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Sample records for osteofibroso flexor das

  1. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Pulled hip flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  2. Traumatic flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Lapegue, F; Andre, A; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Chiavassa, H; Sans, N; Faruch, M

    2015-12-01

    The flexor system of the fingers consisting of flexor tendons and finger pulleys is a key anatomic structure for the grasping function. Athletes and manual workers are particularly at risk for closed injuries of the flexor system: ruptured pulleys, ruptures of the flexor digitorum profundus from its distal attachment ("jersey finger"), and less frequently, ruptures of the flexor digitorum superficialis and of the lumbrical muscles. Open injuries vary more and their imaging features are more complex since tendons may be torn in several locations, the locations may be unusual, the injuries may be associated with nerve and vascular injuries, fibrosis… Sonography is the best imaging modality to associate with the clinical exam for it allows an experienced physician to make an accurate and early diagnosis, crucial to appropriate early treatment planning. PMID:26564614

  3. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as sprinting, kicking, and changing direction while running or moving, can stretch and tear the hip flexors. Runners, people who do martial arts, and football, soccer, and hockey players are more likely to have ...

  4. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  5. Human flexor reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Bhagwan T.; Young, Robert R.

    1971-01-01

    One type of flexor reflex, that recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle in response to electrical stimulation of the sole of the foot, was studied in normal subjects and patients with several neurological disorders. Normally this reflex consists of two components, the second of which is related to the actual withdrawal. The first component, normally of lower threshold, is difficult to evoke in patients with chronic spinal cord or discrete cerebral lesions, whereas it has an unusually low threshold and is very clearly seen in those with Parkinson's disease. In patients with spinal cord disease, the exaggerated flexor reflexes are seen at long latencies after relatively small stimuli. During the early phase of recovery from spinal transection, both components may be seen and are, therefore, spinal in origin. Studies of patients with the sensory neuropathy of Friedreich's ataxia suggest that the afferent fibres responsible for these flexor reflexes are the small myelinated fibres. Recovery curves demonstrate very long-lasting changes in flexor reflex excitability in normal subjects and patients with `spasticity' from spinal lesions. This differs in patients with `spasticity' from lesions rostral to the brain-stem. Examples in man of such physiological phenomena as reciprocal inhibition, local sign, habituation, temporal and spatial summation are discussed. Images PMID:5122389

  6. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately. PMID:27206398

  7. Flexor tendon repair in zone III.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of the literature on the outcome of zone III flexor tendon injuries. In this paper, we report on the results of zone III flexor tendon repair in 35 consecutive adult patients with clean cut lacerations of both flexor tendons in 42 fingers. There were 25 men and 10 women with an average age of 32 years. Repair of both flexor tendons was performed using 'figure of eight' core sutures and a continuous epitendinous suture. Postoperatively, an immediate active range of motion protocol was applied to ensure full active extension of the interphalangeal joints. The results were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures. One patient with two injured fingers developed complex regional pain syndrome and the final outcome was fair in both fingers. In the remaining 34 patients (40 fingers), 33 patients (38 fingers) had an excellent outcome and the remaining patient (two fingers) had a good outcome. PMID:20807720

  8. Flexor pulley system: anatomy, injury, and management.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Brian; Rendulic, Dora; Szabo, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    Flexor pulley injuries are most commonly seen in avid rock climbers; however, reports of pulley ruptures in nonclimbers are increasing. In addition to traumatic disruption, corticosteroid-induced pulley rupture has been reported as a complication of treating stenosing tenosynovitis. Over the last decade, there have been 2 new developments in the way hand surgeons think about the flexor pulley system. First, the thumb pulley system has been shown to have 4 component constituents, in contrast to the classic teaching of 3 pulleys. Second, in cases of zone II flexor tendon injury, the intentional partial A2 and/or A4 pulley excision or venting is emerging as a component for successful treatment. This is challenging the once-held dogma that preserving the integrity of the entire A2 and A4 pulleys is indispensable for normal digit function. PMID:25459958

  9. Biomechanical effects of dissecting flexor carpi ulnaris.

    PubMed

    Kreulen, M; Smeulders, M J C; Hage, J J; Huijing, P A

    2003-08-01

    Our aim was to determine whether the length and function of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle were affected by separating it from its soft tissue connections. We measured the length of flexor carpi ulnaris before and after its dissection in ten patients with cerebral palsy. After tenotomy, tetanic contraction shortened the muscle by a mean of 8 mm. Subsequent dissection to separate it from all soft tissue connections, resulted in a further mean shortening of 17 mm (p < 0.001). This indicated that the dissected connective tissue had been strong enough to maintain the length of the contracting muscle. Passive extension of the wrist still lengthened the muscle after tenotomy, whereas this excursion significantly decreased after subsequent dissection. We conclude that the connective tissue envelope, which may be dissected during tendon transfer of flexor carpi ulnaris may act as a myofascial pathway for the transmission of force. This may have clinical implications for the outcome after tendon transfer. PMID:12931805

  10. Coexistent digital gouty and infective flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Qasim; Hughes, Michael; Muir, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Flexor tenosynovitis of the hand is often caused by trauma or infection. Gouty tenosynovitis is an uncommon presentation of the condition and is usually misdiagnosed as infection with the patient undergoing surgery. The coexistence of infection and gout causing flexor tenosynovitis has never been described before in the literature; we report the first ever case and emphasise the importance of its awareness for optimal treatment. A 54-year-old man was initially diagnosed and treated as having infective flexor tenosynovitis and, later, due to a lack of improvement in his symptoms, was discovered to also have gout. We review the literature and suggest management strategy for use in daily clinical practice, including an algorithm, for this presentation. PMID:27358092

  11. Simultaneous closed rupture of flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the middle finger: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Robert W.; Lotfi, Naeil; Shyamalan, Gunaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A 20-year-old man suffered a closed rupture of both flexor tendons in the middle finger while playing rugby. Primary repair of the flexor digitorum profundus and excision of the flexor digitorum superficialis was performed. At follow up he reported a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 0 and unrestricted return to activities.

  12. Secondary repair of flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Battiston, B; Triolo, P F; Bernardi, A; Artiaco, S; Tos, P

    2013-03-01

    Tendon adhesions or even secondary ruptures causing severe hand functional impairment still represent a frequent complication after repair of flexor tendon injuries. Secondary treatment of these problems includes tenolysis, one or two stages flexor tendons reconstruction by grafts or even the use of tendon prosthesis. The mechanism and severity of injury, the status of the surrounding tissues and injured finger, the presence of associated lesions, the age of the patient, post-operative management, patient motivation and the surgeon's skill, may all have implications in the final outcome of the tendon reconstruction. A correct evaluation of the problem by means of classifications such as the one described by Boyes, may help the surgeon in choosing the appropriate technique. PMID:23347767

  13. [Flexor tendon repair: a short story].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V

    2014-12-01

    This short story of flexor tendon repair aims to illustrate hesitations and wanderings of this surgery. Obviously tendon repair was very early considered, but it developed and diffused rather lately. It became a routine practice only in 20th century. This was due on the one hand, in Occident, to the Galen's dogmatic interdiction, on the other hand, to the repair difficulties of this paradoxical structure. Actually tendon is made of fibroblasts and collagen (sticky substances), and then its only goal is to move. According to this necessity, whatever the used techniques are, gliding is the final purpose. Technical evolutions are illustrated by historical contributions to flexor tendon surgery of several "giants" of hand surgery. PMID:24837978

  14. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  15. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  16. IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries. PMID:23962872

  17. A new device for flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Dymarczyk, M

    2001-01-01

    Managing the treatment of patients with zone II flexor tendon injuries for successful outcomes has always been a challenge for the hand therapist. Working closely with the patient to help ensure follow-through with the protocol is frequently necessary. If a patient is compliant, the therapist's concern then becomes one of "scar wars" (to use a phrase coined by Ken Flowers). Early active range of motion and tendon gliding are critical parts of most programs. This author has developed a new idea in conjunction with the Indiana Hand Center protocol. PMID:11511017

  18. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  19. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  20. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  1. The effects of eye coordination during deep cervical flexor training on the thickness of the cervical flexors

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyun-Ju; Goo, Bong-Oh; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Jang, Jun-Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the thicknesses of the cervical flexors according to eye coordination during deep cervical flexor training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty normal adults were randomly selected, and during their deep cervical flexor training and eye tracking, the thicknesses of the longus colli and the sternocleidomastoid were measured using ultrasonic waves. [Results] The thickness of the longus colli statistically significantly increased when deep cervical flexor training and eye coordination were performed simultaneously. However, the thickness of the sternocleidomastoid did not show statistically significant differences according to eye coordination. [Conclusion] Eye coordination during deep cervical flexor training is likely to increase the thickness of the longus colli selectively. PMID:26834355

  2. Biological Augmentation of Flexor Tendon Repair: A Challenging Cellular Landscape.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Alayna E; Kelly, Meghan; Hammert, Warren C

    2016-01-01

    Advances in surgical technique and rehabilitation have transformed zone II flexor tendon injuries from an inoperable no-man's land to a standard surgical procedure. Despite these advances, many patients develop substantial range of motion-limiting adhesions after primary flexor tendon repair. These suboptimal outcomes may benefit from biologic augmentation or intervention during the flexor tendon healing process. However, there is no consensus biological approach to promote satisfactory flexor tendon healing; we propose that insufficient understanding of the complex cellular milieu in the healing tendon has hindered the development of successful therapies. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components of flexor tendon healing and adhesion formation, including resident tendon cells, synovial sheath, macrophages, and bone marrow-derived cells. In addition, it examines molecular approaches that have been used in translational animal models to improve flexor tendon healing and gliding function, with a specific focus on progress made using murine models of healing. This information highlights the importance of understanding and potentially exploiting the heterogeneity of the cellular environment during flexor tendon healing, to define rational therapeutic approaches to improve healing outcomes. PMID:26652792

  3. Zone III flexor tendon injuries - A proposed modification to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chinchalkar, Shrikant J; Pipicelli, Joey G; Agur, Anne; Athwal, George S

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, these authors have utilized years of clinical experience to suggest rehabilitation modifications for Zone III flexor tendon injuries. - VictoriaPriganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:26089286

  4. The flexor tendon pulley system and rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Timothy P

    2012-06-01

    Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past two decades. Closed traumatic rupture of the finger flexor tendon pulleys is rare among the general population but is seen much more commonly in rock climbers. This article reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the finger flexor tendon pulleys, how they may be injured in rock climbing and how these injuries are best diagnosed and managed. PMID:23730085

  5. Arthroscopic Synovectomy for Zone 2 Flexor Hallucis Longus Tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a condition typically found in ballet dancers and sometimes in soccer players and is related to chronic overuse. It mostly involves the portion of the tendon behind the ankle joint. However, the portion of the tendon under the sustentaculum tali can also be involved. Open synovectomy requires extensive dissection. We report the technique of arthroscopic synovectomy of the deep portion of the flexor hallucis longus. PMID:26697294

  6. Arthroscopic Synovectomy for Zone 2 Flexor Hallucis Longus Tenosynovitis

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a condition typically found in ballet dancers and sometimes in soccer players and is related to chronic overuse. It mostly involves the portion of the tendon behind the ankle joint. However, the portion of the tendon under the sustentaculum tali can also be involved. Open synovectomy requires extensive dissection. We report the technique of arthroscopic synovectomy of the deep portion of the flexor hallucis longus. PMID:26697294

  7. Human flexor reflex modulation during cycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Kukulka, C G

    1993-04-01

    1. Human flexor reflex (HFR) responses were elicited during ergometer cycling in neurologically intact humans with the objective of understanding the influence of lower limb muscle activity on phase-dependent reflex modulation during movement. The experimental setup permitted control over background muscle activity and stimulus intensity without significantly interfering with the cycling motion. 2. All experiments involved cycling on an ergometer at a set rate and workload. A 333-Hz, 15-ms pulse train of electrical stimulation was randomly delivered to the skin over the tibial nerve at the ankle at selected lower limb positions. In the first group of experiments, subjects were stimulated at six cycling phases while pedaling with normal, phasic ankle activity (free-form cycling). The second and third group of experiments involved stimulation under static limb positioning conditions and during active pedaling while subjects were asked to maintain a consistent background level of isolated tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus (SOL) electromyographic (EMG) activity. 3. Control criteria were established to assure similar isolated muscle EMG levels and sensory stimulation intensities throughout the experiments. With the aid of the application of a lower extremity brace and visual EMG feedback, SOL and TA activity were confined by the subject to a narrow range during the task of cycling. Stimulus consistency was achieved through maintenance of flexor hallucis brevis M-waves to within an envelope encompassing the mean value +/- 5% of the maximum M-wave amplitude in all experimental conditions. 4. When the subject's limb was statically positioned, the HFR responses in the SOL muscle showed no significant changes in pattern when compared at various limb positions. During cycling with consistent SOL activity, a response waveform pattern of early-latency-long-duration depression was followed by a later-latency facilitation response in all positions except the initial power phase

  8. Superficialis Sling (Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Tenodesis) for Swan Neck Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wei, David H; Terrono, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Swan neck deformity, or hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint, may occur secondary to trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and can be treated with tenodesis of one slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon. This technique has several variations, differing primarily in the specific location and method that a single slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon is secured, but they all serve to create a static volar restraint against hyperextension. Options include tunneling the tendon through the bone of the proximal phalanx, attaching the tendon to the A1 or A2 pulley, or securing the tendon with bone anchors in the proximal phalanx. PMID:26328902

  9. Flexor digitorum brevis tendon transfer to the flexor digitorum longus tendon according to Valtin in posttraumatic flexible claw toe deformity due to extrinsic toe flexor shortening.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H; Kajetanek, C; Graff, W; Thiongo, M; Laporte, C

    2015-04-01

    Claw toe deformity after posterior leg compartment syndrome is rare but incapacitating. When the mechanism is flexor digitorum longus (FDL) shortening due to ischemic contracture of the muscle after posterior leg syndrome, a good treatment option is the Valtin procedure in which the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) is transferred to the FDL after FDL tenotomy. The Valtin procedure reduces the deformity by lengthening and reactivating the FDL. Here, we report the outcomes of FDB to FDL transfer according to Valtin in 10 patients with posttraumatic claw toe deformity treated a mean of 34 months after the injury. Toe flexion was restored in all 10 patients, with no claw toe deformity even during dorsiflexion of the ankle. PMID:25703152

  10. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  11. Single-Stage Flexor Tendon Grafting: Refining the Steps.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Derek R; McClinton, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Single-stage tendon grafting for reconstruction of zone I and II flexor tendon injuries is a challenging procedure in hand surgery. Careful patient selection, strict indications, and adherence to sound surgical principles are mandatory for return of digital motion. PMID:26026357

  12. Comparison of modified Kessler tendon suture at different levels in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon and porcine flexors and porcine extensors: an experimental biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Järvinen, T L N; Göransson, H

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the biomechanical behaviour of repairs in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones I, II and III with repairs of different segments of the porcine flexor tendon of the second digit and the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon, in order to assess the validity of porcine tendons as models for human flexor tendon repairs. These porcine tendons were selected after comparing their size with the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The tendon repairs were done in three segments of each porcine tendon and repairs in the human tendons were done in zones I,II and III. Ten tendons in each group yielded a total of 90 specimens. A modified Kessler repair was done with 3-0 coated braided polyester suture and subjected to uniaxial tensile testing. In human flexor tendons, the ultimate force was higher in zones I and II than in zone III. The porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon from the second digit and the proximal segment of the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon behaved similarly to the human flexor tendon in zone III and can be considered as surrogates for the human flexor tendon. PMID:21816887

  13. Amplitude transitions of swimmers and flexors in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert; Thomases, Becca

    2015-11-01

    In both theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of fluid elasticity on micro-organism swimming, very different behavior has been observed for small and large amplitude strokes. We present simulations of an undulatory swimmer in an Oldroyd-B fluid and show that the resulting viscoelastic stresses are a nonlinear function of the amplitude. Specifically, there appears to be an amplitude dependent transition that is key to obtaining a speed-up over the Newtonian swimming speed. To understand the physical mechanism of the transition, we examine the stresses in a time-symmetric oscillatory bending beam, or flexor. We compare the flow in a neighborhood of the flexor tips with a large-amplitude oscillatory extensional flow, and we see similar amplitude dependent transitions. We relate these transitions to observed speed-ups in viscoelastic swimmers.

