods. We searched PubMed from 1949 to 2014 for the keywords “autologous chondrocyte implantation” (ACI) and “cartilage repair” in clinical trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. We analyzed these articles, their bibliographies, our experience, and cartilage regeneration textbooks. Results. Microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, osteochondral grafting, ACI, and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis are distinguishable by cell source (including chondrocytes and stem cells) and associated scaffolds (natural or synthetic, hydrogels or membranes). ACI seems to be as good as, if not better than, microfracture for repairing large chondral defects in a young patient's knee as evaluated by multiple clinical indices and the quality of regenerated tissue. Conclusion. Although there is not enough evidence to determine the best repair technique, ACI is the most established cell-based treatment for full-thickness chondral defects in young patients. PMID:25210707

Dewan, Ashvin K.; Gibson, Matthew A.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.; Trice, Michael E.

2014-01-01

239

[Conservative surgery in Kienbock's disease with perilunate arthrosis: articular resurfacing using resected carpal bones].  

PubMed

We present 2 cases of Kienböck's disease in which peri-lunate chondral lesions contra-indicated classical procedures such as proximal row carpectomy or 4 corner arthrodesis. A partial carpectomy provided us with an osteochondral graft, used to resurface the areas of chondral damage over the capitate or on the radius. The clinical and radiological result was stable at a follow-up of 3 and 6 years. In the first case, degenerative changes over the head of the capitate contra-indicated proximal row carpectomy. The lunate was removed and the proximal 2/3 of the scaphoid were shifted medially and fused in a "four-corner"-like arthrodesis. In the second case, the lunate fossa on the radius was damaged. The proximal row was excised and an osteochondral graft was harvested from the triquetrum. This was used to replace the lunate fossa on the radius. This new concept of a "carpal bank" has enabled us to extend the classical indications for proximal row carpectomy and four-corner arthrodesis. It makes it possible to withdraw the limits of conservative wrist surgery in Kienböck's disease and we believe this concept could also be extended to similar situations of localized chondral damage in small joints. PMID:12889271

Salon, A; Hémon, C

2003-06-01

240

Transient serum exposure regimes to support dual differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can generate both osteoblasts and chondrocytes, represent an ideal resource for orthopaedic repair using tissue-engineering approaches. One major difficulty for the development of osteochondral constructs using undifferentiated MSCs is that serum is typically used in culture protocols to promote differentiation of the osteogenic component, whereas existing chondrogenic differentiation protocols rely on the use of serum-free conditions. In order to define conditions which could be compatible with both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in a single bioreactor, we have analysed the efficiency of new biphasic differentiation regimes based on transient serum exposure followed by serum-free treatment. MSC differentiation was assessed either in serum-free medium or with a range of transient exposure to serum, and compared to continuous serum-containing treatment. Although osteogenic differentation was not supported in the complete absence of serum, marker expression and extensive mineralization analyses established that 5 days of transient exposure triggered a level of differentiation comparable to that observed when serum was present throughout. This initial phase of serum exposure was further shown to support the successful chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, comparable to controls maintained in serum-free conditions throughout. This study indicates that a culture based on temporal serum exposure followed by serum-free treatment is compatible with both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results will allow the development of novel strategies for osteochondral tissue engineering approaches using MSCs for regenerative medicine. PMID:23161724

France, L A; Scotchford, C A; Grant, D M; Rashidi, H; Popov, A A; Sottile, V

2014-08-01

241

The Effects of TGF-?3 and Preculture Period of Osteogenic Cells on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in a Bilayered Hydrogel Composite  

PubMed Central

In this work, injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composites of crosslinked oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) and gelatin microparticles (MPs) were utilized to fabricate a bilayered osteochondral construct. Rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were encapsulated with transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3)-loaded MPs in the chondrogenic layer and cocultured with cells of different periods of osteogenic preculture (0, 3, 6 and 12 days) in the osteogenic layer to investigate the effects of TGF-?3 delivery and coculture on the proliferation and differentiation of cells in both layers. The results showed that, in the chondrogenic layer, TGF-?3 significantly stimulated chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Additionally, cells of various osteogenic preculture periods in the osteogenic layer, along with TGF-?3, enhanced gene expression for MSC chondrogenic markers to different extents. In the osteogenic layer, cells maintained their alkaline phosphatase activity during the coculture; however, mineralization was delayed by the presence of TGF-?3. Overall, this study demonstrated the fabrication of bilayered hydrogel composites that mimic the structure and function of osteochondral tissue, along with the application of these composites as cell and growth factor carriers, while illustrating that encapsulated cells of different degrees of osteogenic differentiation can significantly influence the chondrogenic differentiation of cocultured progenitor cells in both the presence and absence of chondrogenic growth factors. PMID:20197126

Guo, Xuan; Liao, Jiehong; Park, Hansoo; Saraf, Anita; Raphael, Robert M.; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

2010-01-01

242

Hip Arthroscopy for Synovial Chondromatosis: Tips and Tricks  

PubMed Central

Hip arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of synovial chondromatosis. Removal of osteochondral fragments (OCFs) from the central and peripheral compartments is crucial for the relief of mechanical symptoms and subsequent joint destruction. Direct access to the central compartment is often limited because of the ball-and-socket morphology and limitation of traction. We present our surgical technique for removing OCFs and a new method for the removal of a large loose body using a nitinol stone retrieval basket. The technique facilitates removal of difficult-to-access fragments from the central compartment. Moreover, this technique allows removal of far-medial OCFs from the peripheral compartment. PMID:25685679

Rath, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Doron, Ran; Matsuda, Dean K.

2014-01-01

243

Arthroscopic treatment for synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial bursa associated with partial rotator cuff tear.  

PubMed

Synovial chondromatosis is characterized by benign synovial proliferation that leads to chondral or osteochondral foci formation. In this case report, a right-handed female suffered from progressively worsening pain and limited mobility of forward elevation, abduction and external rotation in her right shoulder. A shoulder arthroscopy was conducted, during which, thickened bursal synovium and several loose bodies were observed, associated with bursal side tear of rotator cuff. A thorough synovectomy, subacromial debridement and acromioplasty were conducted. The pathological findings were consistent with synovial chondromatosis. After systematic rehabilitation, the patient had relief of shoulder pain and full range of motions in 14-months follow-up. Level of evidence Case report, Level IV. PMID:25217318

Xu, Caiqi; Yang, Xingguang; Zhao, Jinzhong

2015-02-01

244

[Articular cartilage regeneration using stem cells].  

PubMed

Articular cartilage plays pivotal roles in securing smooth joint kinematics and act as a shock absorber, however, it has minimal healing potential. Chondral injury could lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and therefore is a major clinical concern. There have been marrow stimulating technique and osteochondral transplantation explored to promote cartilage repair. In addition, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been developed by Peterson and Brittberg and more than 20,000 cases underwent the procedure all over the world. Recent progress in stem cell research has raised the potential application of stem cell therapy to cartilage repair. In this review, potential application of bone marrow or synovial-derived mesenchymal cells to promote cartilage repair would be discussed. PMID:19043188

Kanamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Nakata, Ken; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2008-12-01

245

New developments in osteoarthritis. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis: pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment options  

PubMed Central

Joint trauma can lead to a spectrum of acute lesions, including osteochondral fractures, ligament or meniscus tears and damage to the articular cartilage. This is often associated with intraarticular bleeding and causes posttraumatic joint inflammation. Although the acute symptoms resolve and some of the lesions can be surgically repaired, joint injury triggers a chronic remodeling process in cartilage and other joint tissues that ultimately manifests as osteoarthritis in a majority of cases. The objective of the present review is to summarize information on pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the acute and chronic consequences of joint trauma and discuss potential pharmacological interventions. The focus of the review is on the early events that follow joint trauma since therapies for posttraumatic joint inflammation are not available and this represents a unique window of opportunity to limit chronic consequences. PMID:20602810

2010-01-01

246

Management of cartilage defects in the shoulder.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint are an especially difficult clinical problem to manage, particularly in the younger, more active patient. Left untreated, these lesions may progress in the long-term, leading to further pain and disability. While shoulder arthroplasty remains a viable option in older patients with glenohumeral arthritis, concerns over component longevity and loosening in younger patients make it less attractive in that age group. Arthroscopic joint debridement with loose body removal, often with capsular release, has been successful in select, more sedentary patients. More recent techniques, including autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), osteochondral grafting (allograft versus autograft), interpositional arthroplasty, and microfracture surgery, have been evaluated for use in the shoulder. These procedures have experienced success in weight bearing joints, including the knee and ankle. Despite the good clinical results in the shoulder with short-term follow-up reported in some small series, the treatment of chondral injuries in the glenohumeral joint remains a challenging problem. PMID:22628177

Depalma, Anthony A; Gruson, Konrad I

2012-09-01

247

[Clues to recognition of kidney disease in archaeologic record: characteristics and occurrence of leontiasis ossium].  

PubMed

The possible osseous effect of kidney dysfunction was evaluated in a modern skeletal population for future use in assessment of archaeologic samples. Frequency and distribution on the bones of cysts, articular surface alterations, subperiosteal resorption, porosity, osteochondritis, digital tuft alteration and periosteal reaction were recorded in 94 individuals with known kidney failure in the Hamann-Todd collection. Independent radiologic analysis was also pursued. The results were compared with a control sample. The pattern of joint surface alteration and periosteal reaction may facilitate recognition of chronic renal disease in the osseous record. Subtle manifestations of leontiasis ossium are present in the form of cranial thickening and increased cranial size and weight, but teeth spacing are rare. Pseudo osteomatous lesions are common. This study perhaps explains the apparent rarity of actual leontiasis ossium. PMID:12105682

Rothschild, C; Rothschild, B; Hershkovitz, I

2002-01-01

248

Feet injuries in rock climbers.  

PubMed

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

2013-01-01

249

Hip Arthroscopy for Synovial Chondromatosis: Tips and Tricks.  

PubMed

Hip arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of synovial chondromatosis. Removal of osteochondral fragments (OCFs) from the central and peripheral compartments is crucial for the relief of mechanical symptoms and subsequent joint destruction. Direct access to the central compartment is often limited because of the ball-and-socket morphology and limitation of traction. We present our surgical technique for removing OCFs and a new method for the removal of a large loose body using a nitinol stone retrieval basket. The technique facilitates removal of difficult-to-access fragments from the central compartment. Moreover, this technique allows removal of far-medial OCFs from the peripheral compartment. PMID:25685679

Rath, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Doron, Ran; Matsuda, Dean K

2014-12-01

250

[Anatomy typological and clinical parallels in case of disturbance of soft tissue formations of shoulder girdle].  

PubMed

The influence of anthropology on topographical anatomical structure peculiarities of soft tissue formations of shoulder girdle has been investigated. The dependence of anatomical structure and topography of muscles, ligaments, tendon sheaths, synovial bursae, rotator cuffs on patient's body constitution type has been examined. The influence of a somatotype on topical damage of soft tissue structures of shoulder girdle has been proved. The so-called "holes" or weak areas, joint capsules, places where ligaments attach to bones and cartilages, where vascular formations also take place have been revealed. It is in these areas that degenerative inflammatory process begins. First of all this process influences hemolymph circulation, then it results in disturbance in production and resorption of synovial fluid and causes destructive processes in ligaments, tendons and osteochondral tissue. Due to research the ability to conduct differential diagnosis has been determined, methods of modality treatment and prevention of periarticular tissue diseases have been optimized. PMID:23257701

Volkov, A V; Shutov, Iu M; Shutova, M Z

2012-01-01

251

Hope versus hype: what can additive manufacturing realistically offer trauma and orthopedic surgery?  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a broad term encompassing 3D printing and several other varieties of material processing, which involve computer-directed layer-by-layer synthesis of materials. As the popularity of AM increases, so to do expectations of the medical therapies this process may offer. Clinical requirements and limitations of current treatment strategies in bone grafting, spinal arthrodesis, osteochondral injury and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection are discussed. The various approaches to AM are described, and the current state of clinical translation of AM across these orthopedic clinical scenarios is assessed. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between what AM may offer orthopedic surgery from the hype of what has been promised by AM. PMID:25159068

Gibbs, David M R; Vaezi, Mohammad; Yang, Shoufeng; Oreffo, Richard O C

2014-01-01

252

In vivo commitment and functional tissue regeneration using human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells  

PubMed Central

Development of clinically relevant regenerative medicine therapies using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires production of a simple and readily expandable cell population that can be directed to form functional 3D tissue in an in vivo environment. We describe an efficient derivation method and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from hESCs (hESCd-MSCs) that have multilineage differentiation potential and are capable of producing fat, cartilage, and bone in vitro. Furthermore, we highlight their in vivo survival and commitment to the chondrogenic lineage in a microenvironment comprising chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors and hydrogels. Normal cartilage architecture was established in rat osteochondral defects after treatment with chondrogenically-committed hESCd-MSCs. In view of the limited available cell sources for tissue engineering applications, these embryonic-derived cells show significant potential in musculoskeletal tissue regeneration applications. PMID:19095799

Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Varghese, Shyni; Lee, H. Janice; Zhang, Zijun; Ye, Zhaohui; Bae, Jongwoo; Cheng, Linzhao; Elisseeff, Jennifer

2008-01-01

253

Elbow injuries in throwing athletes: a current concepts review.  

PubMed

Repetitive overhead throwing imparts high valgus and extension loads to the athlete's elbow, often leading to either acute or chronic injury or progressive structural change. Tensile force is applied to the medial stabilizing structures with compression on the lateral compartment and shear stress posteriorly. Common injuries encountered in the throwing elbow include ulnar collateral ligament tears, ulnar neuritis, flexor-pronator muscle strain or tendinitis, medial epicondyle apophysitis or avulsion, valgus extension overload syndrome with olecranon osteophytes, olecranon stress fractures, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, and loose bodies. Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the elbow complex, along with an understanding of throwing biomechanics, is imperative to properly diagnose and treat the throwing athlete. Recent advantages in arthroscopic surgical techniques and ligament reconstruction in the elbow have improved the prognosis for return to competition for the highly motivated athlete. However, continued overhead throwing often results in subsequent injury and symptom recurrence in the competitive athlete. PMID:12860556

Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Wolf, Robert S; Andrews, James R

2003-01-01

254

The emerging role of elbow arthroscopy in chronic use injuries and fracture care.  

PubMed

Arthroscopy is emerging as an invaluable tool for diagnosing and treating elbow pathology. In addition to the advantages of less scarring, decreased risk of infection, less postoperative pain, and a more thorough visualization of the elbow joint, arthroscopy is particularly well suited to the treatment of athletes trying to minimize rehabilitation and inactivity. Indications for elbow arthroscopy now extend well beyond diagnosis and loose body removal, and include the treatment of impingement, arthritis, contractures, fragment stabilization for osteochondritis dessicans, and treatment of certain fractures. This article reviews the basic principles and techniques of elbow arthroscopy and their application to common sports-related conditions, such as valgus overload syndrome, medial collateral ligament insufficiency, and the various causes of lateral elbow pain. Newer applications of elbow arthroscopy in fracture care are addressed as well. PMID:19643331

Hsu, Jennifer W; Gould, Jason L; Fonseca-Sabune, Habimana; Hausman, Michael H

2009-08-01

255

Subtalar dislocation secondary to a low energy injury.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old young man presented with an ankle injury, after landing on a supinated right foot following jumping while playing football. A plain X-ray revealed a medial subtalar dislocation. Despite obvious ankle deformity, the surrounding skin remained intact. Closed reduction of the subtalar joint was successfully performed under general anaesthesia in theatre. A CT of the ankle, after reduction, demonstrated a non-displaced fracture of the neck of the talus; no osteochondral defect was observed. This was successfully managed conservatively, with immobilisation of the ankle, in a non-weight bearing cast for 6 weeks. This case highlights that subtalar dislocation may follow a low-energy mechanism and that such injuries can be managed without open reduction. PMID:25650063

McKeag, Philip; Lyske, Jonathan; Reaney, Jonathan; Thompson, Neville

2015-01-01

256

2013-2014 sterling bunnell traveling fellowship report.  

PubMed

Since 1982, the American Society for Surgery of the Hand has sponsored a young member each year as its Bunnell Traveling Fellow. The Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship enables young hand surgeons to foster national and international relationships that contribute to their pursuit of higher learning and advance the principles of scholarship by improving treatment of hand and upper extremity disorders. As the Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellow for 2013 to 2014, I studied microvascular osteochondral reconstruction of the upper extremity. The year allowed me to pursue research abroad and participate in novel operations. These experiences have challenged how I approach common osteoarticular problems in hand surgery. Leaders in wrist surgery around the globe helped me reconsider the treatment of osteonecrotic, degenerative, and posttraumatic cartilage loss in radical new ways. PMID:25617958

Higgins, James P

2015-02-01

257

Medial Impingement of the Ankle in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Medial impingement syndrome of the ankle is common in the athletic population. A marginal osteophyte on the leading edge of the medial talar facet and a corresponding “kissing” osteophyte on the tibia, in front of the medial malleolus, may abut and cause pain and limited dorsiflexion. Background: Palpation of the talar osteophyte and standard imaging—especially, the oblique view of the foot—are useful in making the diagnosis. Surgical removal of the osteophyte may be necessary. Conclusions: Ankle impingement is commonly seen in running and jumping sports, especially if the athlete has a subtle cavus foot. It may be associated with ankle instability, osteochondritis dissecans of the talus, and stress fractures of the foot. PMID:23015980

Manoli, Arthur

2010-01-01

258

Toughening and functionalization of bioactive ceramic and glass bone scaffolds by biopolymer coatings and infiltration: a review of the last 5 years.  

PubMed

Inorganic scaffolds with high interconnected porosity based on bioactive glasses and ceramics are prime candidates for applications in bone tissue engineering. These materials however exhibit relatively low fracture strength and high brittleness. A simple and effective approach to improve the toughness is to combine the basic scaffold structure with polymer coatings or through the formation of interpenetrating polymer-bioactive ceramic microstructures. The polymeric phase can additionally serve as a carrier for growth factors and therapeutic drugs, thus adding biological functionalities. The present paper reviews the state-of-the art in the field of polymer coated and infiltrated bioactive inorganic scaffolds. Based on the notable combination of bioactivity, improved mechanical properties and drug or growth factor delivery capability, this scaffold type is a candidate for bone and osteochondral regeneration strategies. Remaining challenges for the improvement of the materials are discussed and opportunities to broaden the application potential of this scaffold type are also highlighted. PMID:25331196

Philippart, Anahí; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Fleck, Claudia; Schubert, Dirk W; Roether, Judith A

2015-01-01

259

Topographic Analysis of the Glenoid and Proximal Medial Tibial Articular Surfaces – A Search for the Ideal Match for Glenoid Resurfacing  

PubMed Central

Background Current knowledge of the appropriate site of osteochondral allograft harvest to match glenoid morphology for the purposes of glenoid resurfacing is lacking. This has led to difficulty with adequately restoring the geometry of the glenoid using current available techniques. The purpose of this study was to quantify the articular surface topography of the glenoid and medial tibial plateau via 3-dimensional (3D) modeling to determine if the medial tibial articular surface provides an anatomic topographic match to the articular surface of the glenoid. Hypothesis We hypothesized that the medial tibial plateau will provide a suitable osteochondral harvest site due to its concavity and anatomic similarity to the glenoid. Study Design Descriptive Laboratory Study Materials and Methods Computed tomography (CT) was performed on four cadaveric proximal tibias and four scapulae, allowing for 16 glenoid-tibial comparative combinations. 3D CT models were created and exported into point cloud models. A local coordinate map of the glenoid and medial tibial plateau articular surfaces was created. Two zones of the medial tibial articular surface (anterior and posterior) were quantified. The glenoid articular surface was defined as a best-fit circle of the glenoid articular surface maintaining a two millimeter bony rim. This surface was virtually placed on a point on the tibial articular surface in 3D space. The tibial surface was segmented and its 3D surface orientation was determined with respect to its surface. 3D orientation of the glenoid surface was reoriented so that the direction of the glenoid surface matched that of the tibial surface. The least distances between the point-clouds on the glenoid and tibial surfaces were calculated. The glenoid surface was rotated 360 degrees in one-degree increments and the mean least distance was determined at each rotating angle. Results When the centroid of the glenoid surface was placed on the medial tibial articular surface, it covered approximately two-thirds of the anterior or posterior tibial surfaces. Overall, the mean least distance difference in articular congruity of all 16 glenoid-medial tibial surface combinations was 0.74 mm (standard deviation; ± 0.13 mm). The mean least distance difference of the anterior and posterior two-thirds of the medial tibial articular surface was 0.72 mm (± 0.13 mm) and 0.76 mm (± 0.16 mm), respectively. There was no significant difference between and the anterior and posterior two-thirds of the tibia with regard to topographic match of the glenoid (p=0.187). Conclusion We describe a novel methodology to quantify the topography of the tibial and glenoid articular surfaces. The findings suggest that the medial tibial articular surface provides an appropriate anatomic match to the glenoid articular surface. Both the anterior and posterior two-thirds of the medial tibial articular surface can serve as potential sites for osteochondral graft harvest. This methodology can be applied to future studies evaluating the ideal sites of graft harvest to treat zonal glenoid bone wear and/or loss. Clinical Relevance This study provides evidence of a near anatomic topographic match between the medial tibial plateau and glenoid articular surfaces, which has direct clinical application for future biologic osteochondral glenoid resurfacing. This concept has not been described in the literature to date. PMID:23857887

Gupta, Anil K.; Forsythe, Bryan; Lee, Andrew S.; Harris, Joshua D.; McCormick, Frank; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Inoue, Nozomu; Cole, Brian J.

2014-01-01

260

The knee: Surface-coil MR imaging at 1. 5 T  

SciTech Connect

Seven normal knees (in five volunteers) and seven injured knees (in seven patients) were examined by high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5 T with a surface coil. Seven medial meniscal tears, three anterior cruciate ligament tears, one posterior cruciate ligament avulsion, an old osteochondral fracture, femoral condylar chondro-malacia, and one case of semimembranous tendon reinsertion were identified. MR images correlated well with recent double-contrast arthrograms or results of surgery. All tears were identified in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Because of its ability to demonstrate small meniscal lesions and ligamentous injuries readily, MR imaging with a surface coil may eventually replace the more invasive arthrography.

Beltran, J.; Noto, A.M.; Mosure, J.C.; Weiss, K.L.; Zuelzer, W.; Christoforidis, A.J.

1986-06-01

261

Allograft Replacement for Absent Native Tissue  

PubMed Central

Context: Structural instability due to poor soft tissue quality often requires augmentation. Allografts are important biological substitutes that are used for the symptomatic patient in the reconstruction of deficient ligaments, tendons, menisci, and osteochondral defects. Interest in the clinical application of allografts has arisen from the demand to obtain stable anatomy with restoration of function and protection against additional injury, particularly for high-demand patients who participate in sports. Traditionally, allografts were employed to reinforce weakened tissue. However, they can also be employed to substitute deficient or functionally absent tissue, particularly in the sports medicine setting. Objective: This article presents a series of 6 cases that utilized allografts to restore functionally deficient anatomic architecture, rather than just simply augmenting the degenerated or damaged native tissue. Detailed discussions are presented of the use of allografts as a successful treatment strategy to replace functionally weakened tissue, often after failed primary repairs. PMID:24427387

Chaudhury, Salma; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J.; Warren, Russell F.; Doyle, Maureen; Rodeo, Scott A.

2013-01-01

262

[Arthroscopy of the metacarpophalangeal joints].  

PubMed

With the advancements in arthroscopic technique, arthroscopy has become feasible in most human joints, even those as small as the finger joints. The metacarpophalangeal joints are very well suited for arthroscopy and arthroscopic therapy. Good results have been reported on arthroscopic synovectomy of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Osteochondral lesions in degenerative arthritis, loose bodies and foreign bodies can well be treated. Arthroscopic arthrolysis for capsular contracture and treatment of post-traumatic lesions have been performed successfully. The arthroscopic assistance in the treatment of intraarticular fractures and the capsular shrinkage for instability have been described. However, metacarpophalangeal joint arthroscopy has not been popularised up to now and its role in clinical practice remains to be established. Existing indications will be discussed with respect to our own experience. PMID:25290276

Borisch, N

2014-10-01

263

Combined Effect of Subchondral Drilling and Hyaluronic Acid with/without Diacerein in Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Lesion in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

2012-01-01

264

Feet injuries in rock climbers  

PubMed Central

While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

2013-01-01

265

Nanofibrous hollow microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped polymers as injectable cell carriers for knee repair  

PubMed Central

Biomaterials play pivotal roles in engineering tissue regeneration and repair. To regenerate irregular shaped defects, injectable cell carriers are desirable. Here, we report the development of self-assembled nanofibrous hollow microspheres from star-shaped biodegradable polymers as an injectable cell carrier for tissue regeneration. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres were shown to efficiently accommodate cells and enhance cartilage regeneration over control microspheres. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres also supported a significantly larger amount and higher quality cartilage regeneration over the chondrocytes alone group in an ectopic implantation model. In a critical-size rabbit osteochondral defect repair model, the nanofibrous hollow microspheres/chondrocytes group achieved substantially better cartilage repair and integration compared to the chondrocytes alone group that simulates the clinically available autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) procedure. These results indicate that the nanofibrous hollow microspheres are an excellent cell carrier for cartilage regeneration and are worthy of further investigation towards the aimed clinical application. PMID:21499313

Liu, Xiaohua; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

2011-01-01

266

Morphological MRI and T2 mapping of cartilage repair tissue after mosaicplasty with tissue-engineered cartilage in a pig model  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mosaicplasty with tissue-engineered cartilage for the treatment of osteochondral defects in a pig model with advanced MR technique. Eight adolescent miniature pigs were used. The right knee underwent mosaicplasty with tissue-engineered cartilage for treatment of focal osteochondral defects, while the left knee was repaired via single mosaicplasty as controls. At 6, 12, 18 and 26 weeks after surgery, repair tissue was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system and T2 mapping. Then, the results of MRI for 26 weeks were compared with findings of macroscopic and histologic studies. The MOCART scores showed that the repaired tissue of the tissue-engineered cartilage group was statistically better than that of controls (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between macroscopic and MOCART scores (P < 0.001). Comparable mean T2 values were found between adjacent cartilage and repair tissue in the experimental group (P > 0.05). For zonal T2 value evaluation, there were no significant zonal T2 differences for repair tissue in controls (P > 0.05). For the experimental group, zonal T2 variation was found in repair tissue (P < 0.05). MRI, macroscopy and histology showed better repair results and bony incorporation in mosaicplasty with the tissue-engineered cartilage group than those of the single mosaicplasty group. Mosaicplasty with the tissue-engineered cartilage is a promising approach to repair osteochodndral defects. Morphological MRI and T2 mapping provide a non-invasive method for monitoring the maturation and integration of cartilage repair tissue in vivo. PMID:25050115

Chen, Qichun; Zuo, Qiang; Hu, Qianqian; Feng, Yang; Cui, Weiding; Fan, Weimin; Zou, Yuefen

2014-01-01

267

Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN) hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide), at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration. PMID:21955995

2011-01-01

268

Iron Administration before Stem Cell Harvest Enables MR Imaging Tracking after Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine whether intravenous ferumoxytol can be used to effectively label mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo and can be used for tracking of stem cell transplants. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Sprague-Dawley rats (6–8 weeks old) were injected with ferumoxytol 48 hours prior to extraction of MSCs from bone marrow. Ferumoxytol uptake by these MSCs was evaluated with fluorescence, confocal, and electron microscopy and compared with results of traditional ex vivo–labeling procedures. The in vivo–labeled cells were subsequently transplanted in osteochondral defects of 14 knees of seven athymic rats and were evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging up to 4 weeks after transplantation. T2 relaxation times of in vivo–labeled MSC transplants and unlabeled control transplants were compared by using t tests. MR data were correlated with histopathologic results. Results: In vivo–labeled MSCs demonstrated significantly higher ferumoxytol uptake compared with ex vivo–labeled cells. With electron microscopy, iron oxide nanoparticles were localized in secondary lysosomes. In vivo–labeled cells demonstrated significant T2 shortening effects in vitro and in vivo when they were compared with unlabeled control cells (T2 in vivo, 15.4 vs 24.4 msec; P < .05) and could be tracked in osteochondral defects for 4 weeks. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of iron in labeled transplants and defect remodeling. Conclusion: Intravenous ferumoxytol can be used to effectively label MSCs in vivo and can be used for tracking of stem cell transplants with MR imaging. This method eliminates risks of contamination and biologic alteration of MSCs associated with ex vivo–labeling procedures. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13130858/-/DC1 PMID:23850832

Khurana, Aman; Chapelin, Fanny; Beck, Graham; Lenkov, Olga D.; Donig, Jessica; Nejadnik, Hossein; Messing, Solomon; Derugin, Nikita; Chan, Ray Chun-Fai; Gaur, Amitabh; Sennino, Barbara; McDonald, Donald M.; Kempen, Paul J.; Tikhomirov, Grigory A.; Rao, Jianghong

2013-01-01

269

Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to repair following injury. Early intervention is required to prevent progression of focal traumatic chondral and osteochondral defects to advanced cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. Novel cell-based tissue engineering techniques have been proposed with the goal of resurfacing defects with bioengineered tissue that recapitulates the properties of hyaline cartilage and integrates into native tissue. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy given the high proliferative capacity of MSCs and their potential to differentiate into cartilage-producing cells - chondrocytes. MSCs are historically harvested through bone marrow aspiration, which does not require invasive surgical intervention or cartilage extraction from other sites as required by other cell-based strategies. Biomaterial matrices are commonly used in conjunction with MSCs to aid cell delivery and support chondrogenic differentiation, functional extracellular matrix formation and three-dimensional tissue development. A number of specific transplantation protocols have successfully resurfaced articular cartilage in animals and humans to date. In the clinical literature, MSC-seeded scaffolds have filled a majority of defects with integrated hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue based on arthroscopic, histologic and imaging assessment. Positive functional outcomes have been reported at 12 to 48 months post-implantation, but future work is required to assess long-term outcomes with respect to other treatment modalities. Despite relatively positive outcomes, further investigation is required to establish a consensus on techniques for treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects with respect to cell source, isolation and expansion, implantation density, in vitro precultivation, and scaffold composition. This will allow for further optimization of MSC proliferation, chondrogenic differentiation, bioengineered cartilage integration, and clinical outcome. PMID:25606595

Bornes, Troy D; Adesida, Adetola B; Jomha, Nadr M

2014-01-01

270

Temporal changes in collagen cross-links in spontaneous articular cartilage repair  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about how the biochemical properties of collagen change during tissue regeneration following cartilage damage. In the current study, temporal changes in cartilage repair tissue biochemistry were assessed in a rabbit osteochondral defect. Design Bilateral full thickness 3mm osteochondral trochlear groove defects were created in 54 adult male skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits and tissue repair monitored over 16 weeks. Collagen content, cross-links, lysyl hydroxylation, gene expression, histological grading, and FTIR analyses were performed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Results Defect fill occurred at ~4 weeks post-injury, however, histological grading showed that the repair tissue never became normal, primarily due to the presence of fibrocartilage. Gene expression levels of Col1a1 and Col1a2 were higher in the defect compared to adjacent regions. Collagen content in the repair tissue reached the level of normal cartilage at 6 weeks, but it took 12 weeks for the extent of lysine hydroxylation to return to normal. Divalent immature cross-links markedly increased in the early stages of repair. Though the levels gradually diminished thereafter, they never returned to the normal levels. The mature cross-link, pyridinoline, gradually increased with time and nearly reached normal levels by week 16. Infrared imaging data of protein content paralleled the biochemical data. However, collagen maturity, a parameter previously shown to reflect collagen cross-link ratios in bone, did not correlate with the biochemical determination of cross-links in the repair tissue.. Conclusion Collagen biochemical data could provide markers for clinical monitoring in a healing defect. PMID:23272271

Masahiko, Terajima; Damle, Sheela; Penmatsa, Madhuri; West, Paul; Yang, Xu; Bostrom, Mathias; Hidaka, Chisa; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Pleshko, Nancy

2012-01-01

271

Bone bruises in anterior cruciate ligament injured knee and long-term outcomes. A review of the evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Bone bruises are frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears as a result of trauma or direct shear stress of the bone. Purpose To review the evidence regarding the characteristics of the bone bruise associated with ACL tears, its relevance on clinical outcomes, and its progression over time. In particular, the long-term effects of the bone bruise on the knee osteochondral architecture and joint function were evaluated. Study design Review; level of evidence: 4. Methods An electronic search was performed on PubMed. Combinations of keywords included: “bone bruise AND knee”; “bone bruise AND anterior cruciate ligament”; “bone bruise AND osteo-chondral defects”. Any level of evidence studies concerning bone bruises in patients with partial or complete ACL tears were retrieved. Results A total of 25 studies were included; three of them investigated biomechanical parameters, seven were concerned with clinical outcomes, and 15 were radiological studies. Evaluation of the bone bruise is best performed using a fat-saturated T2-weighted fast spin echo exam or a short tau inversion recovery sequence where fat saturation is challenging. The location of the injury has been demonstrated to be more frequent in the lateral compartment of the joint (lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau). It is associated with ACL tears in approximately 70% of cases, often with collateral ligament or meniscal tears. Mid- and long-term outcomes demonstrated a complete healing of the marrow lesions at magnetic resonance imaging, but chondral defects detected with T1? sequences are still present 1 year after the ACL injury. Functional examination of the knee, through clinical International Knee Documentation Committee scores, did not show any correlation with the bone bruise. Conclusion Although bone bruise presence yields to higher pain levels, no correlation with functional outcomes was reported. Most studies have a short-term follow-up (<2 years) compared to the length of time it takes to develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis, so it still remains unclear whether the initial joint injury and bone bruise have a direct relationship to long-term function. PMID:25733936

Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biagio; Pedersen, Douglas R; Denaro, Vincenzo; Amendola, Annunziato

2015-01-01

272

Intravenous Ferumoxytol Allows Noninvasive MR Imaging Monitoring of Macrophage Migration into Stem Cell Transplants  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop a clinically applicable imaging technique for monitoring differential migration of macrophages into viable and apoptotic matrix-associated stem cell implants (MASIs) in arthritic knee joints. Materials and Methods: With institutional animal care and use committee approval, six athymic rats were injected with intravenous ferumoxytol (0.5 mmol iron per kilogram of body weight) to preload macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system with iron oxide nanoparticles. Forty-eight hours later, all animals received MASIs of viable adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in an osteochondral defect of the right femur and mitomycin-pretreated apoptotic ADSCs in an osteochondral defect of the left femur. One additional control animal each received intravenous ferumoxytol and bilateral scaffold-only implants (without cells) or bilateral MASIs without prior ferumoxytol injection. All knees were imaged with a 7.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit with T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences immediately after, as well as 2 and 4 weeks after, matrix-associated stem cell implantation. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of viable and apoptotic MASIs were compared by using a linear mixed-effects model. MR imaging data were correlated with histopathologic findings. Results: All ADSC implants showed a slowly decreasing T2 signal over 4 weeks after matrix-associated stem cell implantation. SNRs decreased significantly over time for the apoptotic implants (SNRs on the day of matrix-associated stem cell implantation, 2 weeks after the procedure, and 4 weeks after the procedure were 16.9, 10.9, and 6.7, respectively; P = .0004) but not for the viable implants (SNRs on the day of matrix-associated stem cell implantation, 2 weeks after the procedure, and 4 weeks after the procedure were 17.7, 16.2, and 15.7, respectively; P = .2218). At 4 weeks after matrix-associated stem cell implantation, SNRs of apoptotic ADSCs were significantly lower than those of viable ADSCs (mean, 6.7 vs 15.7; P = .0013). This corresponded to differential migration of iron-loaded macrophages into MASIs. Conclusion: Iron oxide loading of macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system by means of intravenous ferumoxytol injection can be utilized to monitor differential migration of bone marrow macrophages into viable and apoptotic MASIs in a rat model. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112393/-/DC1 PMID:22820731

Khurana, Aman; Nejadnik, Hossein; Gawande, Rakhee; Lee, Sungmin; Messing, Solomon; Castaneda, Rosalinda; Derugin, Nikita; Pisani, Laura; Lue, Tom F.