  14. Surgery for ganglia of the flexor tendon sheath

    PubMed Central

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Håberg, Øyvind; Borchgrevink, Grethe Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    There are very few reports in the literature on the results of surgery for ganglia of the flexor tendon sheaths of the digits. We reviewed 24 patients operated for flexor tendon sheath ganglia 8 (3–11) years previously. Two operations were for recurrences and one of these recurred again. There was one permanent digital nerve injury and one patient complained of cold sensibility. VAS (0=best; 100=worst) for mean general complaints from the hand was remembered as 51 before surgery and was 5 at review. Mean pain at review was reported as VAS 4 and general satisfaction with the operation as VAS 3. All stated that they would have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that the results of surgery are good, although complications do occur. PMID:23705064

  15. Ultrasound of the digital flexor system: Normal and pathological findings☆

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, S.; Martinoli, C.; de Gautard, R.; Gaignot, C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent improvements in ultrasound (US) software and hardware have markedly increased the role of this imaging modality in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. US is currently one of the main imaging tools used to diagnose and assess most tendon, muscle, and ligament disorders. Compared with magnetic resonance imaging, US is much less expensive; it has no contraindications and is also widely available. Diseases affecting the digital flexor system (DFS) require early diagnosis if treatment is expected to limit functional impairment of the hand. US scans performed with high-resolution, broad-band transducers allows superb visualization of the flexor tendons of the hand and the annular digital pulleys. In addition, dynamic US can be used to assess movement of the tendon within the pulleys during passive or active joint movements. This article examines the anatomy and US appearance of the normal DFS and reviews the US findings associated with the most common disorders affecting it. PMID:23396583

  16. Spring ligament reconstruction using the autogenous flexor hallucis longus tendon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Chun; Yi, Young

    2014-07-01

    The calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament complex is the soft tissue most often seen to fail in flatfoot pathology and is associated with deformity of the talonavicular joint. The spring ligament complex supports the talar head, preventing it from displacing into excessive plantar flexion/adduction. An anatomical reconstruction of the spring ligament should replicate this function. A new method of spring ligament reconstruction using autogenous flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer is reported. PMID:24992052

  17. Volar wrist ganglion excision through the flexor carpi radialis sheath.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Gregory A; DaSilva, Manuel F; Akelman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Volar wrist ganglions are much less frequent than their dorsal counterparts but provide much more surgical trepidation due to their proximity to the radial artery. With the majority arising from the radiocarpal joint, we have found that entering the flexor carpi radialis sheath and accessing the ganglion through the floor of the sheath allows for a relatively safe excision of these benign hand tumors. PMID:22913995

  18. Effect of pulley excision on flexor tendon biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Bollinger, B A; Lesker, P A; McCarthy, J A

    1986-01-01

    Flexor tendon function following excision of various portions of the fibro-osseous pulley system was measured biomechanically using a tensile testing machine. The biomechanical parameters measured were tendon excursion (the excursion of the tendon required to fully flex the digit) and work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve, representing all the forces that resist tendon flexion). In this experiment, work of flexion included the forces necessary to accomplish full digital flexion against a 15-g counter-weight, as well as the frictional forces that resist tendon gliding. The results indicate that the work of flexion was affected to a greater degree by pulley loss than was tendon excursion, suggesting that it is a more sensitive measurement of tendon function. A2 was found to be the single most important pulley for flexor tendon function, followed by A4. However, both A2 and A4 had to be present if near-normal hand function was to be achieved; sacrificing the A1 pulley was not associated with a significant loss of flexion. The "pulley effect" of the skin and soft tissue as a supplement to the fibro-osseous pulleys in reducing tendon bow-stringing was also noted. Although the parameters of tendon excursion and work of flexion were used in this study to determine the effect of pulley loss on tendon function, they can also be used to evaluate other flexor tendon studies, such as pulley reconstruction. PMID:3950813

  19. Partial Flexor Tendon Laceration Assessment: Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability.

    PubMed

    Barker, B Justin; Kolovich, Gregory P; Klinefelter, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in the hand is difficult owing to the subjectivity of evaluation. In this study, we created 12 partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric hand, evaluated the accuracy of 6 orthopedic residents and 4 fellowship-trained hand surgeons in estimating the percentage thickness of each laceration, and assessed the groups' interobserver and intraobserver agreement. The 10 participants estimated each laceration independently and on 2 separate occasions and indicated whether they would repair it. The actual thickness of each laceration was calculated from measurements made with a pair of digital microcalipers. Overall estimates differed significantly from calibrated measurements. Estimates grouped by residents and fellowship-trained hand surgeons also differed significantly. Third-year residents were the most accurate residents, and fellowship-trained hand surgeons were more accurate than residents. Overall interobserver agreement was poor for both readings. There was moderate overall intraobserver agreement. Fellowship-trained hand surgeons and first-year residents had the highest intraobserver agreement. These results highlight the difficulty in accurately assessing flexor tendon lacerations. Accuracy appears not to improve with surgeon experience. PMID:26991579

  20. Toe Flexor Strength, Flexibility and Function and Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Morphology in Dancers and Non-Dancers.

    PubMed

    Rowley, K Michael; Jarvis, Danielle N; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Chang, Yu-Jen; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Kulig, Kornelia

    2015-09-01

    Tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), colloquially referred to as "dancer's tendinitis," is a common condition in dancers and attributed to high demand on this muscle in positions of extreme ankle plantarflexion and metatarsophalangeal (MTP)) flexion and extension. Despite such a high prevalence, there has been little research into preventative or nonsurgical interventions. As a means to identify potential targets for prevention and intervention, this study aimed to characterize toe flexors in dancers by measuring strength, flexibility, function, and FHL tendon morphology. Dancers (n=25) were compared to non-dancers (n=25) in toe flexor isometric strength, first MTP joint range of motion, foot longitudinal arch flexibility, balance ability, endurance during modified heel raises without use of the toes, and FHL tendon thickness, cross-sectional area, and peak spatial frequency. Significant differences were found in functional first MTP joint extension (dancers 101.95°, non-dancers 91.15°, p<0.001), balance ability during single-leg stance on the toes (dancers 11.43 s, non-dancers 5.90 s, p=0.013), and during modified heel raises (dancers 22.20 reps, non-dancers 28.80 reps, p=0.001). Findings indicate that dancers rely on toe flexors more than non-dancers to complete balance and heel raise tasks. Efficacy of using this modified heel raise task with the toes off the edge of a block as a means to train larger plantarflexors and as a nonsurgical intervention should be studied in the future. Improving interventions for FHL tendinopathy will be impactful for dancers, in whom this condition is highly prevalent. PMID:26395616

  1. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  2. A Review of Current Concepts in Flexor Tendon Repair: Physiology, Biomechanics, Surgical Technique and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Rymer, Ben; Theobald, Peter; Thomas, Peter B M

    2015-12-28

    Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into worldwide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biome-chanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs. PMID:26793293

  3. Flexor Tendon Sheath Ganglions: Results of Surgical Excision

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Edwin E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to review the clinical features and determine the results following surgical excision of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion. A retrospective analysis of 24 consecutive patients (25 ganglions) who underwent excision of a painful flexor tendon sheath ganglion by the same surgeon was performed. The patient’s medical and operative records were reviewed. Each patient was invited to return for an evaluation, which consisted of a clinical interview, completion of a questionnaire, and physical examination. Those patients that were unable to return underwent a detailed telephone interview. Sixteen patients returned for a clinical evaluation, while eight patients underwent a telephone interview. There were 15 women and nine men, with an average age of 43 years (range, 21–68 years). The dominant hand was involved in 15 patients. The long finger was most commonly involved (11 cases). The ganglion arose from the A1 pulley in 13 cases, between the A1 and A2 pulleys in three cases, and from the A2 pulley in nine cases. At an average follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 5–38 months), all of the patients were satisfied with their final result. No patient developed a recurrence and all returned to their previous functional level. There were two minor complications that resolved uneventfully; one patient experienced mild incisional tenderness, while an additional patient experienced transient digital nerve paresthesias. We conclude that surgical excision is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating a painful ganglion of the digital flexor tendon sheath. PMID:18780066

  4. Point-of-Care Ultrasound in the Evaluation of Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie G; Beck, Sierra C

    2015-11-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented to the emergency department for evaluation of finger swelling after a dog bite. Point-of-care ultrasound was used to diagnose pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the digit after visualizing a fluid collection within the flexor tendon sheath. The patient underwent emergent incision and drainage of the digit with good outcome. PMID:26535504

  5. Viscosity of the flexor muscles of the elbow joint under maximum contraction condition.

    PubMed

    Niku, S; Henderson, J M

    1989-01-01

    The maximum contractile moments developed by the elbow flexors of eleven normal subjects at different elbow angles were measured, both isometrically and at various shortening velocities. The results were used to predict the damping coefficient of the viscous element of the elbow flexor muscles and soft tissue under maximum contraction condition for various angles and shortening velocities. PMID:2808437

  6. An atypical presentation of a flexor intratendinous ganglion of the hand.

    PubMed

    Chia, Dawn Sinn Yii; Kong, Jun Cheong; Teoh, Lam Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Intratendinous ganglions of the hand are rare. We report an unusual case of a ganglion arising within the flexor tendon in the hand. The intratendinous ganglion arose from the flexor digitorium profundus tendon of the little finger, causing flexion deformity of the finger. PMID:24051457

  7. Rhythmic Isometric Fatigue Patterns of the Elbow Flexors and Knee Extensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordway, George A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    During a rhythmic, all-out task, the rates of fatigue experienced by elbow flexor and knee extendor muscle groups tend to differ, with the elbow flexors fatiguing more rapidly initially, but reaching a plateau at a relatively higher level than the knee extensors. (Author)

  8. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball.

  9. Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications for Poststroke Plantar Flexor Force Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, John W.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Higginson, Jill S.

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke plantar flexor muscle weakness has been attributed to muscle atrophy and impaired activation, which cannot collectively explain the limitations in force-generating capability of the entire muscle group. It is of interest whether changes in poststroke plantar flexor muscle fascicle length and pennation angle influence the individual force-generating capability and whether plantar flexor weakness is due to uniform changes in individual muscle force contributions. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles for the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius were measured using ultrasound and compared between ten hemiparetic poststroke subjects and ten healthy controls. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions to poststroke plantar flexor torque were estimated for each muscle. No statistical differences were observed for any muscle fascicle lengths or for the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus pennation angles between paretic, nonparetic, and healthy limbs. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the paretic medial gastrocnemius pennation angle compared to both nonparetic and healthy limbs. Physiological cross-sectional areas and force contributions were smaller on the paretic side. Additionally, bilateral muscle contributions to plantar flexor torque remained the same. While the architecture of each individual plantar flexor muscle is affected differently after stroke, the relative contribution of each muscle remains the same. PMID:25147753

  10. Resistance exercise prevents plantar flexor deconditioning during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Hunter, G. R.; Stevens, B. R.; Guilliams, M. E.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REX) and unloading induce opposing neuromuscular adaptations, we tested the efficacy of REX against the effects of 14 d of bed rest unloading (BRU) on the plantar flexor muscle group. Sixteen men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NOE, N = 8) or REX (N = 8). REX performed 5 sets x 6-10 repetitions to failure of constant resistance concentric/eccentric plantar flexion every other day during BRU. One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was tested on the training device. The angle-specific torque-velocity relationship across 5 velocities (0, 0.52, 1.05, 1.75, and 2.97 rad.s-1) and the full range-of-motion power-velocity relationship were assessed on a dynamometer. Torque-position analyses identified strength changes at shortened, neutral, and stretched muscle lengths. Concentric and eccentric contractile work were measured across ten repetitions at 1.05 rad.s-1. Maximal neural activation was measured by surface electromyography (EMG). 1RM decreased 9% in NOE and improved 11% in REX (P < 0.05). Concentric (0.52 and 1.05 rad.s-1), eccentric (0.52 and 2.97 rad.s-1), and isometric angle-specific torques decreased (P < 0.05) in NOE, averaging 18%, 17%, and 13%, respectively. Power dropped (P < 0.05) in NOE at three eccentric (21%) and two concentric (14%) velocities. REX protected angle-specific torque and average power at all velocities. Concentric and eccentric strength decreased at stretched (16%) and neutral (17%) muscle lengths (P < 0.05) in NOE while REX maintained or improved strength at all joint positions. Concentric (15%) and eccentric (11%) contractile work fell in NOE (P < 0.05) but not in REX. Maximal plantar flexor EMG did not change in either group. In summary, constant resistance concentric/eccentric REX completely prevented plantar flexor performance deconditioning induced by BRU. The reported benefits of REX should prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity and for patients susceptible to functional

  11. Operative technique for human composite flexor tendon allograft procurement and engraftment.

    PubMed

    DeGeorge, Brent R; Rodeheaver, George T; Drake, David B

    2014-01-01

    Devastating volar hand injuries with significant damage to the pulley structures and fibro-osseous sheath, flexor tendons, and volar plates pose a major problem to the reconstructive hand surgeon. Despite advances in tendon handling, operative technique, and postoperative hand rehabilitation, patients who have undergone flexor tendon reconstruction are often plagued by chronic pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion with resultant decreased ability to work and poor quality of life. Postoperative adhesion formation and lack of suitable donor material for tendon autograft are 2 fundamental problems that continue to challenge the hand surgeon. In 1967, Erle E. Peacock, Jr, described a technique of flexor tendon reconstruction using cadaveric composite flexor tendon allograft, which consisted of both the flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis tendons in their respective fibro-osseous sheaths consisting of the digital pulley structures and the underlying periosteum and volar plates. This technique never gained widespread acceptance due to concerns regarding tissue antigenicity, infectious disease transmission, and the rising popularity of the method of Hunter for silastic rod-based flexor tendon reconstruction initially described during the same period. With modern-day advances in tissue processing with acellularization and extensive donor screening for transmissible diseases, this technique should be revisited to address the reconstructive needs of patients with extensive volar soft tissue and tendon injury. Herein, we describe the operative technique of composite flexor tendon procurement and reconstruction with key modifications from the initial technique described by Peacock for improved composite construct elevation, soft tissue inset, and bony attachment. PMID:24691346

  12. Avoidance of unfavourable results following primary flexor tendon surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, D.; Giesen, T.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the biological problems faced by those managing primary flexor tendon injuries and explains why these problems still thwart attempts to achieve normal, or near normal, function after this injury, despite a century of surgical effort. It considers the historical background of the early 20th century attempts to improve the results and analyses the clinical usefulness of more recent research into tendon core and circumferential suture modification, including the authors’ work in this field, and changes in post-operative mobilisation over the last 50 years. More recent manipulation of the sheath to improve results and the future possibility of manipulation of adhesions are discussed. It also discusses other factors, e.g., the patient, the experience of the surgeon, the use of therapists, the timing of repair, complex injuries, injuries in zones other than zone 2, which can have a bearing on the results and considers how these can be modified to avoid an unfavourable outcome. PMID:24501468

  13. An Unusual Cause of Flexor Tenosynovitis: Streptococcus mitis

    PubMed Central

    Ulucay, Cağatay; Ozler, Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Streptococcus mitis is a commensal organism of the human oropharynx that rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. Herein, we describe a previously healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the left index finger due to S. mitis infection. The patient’s infection was treated successfully via surgical and medical interventions, and during follow-up, it was determined that she was complement component C3 deficient. Tenosynovitis is an emergent clinical syndrome that can result in permanent disability or amputation. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe tenosynovitis due to S. mitis; in addition, it highlights the importance of initiating therapy with antibiotics that are effective against this rare pathogen. PMID:25587497

  14. Determining flexor-tendon repair techniques via soft computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Firoozbakhsh, K.; Moniem, M.; Jamshidi, M.

    2001-01-01

    An SC-based multi-objective decision-making method for determining the optimal flexor-tendon repair technique from experimental and clinical survey data, and with variable circumstances, was presented. Results were compared with those from the Taguchi method. Using the Taguchi method results in the need to perform ad-hoc decisions when the outcomes for individual objectives are contradictory to a particular preference or circumstance, whereas the SC-based multi-objective technique provides a rigorous straightforward computational process in which changing preferences and importance of differing objectives are easily accommodated. Also, adding more objectives is straightforward and easily accomplished. The use of fuzzy-set representations of information categories provides insight into their performance throughout the range of their universe of discourse. The ability of the technique to provide a "best" medical decision given a particular physician, hospital, patient, situation, and other criteria was also demonstrated.

  15. Haemodynamic kinetics and intermittent finger flexor performance in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Fryer, S; Stoner, L; Lucero, A; Witter, T; Scarrott, C; Dickson, T; Cole, M; Draper, N

    2015-02-01

    Currently it is unclear whether blood flow (BF) or muscle oxidative capacity best governs performance during intermittent contractions to failure. The aim of this study was to determine oxygenation kinetics and BF responses during intermittent (10 s contraction: 3 s release) contractions at 40% of MVC in rock climbers of different ability (N=38). Total forearm BF, as well as de-oxygenation and re-oxygenation of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were assessed. Compared to the control, intermediate and advanced groups, the elite climbers had a significantly (p<0.05) greater force time integral (FTI), MVC and MVC/kg. Furthermore, the elite climbers de-oxygenated the FDP significantly more during the first (7.8, 11.9, 12.4 vs. 15.7 O2%) and middle (7.3, 8.8, 10.4 vs.15.3 O2%) phases of contractions as well as for the FCR during the first phase only (8.3, 7, 11.7 vs. 13.3 O2%). They also had a significantly higher BF upon release of the contractions (656, 701, 764 vs. 971 mL ∙ min(-1)). The higher FTI seen in elite climbers may be attributable to a greater blood delivery, and an enhanced O2 recovery during the 3 s release periods, as well as a superior muscle oxidative capacity associated with the greater de-oxygenation during the 10 s contractions. PMID:25251449

  16. A Review of Current Concepts in Flexor Tendon Repair: Physiology, Biomechanics, Surgical Technique and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Ben; Theobald, Peter; Thomas, Peter B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man’s land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into worldwide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biome-chanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs. PMID:26793293

  17. Tenosynovial Osteochondromatosis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Treated by Tendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Tendosynovial chondromatosis of the foot and ankle is a rare disease entity. We reported 3 patients with tenosynovial osteochondromatosis of flexor hallucis longus. They were successfully treated by arthroscopic synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies. PMID:25979294

  18. Computed Tomographic Tenography of Normal Equine Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacitignola, Luca; De Luca, Pasquale; Guarracino, Alessandro; Crovace, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to document the normal computed tomographic tenography findings of digital flexor tendon sheath. Six ex vivo normal equine forelimbs were used. An axial approach was used to inject 185 mg/mL of iopamidol in a total volume of 60 mL into the digital flexor tendon sheaths. Single-slice helical scans, with 5 mm thickness, spaced every 3 mm, for a pitch of 0.6, and with bone algorithm reconstruction, were performed before and after injections of contrast medium. To obtain better image quality for multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reformatting, postprocessing retroreconstruction was performed to reduce the images to submillimetre thickness. Computed tomographic tenography of digital flexor tendon sheaths could visualize the following main tendon structures for every forelimb in contrast-enhanced images as low densities surrounded by high densities: superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, manica flexoria, mesotendons, and synovial recess. Results of this study suggest that computed tomographic tenography can be used with accuracy and sensitivity to evaluate the common disorders of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath and the intrathecal structures. PMID:26185709

  19. Assessment of Effective Ankle Joint Positioning in Strength Training for Intrinsic Foot Flexor Muscles: A Comparison of Intrinsic Foot Flexor Muscle Activity in a Position Intermediate to Plantar and Dorsiflexion with that in Maximum Plantar Flexion Using Needle Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of intrinsic foot flexor strength training performed in the plantar flexion position was examined using needle electromyography. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 18 healthy men. [Methods] We used needle electromyography to measure the muscle activities of the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) in maximum plantar and an intermediate position. [Results] Significant increases in muscle activities were observed for both FHB and FDB, and the rates of increase from the intermediate position to the plantar flexion position were 43% for FHB and 46% for FDB. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate intrinsic foot flexors, in addition to the numerous reports on treatment methods focusing on extrinsic foot flexors. Furthermore, the results suggest that toe flexion exercises performed during plantar flexion of the ankle joint are an effective method for intrinsic foot flexor strength training. PMID:24707106

  20. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Josh R.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R2 < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R2 < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size. PMID:24371016

  1. Flexor bias of joint position in humans during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Boorman, G. I.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to estimate ankle and elbow joint position was tested before, during, and after a 17-day spaceflight. Subjects estimated targeted joint angles during isovelocity (IsoV) joint movements with agonist muscle groups either active or relaxed. These movements included elbow extension (EE) and elbow flexion (EF), and plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) of the ankle. Subjects also estimated these joint positions while moving the dynamometer at their chosen (variable) velocity (VarV) during EE and PF. For IsoV tests, no differences were observed between active and passive movements for either the ankle or elbow. Compared with those of pre-flight test days, estimates of targeted elbow joint angles were approximately 5 degrees to 15 degrees more flexed in-flight, and returned toward the pre-flight values during recovery. The spaceflight effects for the ankle were inconsistent and less prevalent than those for the elbow. The VarV PF test condition for the 120 degrees target angle at the ankle exhibited approximately 5 degrees to 7 degrees more DF target angle estimates in-flight compared with those pre- or post-flight. In contrast, during IsoV PF there was a tendency for ankle estimates to be approximately 2 degrees to 3 degrees more PF after 2-3 days exposure to spaceflight. These data indicate that during spaceflight the perception of elbow extension is greater than actuality, and are consistent with the interpretation that microgravity induced a flexor bias in the estimation of the actual elbow joint position. Moreover, these effects in joint proprioception during spaceflight were observed in individual isolated single-joint movements during tasks in which vestibular function in maintaining posture were minimal.

  2. Finite element modelling of plantar pressure beneath the second ray with flexor muscle loading.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, DR; Cavanagh, PR

    1997-04-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Little is understood about the effects of flexor loading on plantar pressure distribution. The goal of the current work is to model flexor muscle loading applied to the distal phalanges in order to study the effect of these loads on plantar normal stress (pressure) beneath the metatarsal head. METHODS:: The finite element model is a two-dimensional, plane strain sagittal section incorporating the second metatarsal, proximal phalanx, and plantar and dorsal soft tissue (Figure 1). The metatarsophalangeal joint is simulated by a nodal hinge that transfers loads and produces reasonable kinematic motion between the articular surfaces of the proximal[Figure: see text] phalanx and metatarsal head. Soft tissues are simulated by a uniform continuum. A single flexor tendon passes over the condyle of the metatarsal heads with sliding contact against intervening soft tissue, and is attached to the distal end of the proximal phalanx. A rigid element at the proximal end is fixed by boundary conditions to simulate reactions at the distal cuneiform joint. Material properties of bone are from published values, one tenth the stiffness of bone is used for the flexor tendon, and the soft tissue continuum is hyperelastic using coefficients obtained from compression of the heel plantar fat pad. A 188 N vertical ground reaction force and a flexor tendon load at a 10 degree angle from the X (horizontal) axis are applied to the model. RESULTS:: Figure 2 shows Y direction normal stress distribution along the plantar surface for two load cases: no load and a 250 N load to the flexor tendon. DISCUSSION:: Bending moments at the proximal metatarsal correspond to values obtained by Sharkey et al. Tension in the flexor tendon served to counter the moment in the metatarsal created by the vertical load, and at the same time, to apply an additional axial load. Under flexor loading, focal plantar pressure shifts toward the proximal phalanx and yields a 60% reduction in peak pressure

  3. Isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors and flexors in Iranian healthy males and females

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mandana; Ebrahimi, Ismael; Vassaghi- Gharamaleki, Behnoush; Pirali, Milad; Mortaza, Niyousha; Malmir, Kazem; Ghasemi, Kobra; A. Jamshidi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the gender-related bilateral differences of extensor and flexor torques of the knee joint at low and high angular velocities in Iranian healthy males and females. Methods: 70 healthy subjects (29 males (26.61±4.34 yrs and 41 females with average age of 23.07±3.70 yrs)) were participated in this study. Isokinetic peak torque values for knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric contraction modes were measured and flexors and extensors strength ratios (HQR) computed among both dominant and non-dominant legs in lying position at 60 and 180°.s-1angular velocities. Results: There was significant gender-velocity interactions detected for knee flexor to extensor strength ratios presenting that increasing velocity escaled this, ratios in females more than males (p<0.05). There was no gender- velocity-leg side interaction (p>0.05). Bilateral differences were found for eccentric flexor peak torques (p<0.05). By increasing velocity, peak torque values decreased and HQR was increased (p<0.05). Conclusion: Measurement procedures including test position is an important factor when interpreting genderrelated and bilateral differences of isokinetic knee strength ratios in healthy individuals. PMID:25664309

  4. Modified flexor digitorum superficialis slip technique for A4 pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Odobescu, A; Radu, A; Brutus, J-P; Gilardino, M S

    2010-07-01

    We describe a variation in the A4 pulley reconstruction technique using one slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion and report the results of a biomechanical analysis of this reconstruction in cadavers. While conserving the distal bony insertion, one slip of flexor digitorum superficialis is transferred over the flexor digitorum profundus tendon and sutured to the contralateral superficialis slip insertion. This creates a new pulley at the base of the original A4 pulley that can be adjusted to accommodate an FDP repair of increased bulk. We found a 57% reduction in excess excursion due to bowstringing when compared with no repair. Furthermore the repairs were sturdy, 94% of specimens maintaining their integrity when a proximally directed force of 50 N was applied. PMID:20427405

  5. Knee extension fatigue attenuates repeated force production of the elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Israel; Aboodarda, Saied J; Behm, David G

    2014-01-01

    Non-local muscle fatigue has been demonstrated with unilateral activities, where fatiguing one limb alters opposite limb forces. Fewer studies have examined if non-local fatigue occurs with unrelated muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate if knee extensors fatigue alters elbow flexors force and electromyography (EMG) activity. Eighteen males completed a control and fatiguing session (randomised). Blood lactate was initially sampled followed by three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the elbow flexors and two with the knee extensors. Thereafter, subjects either sat (control) or performed five sets of bilateral dynamic knee extensions to exhaustion using a load equal to the dominant limb MVC (1-min rest between sets). Immediately afterwards, subjects were assessed for blood lactate and unilateral knee extensors MVC, and after 1 min performed a single unilateral elbow flexor MVC. Two minutes later, subjects performed 12 unilateral elbow flexor MVCs (5 s contraction/10 s rest) followed by a third blood lactate test. Compared to control, knee extensor force dropped by 35% (p < 0.001; ES = 1.6) and blood lactate increased by 18% (p < 0.001; ES = 2.8). Elbow flexor forces were lower after the fatiguing protocol only during the last five MVCs (p < 0.05; ES = ∼ 0.58; ∼ 5%). No changes occurred between conditions in EMG. Elbow flexor forces significantly decreased after knee extensors fatigue. The effect was revealed during the later stages of the repeated MVCs protocol, demonstrating that non-local fatigue may have a stronger effect on repeated rather than on single attempts of maximal force production. PMID:24766625

  6. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Syunro; Tada, Kaoru; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  7. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction after Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Syunro; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  8. Hallux checkrein deformity resulting from the scarring of long flexor muscle belly - case report.

    PubMed

    Boszczyk, Andrzej; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Pomianowski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    A case of posttraumatic checkrein deformity of the hallux is presented. This deformity is most often caused by scarring of the muscle belly or tethering of the tendon. A 22-year old woman developed a hallux checkrein deformity after a bimaleolar fracture. Intraoperatively, a linear scar tethering the muscle belly to the posterior tibia was observed. Resection of the scar allowed for full flexor hallucis longus mobility. Full hallux range of motion as well as foot function was restored. The cause of the checkrein deformity in our patient was a scar tethering the flexor hallucis belly to the posterior tibia. PMID:25759157

  9. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. PMID:27080851

  10. DAS performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.

    1984-02-01

    This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described.

  11. Changes in the activation and function of the ankle plantar flexor muscles due to gait retraining in chronic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A common goal of persons post-stroke is to regain community ambulation. The plantar flexor muscles play an important role in propulsion generation and swing initiation as previous musculoskeletal simulations have shown. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that simulation results quantifying changes in plantar flexor activation and function in individuals post-stroke were consistent with (1) the purpose of an intervention designed to enhance plantar flexor function and (2) expected muscle function during gait based on previous literature. Methods Three-dimensional, forward dynamic simulations were created to determine the changes in model activation and function of the paretic ankle plantar flexor muscles for eight patients post-stroke after a 12-weeks FastFES gait retraining program. Results An median increase of 0.07 (Range [−0.01,0.22]) was seen in simulated activation averaged across all plantar flexors during the double support phase of gait from pre- to post-intervention. A concurrent increase in walking speed and plantar flexor induced forward center of mass acceleration by the plantar flexors was seen post-intervention for seven of the eight subject simulations. Additionally, post-training, the plantar flexors had an simulated increase in contribution to knee flexion acceleration during double support. Conclusions For the first time, muscle-actuated musculoskeletal models were used to simulate the effect of a gait retraining intervention on post-stroke muscle model predicted activation and function. The simulations showed a new pattern of simulated activation for the plantar flexor muscles after training, suggesting that the subjects activated these muscles with more appropriate timing following the intervention. Functionally, simulations calculated that the plantar flexors provided greater contribution to knee flexion acceleration after training, which is important for increasing swing phase knee flexion and foot clearance. PMID

  12. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S.; Cordente, Carlos A.; Antón, Antonio J. Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting. PMID:26121145

  13. Flexor carpi ulnaris transfer for radial nerve palsy: functional testing of long-term results.

    PubMed

    Raskin, K B; Wilgis, E F

    1995-09-01

    Controversy persists over the use of the flexor carpi ulnaris for transfer to the extensor digitorum communis in the treatment of radial nerve palsy. Six patients with complete, irreparable radial nerve palsies were treated in part with the flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor digitorum communis tendon transfer (standard transfers: pronator teres to extensor carpi radialis brevis, flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor digitorum communis, and palmaris longus to the rerouted extensor pollicis longus) and were functionally tested for long-term results. The average follow-up time was 8 years (range, 3-15). A control group was comprised of 10 volunteers of similar demographics. This study evaluates the long-term functional recovery in three categories: range of motion, dynamic power of wrist motion, and functional ability as determined by work simulation techniques. The activities simulated were swinging a hammer, sawing wood, tightening screws, and using pliers. A functional range of motion was maintained in all patients, and the power of wrist motion was sufficient to perform all activities of daily living. The work simulation testing revealed no significant difference between the tendon transfer patients and control group with respect to hand dominance and normal variance. All patients were able to perform the simulated work with the same variance in power as the control group. Despite the obvious anatomic loss, wrist function is not significantly impaired after flexor carpi ulnaris tendon transfer for radial nerve palsy. PMID:8522738

  14. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing equine deep digital flexor tendinopathies--own experience.

    PubMed

    Jaskólska, M; Adamiak, Z; Zhalniarovich, Y; Przyborowska, P; Peczyński, Z

    2014-01-01

    Deep digital flexor tendinopathy is a common problem in horses of different athletic disciplines. Nowadays, the use of magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be a noninvasive and superior choice for recognizing bone and soft tissue pathologies especially related to difficult to access structures within the hoof capsule. PMID:25286667

  15. Entrapment of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus in the Callus after a Closed Distal Radial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cavadas, Pedro C.; Rubi, Carlo G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 17-year-old boy sustained a closed distal radius fracture; a closed reduction and external fixation was performed. After failed rehabilitation for digital flexion restriction, a surgical exploration was decided, revealing entrapment of flexor digitorum profundus in the bony callus; tendons were freed, obtaining a full range of motion. PMID:27200249

  16. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting.

    PubMed

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S; Cordente, Carlos A; Antón, Antonio J Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting. PMID:26121145

  17. EFFECT OF USING WRIST ORTHOSES ON FOREARM FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR MUSCLE ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Novais Van Petten, Adriana Maria Valladão; Ávila, Antônio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of using wrist immobilization orthoses made from different materials, on activation of the flexor and extensor musculature of the forearm while performing specific tasks. Methods: Twenty-six adults, with an average age of 26.2 years, underwent the Jebsen-Taylor functional hand test and the grip strength test (Jamar® dynamometer) under three conditions: free hand, wearing a composite orthosis and wearing a thermoplastic orthosis. The tests were carried out using the dominant hand only. During the tests, surface electrodes were attached to the flexor and extensor muscles of the forearm to record the muscle electrical activity. The results obtained under the three conditions were compared and analyzed using the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results: Significant differences in muscle activation were found between using the free hand and using any of the orthoses. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the two types of orthosis. A decrease in activity of the extensor muscles of the forearm was observed during all the tasks, as well as an increase in activation of the flexor muscles with the use of the orthoses. Conclusion: These results are important for defining whether an orthosis should be prescribed during the rehabilitation process for a wide range of disorders, such as tendinitis of the flexors and extensors of the wrist and fingers, as well as for predicting the length of time for which these devices should be used. PMID:27022523

  18. Tendoscopic Excision of an Intratendinous Ganglion in the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Endo, Jun; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Intratendinous ganglion cysts are rare lesions of unknown etiology that originate within a tendon. We report the case of a 34-year-old female with an intratendinous ganglion in the plantar portion of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. The intratendinous ganglion recurred after ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Tendoscopic excision of the intratendinous ganglion cyst achieved a satisfactorily result without recurrence. PMID:25456345

  19. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    PubMed Central

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical

  20. Intracellular autogenetic and synergistic effects of muscular contraction on flexor motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Green, D. G.; Kellerth, J.-O.

    1967-01-01

    1. Intracellular records have been taken from cat motoneurones innervating flexor muscles of the hind limb. Contractions of the ankle flexors tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus were elicited by stimulation of the peripheral end of the cut L 7 ventral root and the reflex effects of these contractions were recorded in silent and repetitively firing motoneurones. 2. Contraction usually produces a hyperpolarizing response inside flexor motoneurones. This hyperpolarization is tension-sensitive in the sense that when, at constant muscle extension, the strength of the contraction is increased, the magnitude of the inhibitory response is augmented. 3. Increasing the resting length of the muscles, while using a stimulus of constant strength to the ventral root, causes this inhibitory response to increase in some cells. More often, however, the hyperpolarization caused by contraction is gradually reduced in duration and/or amplitude as the muscles are extended. 4. Even with the muscles slackened, so that they develop no tension at their ends, contraction usually produces prominent hyperpolarization of the motoneurones. 5. By passing polarizing currents or injecting chloride ions through the intracellular micro-electrode, the hyperpolarizing potentials produced by contraction of the slack and extended muscles are shown to be, at least in part, genuinely post-synaptic inhibitory events. 6. When the neurone is fired repetitively by injected current, the `silent period' in contraction corresponds to the hyperpolarization of the post-synaptic membrane. 7. Monosynaptic testing of the flexor motoneurone pool has been used to confirm the essential features of the intracellularly recorded activity. 8. Acutely spinalizing the animal increases the magnitude of the inhibitory responses caused by contraction. 9. Recordings from dorsal root fibres show that Golgi tendon organs of the ankle flexors are very sensitive to contraction and are indeed often activated by the

  1. Comparison of the Thickness of Pulley and Flexor Tendon Between in Neutral and in Flexed Positions of Trigger Finger

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the morphology of the A1 pulley and flexor tendons in idiopathic trigger finger of digits other than the thumb between in neutral position and in the position with the interphalangeal joints full flexed and with the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint 0° extended (hook grip position). Method: A total of 48 affected digits and 48 contralateral normal digits from 48 patients who initially diagnosed with idiopathic trigger finger were studied sonographically. Sonographic analysis was focused on the A1 pulley and flexor tendons at the level of the MP joint in the transverse plane. We measured the anterior-posterior thickness of A1 pulley and the sum of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons, and also measured the maximum radialulnar width of the flexor tendon in neutral and hook grip positions, respectively. Each measurement was compared between in neutral and in hook grip positions, and also between the affected and contralateral normal digits in each position. Results: In all the digits, the anterior-posterior thickness of flexor tendons significantly increased in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position, whereas radial-ulnar width significantly decreased. Both the A1 pulley and flexor tendons were thicker in the affected digits as compared with contralateral normal digits. Conclusion: The thickness of flexor tendons was significantly increased anteroposteriorly in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position. In trigger finger, A1 pulley and flexor tendon were thickened, and mismatch between the volume of the flexor tendon sheath and the tendons, especially in anterior-posterior direction, might be a cause of repetitive triggering. PMID:27099639

  2. Persistent spontaneous synovial drainage from digital flexor sheath in proliferative tenosynovitis: Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chin, Brian; Cheung, Kevin; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Thoma, Achilleas

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative flexor tenosynovitis of the hand is an inflammatory process involving the synovial sheaths surrounding the tendons. It is most commonly caused by infection, but may also be caused by overuse, diabetes and rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and crystal arthropathies. The present report describes two patients with severe proliferative tenosynovitis, who developed a fistula between the tendon sheath and skin after instrumentation, resulting in persistent synovial drainage. After failing conservative management, both patients were managed with extensive flexor tenosynovectomy to prevent inoculation of bacteria into the flexor sheath. The presentation, management and outcome of each case is described in addition to a discussion of the literature on tenosynovial fistulas. PMID:26090353

  3. Flexor tendon excursion and load during passive and active simulated motion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, A; Yoon, H K; Karia, R; Lee, S K

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of tendon excursion and load experienced during simulated active and passive rehabilitation exercises. Six cadaver specimens were utilized to examine tendon excursion and load. Lateral fluoroscopic images were used to measure the excursions of metal markers placed in the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons of the index, middle, and ring fingers. Measurements were performed during ten different passive and active simulated motions. Mean tendon forces were higher in all active versus passive movements. Blocking movements placed the highest loads on the flexor tendons. Active motion resulted in higher tendon excursion than did passive motion. Simulated hook position resulted in the highest total tendon excursion and the highest inter-tendinous excursion. This knowledge may help optimize the management of the post-operative exercise therapy regimen. PMID:23221181

  4. A Conservatively Managed Anatomical Variant of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscle in the Hand.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Benjamin D; Moores, Thomas S; Heinz, Nicholas; Datta, Praveen; Smith, Kevin D; Thomas, Peter B M

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in the hand are an uncommon phenomenon, and therefore present challenges in diagnosis and management. We report a case of a 16-year-old girl presenting with a painful, slowly enlarging palmar swelling. The swelling was investigated with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and was found to be an anomalous muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. After careful consideration, multidisciplinary discussion, and thorough imaging, the patient was treated successfully without surgical exploration or excision, in comparison to previously reported cases. The patient was pain free and had no concerns at 8-month follow-up, demonstrating the value of conservative management in these cases. PMID:27616828

  5. The suture loop holding capacity of flexor digitorum profundus tendon within and outside the digital tendon sheath.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Göransson, H

    2013-09-01

    In a previous study we found that the strength of a Kessler core suture in the flexor tendon was greater in flexor zone 2 than in zone 3. To further investigate the material properties of the flexor tendon without the influence of a locking suture configuration, we measured the ultimate strength of a simple loop suture in the flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones 1, 2, and 3. Eight cadaver flexor digitorum profundus tendons were tested in 10 mm increments with a 3-0 polyester suture loop pull-out test in the mid-substance of the tendon. The mean strength in zones 1 and 2 (26.7 N, SD 5.6) was significantly higher than the mean strength in zone 3 (17.7 N, SD 5.4). We conclude that the difference is owing to variations of the structure of the flexor tendon in different sections of the tendon, as the suture configuration was a simple loop without a locking or grasping component. PMID:23315625

  6. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Geary, Michael B.; Orner, Caitlin A.; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A.; Hammert, Warren C.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Loiselle, Alayna E.