2012-01-01

273

Development of an Equine Groove Model to Induce Metacarpophalangeal Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study on 6 Horses  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to develop an equine metacarpophalangeal joint model that induces osteoarthritis that is not primarily mediated by instability or inflammation. The study involved six Standardbred horses. Standardized cartilage surface damage or “grooves” were created arthroscopically on the distal dorsal aspect of the lateral and medial metacarpal condyles of a randomly chosen limb. The contralateral limb was sham operated. After 2 weeks of stall rest, horses were trotted 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks, then evaluated for lameness and radiographed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for cytology and biomarkers. At 10 weeks post-surgery, horses were euthanized for macroscopic and histologic joint evaluation. Arthroscopic grooving allowed precise and identical damage to the cartilage of all animals. Under the controlled exercise regime, this osteoarthritis groove model displayed significant radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic degenerative and reactive changes. Histology demonstrated consistent surgically induced grooves limited to non-calcified cartilage and accompanied by secondary adjacent cartilage lesions, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage matrix softening, fissuring, mild subchondral bone inflammation, edema, and osteoblastic margination. Synovial fluid biochemistry and cytology demonstrated significantly elevated total protein without an increase in prostaglandin E2, neutrophils, or chondrocytes. This equine metacarpophalangeal groove model demonstrated that standardized non-calcified cartilage damage accompanied by exercise triggered altered osteochondral morphology and cartilage degeneration with minimal or inefficient repair and little inflammatory response. This model, if validated, would allow for assessment of disease processes and the effects of therapy. PMID:25680102

Maninchedda, Ugo; Lepage, Olivier M.; Gangl, Monika; Hilairet, Sandrine; Remandet, Bernard; Meot, Francoise; Penarier, Geraldine; Segard, Emilie; Cortez, Pierre; Jorgensen, Christian; Steinberg, Régis

2015-01-01

274

Direct human cartilage repair using three-dimensional bioprinting technology.  

PubMed

Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies cannot as yet fabricate new tissue that is indistinguishable from native cartilage with respect to zonal organization, extracellular matrix composition, and mechanical properties. Integration of implants with surrounding native tissues is crucial for long-term stability and enhanced functionality. In this study, we developed a bioprinting system with simultaneous photopolymerization capable for three-dimensional (3D) cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) with human chondrocytes were printed to repair defects in osteochondral plugs (3D biopaper) in layer-by-layer assembly. Compressive modulus of printed PEGDMA was 395.73±80.40?kPa, which was close to the range of the properties of native human articular cartilage. Printed human chondrocytes maintained the initially deposited positions due to simultaneous photopolymerization of surrounded biomaterial scaffold, which is ideal in precise cell distribution for anatomic cartilage engineering. Viability of printed human chondrocytes increased 26% in simultaneous polymerization than polymerized after printing. Printed cartilage implant attached firmly with surrounding tissue and greater proteoglycan deposition was observed at the interface of implant and native cartilage in Safranin-O staining. This is consistent with the enhanced interface failure strength during the culture assessed by push-out testing. Printed cartilage in 3D biopaper had elevated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content comparing to that without biopaper when normalized to DNA. These observations were consistent with gene expression results. This study indicates the importance of direct cartilage repair and promising anatomic cartilage engineering using 3D bioprinting technology. PMID:22394017

Cui, Xiaofeng; Breitenkamp, Kurt; Finn, M G; Lotz, Martin; D'Lima, Darryl D

2012-06-01

275

Regenerating Articular Tissue by Converging Technologies  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering should provide mechanical stability, while offering specific signals for chondral and bone regeneration with a completely interconnected porous network for cell migration, attachment, and proliferation. Composites of polymers and ceramics are often considered to satisfy these requirements. As such methods largely rely on interfacial bonding between the ceramic and polymer phase, they may often compromise the use of the interface as an instrument to direct cell fate. Alternatively, here, we have designed hybrid 3D scaffolds using a novel concept based on biomaterial assembly, thereby omitting the drawbacks of interfacial bonding. Rapid prototyped ceramic particles were integrated into the pores of polymeric 3D fiber-deposited (3DF) matrices and infused with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) to obtain constructs that display the mechanical robustness of ceramics and the flexibility of polymers, mimicking bone tissue properties. Ostechondral scaffolds were then fabricated by directly depositing a 3DF structure optimized for cartilage regeneration adjacent to the bone scaffold. Stem cell seeded scaffolds regenerated both cartilage and bone in vivo. PMID:18716660

Paoluzzi, Luca; Pieper, Jeroen; de Wijn, Joost R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

2008-01-01

276

Mesenchymal stem cells as a potent cell source for articular cartilage regeneration  

PubMed Central

Since articular cartilage possesses only a weak capacity for repair, its regeneration potential is considered one of the most important challenges for orthopedic surgeons. The treatment options, such as marrow stimulation techniques, fail to induce a repair tissue with the same functional and mechanical properties of native hyaline cartilage. Osteochondral transplantation is considered an effective treatment option but is associated with some disadvantages, including donor-site morbidity, tissue supply limitation, unsuitable mechanical properties and thickness of the obtained tissue. Although autologous chondrocyte implantation results in reasonable repair, it requires a two-step surgical procedure. Moreover, chondrocytes expanded in culture gradually undergo dedifferentiation, so lose morphological features and specialized functions. In the search for alternative cells, scientists have found mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to be an appropriate cellular material for articular cartilage repair. These cells were originally isolated from bone marrow samples and further investigations have revealed the presence of the cells in many other tissues. Furthermore, chondrogenic differentiation is an inherent property of MSCs noticed at the time of the cell discovery. MSCs are known to exhibit homing potential to the damaged site at which they differentiate into the tissue cells or secrete a wide spectrum of bioactive factors with regenerative properties. Moreover, these cells possess a considerable immunomodulatory potential that make them the general donor for therapeutic applications. All of these topics will be discussed in this review. PMID:25126383

Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Malakooty Poor, Elham

2014-01-01

277

In vitro assessment of biomaterial-induced remodeling of subchondral and cancellous bone for the early intervention of joint degeneration with focus on the spinal disc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoarthritis-associated pain of the spinal disc, knee, and hip derives from degeneration of cartilagenous tissues in these joints. Traditional therapies have focused on these cartilage (and disc specific nucleus pulposus) changes as a means of treatment through tissue grafting, regenerative synthetic implants, non-regenerative space filling implants, arthroplasty, and arthrodesis. Although such approaches may seem apparent upon initial consideration of joint degeneration, tissue pathology has shown changes in the underlying bone and vascular bed precede the onset of cartilaginous changes. It is hypothesized that these changes precedent joint degeneration and as such may provide a route for early prevention. The current work proposes an injectable biomaterial-based therapy within these subchondral and cancellous bone regions as a means of preventing or reversing osteoarthritis. Two human concentrated platelet releasate-containing alginate hydrogel/beta-tricalcium phosphate composites have been developed for this potential biomaterial application. The undertaking of assessing these materials through bench-, in vitro, and ex vivo work is described herein. These studies showed the capability of the biomaterials to initiate a wound healing response in monocytes, angiogenic and differentiation behavior in immature endothelial cells, and early osteochondral differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. These cellular activities are associated with fracture healing and endochondral bone formation, demonstrating the potential of the biomaterials to induce osseous and vascular tissue remodeling underlying osteoarthritic joints as a novel therapy for a disease with rapidly growing healthcare costs.

McCanless, Jonathan D.

278

Endochondral bone formation in gelatin methacrylamide hydrogel with embedded cartilage-derived matrix particles.  

PubMed

The natural process of endochondral bone formation in the growing skeletal system is increasingly inspiring the field of bone tissue engineering. However, in order to create relevant-size bone grafts, a cell carrier is required that ensures a high diffusion rate and facilitates matrix formation, balanced by its degradation. Therefore, we set out to engineer endochondral bone in gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) hydrogels with embedded multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) particles. CDM particles were found to stimulate the formation of a cartilage template by MSCs in the GelMA hydrogel in vitro. In a subcutaneous rat model, this template was subsequently remodeled into mineralized bone tissue, including bone-marrow cavities. The GelMA was almost fully degraded during this process. There was no significant difference in the degree of calcification in GelMA with or without CDM particles: 42.5 ± 2.5% vs. 39.5 ± 8.3% (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Interestingly, in an osteochondral setting, the presence of chondrocytes in one half of the constructs fully impeded bone formation in the other half by MSCs. This work offers a new avenue for the engineering of relevant-size bone grafts, by the formation of endochondral bone within a degradable hydrogel. PMID:25453948

Visser, Jetze; Gawlitta, Debby; Benders, Kim E M; Toma, Selynda M H; Pouran, Behdad; van Weeren, P René; Dhert, Wouter J A; Malda, Jos

2015-01-01

279

[Classification, significance and sequelae of posttraumatic "occult" bone and cartilage fractures of the knee. The role of magnetic resonance].  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) shows, in the post-traumatic knee, a fairly high number of bone and cartilage injuries missed by conventional radiography and therefore called occult. Our aim is to classify these injuries, to correlate their site and distribution with associated menisco-ligamentous injuries and with trauma mechanisms. Thirty-eight patients with a history of acute knee trauma and negative X-ray findings were examined with MRI within 15 days of trauma. 1.5- and 0.5-T units and SE T1-weighted GE T2*-weighted and SE T2-weighted sequences were used. The injuries were classified as intraosseous and osteochondral bruises or fractures. Twenty-three patients with menisco-ligamentous injuries were submitted to therapeutic arthroscopy; the sites of bone and cartilage injuries depicted with MRI were studied with arthroscopy. Seven patients were followed-up with MRI at 6-12 months to investigate subchondral injury evolution: 5 of 7 patients were also submitted to arthroscopy. MRI showed a statistically significant correlation between site and distribution of bone and cartilage injuries and between internal derangement and trauma mechanisms, i.e., contusion, distortion, stress. In our experience, MRI could identify and characterize occult subchondral injuries, thus allowing appropriate treatment. PMID:8685452

Macarini, L; Zaccheo, N; Garribba, A P; Angelelli, G; Rotondo, A

1995-12-01

280

Morphometric grading of osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography--an ex vivo study.  

PubMed

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) yields microscopic cross-sectional images of cartilage in real time and at high resolution. As yet, comprehensive grading of degenerative cartilage changes based on OCT has rarely been performed. This study investigated the potential of quantitative OCT using algorithm-based image parameters such as irregularity (OII - Optical Irregularity Index), homogeneity (OHI - Optical Homogeneity Index) and attenuation (OAI - Optical Attenuation Index) in the objective grading of cartilage degeneration. Therefore, OCT was used to image and assess 113 human osteochondral samples obtained from total knee replacements. Processing included the analysis of OII (by calculation of the standard deviation with regards to a fitted surface), of OHI (by edge detection of tissue signal changes) and of OAI (by analysis of relative imaging depth). Additionally, samples were subject to macroscopic (Outerbridge grading), biomechanical (elastic stiffness), qualitative OCT and histological evaluation (Modified Mankin grading). Significant correlations were found between all outcome measures. OII and OHI were effective in assessing cartilage surface, integrity and homogeneity, while OAI could discriminate between unmineralized and mineralized cartilage, respectively. Therefore, quantitative OCT holds potential as a diagnostic tool for more reliable, standardized and objective assessment of cartilage tissue properties. PMID:24992396

Nebelung, Sven; Marx, Ulrich; Brill, Nicolai; Arbab, Darius; Quack, Valentin; Jahr, Holger; Tingart, Markus; Zhou, Bei; Stoffel, Marcus; Schmitt, Robert; Rath, Björn

2014-10-01

281

Development of an equine groove model to induce metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis: a pilot study on 6 horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an equine metacarpophalangeal joint model that induces osteoarthritis that is not primarily mediated by instability or inflammation. The study involved six Standardbred horses. Standardized cartilage surface damage or "grooves" were created arthroscopically on the distal dorsal aspect of the lateral and medial metacarpal condyles of a randomly chosen limb. The contralateral limb was sham operated. After 2 weeks of stall rest, horses were trotted 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks, then evaluated for lameness and radiographed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for cytology and biomarkers. At 10 weeks post-surgery, horses were euthanized for macroscopic and histologic joint evaluation. Arthroscopic grooving allowed precise and identical damage to the cartilage of all animals. Under the controlled exercise regime, this osteoarthritis groove model displayed significant radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic degenerative and reactive changes. Histology demonstrated consistent surgically induced grooves limited to non-calcified cartilage and accompanied by secondary adjacent cartilage lesions, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage matrix softening, fissuring, mild subchondral bone inflammation, edema, and osteoblastic margination. Synovial fluid biochemistry and cytology demonstrated significantly elevated total protein without an increase in prostaglandin E2, neutrophils, or chondrocytes. This equine metacarpophalangeal groove model demonstrated that standardized non-calcified cartilage damage accompanied by exercise triggered altered osteochondral morphology and cartilage degeneration with minimal or inefficient repair and little inflammatory response. This model, if validated, would allow for assessment of disease processes and the effects of therapy. PMID:25680102

Maninchedda, Ugo; Lepage, Olivier M; Gangl, Monika; Hilairet, Sandrine; Remandet, Bernard; Meot, Francoise; Penarier, Geraldine; Segard, Emilie; Cortez, Pierre; Jorgensen, Christian; Steinberg, Régis

2015-01-01

282

Periosteum derived stem cells for regenerative medicine proposals: Boosting current knowledge.  

PubMed

Periosteum is a thin fibrous layer that covers most bones. It resides in a dynamic mechanically loaded environment and provides a niche for pluripotent cells and a source for molecular factors that modulate cell behaviour. Elucidating periosteum regenerative potential has become a hot topic in orthopaedics. This review discusses the state of the art of osteochondral tissue engineering rested on periosteum derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and suggests upcoming research directions. Periosteal cells isolation, characterization and migration in the site of injury, as well as their differentiation, are analysed. Moreover, the role of cell mechanosensing and its contribution to matrix organization, bone microarchitecture and bone stenght is examined. In this regard the role of periostin and its upregulation under mechanical stress in order to preserve PDPC survival and bone tissue integrity is contemplated. The review also summarized the role of the periosteum in the field of dentistry and maxillofacial reconstruction. The involvement of microRNAs in osteoblast differentiation and in endogenous tissue repair is explored as well. Finally the novel concept of a guided bone regeneration based on the use of periosteum itself as a smart material and the realization of constructs able to mimic the extracellular matrix features is talked out. Additionally, since periosteum can differentiate into insulin producing cells it could be a suitable source in allogenic transplantations. That innovative applications would take advantage from investigations aimed to assess PDPC immune privilege. PMID:25126377

Ferretti, Concetta; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

2014-07-26

283

Periosteum derived stem cells for regenerative medicine proposals: Boosting current knowledge  

PubMed Central

Periosteum is a thin fibrous layer that covers most bones. It resides in a dynamic mechanically loaded environment and provides a niche for pluripotent cells and a source for molecular factors that modulate cell behaviour. Elucidating periosteum regenerative potential has become a hot topic in orthopaedics. This review discusses the state of the art of osteochondral tissue engineering rested on periosteum derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and suggests upcoming research directions. Periosteal cells isolation, characterization and migration in the site of injury, as well as their differentiation, are analysed. Moreover, the role of cell mechanosensing and its contribution to matrix organization, bone microarchitecture and bone stenght is examined. In this regard the role of periostin and its upregulation under mechanical stress in order to preserve PDPC survival and bone tissue integrity is contemplated. The review also summarized the role of the periosteum in the field of dentistry and maxillofacial reconstruction. The involvement of microRNAs in osteoblast differentiation and in endogenous tissue repair is explored as well. Finally the novel concept of a guided bone regeneration based on the use of periosteum itself as a smart material and the realization of constructs able to mimic the extracellular matrix features is talked out. Additionally, since periosteum can differentiate into insulin producing cells it could be a suitable source in allogenic transplantations. That innovative applications would take advantage from investigations aimed to assess PDPC immune privilege. PMID:25126377

Ferretti, Concetta; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

2014-01-01

284

How reliable is MRI in diagnosing cartilaginous lesions in patients with first and recurrent lateral patellar dislocations?  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral dislocation of the patella (LPD) leads to cartilaginous injuries, which have been reported to be associated with retropatellar complaints and the development of patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of MRI for cartilage diagnostics after a first and recurrent LPD. Methods After an average of 4.7 days following an acute LPD, 40 patients (21 with first LPDs and 19 with recurrent LPDs) underwent standardized 1.5 Tesla MRI (sagittal T1-TSE, coronal STIR-TSE, transversal fat-suppressed PD-TSE, sagittal fat-suppressed PD-TSE). MRI grading was compared to arthroscopic assessment of the cartilage. Results Sensitivities and positive predictive values for grade 3 and 4 lesions were markedly higher in the patient group with first LPDs compared to the group with recurrent LPDs. Similarly, intra- and inter-observer agreement yielded higher kappa values in patients with first LPDs compared to those with recurrent LPDs. All grade 4 lesions affecting the subchondral bone (osteochondral defects), such as a fissuring or erosion, were correctly assessed on MRI. Conclusions This study demonstrated a comparatively good diagnostic performance for MRI in the evaluation of first and recurrent LPDs, and we therefore recommend MRI for the cartilage assessment after a LPD. PMID:20602779

2010-01-01

285

Ligament Injury, Reconstruction and Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The recent literature on the factors that initiate and accelerate the progression of osteoarthritis following ligament injuries and their treatment is reviewed. Recent Findings The ligament-injured joint is at high risk for osteoarthritis. Current conservative (e.g. rehabilitation) and surgical (e.g. reconstruction) treatment options appear not to reduce osteoarthritis following ligament injury. The extent of osteoarthritis does not appear dependent on which joint is affected, or the presence of damage to other tissues within the joint. Mechanical instability is the likely initiator of osteoarthritis in the ligament-injured patient. Summary The mechanism osteoarthritis begins with the injury rendering the joint unstable. The instability increases the sliding between the joint surfaces and reduces the efficiency of the muscles, factors that alter joint contact mechanics. The load distribution in the cartilage and underlying bone is disrupted, causing wear and increasing shear, which eventually leads to the osteochondral degeneration. The catalyst to the mechanical process is the inflammation response induced by the injury and sustained during healing. In contrast, the inflammation could be responsible for onset, while the mechanical factors accelerate progression. The mechanisms leading to osteoarthritis following ligament injury have not been fully established. A better understanding of these mechanisms should lead to alternative surgical, drug, and tissue-engineering treatment options, which could eliminate osteoarthritis in these patients. Progress is being made on all fronts. Considering that osteoarthritis is likely to occur despite current treatment options, the best solution may be prevention. PMID:17710194

Fleming, Braden C.; Hulstyn, Michael J.; Oksendahl, Heidi L.; Fadale, Paul D.