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  7. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  8. Rupture of a flexor pollicis longus tendon in Scheie's syndrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G G; Ritt, M J; Bos, K E

    1997-09-01

    We describe a case of Scheie's syndrome with a closed rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon, probably caused by a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic tendon changes. Early detection of carpal tunnel syndrome in all patients who have some form of mucopolysaccharidosis in which this is a universal occurrence (such as Scheie's syndrome), is recommended. Release of the carpal tunnel prevents long term complications, as described in this case report. PMID:9299691

  9. Enhanced Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair through a New Half Hitch Loop Suture Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a new half hitch loop suture configuration on flexor tendon repair mechanics. Cadaver canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired with 4- or 8-strands, 4–0 or 3–0 suture, with and without half hitch loops. An additional group underwent repair with half hitch loops but without the terminal knot. Half hitch loops improved the strength of 8-strand repairs by 21% when 4–0, and 33% when 3–0 suture was used, and caused a shift in failure mode from suture pullout to suture breakage. 8-strand repairs with half hitch loops but without a terminal knot produced equivalent mechanical properties to those without half hitch loops but with a terminal knot. 4-strand repairs were limited by the strength of the suture in all groups and, as a result, the presence of half hitch loops did not alter the mechanical properties. Overall, half hitch loops improved repair mechanics, allowing failure strength to reach the full capability of suture strength. Improving the mechanical properties of flexor tendon repair with half hitch loops has the potential to reduce the postoperative risk of gap formation and catastrophic rupture in the early postoperative period. PMID:27101409

  10. Flexor Tenosynovitis Due to Tuberculosis in Hand and Wrist: Is Tenosynovectomy Imperative?

    PubMed

    Kabakaş, Fatih; Uğurlar, Meriç; Turan, Derya Bayirli; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Mersa, Berkan; Özçelik, İsmail Bülent

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of flexor tenosynovitis in the hand and wrist due to tuberculosis is controversial. Although some authors recommend the antituberculous chemotherapy, the others recommend the surgical treatment. In this article, 12 patients with synovial tuberculosis of the flexor aspect of the hand and the wrist were evaluated with respect to diagnosis and treatment modalities. None of the patients had a history of tuberculosis, concomitant disease, immunosuppressive drug use, drug abuse, and human immunodefficiency virus positivity. A chest x-ray and family screening were performed in all of the cases, none had evidence of tuberculosis in the lung. The biopsy, histopathological examination, acid-fast bacillus staining, and BACTEC tuberculosis culture were performed. Antituberculous chemotherapy was initiated in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis by either histological or microbiological examinations. The patients did not undergo any further surgery after biopsy procedures. The lesions regressed totally in all patients after 3 months of treatment. Carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and signs recruited at five months of treatment. In patients with flexor tuberculosis tenosynovitis, it is possible to achieve good results by applying only medical therapy after a biopsy, and without the need for further surgery. PMID:26418769

  11. Clinical Results of Flexor Tendon Repair in Zone II Using a six Strand Double Loop Technique.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, Christiana; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the clinical results after repair of flexor tendon zone II injuries utilizing a 6-strand double-loop technique and early post-operative active rehabilitation. We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients involving 51 cases with zone II flexor tendon repair using a six strand double loop technique from September 1996 to December 2012. Most common mechanism of injuries was sharp lacerations (86.5 %). Tendon injuries occurred equally in manual and non-manual workers and were work-related in 33 % of the cases. The Strickland score for active range of motion (ROM) postoperatively was excellent and good in the majority of the cases (81 %). The rupture rate was 1.9 %. The six strand double loop technique for Zone II flexor tendon repair leads to good and excellent motion in the majority of patients and low re- rupture rate. It is clinically effective and allows for early postoperative active rehabilitation. PMID:26078499

  12. The effects of dynamic stretching on plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    PubMed

    Samukawa, Mina; Hattori, Masaki; Sugama, Naoko; Takeda, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic stretching is commonly used in warm-up routines for athletic activities. Even though several positive effects of dynamic stretching on athletic performance have been reported, the effects on the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) itself are still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of dynamic stretching on the ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon properties by use of ultrasonography. Twenty healthy male subjects participated in the present study. The subjects were asked to engage in dynamic stretching of plantar flexors for 30 s and to repeat for 5 sets. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured before and after the dynamic stretching. Changes in the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), pennation angle, and fascicle length were also determined by using ultrasonography. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly after the dynamic stretching (p < 0.0001). A significant distal displacement of the MTJ was observed until the second stretching set (p < 0.001) with no significant changes thereafter. Pennation angle, and fascicle length were unaffected by the dynamic stretching. Dynamic stretching was shown to be effective in increasing ankle joint flexibility. Outcomes that could have indicated changes in muscle tissue (such as the pennation angle and fascicle length) were unaltered. However, a significant displacement of the MTJ was found, indicating some change in the tendon tissues. Therefore, dynamic stretching of the plantar flexors was considered an effective means of lengthening the tendon tissues. PMID:21813313

  13. Effects of lubricant and autologous bone marrow stromal cell augmentation on immobilized flexor tendon repairs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Haruhiko; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8 × 10(5) BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21 day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day 42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. PMID:26177854

  14. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-27

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  15. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-01

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  16. Ganglion Cyst Contiguity of the Flexor Hallusis Longus Tendon in a National Swimmer

    PubMed Central

    Çirci, Esra; Özyalvaç, Osman Nuri; Tüzüner, Tolga; Ermutlu, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Tendinopathy of the flexor hallusis longus tendon is common in the athletes. This case is intended to be reported diagnose and treatment ganglion cyst contiguity of the flexor hallucis longus tendon that located atypical region and adversely affect the athlete's training program. Methods: 25-year-old male national swimmer was assessed with a left ankle pain. He had an intensive training program in the pool using pallets at the everyday. Pain in the left ankle was localized posterior and distal of the medial malleolus . Ankle range of motion and muscle strength was full. Neurovascular examination was normal. Radiography with anterior posterior, lateral and oblique analysis was not any unusual finding. In the evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, thickening of the tendon sheath and effusion around the flexor hallucis longus was revealed and tendon integrity was exact. Results: Conservative treatment was planned. It was applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine, modification of the training (without or low weight pallet), platelet rich plasma (two weeks, two times peer weeks). During the six-month follow-up the patient's symptoms improved, but with the increased intensity of training at follow-up complaints started again. Professional athletes who did not respond adequately to conservative treatment surgical exposure were planned. Patient is approached the flexor hallucis longus musculotendinous junction from the posteromedial ankle at the level of the posterior talar tubercles. During the tendon exposure cyst was found at the level of talocalcaneal joint. Excision of the cyst was achieved; its size was 5x5 mm, looking transparent, well defined and soft consistency. Tenolysis is accomplished from superior to inferior to the level of the superior calcaneus. A histopathologic examination result of the cyst consistent with ganglion cyst was detected. Sport-specific training program started at the 6 weeks. There was no recurrence during the 6

  17. Apparent transverse compressive material properties of the digital flexor tendons and the median nerve in the carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Main, Erin K; Goetz, Jessica E; Rudert, M James; Goreham-Voss, Curtis M; Brown, Thomas D

    2011-03-15

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a frequently encountered peripheral nerve disorder caused by mechanical insult to the median nerve, which may in part be a result of impingement by the adjacent digital flexor tendons. Realistic finite element (FE) analysis to determine contact stresses between the flexor tendons and median nerve depends upon the use of physiologically accurate material properties. To assess the transverse compressive properties of the digital flexor tendons and median nerve, these tissues from ten cadaveric forearm specimens were compressed transversely while under axial load. The experimental compression data were used in conjunction with an FE-based optimization routine to determine apparent hyperelastic coefficients (μ and α) for a first-order Ogden material property definition. The mean coefficient pairs were μ=35.3 kPa, α=8.5 for the superficial tendons, μ=39.4 kPa, α=9.2 for the deep tendons, μ=24.9 kPa, α=10.9 for the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, and μ=12.9 kPa, α=6.5 for the median nerve. These mean Ogden coefficients indicate that the FPL tendon was more compliant at low strains than either the deep or superficial flexor tendons, and that there was no significant difference between superficial and deep flexor tendon compressive behavior. The median nerve was significantly more compliant than any of the flexor tendons. The material properties determined in this study can be used to better understand the functional mechanics of the carpal tunnel soft tissues and possible mechanisms of median nerve compressive insult, which may lead to the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:21194695

  18. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Wade J.; Shield, Anthony J.; Opar, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries. PMID:26925310

  19. Delayed rupture of flexor tendons in zone V complicated by neuritis 18 years following Galeazzi fracture-dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Shah, Bhavik; Sankar, Thangasamy

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of an 84-year-old woman who presented with delayed, complete rupture of superficial (flexor digitorum superficialis) and deep flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus) of the third, fourth and fifth digits of the right hand in zone V of the flexor tendons. The patient, who was otherwise healthy, active and independent, incurred a closed fracture of her right wrist 18 years ago, which was treated conservatively. Current X-rays and operative findings confirmed a malunited Galeazzi fracture-dislocation with volar dislocation of the ulna from the distal radioulnar joint. She underwent surgical treatment to improve her hand function and agonising neuritis symptoms, as she was unable to use her middle, ring and little fingers and had developed severe neuritis of the ulnar nerve. Exploration and repair of the flexor tendons, nerve decompressions and Darrach procedure were performed. On follow-up, the patient showed improvement in hand function with the neuritis completely resolved. PMID:24739650

  20. High-resolution MRI assessment of dactylitis in psoriatic arthritis shows flexor tendon pulley and sheath-related enthesitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ai Lyn; Fukuba, Eiji; Halliday, Nicola Ann; Tanner, Steven F; Emery, Paul; McGonagle, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dactylitis is a hallmark of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) where flexor tenosynovitis is common. This study explored the microanatomical basis of dactylitis using high-resolution MRI (hrMRI) to visualise the small entheses around the digits. Methods Twelve patients with psoriatic dactylitis (4 fingers, 8 toes), and 10 healthy volunteers (6 fingers, 4 toes) had hrMRI of the digits using a ‘microscopy’ coil and contrast enhancement. All structures were evaluated including the tendons and ligaments, related enthesis organs, pulleys, volar/plantar plates and tendon sheaths. Results In dactylitis, collateral ligament enthesitis was seen in nine digits (75%), extensor tendon enthesitis in six digits (50%), functional enthesitis (5 digits, 42%), abnormal enhancement at the volar plates (2/5 joints, 40%) and the plantar plate (1/5 joints, 20%). Nine cases (75%) demonstrated flexor tenosynovitis, with flexor tendon pulley/flexor sheath microenthesopathy observed in 50% of all cases. Less abnormalities which were milder was observed in the normal controls, none of whom had any signal changes in the tendon pulleys or fibrous sheaths. Conclusions This study provides proof of concept for a link between dactylitis and ‘digital polyenthesitis’ including disease of the miniature enthesis pulleys of the flexor tendons, further affirming the concept of enthesitis in PsA. PMID:25261575

  1. Musculoskeletal modelling deconstructs the paradoxical effects of elastic ankle exoskeletons on plantar-flexor mechanics and energetics during hopping

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Dominic James; Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments have shown that elastic ankle exoskeletons can be used to reduce ankle joint and plantar-flexor muscle loading when hopping in place and, in turn, reduce metabolic energy consumption. However, recent experimental work has shown that such exoskeletons cause less favourable soleus (SO) muscle–tendon mechanics than is observed during normal hopping, which might limit the capacity of the exoskeleton to reduce energy consumption. To directly link plantar-flexor mechanics and energy consumption when hopping in exoskeletons, we used a musculoskeletal model of the human leg and a model of muscle energetics in simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics during hopping with and without elastic ankle exoskeletons. Simulations were driven by experimental electromyograms, joint kinematics and exoskeleton torque taken from previously published data. The data were from seven males who hopped at 2.5 Hz with and without elastic ankle exoskeletons. The energetics model showed that the total rate of metabolic energy consumption by ankle muscles was not significantly reduced by an ankle exoskeleton. This was despite large reductions in plantar-flexor force production (40–50%). The lack of larger metabolic reductions with exoskeletons was attributed to increases in plantar-flexor muscle fibre velocities and a shift to less favourable muscle fibre lengths during active force production. This limited the capacity for plantar-flexors to reduce activation and energy consumption when hopping with exoskeleton assistance. PMID:25278469

  2. Gliding characteristics of flexor tendon and tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Anke M; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C; O'Byrne, Megan M; An, Kai-Nan

    2007-04-01

    The characteristic pathological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is noninflammatory fibrosis of the synovium. How this fibrosis might affect tendon function, if at all, is unknown. The subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) lies between the flexor tendons and the visceral synovium (VS) of the ulnar tenosynovial bursa. Fibrosis of the SSCT may well affect its gliding characteristics. To investigate this possibility, the relative motion of the flexor tendon and VS was observed during finger flexion in patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery, and for comparison in hands without CTS, in an in vitro cadaver model. We used a camera to document the gliding motion of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS III) tendon and SSCT in three patients with CTS during carpal tunnel release and compared this with simulated active flexion in three cadavers with no antemortem history of CTS. The data were digitized with the use of Analyze Software (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN). In the CTS patients, the SSCT moved en bloc with the tendon, whereas, in the controls the SSCT moved smoothly and separately from the tendon. The ratio of VS to tendon motion was higher for the patients than in the cadaver controls. These findings suggest that in patients with CTS the synovial fibrosis has altered the gliding characteristics of the SSCT. The alterations in the gliding characteristics of the SSCT may affect the ability of the tendons in the carpal tunnel to glide independently from each other, or from the nearby median nerve. These abnormal tendon mechanics may play a role in the etiology of CTS. PMID:16944527

  3. Ipsilateral motor cortical responses to TMS during lengthening and shortening of the contralateral wrist flexors

    PubMed Central

    Howatson, Glyn; Taylor, Mathew B.; Rider, Patrick; Motawar, Binal R.; McNally, Michael P.; Solnik, Stanislaw; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral lengthening contractions provide a greater stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation than shortening contractions in the active and non-active contralateral homologous muscle, although little is known of the potential mechanism. Here we examined the possibility that corticospinal and spinal excitability vary in a contraction-specific manner in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) when humans perform unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions of the left wrist flexors at the same absolute force. Corticospinal excitability in the relaxed right FCR increased more during lengthening than shortening at 80 and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) diminished during shortening contractions and it became nearly abolished during lengthening. Intracortical facilitation (ICF) lessened during shortening but increased during lengthening. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) to the “non-active” motor cortex diminished during shortening and became nearly abolished during lengthening at 90% MVC. The amplitude of the H-reflex in the relaxed right FCR decreased during and remained depressed for 20 s after lengthening and shortening of the left wrist flexors. We discuss the possibility that instead of the increased afferent input, differences in the descending motor command and activation of brain areas that link function of the motor cortices during muscle lengthening vs. shortening may cause the contraction-specific modulation of ipsilateral motor cortical output. In conclusion, ipsilateral M1 responses to TMS are contraction-specific; unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions reduced contralateral spinal excitability but uniquely modulated ipsilateral corticospinal excitability and the networks involved in intracortical and interhemispheric connections, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21219480

  4. A comparison of ultrasound and clinical examination in the detection of flexor tenosynovitis in early arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tenosynovitis is widely accepted to be common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and postulated to be the first manifestation of RA, but its true prevalence in early disease and in particular the hand has not been firmly established. The aims of this study were first to investigate the frequency and distribution of finger flexor tenosynovitis using ultrasound in early arthritis, second to compare clinical examination with ultrasound (US) using the latter as the gold standard. Methods 33 consecutive patients who had who were initially diagnosed with polyarthritis and suspected of polyarthritis and clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis of the hands and wrists were assessed during consecutive, routine presentations to the rheumatology outpatient clinic. We scanned a total of 165 finger tendons and subsequent comparisons were made using clinical examination. Results Flexor tenosynovitis was found in 17 patients (51.5%) on ultrasound compared with 16 (48.4%) of all patients on clinical examination. Most commonly damaged joint involved on US was the second finger followed by the third, fifth, and fourth. Both modalities demonstrated more pathology on the second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) compared with the fourth and fifth MCP. A joint-by-joint comparison of US and clinical examination demonstrated that although the sensitivity, specificities and positive predictive values of clinical examination were relatively high, negative predictive value of clinical examination was low (0.23). Conclusions Our study suggest that clinical examination can be a valuable tool for detecting flexor disease in view of its high specificity and positive predictive values, but a negative clinical examination does not exclude inflammation and an US should be considered. Further work is recommended to standardize definitions and image acquisition for peritendinous inflammation for ultrasound. PMID:21549008

  5. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after 8 weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0–100, 100–200 ms) and iMVC of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave), peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that cycling endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue resistance. PMID:26029114

  6. Looped Versus Single-Stranded Flexor Tendon Repairs: A Cadaveric Mechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Ryan P.; Boone, Sean; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Osei, Daniel A.; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Boyer, Martin I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the tensile properties of 4-strand modified Kessler flexor tendon repairs using a looped or single-stranded suture. Methods We evaluated the mechanical properties of 4-strand Kessler zone II core suture repairs using either looped or single-stranded suture in human flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus tendons. Forty repairs were performed on tendons from bilateral cadaveric hands: 20 matched tendons were divided into equal groups of 3-0 looped and 3-0 single-strand repairs and 20 additional matched tendons were divided into equal groups of 4-0 looped and 4-0 single-strand repairs. Repaired tendons were tested in uniaxial tension to failure to determine mechanical properties and failure modes. Data were analyzed to determine the effect of repair type (ie, looped vs single-stranded) for each suture caliber (ie, 3-0 and 4-0). Results Single-strand repairs with 3-0 suture demonstrated a significantly greater maximum load to failure and a significantly higher force at 2-mm gap compared with repairs with looped 3-0 suture. All 8 looped repairs with 3-0 suture failed by suture pullout whereas 7 of 8 repairs with 3-0 single-stranded suture failed by suture breakage. The mechanical properties of looped versus single-stranded repairs with 4-0 caliber suture were not statistically different. Repairs with 4-0 caliber suture failed by suture breakage in 8 of 10 single-strand repairs and failed by suture pullout in 6 of 10 repairs with looped suture. Conclusions In a time-0 ex vivo human cadaveric core suture model, the mechanical properties of a 4-strand repair using 3-0 single-stranded suture were significantly better than the same 4-strand repair performed with looped suture. Clinical relevance Four-strand flexor tendon repairs with 3-0 suture are mechanically superior when performed with single-strand suture versus looped suture. PMID:25801581

  7. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist. PMID:24867130

  8. A Case of Congenital Bilateral Absence of Elbow Flexor Muscles: Review of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Samra, Saleh; Lewis, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy presented to us with congenital inability to flex his elbow. He had bilaterally absent biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, a rare condition. We performed pedicle latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps to the left and right volar upper arm at 21 and 24 months of age, respectively, to create elbow flexors. By 4 years of age, he had excellent elbow flexion bilaterally with strength grade in excess of 4.5. In addition to discussing our patient’s treatment options, we discuss other potential causes of weak elbow flexion when faced with this clinical dilemma. PMID:18780113

  9. A splint for controlled active motion after flexor tendon repair. Design, mechanical testing, and preliminary clinical results.

    PubMed

    Chow, S P; Stephens, M M; Ngai, W K; So, Y C; Pun, W K; Chu, M; Crosby, C

    1990-07-01

    A splint for controlled active motion after flexor tendon repair is described. It incorporates a single core-coated elastic band passing around a palmar pulley and attached proximally to a spring wire. Its mechanical properties were tested against six other systems. The tension in various systems all rose near full extension. However, the palmar pulley, the spring wire, and the elastic band each could lower the tension significantly. When the bending moments at the interphalangeal joints were measured, all systems produced a peak during the latter part of extension. With the palmar pulley, spring wire, and elastic band, the rise was minimal and in fact, the bending moments diminished near full extension. Initial results in 28 flexor tendon repairs using this splint showed less flexion contracture when compared with 78 flexor tendon repairs using a standard rubber band anchored at the wrist. PMID:2380531

  10. Impaired Foot Plantar Flexor Muscle Performance in Individuals With Plantar Heel Pain and Association With Foot Orthosis Use.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Collazo, Christopher; Vincent, Ebonie; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Plantar heel pain is one of the most common foot and ankle conditions seen in clinical practice, and many individuals continue to have persisting or recurrent pain after treatment. Impaired foot plantar flexor muscle performance is a factor that may contribute to limited treatment success, but reliable methods to identify impairments in individuals with plantar heel pain are needed. In addition, foot orthoses are commonly used to treat this condition, but the implications of orthosis use on muscle performance have not been assessed. Objectives To assess ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance in individuals with plantar heel pain using clinically feasible measures and to examine the relationship between muscle performance and duration of foot orthosis use. Methods The rocker-board plantar flexion test (RBPFT) and modified paper grip test for the great toe (mPGTGT) and lesser toes (mPGTLT) were used to assess foot plantar flexor muscle performance in 27 individuals with plantar heel pain and compared to 27 individuals without foot pain who were matched according to age, sex, and body mass. Pain ratings were obtained before and during testing, and self-reported duration of foot orthosis use was recorded. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with plantar heel pain demonstrated lower performance on the RBPFT (P = .001), the mPGTGT (P = .022), and the mPGTLT (P = .037). Longer duration of foot orthosis use was moderately correlated to lower performance on the RBPFT (r = -0.52, P = .02), the mPGTGT (r = -0.54, P = .01), and the mPGTLT (r = -0.43, P = .03). Conclusion Ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance was impaired in individuals with plantar heel pain and associated with longer duration of self-reported foot orthosis use. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):681-688. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6482. PMID:27374013

  11. Healthy Older Adults Have Insufficient Hip Range of Motion and Plantar Flexor Strength to Walk Like Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in ten young and ten older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly <100%, and were higher than for other measures examined. Older adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. PMID:24461576

  12. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  13. Elbow torques and EMG patterns of flexor muscles during different isometric tasks.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, G E; Van Leemputte, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the torque responses and EMG activity levels in four muscles acting at the elbow joint during different combinations of one- and two- degree of freedom isometric torque production (single and dual tasks, respectively). Flexor and supinator/pronator torques and surface EMG signals from m. biceps brachii, m. brachialis, m. brachioradialis and m. triceps brachii were measured in 16 male subjects while they performed maximal effort isometric contractions of pure flexion, pure supination, pure pronation, combined flexion and supination and combined flexion and pronation. In the single tasks, the torque responses were consistent with task requirements, but the dual task results were surprising in that flexor torque levels were reduced as compared to pure flexion, while supinator/pronator torque levels were as high or higher than in pure supination or pronation. Muscle activity levels varied with task, and could not always explain the differences observed in torque responses. These data are discussed within the framework of subpopulations of task-specific motor units within each muscle. The implications of such task-specific muscle units are related to musculoskeletal modelling and previous EMG - torque relationships found at the elbow. PMID:1748080

  14. Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Brown, Nicholas A T; Pandy, Marcus G

    2016-08-01

    Tendon elastic strain energy is the dominant contributor to muscle-tendon work during steady-state running. Does this behaviour also occur for sprint accelerations? We used experimental data and computational modelling to quantify muscle fascicle work and tendon elastic strain energy for the human ankle plantar flexors (specifically soleus and medial gastrocnemius) for multiple foot contacts of a maximal sprint as well as for running at a steady-state speed. Positive work done by the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicles decreased incrementally throughout the maximal sprint and both muscles performed more work for the first foot contact of the maximal sprint (FC1) compared with steady-state running at 5 m s(-1) (SS5). However, the differences in tendon strain energy for both muscles were negligible throughout the maximal sprint and when comparing FC1 to SS5. Consequently, the contribution of muscle fascicle work to stored tendon elastic strain energy was greater for FC1 compared with subsequent foot contacts of the maximal sprint and compared with SS5. We conclude that tendon elastic strain energy in the ankle plantar flexors is just as vital at the start of a maximal sprint as it is at the end, and as it is for running at a constant speed. PMID:27581481

  15. Musical beat influences corticospinal drive to ankle flexor and extensor muscles in man.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M F; Davey, Nick J

    2002-05-01

    Body movements in man are frequently observed in relation to musical rhythms. In this study we have investigated the effect of strongly rhythmic music on corticospinal drive to the ankle extensor and flexor muscles involved in foot tapping. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from tibialis anterior (TA) and lateral gastrocnemius (LGN) muscles in 12 normal subjects. Rock music with a strong rhythmic beat or white noise was played. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the motor cortex in time with the music to produce motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in both muscles while relaxed. During white noise trials nine subjects showed a significant correlation of MEP areas in TA with LGN, compared with only three subjects during music. Overall, there was a significant decrease in the correlation coefficient during music. We conclude that correlated variations in MEP areas between the muscles seen during white noise can be destroyed in the presence of music. This may be due to sub-threshold variations in corticospinal excitability to ankle extensors and flexors, which are time-locked to the musical beat but out of phase with one another. PMID:11909649

  16. Treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: Ruptured repairs, tethered repairs and pulley incompetence

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, David; Giesen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As primary repair of divided flexor tendons becomes more common, secondary tendon surgery becomes largely that of the complications of primary repair, namely ruptured and adherent repairs. These occur with an incidence of each in most reported series world-wide of around 5%, with these problems having changed little in the last two decades, despite strengthening our suture repairs. Where the primary referral service is less well-developed, and as a more occasional occurrence where primary treatment is the routine, the surgeon faces different problems. Patients arrive at a hand unit variable, but longer, times after the primary insult, having had no, or bad, previous treatment. Sometimes the situation is the same, viz. an extended finger with no active flexion, but now no longer amenable to primary repair. Frequently, it is much more complex as a result of injuries to the other tissues of the digit and, also, as a result of the unaided healing process within the digit in the presence of an inactive flexor system. We present our experience in dealing with ruptured repairs, tethered repairs and pulley incompetence. PMID:24459333

  17. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty‐Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy‐storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells by low‐density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin‐4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor‐like characteristics. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:849–858, 2015. PMID:25877997

  18. A classic improved: minor tweaks yield major benefits in crayfish slow-flexor preparations.

    PubMed

    Weller, Cynthia; Hochhaus, A Maren; Wright, T Michael; Mulloney, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Action potentials and the postsynaptic potentials they evoke fill the pages of neuroscience textbooks, but students have relatively few opportunities to record these phenomena on their own. However, the act of making such recordings can be key events in a student's scientific education. The crayfish abdominal slow flexor muscle system is a well-established platform for recording spikes and PSPs. It enables students to see nerves and the muscles they innervate, record spontaneous spikes from several motor axons in these nerves as well as PSPs in their postsynaptic muscle fibers, and interpret these recordings quantitatively. Here we describe an improved method for preparing the slow-flexor system for recording that employs transmitted illumination through the stereo microscope's conventional substage lighting. Oblique transmitted lighting allows students to see the nerve and muscles fibers in each segment clearly and position recording electrodes accurately under visual control. Because students can see the nerves, muscles, and recording electrodes, broken electrode tips are relatively uncommon and the first successful recordings come more quickly. Many kinds of neurons in the CNS have the same pattern of multineuronal, multiterminal innervation that occurs on these muscle fibers. To visualize these innervation patterns on these fibers, we describe an immunohistochemical protocol that labels the GABAergic inhibitory motor axon and all the synaptic vesicles in the synaptic terminals on these muscle fibers. Dual-color images reveal extensive branching of the axons and fields of presynaptic terminals, only some of which are double-labeled for GABA. PMID:25838805

  19. Development of a synthetic replacement for the flexor tendon pulleys--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A; Kain, C C; Schaefer, R K

    1986-05-01

    A method was developed to reconstruct the fibro-osseous pulleys with Nitex, a synthetic material. Nitex is a closely woven fabric constructed from monofilament nylon fibers. Six adult monkeys (24 digits) had excision of the A1 and A2 pulleys; this was followed by reconstruction of the A2 pulley with the Nitex synthetic material. The animals were killed, two at a time, at 4, 8, and 12 weeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nitex pulleys. Flexor tendon function was assessed by biomechanical methods with a tensile testing machine to measure the tendon excursion and the work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve) necessary to fully flex each digit; these parameters revealed that the Nitex pulleys were capable of preventing tendon bow-stringing and did not significantly impair tendon gliding. The breaking strength of the Nitex pulleys was comparable to that of normal A2 pulleys (for monkeys weighing less than 10 kg) and it was sufficient to allow immediate mobilization of the digits postoperatively without fear of pulley rupture. Histologic examination showed minimal foreign body reaction around the Nitex, and the gliding surface of a Nitex pulley was found to be covered with a smooth layer of fibrous tissue with minimal adhesions to the underlying flexor tendon. The synthetic Nitex pulley appears to have the potential to function as an effective fibro-osseous pulley replacement. PMID:3086425

  20. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  1. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-08-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month's duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed. PMID:21037892

  2. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  3. Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-09-01

    The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon elastic strain energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon elastic strain energy over muscle fiber work. PMID:24948642

  4. V1 and V2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C.; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally-located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. PMID:24698273

  5. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. PMID:24698273

  6. Neural and Nonneural Contributions to Wrist Rigidity in Parkinson's Disease: An Explorative Study Using the NeuroFlexor

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, H.; Frykberg, G. E.; Gäverth, J.; Lindberg, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The NeuroFlexor is a novel method incorporating a biomechanical model for the measurement of neural and nonneural contributions to resistance induced by passive stretch. In this study, we used the NeuroFlexor method to explore components of passive movement resistance in the wrist and finger muscles in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. A cross-sectional comparison was performed in twenty-five subjects with PD with clinically identified rigidity and 14 controls. Neural (NC), elastic (EC), and viscous (VC) components of the resistance to passive extension of the wrist were calculated using the NeuroFlexor. Measurements were repeated during a contralateral activation maneuver. Results. PD subjects showed greater total resistance (P < 0.001) and NC (P = 0.002) compared to controls. EC and VC did not differ significantly between groups. Contralateral activation maneuver resulted in increased NC in the PD group but this increase was due to increased resting tension. Total resistance and NC correlated with clinical ratings of rigidity and with bradykinesia. Conclusions. The findings suggest that stretch induced reflex activity, but not nonneural resistance, is the major contributor to rigidity in wrist muscles in PD. The NeuroFlexor is a potentially valuable clinical and research tool for quantification of rigidity. PMID:25685778

  7. Firing of antagonist small-diameter muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and torque of elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2013-07-15

    During muscle fatigue, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents can decrease voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle. However, these afferents may have a more widespread effect on other muscles in the exercising limb. We examined if the firing of fatigue-sensitive afferents from elbow extensor muscles in the same arm reduces torque production and voluntary activation of elbow flexors. In nine subjects we examined voluntary activation of elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during brief (2-3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Inflation of a blood pressure cuff following a 2-min sustained MVC blocked blood flow to the fatigued muscle and maintained firing of small-diameter afferents. After a fatiguing elbow flexion contraction, maximal flexion torque was lower (26.0 ± 4.4% versus 67.9 ± 5.2% of initial maximal torque; means ± s.d.; P < 0.001) and superimposed twitches were larger (4.1 ± 1.1% versus 1.8 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC, P = 0.01) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing elbow extensor contraction, maximal flexion torque was also reduced (82.2 ± 4.9% versus 91.4 ± 2.3% of initial maximal torque; P = 0.007), superimposed twitches were larger (2.7 ± 0.7% versus 1.3 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC; P = 0.02) and voluntary activation lower (81.6 ± 8.2% versus 95.5 ± 6.9%; P = 0.04) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing contraction, voluntary drive to the fatigued muscles is reduced with continued input from small-diameter muscle afferents. Furthermore, fatigue of the elbow extensor muscles decreases voluntary drive to unfatigued elbow flexors of the same arm. Therefore, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents from one muscle can affect voluntary activation and hence torque generation of another muscle in the same limb. PMID:23652589

  8. Ultrasonic properties of tendon: velocity, attenuation, and backscattering in equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A

    1996-05-01

    Ultrasound velocity, attenuation, and backscattering were measured in vitro in samples of equine digital flexor tendon sandwiched between plane, parallel rexolite buffer rods. The buffer rods were coupled to transmitting and receiving transducers (nominally 10 MHz) mounted in-line and facing one another on the jaws of a digital caliper. Six superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons and six deep digital flexor (DDF) tendons were measured in three orthogonal directions: along the long axis of the tendon (D), and across the tendon in the dorsal-volar (C), and lateral (L) directions. Substantial anisotropy was apparent in all the measured properties. The velocity data, which in both tendons showed a higher velocity along the fibers than across (e.g., in the DDF tendon at 0 degrees C: 1713 +/- 9 m/s in the D direction compared with 1650 +/- 5 m/s in the C direction), were consistent with a composite comprising stiff fibers embedded in a less stiff medium of lower speed. The apparent backscattering coefficient adjusted for the tissue's frequency-dependent attenuation (e.g., in the C direction of the DDF tendon at 0 degrees C: 7.4 x 10(-3) cm-1 sr-1), was independent of frequency in both transverse directions and larger than that measured along the long axis of the tendon (e.g., in DDF tendon at 0 degrees C: 1.2 x 10(-3) cm-1 sr-1 at 7 MHz) in which direction the apparent backscattering coefficient increased with frequency as f4.0 +/- 1.2. The frequency-independent backscattering was thought to be due to specular reflection from the boundaries between the fascicles, i.e., the bundles of fibers making up the tendon, while backscattering along the axis was due to structures of unknown origin, but of a size much smaller than 45 microns. Attenuation of ultrasound directed along the fibers was higher than that across (at 7 MHz in DDF tendon at 0 degrees C: 58 dB/cm in the D direction compared with 11.3 dB/cm in the C direction). Calculations indicated that the attenuation was

  9. Flexor Tendon Entrapment at the Malunited Base Fracture of the Proximal Phalanx of the Finger in Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Keun; Park, Soojin; Lee, Malrey