2007-01-01

286

Continuous gradient scaffolds for rapid screening of cell-material interactions and interfacial tissue regeneration  

PubMed Central

In tissue engineering, the physical and chemical properties of the scaffold mediates cell behavior including regeneration. Thus, a strategy that permits rapid screening of cell-scaffold interactions is critical. Herein, we have prepared eight “hybrid” hydrogel scaffolds in the form of continuous gradients such that a single scaffold contains spatially varied properties. These scaffolds are based on combining an inorganic macromer [methacrylated star polydimethylsiloxane, PDMSstar-MA] and organic macromer [poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate, PEG-DA] as well both aqueous and organic fabrication solvents. Having previously demonstrated its bioactivity and osteoinductivity, PDMSstar-MA is a particularly powerful component to incorporate into instructive gradient scaffolds based on PEG-DA. The following parameters were varied to produce the different gradients or gradual transitions in: (1) the wt% ratio of PDMSstar-MA to PEG-DA macromers, (2) the total wt% macromer concentration, (3) the number average molecular weight (Mn) of PEG-DA and (4) the Mn of PDMSstar-MA. Upon dividing each scaffold into four “zones” perpendicular to the gradient, we were able to demonstrate the spatial variation in morphology, bioactivity, swelling and modulus. Among these gradient scaffolds are those in which swelling and modulus are conveniently decoupled. In addition to rapid screening of cell-material interactions, these scaffolds are well-suited for regeneration of interfacial tissues (e.g. osteochondral tissues) that transition from one tissue type to another. PMID:23707502

Bailey, Brennan M.; Nail, Lindsay N.; Grunlan, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

287

Customized biomimetic scaffolds created by indirect three-dimensional printing for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a rapid prototyping technique that can create complex 3D structures by inkjet printing of a liquid binder onto powder biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Direct fabrication of scaffolds from 3DP, however, imposes a limitation on material choices by manufacturing processes. In this study, we report an indirect 3DP approach wherein a positive replica of desired shapes was printed using gelatin particles, and the final scaffold was directly produced from the printed mold. To create patient-specific scaffolds that match precisely to a patient's external contours, we integrated our indirect 3DP technique with imaging technologies and successfully created custom scaffolds mimicking human mandibular condyle using polycaprolactone and chitosan for potential osteochondral tissue engineering. To test the ability of the technique to precisely control the internal morphology of the scaffolds, we created orthogonal interconnected channels within the scaffolds using computer-aided-design models. Because very few biomaterials are truly osteoinductive, we modified inert 3D printed materials with bioactive apatite coating. The feasibility of these scaffolds to support cell growth was investigated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). The BMSCs showed good viability in the scaffolds, and the apatite coating further enhanced cellular spreading and proliferation. This technique may be valuable for complex scaffold fabrication. PMID:24060622

Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Bogyu; Wu, Benjamin; Lee, Min

2013-12-01

288

Current concepts: tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications in the ankle joint  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) has caused a revolution in present and future trends of medicine and surgery. In different tissues, advanced TERM approaches bring new therapeutic possibilities in general population as well as in young patients and high-level athletes, improving restoration of biological functions and rehabilitation. The mainstream components required to obtain a functional regeneration of tissues may include biodegradable scaffolds, drugs or growth factors and different cell types (either autologous or heterologous) that can be cultured in bioreactor systems (in vitro) prior to implantation into the patient. Particularly in the ankle, which is subject to many different injuries (e.g. acute, chronic, traumatic and degenerative), there is still no definitive and feasible answer to ‘conventional’ methods. This review aims to provide current concepts of TERM applications to ankle injuries under preclinical and/or clinical research applied to skin, tendon, bone and cartilage problems. A particular attention has been given to biomaterial design and scaffold processing with potential use in osteochondral ankle lesions. PMID:24352667

Correia, S. I.; Pereira, H.; Silva-Correia, J.; Van Dijk, C. N.; Espregueira-Mendes, J.; Oliveira, J. M.; Reis, R. L.

2014-01-01

289

Bioinspired nanofibers support chondrogenesis for articular cartilage repair  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage repair remains a significant and growing clinical challenge with the aging population. The native extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage is a 3D structure composed of proteinaceous fibers and a hydrogel ground substance that together provide the physical and biological cues to instruct cell behavior. Here we present fibrous scaffolds composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the biological cue chondroitin sulfate with fiber dimensions on the nanoscale for application to articular cartilage repair. The unique, low-density nature of the described nanofiber scaffolds allows for immediate cell infiltration for optimal tissue repair. The capacity for the scaffolds to facilitate cartilage-like tissue formation was evaluated in vitro. Compared with pellet cultures, the nanofiber scaffolds enhance chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stems cells as indicated by increased ECM production and cartilage specific gene expression while also permitting cell proliferation. When implanted into rat osteochondral defects, acellular nanofiber scaffolds supported enhanced chondrogenesis marked by proteoglycan production minimally apparent in defects left empty. Furthermore, inclusion of chondroitin sulfate into the fibers enhanced cartilage-specific type II collagen synthesis in vitro and in vivo. By mimicking physical and biological cues of native ECM, the nanofiber scaffolds enhanced cartilaginous tissue formation, suggesting their potential utility for articular cartilage repair. PMID:22665791

Coburn, Jeannine M.; Gibson, Matthew; Monagle, Sean; Patterson, Zachary; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

2012-01-01

290

Three-dimensional imaging and analysis of human cartilage degeneration using Optical Coherence Tomography.  

PubMed

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an evolving imaging technology allowing non-destructive imaging of cartilage tissue at near-histological resolution. This study investigated the diagnostic value of real time 3-D OCT in comparison to conventional 2-D OCT in the comprehensive grading of human cartilage degeneration. Fifty-three human osteochondral samples were obtained from eight total knee arthroplasties. OCT imaging was performed by either obtaining a single two-dimensional cross-sectional image (2-D OCT) or by collecting 100 consecutive parallel 2-D OCT images to generate a volumetric data set of 8?×?8?mm (3-D OCT). OCT images were assessed qualitatively according to a modified version of the DJD classification and quantitatively by algorithm-based evaluation of surface irregularity, tissue homogeneity, and signal attenuation. Samples were graded according to the Outerbridge classification and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and Tukey's or Dunn's post-hoc tests. Overall, the generation of 3-D volumetric datasets and their multiple reconstructions such as rendering, surface topography, parametric, and cross-sectional views proved to be of potential diagnostic value. With increasing distance to the mid-sagittal plane and increasing degeneration, score deviations increased, too. In conclusion, 3-D imaging of cartilage with image analysis algorithms adds considerable potential diagnostic value to conventional OCT diagnostics. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:651-659, 2015. PMID:25641346

Nebelung, Sven; Brill, Nicolai; Marx, Ulrich; Quack, Valentin; Tingart, Markus; Schmitt, Robert; Rath, Björn; Jahr, Holger

2015-05-01

291

The Role of NELL-1, a Growth Factor Associated with Craniosynostosis, in Promoting Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Efforts to enhance bone regeneration in orthopedic and dental cases have grown steadily for the past decade, in line with increasingly sophisticated regenerative medicine. To meet the unprecedented demand for novel osteospecific growth factors with fewer adverse effects compared with those of existing adjuncts such as BMPs, our group has identified a craniosynostosis-associated secreted molecule, NELL-1, which is a potent growth factor that is highly specific to the osteochondral lineage, and has demonstrated robust induction of bone in multiple in vivo models from rodents to pre-clinical large animals. NELL-1 is preferentially expressed in osteoblasts under direct transcriptional control of Runx2, and is well-regulated during skeletal development. NELL-1/Nell-1 can promote orthotopic bone regeneration via either intramembranous or endochondral ossification, both within and outside of the craniofacial complex. Unlike BMP-2, Nell-1 cannot initiate ectopic bone formation in muscle, but can induce bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to form bone in a mouse muscle pouch model, exhibiting specificity that BMPs lack. In addition, synergistic osteogenic effects of Nell-1 and BMP combotherapy have been observed, and are likely due to distinct differences in their signaling pathways. NELL-1's unique role as a novel osteoinductive growth factor makes it an attractive alternative with promise for future clinical applications. [Note: NELL-1 and NELL-1 indicate the human gene and protein, respectively; Nell-1 and Nell-1 indicate the mouse gene and protein, respectively.] PMID:20647499

Zhang, X.; Zara, J.; Siu, R.K.; Ting, K.; Soo, C.

2010-01-01

292

Intraosseous Infiltration of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

We describe a new technique of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration for the treatment of severe knee osteoarthritis. PRP intra-articular infiltration is a promising treatment for knee osteoarthritis, but it still has some limitations in high-degree osteoarthritis. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis is based on clinical and radiographic findings, and patients with grade III or IV knee tibiofemoral osteoarthritis based on the Ahlbäck scale are considered candidates for this technique. The technique consists of performing intraosseous infiltration of PRP into the subchondral bone, which acts on this tissue and consequently on cartilage-bone communication. Although the intraosseous injection hinders the conventional knee intra-articular infiltration, it allows an extension of the range of action of the PRP, which acts directly on the subchondral bone, which is involved in the progression of osteoarthritis. Thus this technique involves a new administration of PRP that can delay knee arthroplasty; moreover, it can be applied for not only severe osteoarthritis but also other pathologies in which the subchondral bone is critical in the etiology, such as necrosis and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25685680

Sánchez, Mikel; Fiz, Nicolás; Guadilla, Jorge; Padilla, Sabino; Anitua, Eduardo; Sánchez, Pello; Delgado, Diego

2014-01-01

293

Platelet-rich plasma loaded hydrogel scaffold enhances chondrogenic differentiation and maturation with up-regulation of CB1 and CB2.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional scaffolds like hydrogels can be used for cell and drug delivery and have become a major research focus in tissue engineering. Presently, we investigated the regenerative potency of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with a chondrocyte/hydrogel composite scaffold in the repair of articular cartilage defects using a rabbit model. Primary isolated joint chondrocytes from the trachlear groove of rabbit were cultured in hydrogels as follows; hydrogel (2900 Pa or 5900 Pa)+chondrocytes and hydrogel+chondrocytes+PRP for in vitro analysis and in vivo implantation. The 5900 Pa hydrogel markedly increased cellular viability and development in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the hydrogels attenuated the expression of SOX-9, aggrecan, and type II collagen. PRP-containing hydrogels produced an immediate increase in mRNA levels of cannabinoid receptor (CB)1 and CB2, compared with control and PRP-free hydrogels. Osteochondral defects were enhanced recovery with formation of cartilage and perichondrium in the 5900 Pa hydrogel+chondrocytes+PRP. Hydrogel may provide a suitable environment for proliferation and maturation of joint chondrocytes in relation to the gelation density and bioactive sources like PRP resulting in improvement for cartilage regeneration. PMID:22366523

Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Kyung Min; Joung, Yoon Ki; Park, Ki Dong; Do, Sun Hee

2012-05-10

294

Management and prevention of acute and chronic lateral ankle instability in athletic patient populations  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic lateral ankle instability are common in high-demand patient populations. If not managed appropriately, patients may experience recurrent instability, chronic pain, osteochondral lesions of the talus, premature osteoarthritis, and other significant long-term disability. Certain populations, including young athletes, military personnel and those involved in frequent running, jumping, and cutting motions, are at increased risk. Proposed risk factors include prior ankle sprain, elevated body weight or body mass index, female gender, neuromuscular deficits, postural imbalance, foot/ankle malalignment, and exposure to at-risk athletic activity. Prompt, accurate diagnosis is crucial, and evidence-based, functional rehabilitation regimens have a proven track record in returning active patients to work and sport. When patients fail to improve with physical therapy and external bracing, multiple surgical techniques have been described with reliable results, including both anatomic and non-anatomic reconstructive methods. Anatomic repair of the lateral ligamentous complex remains the gold standard for recurrent ankle instability, and it effectively restores native ankle anatomy and joint kinematics while preserving physiologic ankle and subtalar motion. Further preventative measures may minimize the risk of ankle instability in athletic cohorts, including prophylactic bracing and combined neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs. These interventions have demonstrated benefit in patients at heightened risk for lateral ankle sprain and allow active cohorts to return to full activity without adversely affecting athletic performance. PMID:25793157

McCriskin, Brendan J; Cameron, Kenneth L; Orr, Justin D; Waterman, Brian R

2015-01-01

295

In vitro observation of cartilage-degeneration progression by Fourier-domain OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as emerging clinical diagnostic imaging technology for dermatology and other semitransparent tissues has shown high potential in monitoring and evaluating the inner structure of articular cartilages. Since novel therapies for the limitation of cartilage degeneration in early stages of osteoarthritis are available, the early minimal invasive diagnosis of cartilage degradation is clinically essential for further treatment options. With the advancing performance and thus diagnostic opportunities of 3D-OCT devices, we carried out a systematic study by monitoring arthrotic alterations of porcine osteochondral explants that are mechanically induced under traumatic impaction. As for in-vitro tomographic imaging we utilized two OCT devices, a Thorlabs FD-OCT device with 92KHz A-scan rate and 1310nm as central wavelength and a self-developed FD-OCT device at 840nm central wavelength. This allows the comparison in image contrast and optical penetration of cartilage tissue between these two spectral bandwidths. Further we analyzed human biopsies of articular cartilages with various degrees of osteoarthritis. The 2D and 3D OCT tomograms are characterized qualitatively regarding the inner tissue structure and quantitatively regarding the tissue absorption parameters. Therefore, we are developing image processing algorithms for the automated monitoring of cartilage tissue. A scoring system for 3D-monitoring allows the characterization of the probe volume regarding the morphological structure and tissue compactness by processing the C - scan data.

Marx, Ulrich; Schmitt, Robert; Nebelung, Sven; Tingart, Markus; Lüring, Christian; Rath, Björn

2012-03-01

296

Management and prevention of acute and chronic lateral ankle instability in athletic patient populations.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic lateral ankle instability are common in high-demand patient populations. If not managed appropriately, patients may experience recurrent instability, chronic pain, osteochondral lesions of the talus, premature osteoarthritis, and other significant long-term disability. Certain populations, including young athletes, military personnel and those involved in frequent running, jumping, and cutting motions, are at increased risk. Proposed risk factors include prior ankle sprain, elevated body weight or body mass index, female gender, neuromuscular deficits, postural imbalance, foot/ankle malalignment, and exposure to at-risk athletic activity. Prompt, accurate diagnosis is crucial, and evidence-based, functional rehabilitation regimens have a proven track record in returning active patients to work and sport. When patients fail to improve with physical therapy and external bracing, multiple surgical techniques have been described with reliable results, including both anatomic and non-anatomic reconstructive methods. Anatomic repair of the lateral ligamentous complex remains the gold standard for recurrent ankle instability, and it effectively restores native ankle anatomy and joint kinematics while preserving physiologic ankle and subtalar motion. Further preventative measures may minimize the risk of ankle instability in athletic cohorts, including prophylactic bracing and combined neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs. These interventions have demonstrated benefit in patients at heightened risk for lateral ankle sprain and allow active cohorts to return to full activity without adversely affecting athletic performance. PMID:25793157

McCriskin, Brendan J; Cameron, Kenneth L; Orr, Justin D; Waterman, Brian R

2015-03-18

297

Micro-anatomical response of cartilage-on-bone to compression: mechanisms of deformation within and beyond the directly loaded matrix  

PubMed Central

The biomechanical function of articular cartilage relies crucially on its integration with both the subchondral bone and the wider continuum of cartilage beyond the directly loaded contact region. This study was aimed at visualizing, at the microanatomical level, the deformation response of cartilage including that of the non-directly loaded continuum. Cartilage-on-bone samples from bovine patellae were loaded in static compression until a near-equilibrium deformation was achieved, and then chemically fixed in this deformed state. Full-depth cartilage–bone sections, incorporating the indentation profile and beyond, were studied in their fully hydrated state using differential interference contrast microscopy. Morphometric measurements of the indented profile were used in combination with a force analysis of the tangential layer to investigate the extent to which the applied force is attenuated in moving away from the directly loaded region. This study provides microscopic evidence of a structure-related response in the transitional zone of the cartilage matrix. It is manifested as an intense chevron-type shear discontinuity arising from the constraints provided by both the strain-limiting articular surface and the osteochondral attachment. The discontinuity persists well into the non-directly loaded continuum of cartilage and is proposed as a force attenuation mechanism. The structural and biomechanical analyses presented in this study emphasize the important role of the complex microanatomy of cartilage, highlighting the interconnectivity and optimal recruitment of the load-bearing elements throughout the zonally differentiated cartilage depth. PMID:17062019

Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

2006-01-01

298

Early tissue response to citric acid-based micro- and nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

Composites based on calcium phosphates and biodegradable polymers are desirable for orthopaedic applications due to their potential to mimic bone. Herein, we describe the fabrication, characterization, and in vivo response of novel citric acid-based microcomposites and nanocomposites. Poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) was mixed with increasing amounts of HA nanoparticles or microparticles (up to 60 wt%), and the morphology and mechanical properties of the resulting composites were assessed. To investigate tissue response, nanocomposites, microcomposites, POC, and poly(L-lactide) (PLL) were implanted in osteochondral defects in rabbits and harvested at 6 weeks for histological evaluation. SEM confirmed increased surface roughness of microcomposites relative to nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of both types of composites increased with increasing amounts of HA (8–328 MPa), although nanocomposites with 60 wt.% HA displayed the highest strength and stiffness. Based on tissue-implant interfacial assessments, all implants integrated well with the surrounding bone and cartilage with no evidence of inflammation. Both nanocomposites and microcomposites supported bone remodeling; however, nanocomposites induced more trabecular bone formation at the tissue-implant interface. The mechanical properties of citric acid-based composites are within the range of human trabecular bone (1–1524 MPa, 211±78 MPa mean modulus) and tissue response was dependent on the size and content of HA, providing new perspectives of design and fabrication criteria for orthopaedic devices such as interference screws and fixation pins. PMID:20949482

Chung, Eun Ji; Qiu, Hongjin; Kodali, Pradeep; Yang, Scott; Sprague, Stuart M.; Hwong, James; Koh, Jason; Ameer, Guillermo A.

2010-01-01

299

Treatment of Lateral Knee Pain Using Soft Tissue Mobilization in Four Female Triathletes  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective case series. Background These case reports present results of the treatment of lateral knee pain in four female amateur triathletes. The athletes were referred to the author’s clinic with either a diagnosis of iliotibial band friction syndrome or patellofemoral pain syndrome, all four having symptoms for longer than seven months. Changes in training routines were identified as the possible cause of the overuse injuries that eventually developed into chronic conditions. Intervention Treatment involved soft tissue mobilization of the musculotendinous structures on the lateral aspect of the knee. Results At four weeks, three of the athletes improved 9 to 19 points on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, 3 to 5 points on the Global Rating of Change Scale, and demonstrated improvement in hamstring and iliotibial band flexibility. At eight weeks the Global Rating of Change for these three athletes was a 7 (“a very great deal better”) and they had returned to triathlon training with no complaints of lateral knee pain. One athlete did not respond to treatment and eventually underwent arthroscopic surgery for debridement of a lateral meniscus tear. Conclusions After ruling out common causes for lateral knee pain such as lateral meniscus tear, lateral collateral ligament sprain, patellofemoral dysfunction, osteochondral injury, biceps femoris tendonitis, iliotibial band friction syndrome or osteoarthritis, soft tissue restriction should be considered a potential source of dysfunction. In some cases soft tissue restriction is overlooked; athletes go undiagnosed and are limited from sports participation. PMID:25184012

Winslow, John

2014-01-01

300

Irreducible dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal joint due to displaced flexor pollicis longus tendon: case report and new reduction technique.  

PubMed

Dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal (IP) joint is uncommon because of the inherent stability of the joint. Cases in which reduction was blocked by the volar plate, the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, the sesamoid bone, and an osteochondral fragment have been described in the literature. This article reports a case of closed thumb IP joint dislocation caused by the displacement of the FPL tendon. A new percutaneous reduction technique for this injury will also be presented. A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with an obvious thumb deformity. Radiographs confirmed dorsal dislocation of the thumb IP joint without associated fracture. Closed reduction was not successful. Percutaneous reduction was performed under locoregional anesthesia, because the dislocation was due to an FPL tendon that had displaced dorsally and radially to the proximal phalanx. After reduction, Kirschner wire fixation was not needed, but IP joint immobilization with a splint was required for 3 weeks. Postoperatively, there were no complications in soft tissues and the operative scar was almost unrecognizable. This technique enables a mini-invasive reduction by operating percutaneously on the FPL. In addition, unlike with a volar zigzag approach, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of postoperative adhesion of the flexor tendon. This new minimally invasive reduction technique is useful for irreducible dislocation of the thumb IP joint due to a displaced FPL tendon. PMID:24902518

Naito, Kiyohito; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Igeta, Yuka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu

2014-08-01

301

Alignment, segmentation and 3-D reconstruction of serial sections based on automated algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-defined three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of bone-cartilage transitional structures is crucial for the osteochondral restoration. This paper presents an accurate, computationally efficient and fully-automated algorithm for the alignment and segmentation of two-dimensional (2-D) serial to construct the 3-D model of bone-cartilage transitional structures. Entire system includes the following five components: (1) image harvest, (2) image registration, (3) image segmentation, (4) 3-D reconstruction and visualization, and (5) evaluation. A computer program was developed in the environment of Matlab for the automatic alignment and segmentation of serial sections. Automatic alignment algorithm based on the position's cross-correlation of the anatomical characteristic feature points of two sequential sections. A method combining an automatic segmentation and an image threshold processing was applied to capture the regions and structures of interest. SEM micrograph and 3-D model reconstructed directly in digital microscope were used to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of this strategy. The morphology of 3-D model constructed by serial sections is consistent with the results of SEM micrograph and 3-D model of digital microscope.

Bian, Weiguo; Tang, Shaojie; Xu, Qiong; Lian, Qin; Wang, Jin; Li, Dichen

2012-12-01

302

Mechanical stress and ATP synthesis are coupled by mitochondrial oxidants in articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Metabolic adaptation of articular cartilage under joint loading is evident and matrix synthesis seems to be critically tied to ATP. Chondrocytes utilize the glycolytic pathway for energy requirements but seem to require mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) to sustain ATP synthesis. The role of ROS in regulating ATP reserves under a mechanically active environment is not clear. It is believed that physiological strains cause deformation of the mitochondria, potentially releasing ROS for energy production. We hypothesized that mechanical loading stimulates ATP synthesis via mitochondrial release of ROS. Bovine osteochondral explants were dynamically loaded at 0.5 Hz with amplitude of 0.25 MPa for 1 h. Cartilage response to mechanical loading was assessed by imaging with dihydroethidium (ROS indicator) and a Luciferase-based ATP assay. Electron transport inhibitor rotenone and mitochondrial ROS scavenger MitoQ significantly suppressed mechanically induced ROS production and ATP synthesis. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial ROS are produced as a result of physiological mechanical strains. Taken together with our previous findings of ROS involvement in blunt impact injuries, mitochondrial ROS are important contributors to cartilage metabolic adaptation and their precise role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis warrants further investigation. PMID:22930474

Wolff, Katherine J; Ramakrishnan, Prem S; Brouillette, Marc J; Journot, Brice J; McKinley, Todd O; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

2013-02-01

303

Osteonecrosis of the knee: review  

PubMed Central

Osteonecrosis is a devastating disease that can lead to end-stage arthritis of various joint including the knee. There are three categories of osteonecrosis that affect the knee: spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK), secondary, and post-arthroscopic. Regardless of osteonecrosis categories, the treatment of this disease aims to halt further progression or delay the onset of end-stage arthritis of the knee. However, once substantial joint surface collapse has occurred or there are sign of degenerative arthritis, joint arthroplasty is the most appropriate treatment option. Currently, the non-operative treatment options consist of observation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), protected weight bearing, and analgesia as needed. Operative interventions include joint preserving surgery, unilateral knee arthroplasty (UKA), or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) depending on the extent and type of disease. Joint preserving procedures (i.e., arthroscopy, core decompression, osteochondral autograft, and bone grafting) are usually attempted in pre-collapse and some post-collapse lesions, when the articular cartilage is generally intact with only the underlying subchondral bone being affected. Conversely, after severe subchondral collapse has occurred, procedures that attempt to salvage the joint are rarely successful and joint arthroplasty are necessary to relieve pain. The purpose of this article is to highlight the recent evidence concerning the treatment options across the spectrum of management of osteonecrosis of the knee including lesion observation, medications, joint preserving techniques, and total joint arthroplasties. PMID:25705638

Karim, Ammar R.; Cherian, Jeffrey J.; Jauregui, Julio J.; Pierce, Todd

2015-01-01

304

Osteochondroses in athletes.  

PubMed Central

Osteochondroses are disorders of primary and secondary growth centres, or lesions at the apophyseal or epiphyseal growth areas of bones. Although there are many types of osteochondroses, the history, clinical symptoms and findings as well as radiological findings are typical. Physical exercise is one of the factors that provokes symptoms. In a series of 185 osteochondroses in active young athletes, there were 18 different disorders. The commonest were Osgood-Schlatter's disease, Sever's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles, various other patellar osteochondroses and Scheuermann's disease. Most of the athletes were from individual events; track and field sports (53.5%), cross-country skiing (8.1%), gymnastics (3.2%) and power events (2.7%). Of the team sports soccer produced the most (20.0%). The treatment was conservative in 84.3% and operative in 15.7%. The duration of symptoms in these athletes persisted in about 43% for less than one year and in 57% for more. The late changes of osteodhondroses do not cause serious risks for a normal life, if the treatment is active and the follow-up efficient. Images p161-a p161-b Fig. 2 Fig. 3 C Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 p168-a PMID:7139227

Orava, S.; Virtanen, K.

1982-01-01

305

Closed medial total subtalar joint dislocation without ankle fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Total subtalar dislocation without fracture of the ankle is a rare clinical entity; it is usually due to a traumatic high-energy mechanism. Standard treatment is successful closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by non-weight bearing and ankle immobilization with a below-knee cast for 6 weeks. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old Moroccan woman who was involved in a road traffic accident. She subsequently received a radiological assessment that objectified a total subtalar dislocation without fracture of her ankle. She was immediately admitted to the operating theater where an immediate reduction was performed under sedation, and immobilization in a plaster boot was adopted for 8 weeks. The management of this traumatic lesion is discussed in the light of the literature. Conclusions Medial subtalar dislocation is a rare dislocation and is not commonly seen as a sports injury because it requires transfer of a large amount of kinetic energy. The weaker talocalcaneal and talonavicular ligaments often bear the brunt of the energy and are more commonly disrupted, compared to the relatively stronger calcaneonavicular ligament. Urgent reduction is important, and closed reduction under general anesthesia is usually successful, often facilitated by keeping the knee in flexion to relax the gastrocnemius muscle. Long-term sequelae include talar avascular necrosis and osteochondral fracture, as well as chronic instability and pain. PMID:25240955

2014-01-01

306

A single blunt impact on cartilage promotes fibronectin fragmentation and upregulates cartilage degrading stromelysin-1/matrix metalloproteinase-3 in a bovine ex vivo model.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is characterized by progressive cartilage degeneration in injured joints. Since fibronectin-fragments (Fn-fs) degrade cartilage mainly through up-regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesized that Fn-fs play a key role in PTOA by promoting chondrolysis in and around injured cartilage. To test this hypothesis, we profiled the catabolic events focusing on fibronectin fragmentation and proteinase expression in bovine osteochondral explants following a single blunt impact on cartilage with a drop tower device which created partial-thickness tissue damage. Injured and control explants were cultured for up to 14 days. The presence of Fn-fs, MMPs (-1, -3, -13), ADAMTS-5 in culture media and in cartilage was determined with immunoblotting. The daily proteoglycan (PG) depletion of cartilage matrix was assessed with DMMB assay. The effect of explant-conditioned media on chondrocytes was also examined with immunoblotting. Impacted cartilage released significantly higher amount of native Fn, three chondrolytic Fn-fs and PG than non-impacted controls did. Those increases coincided with up-regulation of MMP-3 both in culture media and in impacted cartilage. These findings support our hypothesis that PTOA may be propelled by Fn-fs which act as catabolic mediators through up-regulating cartilage-damaging proteinases. PMID:24610678

Ding, Lei; Guo, Danping; Homandberg, Gene A; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

2014-06-01

307

Ceramic hemi-unicondylar arthroplasty in an adolescent patient with idiopathic tibial chondrolysis.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in cartilage regeneration and restoration procedures, isolated, large, full-thickness cartilage lesions in young patients continue to pose significant challenges to patients and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment options for this difficult problem have traditionally included arthrodesis, osteotomy, osteochondral allograft, and prosthetic reconstruction. We present a case of an adolescent patient with isolated idiopathic lateral tibial chondrolysis treated with a custom ceramic hemi-unicondylar hemiarthroplasty. Preoperatively, a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patient's knee was obtained to begin manufacturing a conforming custom ceramic insert that would articulate between the tibial base plate and the patient's native lateral femoral cartilage. Through a lateral parapatellar approach, the tibial preparation was carried out using the Zimmer M/G unicompartmental knee system (Warsaw, Indiana), and the tibial base plate was cemented into position in the standard fashion. A custom, conforming, prefabricated ceramic insert (CeramTec, Memphis, Tennessee) was then inserted onto the tibial base plate. At 5-year follow-up, this salvage procedure was successful in relieving pain and restoring function in this young patient. There were no signs of implant loosening or lysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at last follow-up revealed that the cartilage thickness of the patient's lateral femoral condyle remained unchanged. Unicondylar hemiarthroplasty performed in patients with large unipolar lesions in the knee can provide durable and reliable pain relief. Ceramic is a viable material that can be considered for articulation with native cartilage. PMID:19634815

Dombroski, Derek; Garino, Jonathan; Lee, Gwo-Chin

2009-06-01

308

Interactions between structural and chemical biomimetism in synthetic stem cell niches.  

PubMed

Advancements in understanding stem cell functions and differentiation are of key importance for the clinical success of stem-cell-based therapies. 3D structural niches fabricated by two-photon polymerization are a powerful platform for controlling stem cell growth and differentiation. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of further controlling stem cell fate by tuning the mechanical properties of such niches through coating with thin layers of biomimetic hyaluronan-based and gelatin-based hydrogels. We first assess the biocompatibility of chemical coatings and then study the interactions between structural and chemical biomimetism on the response of MSCs in terms of proliferation and differentiation. We observed a clear effect of the hydrogel coating on otherwise identical 3D scaffolds. In particular, in gelatin-coated niches we observed a stronger metabolic activity and commitment toward the osteo-chondral lineage with respect to hyaluronan-coated niches. Conversely, a reduction in the homing effect was observed in all the coated niches, especially in gelatin-coated niches. This study demonstrates the feasibility of controlling independently different mechanical cues, in bioengineered stem cell niches, i.e. the 3D scaffold geometry and the surface stiffness. This will allow, on the one hand, understanding their specific role in stem cell proliferation and differentiation and, on the other hand, finely tuning their synergistic effect. PMID:25594262

Nava, Michele M; Raimondi, Manuela T; Credi, Caterina; De Marco, Carmela; Turri, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto

2015-02-01

309

Effect of age and sampling site on the chondro-osteogenic potential of rabbit marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Four sequential bone-marrow aspirations from the ipsilateral tibia and iliac crest of New Zealand White rabbits, aged 4 months or 1, 2, or 3 years, were assayed in vitro and in vivo for their chondro-osteogenic potential. Nonhematopoietic cells from the samples of bone marrow were isolated and expanded in culture; their colony-forming efficiency was determined, and second-passage marrow-derived cells, referred to as mesenchymal progenitor cells, were loaded into porous calcium-phosphate ceramic cubes as carrier vehicles for an in vivo cartilage and bone-formation assay. The cubes were placed subcutaneously in nude BALB/C mice for 3 and 6 weeks. On histological examination, the cubes were scored for the presence of bone and cartilage in their pores, and average values for age groups and location were compared. At aspiration, the samples from the iliac crest exhibited an overall reduction in cell concentration with increasing age, and at the first harvest time, they showed a decrease in colony-forming efficiency and cube score with increasing age. This study demonstrated that repeated bone-marrow aspirations may be performed and may have an enhancing effect on the osteochondral progenitor cells of older animals. PMID:10716274

Huibregtse, B A; Johnstone, B; Goldberg, V M; Caplan, A I

2000-01-01

310

[MRI after patellar dislocation: assessment of risk factors and injury to the joint].  

PubMed

Patellar dislocation is the lateral displacement of the patella from the femoral trochlea. Affected individuals typically have underlying anatomic risk factors of variable magnitude, which, in conjunction with leg rotation, cause the event. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits straightforward diagnosis of the typical features of recent patellar dislocation: contusion edema of the inferomedial patella and the lateral femoral condyle as well as rupture of the medial patellofemoral ligament. In case of concomitant osteochondral injury, early surgical refixation may be indicated, depending on the size. After a first dislocation, which can damage the capsuloligamentous stabilizers, subjects may sustain further dislocations or even develop chronic patellofemoral instability, depending on the presence and severity of anatomic variants. A wide range of conservative and surgical treatments are available. While a first patellar dislocation is often treated conservatively, surgical strategies after a second dislocation depend on the pattern of injury and the severity of underlying anatomic risk factors. The most relevant predisposing variants are trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and an abnormal tibial tubercle to trochlear groove distance (TT-TG). The radiologist's report should give a quantitative estimate of both the injuries resulting from dislocation and the underlying anatomic risk factors. An accurate characterization of the individual pathomechanism is crucial for tailoring treatment. PMID:23494506

Diederichs, G; Scheffler, S

2013-07-01

311

Osteonecrosis of the knee: review.  

PubMed

Osteonecrosis is a devastating disease that can lead to end-stage arthritis of various joint including the knee. There are three categories of osteonecrosis that affect the knee: spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK), secondary, and post-arthroscopic. Regardless of osteonecrosis categories, the treatment of this disease aims to halt further progression or delay the onset of end-stage arthritis of the knee. However, once substantial joint surface collapse has occurred or there are sign of degenerative arthritis, joint arthroplasty is the most appropriate treatment option. Currently, the non-operative treatment options consist of observation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), protected weight bearing, and analgesia as needed. Operative interventions include joint preserving surgery, unilateral knee arthroplasty (UKA), or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) depending on the extent and type of disease. Joint preserving procedures (i.e., arthroscopy, core decompression, osteochondral autograft, and bone grafting) are usually attempted in pre-collapse and some post-collapse lesions, when the articular cartilage is generally intact with only the underlying subchondral bone being affected. Conversely, after severe subchondral collapse has occurred, procedures that attempt to salvage the joint are rarely successful and joint arthroplasty are necessary to relieve pain. The purpose of this article is to highlight the recent evidence concerning the treatment options across the spectrum of management of osteonecrosis of the knee including lesion observation, medications, joint preserving techniques, and total joint arthroplasties. PMID:25705638

Karim, Ammar R; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd; Mont, Michael A

2015-01-01

312

A superficial hyperechoic band in human articular cartilage on ultrasonography with histological correlation: preliminary observations  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To demonstrate the superficial hyperechoic band (SHEB) in articular cartilage by using ultrasonography (US) and to assess its correlation with histological images. Methods: In total, 47 regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed from six tibial osteochondral specimens (OCSs) that were obtained after total knee arthroplasty. Ultrasonograms were obtained for each OCS. Then, matching histological sections from all specimens were obtained for comparison with the ultrasonograms. Two types of histological staining were used: Safranin-O stain (SO) to identify glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and Masson’s trichrome stain (MT) to identify collagen. In step 1, two observers evaluated whether there was an SHEB in each ROI. In step 2, the two observers evaluated which histological staining method correlated better with the SHEB by using the ImageJ software. Results: In step 1 of the analysis, 20 out of 47 ROIs showed an SHEB (42.6%, kappa=0.579). Step 2 showed that the SHEB correlated significantly better with the topographical variation in stainability in SO staining, indicating the GAG distribution, than with MT staining, indicating the collagen distribution (P<0.05, kappa=0.722). Conclusion: The SHEB that is frequently seen in human articular cartilage on high-resolution US correlated better with variations in SO staining than with variations in MT staining. Thus, we suggest that a SHEB is predominantly related to changes in GAG. Identifying an SHEB by US is a promising method for assessing the thickness of articular cartilage or for monitoring early osteoarthritis. PMID:25656333

2015-01-01

313

Nanofibrous hollow microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped polymers as injectable cell carriers for knee repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To repair complexly shaped tissue defects, an injectable cell carrier is desirable to achieve an accurate fit and to minimize surgical intervention. However, the injectable carriers available at present have limitations, and are not used clinically for cartilage regeneration. Here, we report nanofibrous hollow microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped biodegradable polymers as an injectable cell carrier. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres, integrating the extracellular-matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, were shown to efficiently accommodate cells and enhance cartilage regeneration, compared with control microspheres. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres also supported a significantly larger amount of, and higher-quality, cartilage regeneration than the chondrocytes-alone group in an ectopic implantation model. In a critical-size rabbit osteochondral defect-repair model, the nanofibrous hollow microspheres/chondrocytes group achieved substantially better cartilage repair than the chondrocytes-alone group that simulates the clinically available autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure. These results indicate that the nanofibrous hollow microspheres are an excellent injectable cell carrier for cartilage regeneration.