    2015-09-01

    The proximal phalangeal base is the most commonly fractured hand bone in children. Such fractures are rarely reported as irreducible due to flexor tendon entrapment. Here, we describe a patient who sustained a malunited fracture on the right fifth finger proximal phalanx with flexor tendon entrapment after treatment with closed reduction with K-wires fixation.A 13-year-old patient came to the clinic following a bicycle accident 6 weeks ago. He presented with flexion limitation in his small finger on the right hand. During physical examination, the patient felt no pain, and the neurovascular structures were intact. However range of motion (ROM) in his small finger was not normal. Plain radiographs displayed a Salter-Harris type II fracture of the small finger proximal phalanx base and volar angulation with callus formation. During the operation, it was established that the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) around the fracture had a severe adhesion, whereas the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) was entrapped between the volarly displaced metaphyses and the epiphyses and united with the bone. We removed the volarly displaced metaphyses and freed FDP and repaired the A2 pulley. The bone was anatomically fixed with K-wires. In the treatment after the operation, on the 2nd day, the patient was permitted the DIP joint motion by wearing a dynamic splint.At the 12-months follow-up, the patient had regained full ROM with no discomfort and the proximal phalanx growth plate of the small finger closed naturally with normal alignment.When treating a proximal phalangeal base fracture in children, the possibility of flexor tendon entrapment should be considered and should be carefully dealt with in its treatment. PMID:26334897

  10. The clinical and biomechanical effects of fascial-muscular lengthening therapy on tight hip flexor patients with and without low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Daniel; Potvin, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many patients have tight hip flexors with or without low back pain. Manual fascial-muscular lengthening therapy (FMLT) is one commonly used treatment for this population. Objective: Investigate the clinical and biomechanical effects of manual FMLT on tight hip flexor patients with and without low back pain. Methods: A nonrandomized trial, before-and-after experiment with multiple baselines conducted on two different patient populations: 1) Mechanical low back pain patients with tight hip flexors (n = 10) and 2) Asymptomatic group with tight hip flexors (n = 8). Four treatments of manual FMLT were performed on the hip flexor of the two groups of patients over a two-week period. Primary outcome measures over the two-week period were 1) Maximum voluntary trunk flexor and extensor moments, 2) Disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire) and pain (10-cm Visual Analogue Scale), 3) Passive hip extension mobility. Results: Primary outcome analysis involved within-groups comparisons. Maximum voluntary trunk extension demonstrated increases for the low back pain patients. The low back pain patients demonstrated a small, but significant, reduction in disability and pain. Both groups demonstrated an increase in passive hip extension measurements. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrated interesting results from manual FMLT on two tight hip flexor patient populations with and without low back pain. However, there were several significant limitations from this study, which restrict the ability to generalize the results. PMID:25550670

  11. Effects of plantar flexor muscle fatigue induced by electromyostimulation on postural coordination.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Antoine; Fouque, Florent; Cahouët, Violaine; Martin, Alain

    2007-02-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a modification of an intrinsic capacity (plantar flexor strength) on the implementation of in-phase and anti-phase mode of coordination. Analysis of hip and ankle relative phases during fore-aft tracking task was done before and after an electromyostimulation fatigue protocol on the soleus muscles. Results showed participants used exclusively in-phase and anti-phase modes of coordination, with a sudden switch from one to the other with target frequency increase. Regarding tracking tasks, fatigue induces a decrease of performance for lower frequencies, and a significant decrease of switch frequency (-0.08 Hz) for each subject. In conclusion, changes in mode of coordination implementation suggest that the in-phase mode implementation is highly linked to the strength production capacity at the ankle joint. PMID:17280784

  12. Tenosynovial chondromatosis of the flexor hallucis longus in a 17-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Winters, Nichelle I; Thomson, A Brian; Flores, Raina R; Jordanov, Martin I

    2015-11-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a benign chondrogenic metaplasia of extra-articular synovial tissue. The most common locations for tenosynovial chondromatosis to develop are the hands and feet. The condition has rarely been reported in children. We present a case of tenosynovial chondromatosis of the flexor hallucis longus in a 17-year-old girl. The presentation was unusual not only due to the location and young age of the patient but also the absence of any palpable mass on physical exam and complete lack of calcification of the cartilage bodies. Initial diagnosis was made by MRI. The patient underwent tenosynovectomy with an excellent postoperative recovery at 6-month follow-up. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of tenosynovial chondromatosis. PMID:26008872

  13. Irreducible tongue-type calcaneal fracture due to interposition of flexor hallucis longus.

    PubMed

    Wong-Chung, John; O'Longain, Diarmaid; Lynch-Wong, Matthew; Julian, Harriet

    2016-06-01

    We present a rare case of interposition of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon blocking percutaneous closed reduction of a displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture, and necessitating open repositioning of the tendon and internal fixation through a single extensile lateral approach. Although not recognized until during surgery, with a high index of suspicion, preoperative diagnosis of this injury combination should be possible on high resolution CT, thus enabling better planning of the procedure. The presence of a small sustentacular fragment, especially if markedly displaced or rotated, should further alert the physician as to increased likelihood of such tendon entrapment within the fracture. In the literature, fracture fixation and extrication of the FHL tendon have been performed via either or both lateral and medial approaches. A medial approach may prove necessary when there is severe displacement or rotation of the sustentacular fragment. Arthroscopically assisted surgery may aid in disengaging the tendon from within the fracture site. PMID:26802813

  14. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Swamy, Ravindra S; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-02-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip gave origin to some fibers of brachioradialis. Such unusual slips of bicipital aponeurosis may distribute the stress concentration and may work in different directions affecting the supination of forearm by biceps brachii muscle and bicipital aponeurosis. PMID:27042440

  15. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  16. Management of acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis: Literature review and current trends

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) is an aggressive closed-space infection that can result in severe morbidity. Although surgical treatment of PFT has been widely described, the role of antibiotic therapy is inadequately understood. We conducted a literature review of studies reporting on acute PFT management. Twenty-eight case series articles were obtained, all of which used surgical intervention with varied use of antibiotics. Inconsistencies amongst the studies limited summative statistical analysis. Our results showed that use of antibiotics as a component of therapy resulted in improved range of motion outcomes (54% excellent vs. 14% excellent), as did using catheter irrigation rather than open washout (71% excellent vs. 26% excellent). These studies showed benefits of early treatment of PFT and of systemic antibiotic use. As broad-spectrum antibiotics have changed the management of other infectious conditions, we must more closely evaluate consistent antibiotic use in PFT management. PMID:25670687

  17. [Use of tissue engineering in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand].

    PubMed

    Bíró, Vilmos

    2015-02-01

    In his literary analysis, the author describes a novel method applied in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This procedure is named tissue engineering, and it is examined mainly under experimental circumstances. After definition of the method and descriptions of literary preliminaries the author discusses the healing process of the normal tendon tissue, then development of the scaffold, an important step of tissue engineering is described. After these topics the introduction of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold, and proliferation of these cells and development of the sliding systems are presented. The mechanical resisting ability of the formed tendon tissue is also discussed. Finally, the author concludes that as long as results of experimental research cannot be successfully applied into clinical practice, well-tried tendon reconstruction operations and high quality postoperative rehabilitation are needed. PMID:25639635

  18. Surgical treatment of simple syndactylism with secondary deep digital flexor tendon contracture in a Basset Hound.

    PubMed

    Towle, H; Friedlander, K; Ko, R; Aper, R; Breur, G

    2007-01-01

    A five-month-old, female Basset Hound was presented for lameness associated with a fused 3rd and 4th digital pad on the left hind limb (simple incomplete syndactyly), and secondary contracture of the deep digital flexure tendon of the 3rd and 4th digit. An onychectomy of the third phalanx of the third and fourth digits was performed. Following the operation, the dog gained good use of the affected limb for one month until intermittent non-weight bearing lameness developed. A second surgery was performed six months later, partially removing the second phalanx of digits three and four. Follow-up reports indicate that the dog is doing well and is without lameness. This is the first report of deep digital flexor tendon contracture and surgical treatment of this complication in canine simple syndactylism. PMID:17846689

  19. Layered chitosan-collagen hydrogel/aligned PLLA nanofiber construct for flexor tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, S; Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Deepti Kadavan, J; Jayakumar, R

    2016-11-20

    The aim of our study was to develop a tendon construct of electrospun aligned poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers, to mimic the aligned collagen fiber bundles and layering PLLA fibers with chitosan-collagen hydrogel, to mimic the glycosaminoglycans of sheath ECM for tendon regeneration. The hydrogel coated electrospun membrane was rolled and an outer coating of alginate gel was given to prevent peritendinous adhesion. The developed constructs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and tensile testing. Protein adsorption studies showed lower protein adsorption on coated scaffolds compared to uncoated scaffolds. The samples were proven to be non-toxic to tenocytes. The chitosan-collagen/PLLA uncoated scaffolds and alginate gel coated chitosan-collagen/PLLA scaffolds showed good cell proliferation. The tenocytes showed good attachment and spreading on the scaffolds. This study indicated that the developed chitosan-collagen/PLLA/alginate scaffold would be suitable for flexor tendon regeneration. PMID:27561521

  20. Closed traumatic rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in zone T I: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uekubo, Kazuaki; Itoh, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Taro

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 41-year-old male suffered a direct blow on the palmar side of his right thumb when folding a table, which slipped along his thumb until it was stopped at the inter-phalangeal (IP) joint, resulting in a complete rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon in zone T I. The proximal tendon stump was passed through the oblique pulley, fixed to the base of the distal phalanx with a pull-out wire technique and augmented on it using a part of the distal tendon remnant. After removal of the cast and the pull-out wire three weeks postoperatively, range of motion exercise was initiated and good functional recovery was obtained. PMID:25609290

  1. Range of motion, neuromechanical, and architectural adaptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans.

    PubMed

    Blazevich, A J; Cannavan, D; Waugh, C M; Miller, S C; Thorlund, J B; Aagaard, P; Kay, A D

    2014-09-01

    The neuromuscular adaptations in response to muscle stretch training have not been clearly described. In the present study, changes in muscle (at fascicular and whole muscle levels) and tendon mechanics, muscle activity, and spinal motoneuron excitability were examined during standardized plantar flexor stretches after 3 wk of twice daily stretch training (4 × 30 s). No changes were observed in a nonexercising control group (n = 9), however stretch training elicited a 19.9% increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and a 28% increase in passive joint moment at end ROM (n = 12). Only a trend toward a decrease in passive plantar flexor moment during stretch (-9.9%; P = 0.15) was observed, and no changes in electromyographic amplitudes during ROM or at end ROM were detected. Decreases in H(max):M(max) (tibial nerve stimulation) were observed at plantar flexed (gastrocnemius medialis and soleus) and neutral (soleus only) joint angles, but not with the ankle dorsiflexed. Muscle and fascicle strain increased (12 vs. 23%) along with a decrease in muscle stiffness (-18%) during stretch to a constant target joint angle. Muscle length at end ROM increased (13%) without a change in fascicle length, fascicle rotation, tendon elongation, or tendon stiffness following training. A lack of change in maximum voluntary contraction moment and rate of force development at any joint angle was taken to indicate a lack of change in series compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Thus, increases in end ROM were underpinned by increases in maximum tolerable passive joint moment (stretch tolerance) and both muscle and fascicle elongation rather than changes in volitional muscle activation or motoneuron pool excitability. PMID:24947023

  2. The effect of muscle loading on flexor tendon-to-bone healing in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Zampiakis, Emmanouil; Das, Rosalina; Silva, Matthew J.; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Previous tendon and ligament studies demonstrated a role for mechanical loading in tissue homeostasis and healing. In uninjured musculoskeletal tissues, increased loading leads to an increase in mechanical properties, while decreased loading leads to a decrease in properties. The role of loading on healing tissues is less clear. We studied tendon-to-bone healing in a canine flexor tendon-to-bone injury and repair model. To examine the effect of muscle loading on healing, repaired tendons were either cut proximally to remove all load from the distal phalanx repair site (unloaded group) or left intact proximally (loaded group). All paws were cast post-operatively and subjected to daily passive motion rehabilitation. Specimens were tested to determine functional properties, biomechanical properties, repair-site gapping, and bone mineral density. Loading across the repair site led to improved functional and biomechanical properties (e.g., stiffness for the loaded group was 8.2 ± 3.9 vs. 5.1 ± 2.5 N/mm for the unloaded group). Loading did not affect bone mineral density or gapping. The formation of a gap between the healing tendon and bone correlated with failure properties. Using a clinically relevant model of flexor tendon injury and repair, we found that muscle loading was beneficial to healing. Complete removal of load by proximal transection resulted in tendon-to-bone repairs with less range of motion and lower biomechanical properties compared to repairs in which the muscle-tendon-bone unit was left intact. PMID:18524009

  3. Contractile properties of muscle fibers from the deep and superficial digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Chase, P. B.; Hermanson, J. W.; Clark, A. N.; Brunet, N. M.; Bertram, J. E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Equine digital flexor muscles have independent tendons but a nearly identical mechanical relationship to the main joint they act upon. Yet these muscles have remarkable diversity in architecture, ranging from long, unipennate fibers (“short” compartment of DDF) to very short, multipennate fibers (SDF). To investigate the functional relevance of the form of the digital flexor muscles, fiber contractile properties were analyzed in the context of architecture differences and in vivo function during locomotion. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type was studied, and in vitro motility assays were used to measure actin filament sliding velocity (Vf). Skinned fiber contractile properties [isometric tension (P0/CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (VUS), and force-Ca2+ relationships] at both 10 and 30°C were characterized. Contractile properties were correlated with MHC isoform and their respective Vf. The DDF contained a higher percentage of MHC-2A fibers with myosin (heavy meromyosin) and Vf that was twofold faster than SDF. At 30°C, P0/CSA was higher for DDF (103.5 ± 8.75 mN/mm2) than SDF fibers (81.8 ± 7.71 mN/mm2). Similarly, VUS (pCa 5, 30°C) was faster for DDF (2.43 ± 0.53 FL/s) than SDF fibers (1.20 ± 0.22 FL/s). Active isometric tension increased with increasing Ca2+ concentration, with maximal Ca2+ activation at pCa 5 at each temperature in fibers from each muscle. In general, the collective properties of DDF and SDF were consistent with fiber MHC isoform composition, muscle architecture, and the respective functional roles of the two muscles in locomotion. PMID:20702801

  4. Muscle fibre types of the lumbrical, interossei, flexor, and extensor muscles moving the index finger.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fibre types of the muscles moving the index fingers in humans. Fifteen forearms of eight adult cadavers were used. The sampled muscles were the first lumbrical (LM), first volar interosseous (VI), first dorsal interosseus (DI), second flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), second flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and extensor digitorum (ED). Six micrometer thick sections were stained for fast muscle fibres. The procedure was performed by applying mouse monoclonal anti-skeletal myosin antibody (fast) and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining. Rectangular areas (0.38 mm × 0.38 mm) were photographed and the boundaries of the muscle areas were marked on the translucent film. The numbers and sizes of the muscle fibres in each part were evaluated by the image analyser program and calculated per unit area (1 mm(2)). The proportion of the fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.012) greater in the intrinsic muscles (55.7 ± 17.1%) than in the extrinsic muscles (45.9 ± 17.1%). Among the six muscles, the VI had a significantly higher portion (59.3%) of fast fibres than the FDS (40.6%) (p = 0.005) or the FDP (45.1%) (p = 0.023). The density of the non-fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.015) greater in the extrinsic muscles (539.2 ± 336.8/mm(2)) than in the intrinsic muscles (383.4 ± 230.4/mm2). Since the non-fast fibres represent less fatigable fibres, it is thought that the extrinsic muscles have higher durability against fatigue, and the intrinsic muscles, including the LM, should move faster than the FDS or FDP because the MP joint should be flexed before the IP joint to grip an object. PMID:23692210

  5. Biomechanical risk factors and flexor tendon frictional work in the cadaveric carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures. PMID:25553671

  6. Oxygen recovery kinetics in the forearm flexors of multiple ability groups of rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Simon M; Stoner, Lee; Dickson, Tabitha G; Draper, Steve B; McCluskey, Michael J; Hughes, Johnathan D; How, Stephen C; Draper, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine muscle tissue oxidative capacity and recovery in intermediate, advanced, and elite rock climbers. Forty-four male participants performed (a) sustained and (b) intermittent contractions at 40% of maximal volitional contraction (MVC) on a sport-specific fingerboard until volitional fatigue. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess muscle tissue oxygenation during both the exercise and the 5-minutes passive recovery period, in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). During the sustained contraction only, muscle tissue deoxygenation (O2 debt) in the FDP and FCR was significantly greater in elite climbers compared with the control, intermediate, and advanced groups (FDP: 32 vs. 15, 19, 22%; FCR: 19 vs. 11, 8, 15%, respectively). However, elite climbers had a significantly quicker time to half recovery (T1/2) than the control and intermediate groups in the FDP (8 vs. 95 and 47 seconds, respectively) and the FCR (7 vs. 30 and 97 seconds, respectively) because the O2% recovered per second being significantly greater (FDP: 4.2 vs. 0.7 and 0.3; FCR: 4.8 vs. 0.1 and 0.2, respectively). Furthermore, during the intermittent contraction, T1/2 in elite climbers was significantly quicker compared with the control and intermediate groups in the FDP (8 vs. 93 and 83 seconds, respectively) and FCR (16 vs. 76 and 50 seconds, respectively). Consequently, lower-level climbers should focus training on specific intermittent fatigue protocols. Competition or elite climbers should make use of appropriate rests on route to aid recovery and increase the chances of reaching the next hold. PMID:25536538

  7. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF ARTHROSCOPIC ACL RECONSTRUCTION WITH AUTOGENOUS FLEXOR TENDONS

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Valin, Múrcio Rangel; Ferreira, Ramon; Roveda, Gilberto; de Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using with flexor tendon autografts from the thigh, with analysis on data relating to sex, body mass index (BMI) and associations with lower limb fracture. Methods: A group of 265 patients who underwent knee arthroscopy for the purposes of ACL reconstruction using an ipsilateral graft from the flexor tendon of the thigh between July 6, 2000, and November 19, 2007, were evaluated. Results: One hundred and seventy-six patients were evaluated over a mean period of 34.95 ± 18.8 months (median: 31 months) (IQR: 20-48 months). The minimum evaluation period was 12 months and the maximum was 87 months. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (78.4%) had excellent results, 22 (12.5%) had good results, eight (4.5%) had fair results and eight (4.5%) had poor results. Higher incidence of good and excellent results for the following categories was not considered to be significant: males (p = 0.128), patients with BMI < 25 (p = 0.848), or patients with ACL injuries unrelated to an initial traumatic episode of lower-limb fracture (p = 0.656). Conclusion: The ACL reconstruction technique using tendon autografts from the thigh showed good and excellent results for 91.4% of the sample. Male patients seemed to present a greater tendency towards good and excellent results. No statistically significant difference was found when the results were analyzed in relation to BMI or associations with initial traumatic fracture episodes in the lower limbs. PMID:27022571

  8. Flexor tendon repairs in children: Outcomes from a specialist tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Cooper, L; Khor, W; Burr, N; Sivakumar, B

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the functional outcomes of early active mobilization (EAM) after paediatric flexor tendon repair at one centre from 2006 to 2013. A generic rehabilitation protocol was used for the first four to six weeks: boxing glove immobilization (<5 years), dorsal blocking splint and cage (5-10 years) or dorsal blocking splint ± cage (10-16 years). Outcomes were assessed using the Total Active Mobilization (TAM) method of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and original Strickland criteria (OSC). Sixty-three fingers and 99 tendons were identified, in 57 children. Thirty-five per cent (n = 20) were in zone 2, 23% in zone 1, 18% in zone 5, 14% in zone 3 and 2% in zone 4. Good/excellent results were obtained in 82% by the TAM method and 79% by the OSC of those suitable for analysis (56 tendons in 44 children). The surgical approaches used varied in technique and material; a modified Kessler stitch (n = 42) using prolene (n = 60) represented the majority of core sutures. Epitendinous repair was employed in 76% of repairs (n = 75). The median length of hand therapy follow-up was 83.5 days (IQR 43.5-143.75 days). Complications included: one rupture, one post-operative infection requiring washout and three contractures, two requiring re-operation. EAM is a practical and safe way to rehabilitate children after flexor tendon repair, without increasing ruptures or adhesions. Most children under five are managed effectively in a bulky bandage. PMID:25613292

  9. Effect of the vibration board on the strength of ankle dorsal and plantar flexor muscles: a preliminary randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Soncini, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    Aim of this preliminary work is to study the effects of the vibration board on the strength of dorsal and plantar flexor muscles of the ankle through a randomized and controlled observation. Sixteen sedentary right-handed females, ranged from 20 to 30 years of age, were selected; they were not affected by previous ankle sprains and were divided into two randomized groups. The study group followed a vibration board training in the orthostatic position with a 60 degrees flexion of the knee in order to direct its mechanical impulses to the inferior limbs. Each patient of the study group performed daily, for 2 weeks, 10 repetitions that lasted 1 minute each (25 hertz of frequency). The control group followed a training protocol including 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks. Each session included 3 series of 10 repetitions of flexi-extension of the foot versus an opposite resistance of an elastic band, 60 centimetres long, that was stretched till 100 cm. Both groups were tested before and after these training programmes by Biodex isokinetic dynamometer in order to quantify the strength of the plantar and dorsal flexor muscles of the dominant ankle. Peak torque, power and total work of the dorsal and plantar flexor muscles were assessed. A power test at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec for five repetitions and a resistance test at an angular velocity of 180 degrees/sec. for 20 repetitions were performed. After the final isokinetic test, the results were submitted to a statistic evaluation (T test of Student) in order to analyze any possible significant differences (p < 0.05) among the initial and final values before and after the treatment. The results of the study group compared to the control group showed a significant increase in the power of the dorsal flexor muscles at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec and in the peak torque, power and total work of the plantar flexor muscles at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec. We conclude that the use

  10. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  11. Unilateral Plantar Flexors Static-Stretching Effects on Ipsilateral and Contralateral Jump Measures

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Behm, David George; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Silva, Fernando Henrique Domingues de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico Gori; Serpa, Érica Paes; Vilela Junior, Guanis de Barros; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static-stretching (SS) on the passive range of movement (ROM) of the stretched limb, surface electromyography (sEMG) and single-leg bounce drop jump (SBDJ) performance measures of the ipsilateral stretched and contralateral non-stretched lower limbs. Seventeen young men (24 ± 5 years) performed SBDJ before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch) unilateral ankle plantar flexor SS (6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort). SBDJ performance measures included jump height, impulse, time to reach peak force, contact time as well as the sEMG integral (IEMG) and pre-activation (IEMGpre-activation) of the gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive ROM increased in the stretched limb after the SS (pre-test: 21 ± 4° and post-test: 26.5 ± 5°, p < 0.001). Post-stretching decreases were observed with peak force (p = 0.029), IEMG (P<0.001), and IEMGpre-activation (p = 0.015) in the stretched limb; as well as impulse (p = 0.03), and jump height (p = 0.032) in the non-stretched limb. In conclusion, SS effectively increased passive ankle ROM of the stretched limb, and transiently (less than 10 minutes) decreased muscle peak force and pre-activation. The decrease of jump height and impulse for the non-stretched limb suggests a SS-induced central nervous system inhibitory effect. Key points When considering whether or not to SS prior to athletic activities, one must consider the potential positive effects of increased ankle dorsiflexion motion with the potential deleterious effects of power and muscle activity during a simple jumping task or as part of the rehabilitation process. Since decreased jump performance measures can persist for 10 minutes in the stretched leg, the timing of SS prior to performance must be taken into consideration. Athletes, fitness enthusiasts and therapists should

  12. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  13. Focal Experimental Injury Leads to Widespread Gene Expression and Histologic Changes in Equine Flexor Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  14. Deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit is an effective method for maintaining neck mobility and muscular endurance in college students with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Yeon

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of deep cervical flexor training on maintaining forward head posture, muscular endurance, and cervical mobility. It also examined the effectiveness of deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty college students were recruited and randomly assigned to groups that underwent either deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit (experimental group, n=10) or conventional deep cervical flexor training (control group, n=10). The craniovertebral angle of each subject was measured with a lateral-view picture. Neck mobility was assessed using a cervical range of motion device and muscular endurance was measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. Both groups performed conventional deep cervical flexor exercises three times a week for six weeks. The experimental group underwent a pressure biofeedback unit training was 5 to10 minutes/day, thrice a week. [Results] Cervical range of motion in the experimental group increased significantly between the end of training and the end of the four week detraining period, compared to that in control group. [Conclusion] Deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit is a useful method for maintaining neck mobility and muscular endurance in people with forward head posture. PMID:26644676

  15. High-Intensity Running and Plantar-Flexor Fatigability and Plantar-Pressure Distribution in Adolescent Runners

    PubMed Central

    Fourchet, François; Kelly, Luke; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Loepelt, Heiko; Taiar, Redha; Millet, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fatigue-induced alterations in foot mechanics may lead to structural overload and injury. Objectives: To investigate how a high-intensity running exercise to exhaustion modifies ankle plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor strength and fatigability, as well as plantar-pressure distribution in adolescent runners. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Academy research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven male adolescent distance runners (age = 16.9 ± 2.0 years, height = 170.6 ± 10.9 cm, mass = 54.6 ± 8.6 kg) were tested. Intervention(s): All participants performed an exhausting run on a treadmill. An isokinetic plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor maximal-strength test and a fatigue test were performed before and after the exhausting run. Plantar-pressure distribution was assessed at the beginning and end of the exhausting run. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor peak torques and calculated the fatigue index. Plantar-pressure measurements were recorded 1 minute after the start of the run and before exhaustion. Plantar variables (ie, mean area, contact time, mean pressure, relative load) were determined for 9 selected regions. Results: Isokinetic peak torques were similar before and after the run in both muscle groups, whereas the fatigue index increased in plantar flexion (28.1%; P = .01) but not in dorsiflexion. For the whole foot, mean pressure decreased from 1 minute to the end (−3.4%; P = .003); however, mean area (9.5%; P = .005) and relative load (7.2%; P = .009) increased under the medial midfoot, and contact time increased under the central forefoot (8.3%; P = .01) and the lesser toes (8.9%; P = .008). Conclusions: Fatigue resistance in the plantar flexors declined after a high-intensity running bout performed by adolescent male distance runners. This phenomenon was associated with increased loading under the medial arch in the fatigued state but without any excessive pronation. PMID:25531143

  16. Closed Rupture of the Flexor Tendon Secondary to Sclerosis of the Hook of the Hamate: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Hosaka, Masato; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Closed flexor tendon ruptures in the little finger can be caused by fracture or nonunion of the hook of the hamate, but no case of the disorder secondary to the sclerosis and thinning of the hamate hook has been reported. We report two rare cases with this complication due to rough surface of the hamate hook. Carpal tunnel view radiographs and computed tomography showed the sclerosis and thinning of the hook. PMID:27595962

  17. Attritional Rupture of the Little Finger Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon in the Carpal Tunnel in a Patient with Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Munn Yi Tina; Jin, Yeo Chong

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel is rare in the absence of rheumatoid arthritis. Other predisposing conditions such as gout, infection, pisotriquetrial osteoarthritis, as well as hook of hamate fracture non-union, have previously been reported. However, tendon ruptures of the hand in the presence of acromegaly, as well as spontaneous ruptures within the carpal tunnel, have not been described in the literature. PMID:27454510

  18. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  19. The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean ± SD age: 43 ± 12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7 ± 150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9 ± 25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r = 0.549, p = 0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

  20. Clinical use of a combined grasping and locking core suture technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2013-12-01

    Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed. PMID:23829500

  1. Four-Strand Core Suture Improves Flexor Tendon Repair Compared to Two-Strand Technique in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Beyersdoerfer, Sascha Tobias; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the amount of suture material on the formation of peritendinous adhesions of intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs. Materials and Methods. In 14 rabbits, the flexor tendons of the third and the fourth digit of the right hind leg were cut and repaired using a 2- or 4-strand core suture technique. The repaired tendons were harvested after three and eight weeks. The range of motion of the affected toes was measured and the tendons were processed histologically. The distance between the transected tendon ends, the changes in the peritendinous space, and cellular and extracellular inflammatory reaction were quantified by different staining. Results. A 4-strand core suture resulted in significantly less gap formation. The 2-strand core suture showed a tendency to less adhesion formation. Doubling of the intratendinous suture material was accompanied by an initial increase in leukocyte infiltration and showed a greater amount of formation of myofibroblasts. From the third to the eighth week after flexor tendon repair, both the cellular and the extracellular inflammation decreased significantly. Conclusion. A 4-strand core suture repair leads to a significantly better tendon healing process with less diastasis between the sutured tendon ends despite initially pronounced inflammatory response. PMID:27446949

  2. Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time-force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time-force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force-time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers. PMID:27491378

  3. Computer Vision Based Automatic Extraction and Thickness Measurement of Deep Cervical Flexor from Ultrasonic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Baek; Song, Doo Heon; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Deep Cervical Flexor (DCF) muscles are important in monitoring and controlling neck pain. While ultrasonographic analysis is useful in this area, it has intrinsic subjectivity problem. In this paper, we propose automatic DCF extractor/analyzer software based on computer vision. One of the major difficulties in developing such an automatic analyzer is to detect important organs and their boundaries under very low brightness contrast environment. Our fuzzy sigma binarization process is one of the answers for that problem. Another difficulty is to compensate information loss that happened during such image processing procedures. Many morphologically motivated image processing algorithms are applied for that purpose. The proposed method is verified as successful in extracting DCFs and measuring thicknesses in experiment using two hundred 800 × 600 DICOM ultrasonography images with 98.5% extraction rate. Also, the thickness of DCFs automatically measured by this software has small difference (less than 0.3 cm) for 89.8% of extracted DCFs. PMID:26949411

  4. The effect of distraction strategies on pain perception and the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex).

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Kreusch, Annette; Albers, Christoph; Sommer, Jens; Marziniak, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Distraction from pain reduces pain perception, and imaging studies have suggested that this may at least partially be mediated by activation of descending pain inhibitory systems. Here, we used the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex) to directly quantify the effects of different distraction strategies on basal spinal nociception and its temporal summation. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in 3 distraction tasks (mental imagery, listening to preferred music, spatial discrimination of brush stimuli) and, in a fourth task, concentrated on the painful stimulus. Results show that all 3 distraction tasks reduced pain perception, but only the brush task also reduced the RIII reflex. The concentration-on-pain task increased both pain perception and the RIII reflex. The extent of temporal summation of pain perception and the extent of temporal summation of the RIII reflex were not affected by any of the tasks. These results suggest that some, but not all, forms of pain reduction by distraction rely on descending pain inhibition. In addition, pain reduction by distraction seems to preferentially affect mechanisms of basal nociceptive transmission, not of temporal summation. PMID:21925793

  5. Digital oedema, adhesion formation and resistance to digital motion after primary flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Chen, C H; Wu, Y F; Xu, X F; Xie, R G; Tang, J B

    2008-12-01

    The development of digital oedema, adhesion formation, and resistance to digital motion at days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 after primary flexor tendon repairs using 102 long toes of 51 Leghorn chickens was studied. Oedema presented as tissue swelling from days 3 to 7, which peaked at day 3. After day 7, oedema was manifest as hardening of subcutaneous tissue. The degree of digital swelling correlated with the resistance to tendon motion between days 3 and 7. At day 9, granulation tissues were observed around the tendon and loose adhesions were observed at day 14. Resistance to digital motion increased significantly from day 0 to day 3, but did not increase between days 3 and 9. The early postoperative changes appear to have three stages: initial (days 0-3, increasing resistance with development of oedema), delayed (days 4-7, higher resistance with continuing oedema) and late (after day 7-9, hardening of subcutaneous tissue with development of adhesions). PMID:18936126

  6. Flexor and extensor muscle tone evaluated using the quantitative pendulum test in stroke and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent. PMID:26765753

  7. A cross-sectional study of the plantar flexor muscle and tendon during growth.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Teshima, T; Hirose, N; Tsunoda, N

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate growth changes in human plantar flexor muscle and tendons. In addition, we ascertained whether growth changes in muscle and tendon were more closely related to skeletal age than chronological age. 22 elementary school children (ESC), 19 junior high school students (JHS), and 23 young adults (ADT) men participated in this study. Maximal strain and hysteresis of tendon structures and cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, skeletal age was assessed using Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Maximal strain of ESC was significantly greater than that of other groups, while no significant difference was observed between JHS and ADT. There was no difference in hysteresis among 3 groups. Relative cross-sectional area (to body mass(2/3)) of ADT was significantly smaller than that of other groups. For ESC and JHS, measured variables of muscle and tendon were significantly correlated to both chronological and skeletal ages. These results suggested that immature musculoskeletal system was protected by more extensible and larger tendon structures in ESC and only by larger tendon structures in JHS, respectively. Furthermore, there were no differences in correlation coefficient values between measured variables of muscle and tendon and chronological or skeletal ages. PMID:24577863

  8. Quantitative application of transverse friction massage and its neurological effects on flexor carpi radialis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Min; Wu, Shyi-Kuen; You, Jia-Yuan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of transverse friction massage (TFM) on flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motoneuron (MN) pool excitability. Twenty-eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned into massage and control groups. Pre- vs post-TFM H-reflex data were collected. Controls received a rest period instead of massage. Massage dose was standardized by a novel electronic method which recorded the massage rate, momentary pressure and total cumulative pressure (energy). Two-way ANOVA of H/M ratios derived from maximal amplitudes of Hoffman reflexes (Hmax) and motor responses (Mmax) was used to analyze neurological effects and group differences. Analysis of pressure/time curve data showed: mean massage rate was 0.501+/-0.005 Hz; mean duration of massage sessions was 184.6+/-26.4s; mean peak pressure was 4.990+/-1.006 psi. Hmax/Mmax ratios declined from 14.3% to 10.3% for massage (P<0.01) but showed no change for controls (P>0.05). In conclusion a novel quantitative approach to the study of massage has been demonstrated while testing the effects of TFM on FCR MN pool excitability. TFM appears to reduce MN pool excitability. The novel method of quantifying massage permits more rigorous testing of client-centered massage in future research. PMID:19027340

  9. Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vibration on the mechanical properties of arm flexors. A group of 12 international level boxers, all members of the Italian national team, voluntarily participated in the experiment: all were engaged in regular boxing training. At the beginning of the study they were tested whilst performing forearm flexion with an extra load equal to 5% of the subjects' body mass. Following this. one arm was given the experimental treatment (E; mechanical vibration) and the other was the control (no treatment). The E treatment consisted of five repetitions lasting 1-min each of mechanical vibration applied during arm flexion in isometric conditions with 1 min rest between them. Further tests were performed 5 min immediately after the treatment on both limbs. The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the average power in the arm treated with vibrations. The root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) had not changed following the treatment but, when divided by mechanical power, (P) as an index of neural efficiency, it showed statistically significant increases. It was concluded that mechanical vibrations enhanced muscle P and decreased the related EMG/P relationship in elite athletes. Moreover, the analysis of EMGrms recorded before the treatment and during the treatment itself showed an enormous increase in neural activity during vibration up to more than twice the baseline values. This would indicate that this type of treatment is able to stimulate the neuromuscular system more than other treatments used to improve neuromuscular properties. PMID:10090628

  10. Facilitation from flexor digitorum superficialis to extensor carpi radialis in humans.

    PubMed

    Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Miyasaka, Takuji; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Effects of low-threshold afferents from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurons were examined using a post-stimulus time-histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in eight healthy human subjects. In the PSTH study in five of the eight subjects, electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the median nerve branch innervating FDS with the intensity below the motor threshold induced excitatory effects (facilitation) in 39 out of 92 ECR motor units. In 11 ECR motor units, the central synaptic delay of the facilitation was -0.1 ± 0.3 ms longer than that of the homonymous facilitation of ECR. Mechanical conditioning stimuli (MS) to FDS with the intensity below the threshold of the tendon(T)-wave-induced facilitation in 51 out of 51 ECR motor units. With the EMG-A method, early and significant peaks were produced by ES and MS in all the eight subjects. The difference between latencies of the peaks by ES and MS was almost equivalent to that of the Hoffmann- and T-waves of FDS by ES and MS. The peak was diminished by tonic vibration stimuli to FDS. These findings suggest that a facilitation from FDS to ECR exists in humans and group Ia afferents mediate the facilitation through a monosynaptic path. PMID:27010723