Liu, Xiaohua; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

2011-05-01

314

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase and glucose-regulated protein 78 increase the life span of articular chondrocytes and their repair potential  

PubMed Central

Background Like all mammalian cells, normal adult chondrocytes have a limited replicative life span, which decreases with age. To facilitate the therapeutic use of chondrocytes from older donors, a method is needed to prolong their life span. Methods We transfected chondrocytes with hTERT or GRP78 and cultured them in a 3-dimensional atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane seal. Then, we measured the amount of nuclear DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the expression level of type II collagen as markers of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, respectively, in these cultures. In addition, we allografted this tissue-engineered cartilage into osteochondral defects in old rabbits to assess their repair activity in vivo. Results Our results showed different degrees of differentiation in terms of GAG content between chondrocytes from old and young rabbits. Chondrocytes that were cotransfected with hTERT and GRP78 showed higher cellular proliferation and expression of type II collagen than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of the age of the cartilage donor. In addition, the in vitro growth rates of hTERT- or GRP78-transfected chondrocytes were higher than those of nontransfected chondrocytes, regardless of donor age. In vivo, the tissue-engineered cartilage implants exhibited strong repairing activity, maintained a chondrocyte-specific phenotype, and produced extracellular matrix components. Conclusions Focal gene delivery to aged articular chondrocytes exhibited strong repairing activity and may be therapeutically useful for articular cartilage regeneration. PMID:22472071

2012-01-01

315

Development and evaluation of a device for simultaneous uniaxial compression and optical imaging of cartilage samples in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a system that allows imaging of cartilage tissue via optical coherence tomography (OCT) during controlled uniaxial unconfined compression of cylindrical osteochondral cores in vitro. We describe the system design and conduct a static and dynamic performance analysis. While reference measurements yield a full scale maximum deviation of 0.14% in displacement, force can be measured with a full scale standard deviation of 1.4%. The dynamic performance evaluation indicates a high accuracy in force controlled mode up to 25 Hz, but it also reveals a strong effect of variance of sample mechanical properties on the tracking performance under displacement control. In order to counterbalance these disturbances, an adaptive feed forward approach was applied which finally resulted in an improved displacement tracking accuracy up to 3 Hz. A built-in imaging probe allows on-line monitoring of the sample via OCT while being loaded in the cultivation chamber. We show that cartilage topology and defects in the tissue can be observed and demonstrate the visualization of the compression process during static mechanical loading.

Steinert, Marian; Kratz, Marita; Jaedicke, Volker; Hofmann, Martin R.; Jones, David B.

2014-10-01

316

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound promotes chondrogenic progenitor cell migration via focal adhesion kinase pathway.  

PubMed

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been studied frequently for its beneficial effects on the repair of injured articular cartilage. We hypothesized that these effects are due to stimulation of chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) migration toward injured areas of cartilage through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. CPC chemotaxis in bluntly injured osteochondral explants was examined by confocal microscopy, and migratory activity of cultured CPCs was measured in transwell and monolayer scratch assays. FAK activation by LIPUS was analyzed in cultured CPCs by Western blot. LIPUS effects were compared with the effects of two known chemotactic factors: N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. LIPUS significantly enhanced CPC migration on explants and in cell culture assays. Phosphorylation of FAK at the kinase domain (Tyr 576/577) was maximized by 5 min of exposure to LIPUS at a dose of 27.5 mW/cm(2) and frequency of 3.5 MHz. Treatment with fMLF, but not HMBG1, enhanced FAK activation to a degree similar to that of LIPUS, but neither fMLF nor HMGB1 enhanced the LIPUS effect. LIPUS-induced CPC migration was blocked by suppressing FAK phosphorylation with a Src family kinase inhibitor that blocks FAK phosphorylation. Our results imply that LIPUS might be used to promote cartilage healing by inducing the migration of CPCs to injured sites, which could delay or prevent the onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:24612644

Jang, Kee W; Ding, Lei; Seol, Dongrim; Lim, Tae-Hong; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

2014-06-01

317

Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1404-1413, 2015. PMID:25044835

Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

2015-04-01

318

Chronic ankle instability.  

PubMed

Chronic instability of the ankle and anterolateral impingement syndrome are abnormalities that present as a result of inversion and forced plantar-flexion traumas of the foot, despite strict conservative management in the ER and in rehabilitation. A conservative approach is always the first choice of treatment, including anti-inflammatory medications, rehabilitation and proprioception, infiltration with steroids in impingement cases, and use of orthotics, whose true effectiveness is the subject of multiple studies and much debate. Good to excellent results can be obtained surgically with a minimally invasive approach, such as the arthroscopic technique presented herein. Such an approach is useful in managing a combination of conditions such as anterolateral impingement, synovitis, and osteochondral lesions of the talus. The method is easily reproducible, its learning curve is rapid, and it has the advantage of not preventing the use other arthroscopic methods, or open anatomic or nonanatomic methods (tendon transfers), in the case of failure. No nerve lesion was recorded, probably owing to the use of the security zone, and neither was there any arthrofibrosis, possibly related to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications in the immediate postsurgical period coupled with aggressive rehabilitation from the fourth week. The success of the technique is due to multidisciplinary team work leading to the ultimate achievement of patient satisfaction. This technique is not indicated for patients with a high sports demand or for sport professionals, until further biomechanical studies on its use and success are completed. PMID:22938637

Gerstner Garces, Juan Bernardo

2012-09-01

319

Cartilage Viability and Catabolism in the Intact Porcine Knee Following Transarticular Impact Loading with and without Articular Fracture  

PubMed Central

Posttraumatic arthritis commonly develops following articular fracture. The objective of this study was to develop a closed joint model of transarticular impact with and without creation of an articular fracture that maintains the physiologic environment during loading. Fresh intact porcine knees were preloaded and impacted at 294 J via a drop track. Osteochondral cores were obtained from the medial and lateral aspects of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Chondrocyte viability was assessed at days 0, 3 and 5 post-impact in sham, impacted nonfractured, and impacted fractured joints. Total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, aggrecanase (ADAMTS-4) activity, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) release was measured in culture media from days 3 and 5 post-trauma. No differences were observed in chondrocyte viability of impacted nonfractured joints (95.9±6.9%) when compared to sham joints (93.8±7.7%). In impacted fractured joints, viability of the fractured edge was 40.5±27.6% and significantly lower than all other sites, including cartilage adjacent to the fractured edge (p<0.001). MMP and aggrecanase activity and S-GAG release were significantly increased in specimens from the fractured edge. This study showed that joint impact resulting in articular fracture significantly decreased chondrocyte viability, increased production of MMPs and aggrecanases, and enhanced S-GAG release, whereas the same level of impact without fracture did not cause such changes. PMID:21337389

Backus, Jonathon D.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Swimmer, Troy; Kent, Collin L.; McNulty, Amy L.; DeFrate, Louis E.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

2011-01-01

320

Genetics in Arterial Calcification  

PubMed Central

Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature. PMID:21852556

Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

2011-01-01

321

Presacral masses: multimodality imaging of a multidisciplinary space.  

PubMed

The presacral space is a clinically important space that is relevant to multiple disciplines and lies at the intersection of the axial skeleton, neural axis, and pelvic soft tissues. A wide variety of benign and malignant conditions may derive from its various elements. An appropriate differential diagnosis may be formulated from a more comprehensive list by considering the specific imaging features of a given case: In particular, involvement of the sacrum (either remodeling or destruction) and the presence or absence of a solid, soft-tissue component may help narrow the differential diagnosis. Typically, osteochondral and neurogenic tumors remodel or destroy the sacrum, whereas sacral involvement is less common in patients with a mesenchymal tumor. Ewing sarcomas and chordomas are typically associated with a large soft-tissue mass. Demographic features are also important: Typically, congenital and developmental tumors occur in younger patients, and chondrosarcomas occur in older patients (mean age, 45 years). Finally, specific imaging features may help establish the diagnosis. For instance, an osseous or chondroid matrix is indicative of osteosarcoma or chondrosarcomas; neurofibromas may have a target appearance at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; hemangiomas have areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images, a result of fat and hemorrhage; and myeloplipomas contain macroscopic fat. PMID:23842976

Hain, Kendra S; Pickhardt, Perry J; Lubner, Meghan G; Menias, Christine O; Bhalla, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

322

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ferumoxide-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cartilage Defects: In Vitro and In Vivo Investigations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to (1) compare three different techniques for ferumoxide labeling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), (2) evaluate if ferumoxide labeling allows in vivo tracking of matrix-associated stem cell implants (MASIs) in an animal model, and (3) compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of ferumoxide-labeled viable and apoptotic MSCs. MSCs labeled with ferumoxide by simple incubation, protamine transfection, or Lipofectin transfection were evaluated with MRI and histopathology. Ferumoxide-labeled and unlabeled viable and apoptotic MSCs in osteochondral defects of rat knee joints were evaluated over 12 weeks with MRI. Signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of viable and apoptotic labeled MASIs were tested for significant differences using t-tests. A simple incubation labeling protocol demonstrated the best compromise between significant magnetic resonance signal effects and preserved cell viability and potential for immediate clinical translation. Labeled viable and apoptotic MASIs did not show significant differences in SNR. Labeled viable but not apoptotic MSCs demonstrated an increasing area of T2 signal loss over time, which correlated to stem cell proliferation at the transplantation site. Histopathology confirmed successful engraftment of viable MSCs. The engraftment of iron oxide–labeled MASIs by simple incubation can be monitored over several weeks with MRI. Viable and apoptotic MASIs can be distinguished via imaging signs of cell proliferation at the transplantation site. PMID:22554484

Henning, Tobias D.; Gawande, Rakhee; Khurana, Aman; Tavri, Sidhartha; Mandrussow, Lydia; Golovko, Daniel; Horvai, Andrew; Sennino, Barbara; McDonald, Donald; Meier, Reinhard; Wendland, Michael; Derugin, Nikita; Link, Thomas M.; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

2013-01-01

323

Ferumoxytol: a new, clinically applicable label for stem-cell tracking in arthritic joints with MRI  

PubMed Central

Aim To develop a clinically applicable MRI technique for tracking stem cells in matrix-associated stem-cell implants, using the US FDA-approved iron supplement ferumoxytol. Materials & methods Ferumoxytol-labeling of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was optimized in vitro. A total of 11 rats with osteochondral defects of both femurs were implanted with ferumoxytol- or ferumoxides-labeled or unlabeled ADSCs, and underwent MRI up to 4 weeks post matrix-associated stem-cell implant. The signal-to-noise ratio of different matrix-associated stem-cell implant was compared with t-tests and correlated with histopathology. Results An incubation concentration of 500 µg iron/ml ferumoxytol and 10 µg/ml protamine sulfate led to significant cellular iron uptake, T2 signal effects and unimpaired ADSC viability. In vivo, ferumoxytol-and ferumoxides-labeled ADSCs demonstrated significantly lower signal-to-noise ratio values compared with unlabeled controls (p < 0.01). Histopathology confirmed engraftment of labeled ADSCs, with slow dilution of the iron label over time. Conclusion Ferumoxytol can be used for in vivo tracking of stem cells with MRI. PMID:23534832

Khurana, Aman; Nejadnik, Hossein; Chapelin, Fanny; Lenkov, Olga; Gawande, Rakhee; Lee, Sungmin; Gupta, Sandeep N; Aflakian, Nooshin; Derugin, Nikita; Messing, Solomon; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F; Pisani, Laura; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

2013-01-01

324

Temporal evolution of skeletal regenerated tissue: what can mechanical investigation add to biological?  

PubMed

The objective here was to experimentally characterize the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties of large volume immature regenerated tissues. We studied these evolving tissues from their genesis in controlled mechanical conditions. We developed an animal model based on the periosteal properties leading to unloaded regenerated skeletal tissue. To characterize the temporal evolution of mechanical properties, we carried out indentation tests coupled with macroscopic examinations and histological studies. This combined methodology yielded a range of information on osteogenesis at different scales: macroscopic by simple observation, mesoscopic by indentation test and microscopic by histological study. Results allowed us to identify different periods, providing a link between biological changes and material property evolution in bone tissue regeneration. The regenerated tissue evolves from a viscous, homogeneous, soft material to a heterogeneous stiffer material endowed with a lower viscosity. From a biological point of view, cell organization progresses from a proliferated cell clot to a mature structure closer to that of the bone. During the first 7 days, mechanical and biological results revealed the same evolution: first, the regenerated tissue grew, then, differentiated into an osteochondral tissue and finally calcification began. While our biological results confirm those of other studies, our mechanical results provide the first experimental mechanical characterization by reduced Young's modulus of such tissue. PMID:20517709

Casanova, Remy; Moukoko, Didier; Pithioux, Martine; Pailler-Mattéi, Cyril; Zahouani, Hassan; Chabrand, Patrick

2010-08-01

325

In vivo telemetric determination of shear and axial loads on a regenerative cartilage scaffold following ligament disruption.  

PubMed

Recent interest in repair of chondral and osteochondral cartilage defects to prevent osteoarthritis caused by ligament disruption has led to the research and development of biomimetic scaffolds combined with cell-based regeneration techniques. Current clinical focal defect repair strategies have had limited success. New scaffold-based approaches may provide solutions that can repair extensive damage and prevent osteoarthritis. This study utilized a novel scaffold design that accommodated strain gauges for shear and axial load monitoring in the canine stifle joint through implantable telemetry technology. Loading changes induced by ligament disruption are widely implicated in the development of injury-related osteoarthritis. Seeding the scaffold end with progenitor cells resulted in higher shear stress than without cell seeding and histology showed significantly more bone and cartilage formation. Biomechanically, the effect of transecting the anterior cruciate ligament was a significant reduction in braking load in shear, but no change axially, and conversely a significant reduction in push-off load axially, but no change in shear. This is the first study to report shear loads measured directly in knee joint tissue. Further, advances of these measurement techniques are critical to developing improved regeneration strategies and personalizing reliable rehabilitation protocols. PMID:24678004

Szivek, John A; Heden, Gregory J; Geffre, Christopher P; Wenger, Karl H; Ruth, John T

2014-10-01

326

Investigation of Localized Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium from Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid)/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Scaffolds Using an In Vitro Osteoblast Inflammation Model  

PubMed Central

Nonunion fractures and large bone defects are significant targets for osteochondral tissue engineering strategies. A major hurdle in the use of these therapies is the foreign body response of the host. Herein, we report the development of a bone tissue engineering scaffold with the ability to release anti-inflammatory drugs, in the hope of evading this response. Porous, sintered scaffolds composed of poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared with and without the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium. Analysis of drug release over time demonstrated a profile suitable for the treatment of acute inflammation with ?80% of drug released over the first 4 days and a subsequent release of around 0.2% per day. Effect of drug release was monitored using an in vitro osteoblast inflammation model, comprised of mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?). Levels of inflammation were monitored by cell viability and cellular production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The osteoblast inflammation model revealed that proinflammatory cytokine addition to the medium reduced cell viability to 33%, but the release of diclofenac sodium from scaffolds inhibited this effect with a final cell viability of ?70%. However, releasing diclofenac sodium at high concentrations had a toxic effect on the cells. Proinflammatory cytokine addition led to increased NO and PGE2 production; diclofenac-sodium-releasing scaffolds inhibited NO release by ?64% and PGE2 production by ?52%, when the scaffold was loaded with the optimal concentration of drug. These observations demonstrate the potential use of PLGA/PEG scaffolds for localized delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25104438

Sidney, Laura E.; Heathman, Thomas R.J.; Britchford, Emily R.; Abed, Arif; Rahman, Cheryl V.

2015-01-01

327

Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accepted non-invasive modality for evaluation of soft tissue pathology without exposure to ionizing radiation. Current applications demonstrate excellent visualization of the anatomy and pathology of various organs. Preliminary studies in the knee reveal fine resolution of anatomy and pathology involving the meniscus. The purpose of this study is to determine a prospective correlation between MRI scans and actual meniscal pathology as documented at the time of arthroscopy. MRI scans were obtained in 155 patients, on 156 knees (one patient with bilateral scans), with 86 patients (87 knees) eventually undergoing diagnostic and operative videoarthroscopy performed by the same surgeon (DWJ). All images were obtained on the same high-resolution 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Magnetic Resonance Scanner with the same radiologist performing all readings (PEB). The knees were studied in the coronal and sagittal plane using a spin echo sequence and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The menisci were described as having Grade 1, 2, or 3 changes, with Grade 3 reserved for complete tears. Using arthroscopy as the diagnostic standard, the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing medial and lateral meniscal tears was 93.1% and 96.6%, respectively with a Grade 3 MRI reading. For tears of the ACL, the accuracy was 96.6% as confirmed at arthroscopy. Five tears of the PCL were also documented by MRI and correlated with clinical evaluation. Other abnormalities seen were articular cartilage and osteochondral defects, bone tumors, tibial plateau fractures, Baker's cysts, and meniscal cysts. The MRI scan is a highly accurate, noninvasive modality for documentation of meniscal pathology as well as cruciate ligament tears in the knee. PMID:3344877

Jackson, D W; Jennings, L D; Maywood, R M; Berger, P E

1988-01-01

328

USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MUSCLE AND FAT GRAFTS TO REPAIR DEFECTS IN BONE AND CARTILAGE  

PubMed Central

We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2) was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated”) tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible. PMID:20073015

Evans, C.H.; Liu, F.-J.; Glatt, V.; Hoyland, J.A.; Kirker-Head, C.; Walsh, A.; Betz, O.; Wells, J.W.; Betz, V.; Porter, R.M.; Saad, F.A.; Gerstenfeld, L.C.; Einhorn, T.A.; Harris, M.B.; Vrahas, M.S.

2015-01-01

329

The Thrower's Elbow: Arthroscopic Treatment of Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Injury to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow (MCL) can be a career-threatening injury for an overhead athlete without appropriate diagnosis and treatment. It has been considered separately from other athletic injuries due to the unique constellation of pathology that results from repetitive overhead throwing. The past decade has witnessed tremendous gains in understanding of the complex interplay between the dynamic and static stabilizers of the athlete's elbow. Likewise, the necessity to treat these problems in a minimally invasive manner has driven the development of sophisticated techniques and instrumentation for elbow arthroscopy. MCL injuries, ulnar neuritis, valgus extension overload with osteophyte formation and posteromedial impingement, flexor pronator strain, medial epicondyle pathology, and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum have all been described as sequelae of the overhead throwing motion. In addition, loose body formation, bony spur formation, and capsular contracture can all be present in conjunction with these problems or as isolated entities. Not all pathology in the thrower's elbow is amenable to arthroscopic treatment; however, the clinician must be familiar with all of these problems in order to form a comprehensive differential diagnosis for an athlete presenting with elbow pain, and he or she must be comfortable with the variety of open and arthroscopic treatments available to best serve the patient. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the thrower's elbow is critical to the care of this population. The preoperative evaluation should focus on a thorough history and physical examination, as wellas on specific diagnostic imaging modalities. Arthroscopic setup, including anesthesia, patient positioning, and portal choices will be discussed. Operative techniques in the anterior and posterior compartments will bereviewed, as well as postoperative rehabilitationandsurgical results. Lastly, complications will be reviewed. PMID:18751853

Altchek, David W.

2006-01-01

330

Noninvasive dualMRI-based strains vary by depth and region in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective: To noninvasively assay the mechanical and structural characteristics of articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to further relate spatial patterns of MRI-based mechanical strain to joint (depth-wise, regional) locations and disease severity. Methods: Cylindrical osteochondral explants harvested from human tissue obtained during total knee replacement surgery were loaded in unconfined compression and 2D deformation data was acquired at 14.1 T using a displacements under applied loading by MRI (dualMRI) approach. After imaging, samples were histologically assessed for OA severity. Strains were determined by depth, and statistically analyzed for dependence on region in the joint and OA severity. Results: Von Mises, axial, and transverse strains were highly depth-dependent. After accounting for other factors, Von Mises, axial, and shear strains varied significantly by region, with largest strain magnitudes observed in explants harvested from the tibial plateau and anterior condyle near exposed bone. Additionally, in all cases, strains in late-stage OA were significantly greater than either early- or mid-stage OA. Transverse strain in mid-stage OA explants, measured near the articular surface, was significantly higher than early-stage OA explants. Conclusion: dualMRI was demonstrated in human OA tissue to quantify the effects of depth, joint region, and OA severity, on strains resulting from mechanical compression. These data suggest dualMRI may possess a wide range of utility, such as validating computational models of soft tissue deformation, assaying changes in cartilage function over time, and perhaps, once implemented for cartilage imaging in vivo, as a new paradigm for diagnosis of early- to mid-stage OA. PMID:23186942

Griebel, A.J.; Trippel, S.B.; Neu, C.P.

2014-01-01

331

Gene Expression Study in Positron Emission Tomography–Positive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Identifies CCL18 as a Potential Biomarker for Rupture Risk  

PubMed Central

Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in aging populations. Uptake of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) detected by positron emission tomography (PET) is observed in the wall of 12% of AAA (A+), with most of them being symptomatic. We previously showed that the metabolically active areas displayed adventitial inflammation, medial degeneration and molecular alterations prefacing wall rupture. The aim of this study was to identify new factors predictive of rupture. Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the media and adventitia layers from three types of samples: AAA with-out FDG uptake (A0) and with FDG uptake (A+), both at the positive spot (A+Pos) and at a paired distant negative site (A+Neg) of the same aneurysm. Follow-up studies included reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A large number of genes, including matrix metalloproteinases, collagens and cytokines as well as genes involved in osteochondral development, were differentially expressed in the A+Pos compared with A+Neg. Moreover, a series of genes (notably CCL18 ) was differentially expressed both in the A+Neg and A+Pos compared with the A0. A significant increase of CCL18 was also found at the protein level in the aortic wall and in peripheral blood of A+ patients compared with A0. In conclusion, new factors, including CCL18, involved in the progression of AAA and, potentially, in their rupture were identified by a genome-wide analysis of PET-positive and -negative human aortic tissue samples. Further work is needed to study their role in AAA destabilization and weakening. PMID:25517227

Courtois, Audrey; Nusgens, Betty V; Hustinx, Roland; Namur, Gauthier; Gomez, Pierre; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Colige, Alain C; Sakalihasan, Natzi

2014-01-01

332

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the study of joint development in the equine pelvic limb.  

PubMed

Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a focal failure of endochondral ossification of the epiphysis characterized by the presence of cartilage flaps and osteochondral fragments. The objective of this study was to image epiphyseal development in the equine pelvic limb to determine whether there was a variation in site maturation that could be a predisposing factor for OCD. Pelvic limbs (fetuses and foals) were studied post-mortem. The epiphyses of the distal femur, tibia and talus were scanned with computed tomography (CT) and 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the degree and pattern of ossification, the regularity of the ossification front and cartilage percentage (articular epiphyseal cartilage thickness as a percentage of total epiphyseal diameter) at predetermined sites. The secondary ossification centers (SOCs) were first identified in the femoral epiphyses at 7months, and both tibia and talus at 8months of gestation (MOG). At ?8 MOG the cartilage percentage was higher at the majority of OCD-susceptible sites when compared to control sites. At 8-9 MOG the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur, medial malleolus of the tibia (MM), cranial part of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia (DIRT(Cr)), all OCD susceptible sites, had the greatest cartilage percentage compared to all other sites assessed. Post-partum, the cartilage percentage of the MM and DIRT(Cr), common sites of OCD, remained high. CT and MRI images illustrate equine epiphyseal development and provide additional evidence that greater cartilage thickness at specific joint sites could play a role in the development of OCD. PMID:23688440

Fontaine, Pascal; Blond, Laurent; Alexander, Kate; Beauchamp, Guy; Richard, Hélène; Laverty, Sheila

2013-07-01

333

A New Enpp1 allele, Enpp1ttw-Ham, Identified in an ICR Closed Colony  

PubMed Central

We recently have reported on a novel ankylosis gene that is closely linked to the Enpp1 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1) gene on chromosome 10. Here, we have discovered novel mutant mice in a Jcl:ICR closed colony with ankylosis in the toes of the forelimbs at about 3 weeks of age. The mutant mice exhibited rigidity in almost all joints, including the vertebral column, which increased with age. These mice also showed hypogrowth with age after 16 weeks due to a loss of visceral fat, which may have been caused by poor nutrition. Histological examination and soft X-ray imaging demonstrated the ectopic ossification of various joints in the mutant mice. In particular, increased calcium deposits were observed in the joints of the toes, the carpal bones and the vertebral column. We sequenced all exons and exon/intron boundaries of Enpp1 in the normal and mutant mice, and identified a G-to-T substitution (c.259+1G>T) in the 5? splice donor site of intron 2 in the Enpp1 gene of the mutant mice. This substitution led to the skipping of exon 2 (73 bp), which generated a stop codon at position 354 bp (amino acid 62) of the cDNA (p.V63Xfs). Nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase (NPPH) activity of ENPP1 in the mutant mice was also decreased, suggesting that Enpp1 gene function is disrupted in this novel mutant. The mutant mice reported in this study will be a valuable animal model for future studies of human osteochondral diseases and malnutrition. PMID:24770645

Takabayashi, Shuji; Seto, Shintaro; Katoh, Hideki

2014-01-01

334

Comparison of optical coherence tomography and histopathology in quantitative assessment of goat talus articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging technique suitable for depiction of thin tissue layers such as articular cartilage. Quantification of results and direct comparison with a reference standard is needed to confirm the role of OCT in cartilage evaluation. Materials and methods - Goat talus articular cartilage repair was assessed quantitatively with OCT and compared with histopathology using semi-automated analysis software. Osteochondral defects were created centrally in goat tali with subsequent healing over 24 weeks. After sacrifice, the tali were analyzed using OCT and processed into histopathology slides. Cartilage thickness, repair tissue area, and surface roughness were measured. Also, light attenuation coefficient measurements were performed to assess differences in the properties of healthy tissue and repair tissue. Results - Intra-class correlation coefficients for resemblance between the 2 techniques were 0.95 (p < 0.001) for thickness, 0.73 (p = 0.002) for repair tissue area, and 0.63 (p = 0.015) for surface roughness. Light attenuation differed significantly between healthy cartilage (8.2 (SD 3.9) mm(-1)) and repair tissue (2.8 (SD 1.5) mm(-1)) (p < 0.001). Interpretation - Compared to histopathology as the standard reference method, OCT is a reproducible technique in quantitative analysis of goat talus articular cartilage, especially when assessing cartilage thickness and to a lesser extent when measuring repair tissue area and surface roughness. Moreover, differences in local light attenuation suggest measurable variation in tissue structure, enhancing the clinical applicability of quantitative measurements from cartilage OCT images. PMID:25350610

Cernohorsky, Paul; Kok, Aimee C; Bruin, Daniel Martijn de; Brandt, Martin J; Faber, Dirk J; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J; Kerkhoffs, Gino M; Strackee, Simon D; van Leeuwen, Ton G

2015-04-01

335

Mechano growth factor (MGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 functionalized silk scaffolds enhance articular hyaline cartilage regeneration in rabbit model.  

PubMed

Damaged cartilage has poor self-healing ability and usually progresses to scar or fibrocartilaginous tissue, and finally degenerates to osteoarthritis (OA). Here we demonstrated that one of alternative isoforms of IGF-1, mechano growth factor (MGF) acted synergistically with transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF-?3) embedded in silk fibroin scaffolds to induce chemotactic homing and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Combination of MGF and TGF-?3 significantly increased cell recruitment up to 1.8 times and 2 times higher than TGF-?3 did in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MGF increased Collagen II and aggrecan secretion of TGF-?3 induced hMSCs chondrogenesis, but decreased Collagen I in vitro. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds have been widely used for tissue engineering, and we showed that methanol treated pured SF scaffolds were porous, similar to compressive module of native cartilage, slow degradation rate and excellent drug released curves. At 7days after subcutaneous implantation, TGF-?3 and MGF functionalized silk fibroin scaffolds (STM) recruited more CD29+/CD44 + cells (P < 0.05). Similarly, more cartilage-like extracellular matrix and less fibrillar collagen were detected in STM scaffolds than that in TGF-?3 modified scaffolds (ST) at 2 months after subcutaneous implantation. When implanted into articular joints in a rabbit osteochondral defect model, STM scaffolds showed the best integration into host tissues, similar architecture and collagen organization to native hyaline cartilage, as evidenced by immunostaining of aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I, as well as Safranin O and Masson's trichrome staining, and histological evalution based on the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring system (P < 0.05), indicating that MGF and TGF-?3 might be a better candidate for cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrated that TGF-?3 and MGF functionalized silk fibroin scaffolds enhanced endogenous stem cell recruitment and facilitated in situ articular cartilage regeneration, thus providing a novel strategy for cartilage repair. PMID:25818452

Luo, Ziwei; Jiang, Li; Xu, Yan; Li, Haibin; Xu, Wei; Wu, Shuangchi; Wang, Yuanliang; Tang, Zhenyu; Lv, Yonggang; Yang, Li

2015-06-01

336

Mild degenerative changes of hip cartilage in elderly patients: an available sample representative of early osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA. PMID:25400727

Wei, Bo; Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Yan, Junwei; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

2014-01-01

337

Loss of Tbx1 induces bone phenotypes similar to cleidocranial dysplasia.  

PubMed

T-box transcription factor, TBX1, is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/ Velo-cardio-facial syndrome) characterized by facial defects, thymus hypoplasia, cardiovascular anomalies and cleft palates. Here, we report that the loss of Tbx1 in mouse (Tbx1(-/-)) results in skeletal abnormalities similar to those of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) in humans, which is an autosomal-dominant skeletal disease caused by mutations in RUNX2. Tbx1(-/-) mice display short stature, absence of hyoid bone, failed closure of fontanelle, bifid xiphoid process and hypoplasia of clavicle and zygomatic arch. A cell-type-specific deletion of Tbx1 in osteochondro-progenitor (Tbx1(OPKO)) or mesodermal (Tbx1(MKO)) lineage partially recapitulates the Tbx1(-/-) bone phenotypes. Although Tbx1 expression has not been previously reported in neural crest, inactivation of Tbx1 in the neural crest lineage (Tbx1(NCKO)) leads to an absence of the body of hyoid bone and postnatal lethality, indicating an unanticipated role of Tbx1 in neural crest development. Indeed, Tbx1 is expressed in the neural crest-derived hyoid bone primordium, in addition to mesoderm-derived osteochondral progenitors. Ablation of Tbx1 affected Runx2 expression in calvarial bones and overexpression of Tbx1 induced Runx2 expression in vitro. Taken together, our current studies reveal that Tbx1 is required for mesoderm- and neural crest-derived osteoblast differentiation and normal skeletal development. TBX1 mutation could lead to CCD-like bone phenotypes in human. PMID:25209980

Funato, Noriko; Nakamura, Masataka; Richardson, James A; Srivastava, Deepak; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

2015-01-15

338

Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass  

PubMed Central

Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

2013-01-01

339

Immature articular cartilage and subchondral bone covered by menisci are potentially susceptive to mechanical load  

PubMed Central

Background The differences of mechanical and histological properties between cartilage covered by menisci and uncovered by menisci may contribute to the osteoarthritis after meniscectomy and these differences are not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential differences in the mechanical and histological properties, and in particular the collagen architecture, of the superficial cartilage layer and subchondral bone between regions covered and uncovered by menisci using immature knee. Methods Osteochondral plugs were obtained from porcine tibial cartilage that was either covered or uncovered by menisci. Investigation of the thickness, mechanical properties, histology, and water content of the cartilage as well as micro-computed tomography analysis of the subchondral bone was performed to compare these regions. Collagen architecture was also assessed by using scanning electron microscopy. Results Compared to the cartilage uncovered by menisci, that covered by menisci was thinner and showed a higher deformity to compression loading and higher water content. In the superficial layer of cartilage in the uncovered regions, collagen fibers showed high density, whereas they showed low density in covered regions. Furthermore, subchondral bone architecture varied between the 2 regions, and showed low bone density in covered regions. Conclusions Cartilage covered by menisci differed from that uncovered in both its mechanical and histological properties, especially with regards to the density of the superficial collagen layer. These regional differences may be related to local mechanical environment in normal condition and indicate that cartilage covered by menisci is tightly guarded by menisci from extreme mechanical loading. Our results indicate that immature cartilage degeneration and subchondral microfracture may occur easily to extreme direct mechanical loading in covered region after meniscectomy. PMID:24669849

2014-01-01

340

Gene Expression Study in Positron Emission Tomography-Positive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Identifies CCL18 as a Potential Biomarker for Rupture Risk.  

PubMed

Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in aging populations. Uptake of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) detected by positron emission tomography (PET) is observed in the wall of 12% of AAA (A+), with most of them being symptomatic. We previously showed that the metabolically active areas displayed adventitial inflammation, medial degeneration and molecular alterations prefacing wall rupture. The aim of this study was to identify new factors predictive of rupture. Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the media and adventitia layers from three types of samples: AAA with-out FDG uptake (A0) and with FDG uptake (A+), both at the positive spot (A+Pos) and at a paired distant negative site (A+Neg) of the same aneurysm. Follow-up studies included reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A large number of genes, including matrix metalloproteinases, collagens and cytokines as well as genes involved in osteochondral development, were differentially expressed in the A+Pos compared with A+Neg. Moreover, a series of genes (notably CCL18 ) was differentially expressed both in the A+Neg and A+Pos compared with the A0. A significant increase of CCL18 was also found at the protein level in the aortic wall and in peripheral blood of A+ patients compared with A0. In conclusion, new factors, including CCL18, involved in the progression of AAA and, potentially, in their rupture were identified by a genome-wide analysis of PET-positive and -negative human aortic tissue samples. Further work is needed to study their role in AAA destabilization and weakening. PMID:25517227

Courtois, Audrey; Nusgens, Betty V; Hustinx, Roland; Namur, Gauthier; Gomez, Pierre; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Colige, Alain C; Sakalihasan, Natzi

2015-01-01

341

Bioactive glass in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

342

Molecular changes after shockwave therapy in osteoarthritic knee in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the molecular changes of DKK-1, MMP13, Wnt-5a and \\upbeta-catenin after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) osteoarthritic (OA) knee in rats. 27 male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group I was the control one and received sham knee arthrotomy but no ACLT or ESWT. Group II underwent ACLT, but no ESWT. Group III underwent ACLT and received ESWT. The animals were killed at 12 weeks, and the harvested knee specimens were subjected to histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiographs of the knees were obtained at 0 and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, radiographs of group II showed more arthritic changes with formation of osteochondral fragments, whereas very subtle arthritis was noted in groups I and III. In histopathological examination, group II showed a significant increase of Mankin score and a decrease of subchondral bone as compared to groups I and III. Group III showed a significant decrease of Mankin score and an increase of subchondral bone, with the data comparable to group I. In immunohistochemical analysis, group II showed significant increases of DKK-1 and MMP13 and decreases of Wnt-5a and \\upbeta-catenin in articular cartilage and subchondral bone as compared to groups I and III. Group III showed significant decreases of DKK-1 and MMP13 and increases of Wnt-5a and \\upbeta-catenin, with the data comparable to group I. In conclusion, the application of ESWT causes molecular changes that are consistent with the improvement in subchondral bone remodeling and chondroprotective effect in ACLT OA knees in rats.

Wang, C.-J.; Sun, Y.-C.; Wu, C.-T.; Weng, L.-H.; Wang, F.-S.

2013-10-01

343

Chondrogenesis and mineralization during in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on three-dimensional woven scaffolds.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and three-dimensional (3D) woven poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds are promising tools for skeletal tissue engineering. We hypothesized that in vitro culture duration and medium additives can individually and interactively influence the structure, composition, mechanical, and molecular properties of engineered tissues based on hMSCs and 3D poly(?-caprolactone). Bone marrow hMSCs were suspended in collagen gel, seeded on scaffolds, and cultured for 1, 21, or 45 days under chondrogenic and/or osteogenic conditions. Structure, composition, biomechanics, and gene expression were analyzed. In chondrogenic medium, cartilaginous tissue formed by day 21, and hypertrophic mineralization was observed in the newly formed extracellular matrix at the interface with underlying scaffold by day 45. Glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline, and calcium contents, and alkaline phosphatase activity depended on culture duration and medium additives, with significant interactive effects (all p?osteochondral defect repair. PMID:20673022

Abrahamsson, Christoffer K; Yang, Fan; Park, Hyoungshin; Brunger, Jonathan M; Valonen, Piia K; Langer, Robert; Welter, Jean F; Caplan, Arnold I; Guilak, Farshid; Freed, Lisa E

2010-12-01

344

Design and Validation of a Compressive Tissue Stimulator with High-Throughput Capacity and Real-Time Modulus Measurement Capability  

PubMed Central

Mechanical stimulation has been shown to impact the properties of engineered hyaline cartilage constructs and is relevant for engineering of cartilage and osteochondral tissues. Most mechanical stimulators developed to date emphasize precision over adaptability to standard tissue culture equipment and protocols. The realization of mechanical characteristics in engineered constructs approaching native cartilage requires the optimization of complex variables (type of stimulus, regimen, and bimolecular signals). We have proposed and validated a stimulator design that focuses on high construct capacity, compatibility with tissue culture plastic ware, and regimen adaptability to maximize throughput. This design utilizes thin force sensors in lieu of a load cell and a linear encoder to verify position. The implementation of an individual force sensor for each sample enables the measurement of Young's modulus while stimulating the sample. Removable and interchangeable Teflon plungers mounted using neodymium magnets contact each sample. Variations in plunger height and design can vary the strain and force type on individual samples. This allows for the evaluation of a myriad of culture conditions and regimens simultaneously. The system was validated using contact accuracy, and Young's modulus measurements range as key parameters. Contact accuracy for the system was excellent within 1.16% error of the construct height in comparison to measurements made with a micrometer. Biomaterials ranging from bioceramics (cancellous bone, 123?MPa) to soft gels (1% agarose, 20?KPa) can be measured without any modification to the device. The accuracy of measurements in conjunction with the wide range of moduli tested demonstrate the unique characteristics of the device and the feasibility of using this device in mapping real-time changes to Young's modulus of tissue constructs (cartilage, bone) through the developmental phases in ex vivo culture conditions. PMID:21988089

Salvetti, David J.; Pino, Christopher J.; Manuel, Steven G.; Dallmeyer, Ian; Rangarajan, Sanjeet V.; Meyer, Tobias; Kotov, Misha

2012-01-01

345

Effect of a novel synthesized sulfonamido-based gallate-SZNTC on chondrocytes metabolism in vitro.  

PubMed

The ideal therapeutic agent for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) should have not only potent anti-inflammatory effect but also favorable biological properties to restore cartilage function. Gallic acid (GA) and its derivatives are anti-inflammatory agents reported to have an effect on OA (Singh et al., 2003) [1]. However, GA has much weaker antioxidant effects and inferior bioactivity compared with its derivatives. We modified GA with the introduction of sulfonamide to synthesize a novel sulfonamido-based gallate named sodium salt of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-benzamide (SZNTC) and analyzed its chondro-protective and pharmacological effects. Comparison of SZNTC with GA and sulfathiazole sodium (ST-Na) was also performed. Results showed that SZNTC could effectively inhibit the Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated induction of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 and could induce the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which demonstrated ability to reduce the progression of OA. SZNTC can also exert chondro-protective effects by promoting cell proliferation and maintaining the phenotype of articular chondrocytes, as evidenced by improved cell growth, enhanced synthesis of cartilage specific markers such as aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, revealing the inhibition of chondrocytes dedifferentiation by SZNTC. Hypertrophy that may lead to chondrocyte ossification was also undetectable in SZNTC groups. The recommended dose of SZNTC ranges from 3.91?g/ml to 15.64?g/ml, among which the most profound response was observed with 7.82?g/ml. In contrast, its source products of GA and ST-Na have a weak effect in the bioactivity of chondrocytes, which indicated the significance of this modification. This study revealed SZNTC as a promising novel agent in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25130855

Liu, Qin; Li, Mu-Yan; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Cui-Wu; Liu, Bu-Ming; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-Min

2014-09-25

346

Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of ex vivo focal cartilage defects  

PubMed Central

Background: No established, non-invasive diagnostic procedure for quantifying focal cartilage defects is currently available. Objective: To test the accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) for reliable determination of cartilage defect size in various compartments of the human knee. Methods: 24 tibial and patellar cartilage plates were harvested during knee arthroplasty. 74 cylindrical defects with diameters of 3, 5, and 8 mm were created with a punch. In 15 specimens (51 defects), the cartilage cylinders (inside the punch) were removed (approach 1), while in 9 specimens (23 defects) the surrounding tissue was removed mechanically and the cartilage cylinder was left in place (approach 2). All plates were imaged with a T1 weighted water excitation gradient echo sequence at a resolution of 1.5 mmx0.31 mmx0.31 mm. The defect size was computed from the image data after interactive segmentation and compared with the known dimensions of the cylinders. Results: Although there was a significant overestimation of the defect size by qMRI in 3 mm defects (mean (SD) +1.3 (0.58) mm = ±42%; p<0.001), the overestimation was only +1.0 (0.57) mm (±21%; p<0.05) in 5 mm defects and +0.1 (0.39) mm (±4%; p = 0.31) in 8 mm defects (approach 1). Values were similar for approaches 1 and 2 and for patellar and tibial cartilage plates. Conclusions: These findings show that qMRI allows accurate quantification of focal cartilage defects. It may therefore represent a valuable tool in the diagnosis of traumatic cartilage lesions, osteochondrosis dissecans, and osteochondral fractures, and in monitoring their responsiveness to surgical or other treatments. PMID:15640266

Graichen, H; Al-Shamari, D; Hinterwimmer, S; von Eisenhart-Rot..., R; Vogl, T; Eckstein, F

2005-01-01

347

Anaesthesia in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits: a comparison between intravenous sufentanil-midazolam and isoflurane anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery.  

PubMed

Eighteen female New Zealand White rabbits (3.9?±?0.4?kg) were anaesthetized with sufentanil-midazolam by intravenous infusion (SUF-MID, n?=?9) or isoflurane (ISO, n?=?9) for bilateral creation of an osteochondral defect in the medial femur condyle. Subcutaneous premedication with 0.1?mg/kg medetomidine and anaesthesia induction by intravenous infusion of 1.1?µg/kg sufentanil and 0.2?mg/kg midazolam were identical in both groups. During surgery (60?min), the effects on respiratory and circulatory variables serum lactate, total protein and blood glucose were examined. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) was initiated if apnoea lasted>30?s or if end-tidal CO2 ?8?kPa. The righting reflex was lost in 3?min. IPPV was necessary during most of the anaesthesia for most of the rabbits. Maintenance doses during surgery were 2.0?µg/kg/h sufentanil and 0.4?mg/kg/h midazolam, and 1.4% isoflurane, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was higher in group SUF-MID than group ISO during surgery (63?±?12 vs 50?±?8?mmHg). In group ISO the heart rate was higher during surgery than before anaesthesia (197?±?26 vs 158?±?40 bpm) as was blood glucose (9?±?2 vs 12?±?3?mmol/L). Serum lactate levels remained unchanged whereas total protein decreased in both groups. Time to recover from anaesthesia did not differ between groups (20?min). Intravenous sufentanil-midazolam infusion provided surgical anaesthesia with a higher MAP than isoflurane anaesthesia. The protocol can be useful in situations in which gas anaesthesia cannot be used or in animals with limited cardiovascular reserves. However, IPPV is necessary. PMID:24464922

Hedenqvist, Patricia; Edner, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

2014-04-01

348

Correlation between 3D microstructural and 2D histomorphometric properties of subchondral bone with healthy and degenerative cartilage of the knee joint.  

PubMed

Cartilage degeneration of the knee joint is considered to be a largely mechanically driven process. We conducted a microstructural and histomorphometric analysis of subchondral bone samples of intact cartilage and in samples with early and higher- grade arthritic degeneration to compare the different states and correlate the findings with the condition of hyaline cartilage. These findings will enable us to evaluate changes in biomechanical properties of subchondral bone during the evolution of arthritic degeneration, for which bone density alone is an insufficient parameter. From a continuous series of 80 patients undergoing implantation of total knee endoprosthesis 30 osteochondral samples with lesions macroscopically classified as ICRS grade 1b (group A) and 30 samples with ICRS grade 3a or 3b lesions (group B) were taken. The bone samples were assessed by 2D histomorphometry (semiautomatic image analysis system) and 3D microstructural analysis (high-resolution micro-CT system). The cartilage was examined using the semiquantitative real-time PCR gene expression of collagen type I and II and aggrecan. Both histomorphometry and microstructural and biomechanical analysis of subchondral bone in groups A and B consistently revealed progressive changes of both bone and cartilage compared with healthy controls. The severity of cartilage degeneration as assessed by RT PCR was significantly correlated with BV/TV (Bone Volume Fraction), Tb.Th (Trabecular Thickness) showed a slight increase. Tb.N (Trabecular Number), Tb.Sp (Trabecular separation) SMI (Structure Model Index), Conn.D (Connectivity Density) and DA (Degree of Anisotropy) were inversely correlated. We saw sclerotic transformation and phagocytic reticulum cells. Bone volume fraction decreased with an increasing distance from the cartilage with the differences compared with healthy controls becoming greater in more advanced cartilage damage. The density of subchondral bone alone is considered an unreliable parameter for classifying changes evolving over time. The progressive damage of subchondral bone seen in the present study correlates well with cartilage changes. Trabecular orientation is also impaired, which explains the changes in biomechanical parameters and the inadequate load transfer and excessive loading of cartilage. Besides subchondral bone density, which in turn correlates with cartilage thickness, other parameters such as structure model index and grade of anisotropy best reflect mechanical properties such as Young modulus, compressive strength, tensile stress, and failure energy. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanical interaction of the mineralized subchondral tissues with articular cartilage works vice versa. The possibility of a biochemical signalling from the degenerating cartilage via the synovial fluid and bone- cartilage crosstalks via subchondral pores may indeed explain a certain depth-dependency of subchondral bone changes. PMID:24828695

Lahm, Andreas; Kasch, Richard; Spank, Heiko; Erggelet, Christoph; Esser, Jan; Merk, Harry; Mrosek, Eike

2014-11-01

349

A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates) of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n?=?3). Serial measurements (n?=?5) in different operation modes (OM) were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1) and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2) or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3) or tissues (OM-4). The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s). Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80%) in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n?=?10) of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa) and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold). The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant higher adhesive strength on cartilage (14.8 kPa) and bone tissue (11.8 kPa) compared to fibrin and also considerable adhesive properties when filling defects with cartilage tissue (23.2 kPa). Conclusion The method confirmed adhesive properties of fibrin and demonstrated the dependence of adhesive properties and applied settings. Furthermore the method was suitable to screen for potential adhesives and to identify a promising candidate for cartilage and bone applications. The method can offer simple, replicable and efficient evaluation of adhesive properties in ex vivo specimens and may be a useful supplement to existing methods in clinical relevant settings. PMID:22984926

2012-01-01

350

A History of Lumbar Disc Herniation From Hippocrates to the 1990s.  

PubMed

In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with lumbar disc herniation. In this era, use of discectomy surgery increased rapidly. Even patients with very early symptoms were offered surgery. Later work, especially by Weber and Hakelius, showed that many patients with lumbar disc herniation would improve without surgical intervention. In the ensuing decades, the debate over operative indications and timing continued, reaching another pivotal moment with the 2006 publication of the initial results of Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. PMID:24752913

Truumees, Eeric

2014-04-22

351

Microscale Material Properties of Bone and the Mineralized Tissues of the Intervertebral Disc-Vertebral Body Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this dissertation is to understand the influences of material structure on the properties, function and failure of biological connective tissues. Biological interfaces are becoming an increasingly studied system within mechanics and tissue engineering as a model for attaching dissimilar materials. The elastic modulus of bone (? 20 GPa) and cartilage (? 0.1-1 MPa) differ over orders of magnitude, which should intuitively create high stress concentrations and failure at the interface. Yet, these natural interface systems rarely fail in vivo, and the mechanism by which loads are transferred between tissues has not yet been established. Tissue quality is one major contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone and cartilage, and is defined by properties such as collagen orientation, mineral volume fraction, porosity and tissue geometry. These properties have yet to be established at the bone-cartilage interface in the spine, and the lack of quantitative data on material microstructure and behavior limits treatments and tissue engineering construct design. In this dissertation, second harmonic generation imaging, quantitative backscattered scanning electron imaging and nanoindentation are combined to characterize micrometer scale tissue quality and modulus in both bone and calcified cartilage. These techniques are utilized to: 1) determine the hierarchical micrometer to millimeter scale properties of lamellar bone, 2) quantify changes throughout development and aging at the human intervertebral disc-vertebral body junction, and 3) explore compressive fractures at this interface. This work is the first to provide quantitative data on the mineral volume fraction, collagen orientation and modulus from the same, undecalcified sections of tissue to corroborate tissue structure and mineralization and describe quantitative parameters of the interface. The principal findings from this work indicate that the underlying matrix, or collagen, organization in mineralized biological tissues and at the bone-cartilage interface plays an important mechanical role. Nanoindentation measurements in osteonal bone are affected by location within the lamellar structure, even though mineral volume fraction within a single osteon is relatively consistent compared to the differences observed between bone and calcified cartilage. While increasing mineral volume fraction contributes to increases in modulus in the calcified cartilage layer of the vertebral body-intervertebral disc interface, significant scatter remains. The collagenous matrix structure and type of collagen appear to have a significant influence on modulus as well. Collagen fibers of the disc mineralize adjacent to the bone of the vertebral body, and the persistence of this attachment zone from adolescence through senescence indicates that it likely serves a mechanical function. Fiber insertions into thick calcified cartilage regions likely create mechanically robust anchor points at the osteochondral interface.

Paietta, Rachel C.

352

Subcapital Correction Osteotomy for Malunited Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

PubMed Central

Background Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), causing posterior and inferior displacement and retroversion of the femoral head, is a well-recognized etiology for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and can lead to premature arthritis in the young adult. The treatment of malunited SCFE remains controversial. Surgical dislocation and subcapital correction osteotomy (SCO) has been described as a powerful method to correct the proximal femoral deformity. Methods Between January 2003 and January 2010, 11 patients (12 hips) with closed femoral physes and symptomatic FAI from malunited SCFE were treated with surgical dislocation and SCO. We performed a retrospective review of patient histories, physical exams, operative findings, and pre and postoperative anteroposterior (AP) and groin lateral (GLat) radiographs. Mean follow-up was 61 months. Results There were 4 female and 7 male patients with an average age of 15 years at the time of SCO. On the AP radiograph the mean inferior femoral head displacement (AP epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-26° to -6°, p<0.001). On the groin lateral radiograph the mean posterior femoral head displacement (Lateral epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-45° to -3°, p<0.001). The mean alpha angle was also significantly improved on both views (AP: 85° to 56°, P<0.001; GLat: 85° to 46°, p<0.001). Operative findings included one femoral osteochondral defect, 8 Outerbridge grade 3-4 acetabular cartilage lesions, and 10 labral lesions. Significant improvement of the mean Harris hip score (HHS) was seen at latest follow-up (54 to 77, p=0.016). Complications occurred in 4 of the 12 cases with AVN in two patients, a worse postoperative HHS in one patient, and failure of fixation treated successfully with revision open reduction internal fixation in one patient. Conclusions Subcapital correction osteotomy as an adjunct to surgical dislocation and osteochondroplasty can be used to correct the deformity of the proximal femur associated with malunited SCFE. Normalization of proximal femoral anatomy may postpone progression to severe osteoarthritis and thus delay the need for arthroplasty in this young patient population. However, surgeons and patients should be aware that the risks of this procedure in this population are significant. PMID:23653020

Anderson, Lucas A.; Gililland, Jeremy; Pelt, Christoper; Peters, Christopher L.

2013-01-01

353

Ultrasound indentation of bovine knee articular cartilage in situ.  

PubMed

We have earlier developed a handheld ultrasound indentation instrument for the diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration. In ultrasound indentation, cartilage is compressed with the ultrasound transducer. Tissue thickness and deformation are calculated from the A-mode ultrasound signal and the stress applied is registered with the strain gauges. In this study, the applicability of the ultrasound indentation instrument to quantify site-dependent variation in the mechano-acoustic properties of bovine knee cartilage was investigated. Osteochondral blocks (n=6 per site) were prepared from the femoral medial condyle (FMC), the lateral facet of the patello-femoral groove (LPG) and the medial tibial plateau (MTP). Cartilage stiffness (dynamic modulus, E(dyn)), as obtained with the ultrasound indentation instrument in situ, correlated highly linearly (r=0.913, p<0.01) with the values obtained using the reference material-testing device in vitro. Reproducibility (standardized coefficient of variation) of the ultrasound indentation measurements was 5.2%, 1.7% and 3.1% for E(dyn), ultrasound reflection coefficient of articular surface (R) and thickness, respectively. E(dyn) and R were site dependent (p<0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H test). E(dyn) was significantly higher (p<0.05, Kruskall-Wallis Post Hoc test) in LPG (mean+/-SD: 10.1+/-3.1MPa) than in MTP (2.9+/-1.4MPa). In FMC, E(dyn) was 4.6+/-1.3MPa. R was significantly (p<0.05) lower at MTP (2.0+/-0.7%) than at other sites (FMC: 4.2+/-0.9%; LPG: 4.4+/-0.8%). Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration, as quantified with the digital densitometry, correlated positively with E(dyn) (r=0.678, p<0.01) and especially with the equilibrium Young's modulus (reference device, r=0.874, p<0.01) but it was not associated with R (r=0.294, p=0.24). We conclude that manual measurements are reproducible and the instrument may be used for detection of cartilage quality in situ. Especially, combined measurement of thickness, E(dyn) and R provides valuable diagnostic information on cartilage status. PMID:12893034

Laasanen, Mikko S; Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Rieppo, Jarno; Korhonen, Rami K; Jurvelin, Jukka S

2003-09-01