  11. Computer Vision Based Automatic Extraction and Thickness Measurement of Deep Cervical Flexor from Ultrasonic Images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Baek; Song, Doo Heon; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Deep Cervical Flexor (DCF) muscles are important in monitoring and controlling neck pain. While ultrasonographic analysis is useful in this area, it has intrinsic subjectivity problem. In this paper, we propose automatic DCF extractor/analyzer software based on computer vision. One of the major difficulties in developing such an automatic analyzer is to detect important organs and their boundaries under very low brightness contrast environment. Our fuzzy sigma binarization process is one of the answers for that problem. Another difficulty is to compensate information loss that happened during such image processing procedures. Many morphologically motivated image processing algorithms are applied for that purpose. The proposed method is verified as successful in extracting DCFs and measuring thicknesses in experiment using two hundred 800 × 600 DICOM ultrasonography images with 98.5% extraction rate. Also, the thickness of DCFs automatically measured by this software has small difference (less than 0.3 cm) for 89.8% of extracted DCFs. PMID:26949411

  12. Autologous bone marrow aspirate for treatment of superficial digital flexor tendonitis in 105 racehorses.

    PubMed

    Russell, J W; Russell, T M; Vasey, J R; Hall, M S

    2016-07-16

    To evaluate a treatment protocol whereby superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses was treated with autologous bone marrow aspirate (ABMA) obtained from the sternebrae. This treatment was combined with desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the SDF tendon (DAL-SDFT) in selected cases. Medical records of 105 horses treated using the reported protocol were reviewed. Signalment, history and details of treatment were recorded. Racing records were reviewed and performance recorded. Of Thoroughbreds, 82 per cent had one or more starts within the follow-up period and 59 per cent had five or more starts. Of Standardbreds, 76 per cent had one or more starts and 62 per cent had five or more starts. A statistically significant difference was found when comparing race starts between sexes, with females having less starts than males (≥1start P=0.017 and ≥5 starts P=0.008, respectively). The proportions of horses having one or more starts and five or more starts did not differ significantly if a DAL-SDFT was performed or not (P=0.31 and 0.63, respectively). Horses with a core lesion in the body of the SDFT have a good prognosis for return to racing following intralesional ABMA injection. Addition of DAL-SDFT to the treatment regimen did not significantly influence outcome. PMID:27206445

  13. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  14. Comparison of ankle plantar flexor activity between double-leg heel raise and walking.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Nishiyama, Toru; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the difference in the muscle activity between the double-leg heel raise (DHR) and treadmill walking. [Subjects] Thirty healthy males aged 21.5 ± 1.6 years (body mass 63.6 ± 9.3 kg, height 171.0 ± 4.5 cm) participated in the study. [Methods] Electromyograms were simultaneously recorded from both heads of the gastrocnemius and the soleus of the right side during the DHR and treadmill walking. The DHR conditions were maximum plantar flexion (MPF), 3/4 MPF, 2/4 MPF, and 1/4 MPF, and the walking speeds were 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 m/min. [Results] The muscle activity during the DHR and walking significantly increased with increments in the height of the heel raise and walking speed, respectively. Comparison of the muscle activity at MPF with that at each walking speed revealed that the muscle activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius medial head during walking exceeded that during the DHR in less than 3.3% of cases. [Conclusion] The DHR test is useful for evaluating the ankle plantar flexor activity necessary for walking. PMID:26157255

  15. Biomechanical trial of modified flexor tendon sutures: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vlajcic, Zlatko; Zic, Rado; Skenderi, Zenun; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Martic, Kresimir; Stanec, Zdenko

    2012-09-01

    Proven benefits of early active mobilisation for intra-synovial flexor tendon repairs have inducted new criteria for a 'perfect suture'. This study has examined different variations of modified Kessler's suture, which could fulfil the new criteria. A total of 93 swine extensor tendons were transected, repaired and tested using a dynamometer with constant rate of extension. The first part of study tested clinically the most used modified Kessler suture, a variation of double modified Kessler suture and intact tendons as a control group. Further variations in the second part of study were due to type of suture, location and number of the knots and type of peripheral suture. According to the results, the tested version of double modified Kessler suture with crossed peripheral suture was the strongest one among all tested variations. The ultimate force for the authors preferred modification of the double modified Kessler (DMK) is significantly higher than modified Kessler suture. The version of DMK with crossed peripheral suture is the strongest one among all tested variations. The lowest strength manifests variation with two knots between tendon ends. The variations with interlocked and outsided knot or monofilament tread are not statistically significant regarding ultimate force. The frequency of suture failure events (suture pull out or tendon and/or suture rupture) is equal respecting braided or monofilament suture. The preferred modification of the double modified Kessler (DMK) suture with crossed peripheral suture is the strongest one among all tested variations and could achieve, concerning range of force, early active mobilisation. Further variations due to the type of thread and location, type and number of the knots did not show statistical significance. PMID:22784225

  16. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered. PMID:27580111

  17. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. PMID:24861267

  18. The effects of passive stretching plus vibration on strength and activation of the plantar flexors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Mosier, Eric M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effects of passive stretching only (PS+CON) and passive stretching with the addition of continuous vibration (VIB) during post-passive stretching tests (PS+VIB) on peak torque (PT), percent voluntary inactivation (%VI), single stimulus twitch torque (TTSINGLE), and doublet stimuli twitch torque (TTDOUBLET) of the plantar flexors at a short (20° plantar flexion (PF)) and long muscle length (15° dorsiflexion (DF)). Fourteen healthy men (age = 22 ± 3 years) performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions at PF and DF, and passive range of motion (PROM) assessments before and after 8 × 30-s passive stretches without (PS+CON) or with VIB (PS+VIB) administered continuously throughout post-passive stretching tests. The passive properties of the muscle tendon unit were assessed pre- and post-passive stretching via PROM, passive torque (PASSTQ), and musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) measurements. PT, TTSINGLE, and TTDOUBLET decreased, whereas, %VI increased following passive stretching at PF and DF (P < 0.05) with no significant differences between PS+CON and PS+VIB. PASSTQ and MTS decreased while PROM increased post-passive stretching during both trials (P < 0.05). The stretching-induced force/torque deficit and increases in %VI were evident following passive stretching at short and long muscle lengths. Although not statistically significant, effect size calculations suggested large and moderate differences in the absolute changes in PT (Cohen's d = 1.14) and %VI (Cohen's d = 0.54) from pre- to post-passive stretching between treatments, with PS+VIB having greater decreases of PT and higher %VI than PS+CON. The decrement in PT following passive stretching may be primarily neural in origin. PMID:27512816

  19. The influence of ageing on the force-velocity-power characteristics of human elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Ochala, J; Ballay, Y; Pousson, M

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of ageing on the maximal power (P(max)) of the elbow flexor muscles and to determine the impact of velocity on the loss of power in older people. Sixteen elderly subjects (7 men and 9 women, age range 61-78 years) and 17 young subjects (11 men and 6 women, age range 18-27 years) participated in this study. Maximal elbow flexions were performed against increasing inertia. The maximal force (F(max)), maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), P(max), dynamic constants (a, b and a/F(max)), optimal force (F(opt)), optimal velocity (V(opt)) and V(opt)/V(max) were determined from Hill's equation. Myoelectrical activity (EMG) of the biceps and triceps muscles was quantified as an root mean square (RMS) value. F(max), V(max), P(max), F(opt), and V(opt) were significantly lower in elderly than in young subjects (28, 31, 45, 24 and 28% lower, respectively; p<0.05), whereas a/F(max) and V(opt)/V(max) were not different between the two age groups. In women, the greater decrease in P(max) appears to be more dependent on V(opt) than F(opt). In addition, V(max) decreased with age in women but not in men. The absence of significant differences between age groups in normalised RMS values indicates that P(max) and V(max) loss with increasing age could result more from changes in the properties of contractile element than from changes in muscular activity. PMID:12670625

  20. Effects of aging on force, velocity, and power in the elbow flexors of males.

    PubMed

    Toji, Hideki; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2007-11-01

    The effect of aging on muscular power development was investigated by determining the force-velocity relationship. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was estimated by the thickness of the elbow flexors. The subjects were 19 elderly males aged 69.1+/-3.7 years old (G-70 group), 15 middle-aged males aged 50.9+/-3.5 years old (G-50), and 19 young males aged 21.2+/-1.3 years old (G-20). The G-70 group had the slowest shortening velocities under various load conditions, resulting in the lowest force-velocity relationship. The maximum values for force (Fmax), velocity (Vmax), power (Pmax), dynamic constants (a, b), and the a/Fmax ratio were determined using Hill's equation. The a/Fmax ratio determines the degree of concavity in the force-velocity curve. The a/Fmax ratio was greatest in G-70, followed by those in G-50 and G-20, while the maximum values for force (Fmax), velocity (Vmax), and power (Pmax) were significantly lower in G-70 than in the other groups. Fmax and Pmax per CSA were lowest in G-70, and Vmax per unit muscle length was also lowest in G-70 as compared to the other age groups. The ratio of G-70/G-20 was greatest in Pmax (69.6%), followed by Fmax (75.3%) and Vmax (83.4%). However, there were no significant differences in CSA among the 3 age groups. Our findings suggest that muscle force and shortening velocity may decline gradually in the process of aging attributed to declining muscle function rather than CSA. PMID:18174666

  1. Pre-contraction dynamic electrical impedance myography of the forearm finger flexors.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, C A

    2016-02-01

    Electrical activity in the sensory-motor and supplementary motor areas of the cerebral cortex is known to occur during a 'readiness interval', extending up to 2 s before the relevant muscle actually contracts. This paper presents evidence that there are also changes in the properties of the muscle itself during a similar preparatory period, as revealed by dynamic electrical impedance myography. 11 healthy subjects aged 23.5 ± 2.5 years were asked to perform a series of isometric gripping exercises during which the force, resistance and reactance of the forearm finger flexor muscles were monitored. A change in reactance, ΔX, or resistance, ΔR, which occurred before the generation of force, ΔF, was dubbed a 'PIC', shorthand for precontraction impedance change (subject to criteria to rule out the possibility of simple 'noise'), of which 1206 qualified in the entire subject cohort. Such PIC's are statistically well correlated when expressed in terms of differences between PIC and force onset times (r ≈ 0.9, p ≈ 0). This is demonstrated using a variation on the 'computer of average transients' method. Precontraction impedance changes (PICs) occurring as much as 2 s before the onset of force generation were found, in qualitative agreement with precontraction EEG activity reported in the literature. Also, a subset of PIC's was found in which the scaled and time-shifted ΔX(t) was virtually identical to ΔF(t). Since the occurrence and timing of all the PICs depend on oral commands, it is clear that the auditory cortex is likely involved, but the detailed mechanism coupling brain activity with PICs is not known. PMID:26814557

  2. Evidence of Preserved Oxidative Capacity and Oxygen Delivery in the Plantar Flexor Muscles With Age.

    PubMed

    Hart, Corey R; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel D; Liu, Xin; Kim, Seong-Eun; Groot, H Jonathan; Le Fur, Yann; Sorensen, Jacob R; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    Studies examining the effect of aging on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity have yielded equivocal results; however, these investigations may have been confounded by differences in oxygen (O(2)) delivery, physical activity, and small numbers of participants. Therefore, we evaluated skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and O(2) delivery in a relatively large group (N = 40) of young (22 ± 2 years) and old (73 ± 7 years) participants matched for physical activity. After submaximal dynamic plantar flexion exercise, phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis ((31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), muscle reoxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), and popliteal artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were measured. The phosphocreatine recovery time constant (Tau) (young: 33 ± 16; old: 30 ± 11 seconds), maximal rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis (young: 25 ± 9; old: 27 ± 8 mM/min), and muscle reoxygenation rates determined by the deoxyhemoglobin/myoglobin recovery Tau (young: 48 ± 5; old: 47 ± 9 seconds) were similar between groups. Similarly, although tending to be higher in the old, there were no significant age-related differences in postexercise popliteal blood flow (area under the curve: young: 1,665 ± 227 vs old: 2,404 ± 357 mL, p = .06) and convective O(2) delivery (young: 293 ± 146 vs old: 404 ± 191 mL, p = .07). In conclusion, when physical activity and O(2) delivery are similar, oxidative capacity in the plantar flexors is not affected by aging. These findings reveal that diminished skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is not an obligatory accompaniment to the aging process. PMID:25165028

  3. Relationships of ultrasound measures of intrinsic foot muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume with maximum toe flexor muscle strength and physical performance in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Tayashiki, Kota; Nakatani, Miyuki; Watanabe, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationships between toe flexor muscle strength with (TFS-5-toes) and without (TFS-4-toes) the contribution of the great toe, anatomical and physiological muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of intrinsic toe flexor muscle and physical performance were measured. [Subjects] Seventeen men (82% sports-active) and 17 women (47% sports-active), aged 20 to 35 years, volunteered. [Methods] Anatomical CSA was measured in two intrinsic toe flexor muscles (flexor digitorum brevis [FDB] and abductor hallucis) by ultrasound. Muscle volume and muscle length of the FDB were also estimated, and physiological CSA was calculated. [Results] Both TFS-5-toes and TFS-4-toes correlated positively with walking speed in men (r=0.584 and r=0.553, respectively) and women (r=0.748 and r=0.533, respectively). Physiological CSA of the FDB was significantly correlated with TFS-5-toes (r=0.748) and TFS-4-toes (r=0.573) in women. In men, physiological CSA of the FDB correlated positively with TFS-4-toes (r=0.536), but not with TFS-5-toes (r=0.333). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that physiological CSA of the FDB is moderately associated with TFS-4-toes while toe flexor strength correlates with walking performance. PMID:26957721

  4. Innervation pattern of a pool of nine excitatory motor neurons in the flexor tibiae muscle of a locust hind leg

    PubMed

    Sasaki; Burrows

    1998-05-21

    The flexor tibiae muscle of a locust hind leg consists of 10-11 pairs of fibre bundles in the main body of the muscle and a distal pair of bundles that form the accessory flexor muscle, all of which insert onto a common tendon. It is much smaller than the antagonistic extensor tibiae muscle and yet it is innervated by nine excitatory motor neurons, compared with only two for the extensor. To determine the pattern of innervation within the muscle by individual motor neurons, branches of the nerve (N5B2) that supplies the different muscle bundles were backfilled to reveal somata in the metathoracic ganglion. This showed that different muscle bundles are innervated by different numbers of excitatory motor neurons. Physiological mapping of the innervation was then carried out by intracellular recordings from the somata of flexor motor neurons in the metathoracic ganglion using microelectrodes. Spikes were evoked in these neurons by the injection of current, and matching junctional potentials were sought in fibres throughout the muscle using a second intracellular electrode. Each motor neuron innervates only a restricted array of muscle fibres and, although some innervate a larger array than others, none innervates fibres throughout the muscle. Some motor neurons innervate only proximal fibres and others only more distal fibres, so that the most proximal and most distal bundles of muscle fibres are innervated by non-overlapping sets of motor neurons. More motor neurons innervate proximal bundles than distal ones, and there are some asymmetries in the number of motor neurons innervating corresponding bundles on either side of the tendon. Individual motor neurons cause slow, fast or intermediate movements of the tibia, but their patterns of innervation overlap in the different muscle bundles. Furthermore, individual muscle fibres may also be innervated by motor neurons with different properties. PMID:9600870

  5. Subtalar arthrodesis with flexor digitorum longus transfer and spring ligament repair for treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Cohen, B E; DiGiovanni, B F; Lamdan, R

    2000-09-01

    The surgical treatment of flexible pes planovalgus deformities resulting from Stage 2 posterior tibial tendon insufficiency is controversial and many techniques have been proposed. We retrospectively reviewed the results of subtalar arthrodesis combined with spring ligament repair/reefing and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) transfer to the navicular. There were sixteen patients (seventeen feet) with an average follow-up of 27 months (9-52). All deformities were passively correctable. The average age was 56 yrs (39-78). All patients had failed conservative management, 88% had previously been treated with orthotics, and 53% had lateral pain from subfibular impingement. Two patients were noted to have degenerative changes of the subtalar joint. Successful subtalar joint fusion occurred in all patients with an average time to radiographic union of 10.1 weeks (5-24). The average AOFAS hindfoot score and Maryland foot score postoperatively was 82 and 86 respectively. Standing radiographic analysis demonstrated an average improvement in the AP talo-1st metatarsal angle of 6 degrees (24 degrees preoperative, 18 degrees postoperative). The talonavicular coverage angle improved an average of 17 degrees (34 degrees preoperative, 17 degrees postoperative). The lateral talo-1st metatarsal angle improved an average of 10 degrees (18 degrees preoperative, 8 degrees postoperative). The lateral talocalcaneal angle decreased an average of 21o (55 degrees preoperative, 34 degrees postoperative). The distance of the medial cuneiform to the floor on the lateral radiograph averaged 12mm preoperatively and 18mm postoperatively (avg. improvement 6mm). The combination of the flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer and spring ligament repair with subtalar arthrodesis is an effective and reliable procedure which provides excellent correction of hindfoot valgus as well as forefoot abduction and restoration of the height of the longitudinal arch. These results compare favorably with flexor

  6. Arm-cycling sprints induce neuromuscular fatigue of the elbow flexors and alter corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Pearcey, Gregory E P; Bradbury-Squires, David J; Monks, Michael; Philpott, Devin; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of arm-cycling sprints on maximal voluntary elbow flexion and corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii. Recreationally trained athletes performed ten 10-s arm-cycling sprints interspersed with 150 s of rest in 2 separate experiments. In experiment A (n = 12), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the elbow flexors was measured at pre-sprint 1, post-sprint 5, and post-sprint 10. Participants received electrical motor point stimulation during and following the elbow flexor MVCs to estimate voluntary activation (VA). In experiment B (n = 7 participants from experiment A), supraspinal and spinal excitability of the biceps brachii were measured via transcranial magnetic and transmastoid electrical stimulation that produced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), respectively, during a 5% isometric MVC at pre-sprint 1, post-sprint 1, post-sprint 5, and post-sprint 10. In experiment A, mean power output, MVC force, potentiated twitch force, and VA decreased 13.1% (p < 0.001), 8.7% (p = 0.036), 27.6% (p = 0.003), and 5.6% (p = 0.037), respectively, from pre-sprint 1 to post-sprint 10. In experiment B, (i) MEPs decreased 42.1% (p = 0.002) from pre-sprint 1 to post-sprint 5 and increased 40.1% (p = 0.038) from post-sprint 5 to post-sprint 10 and (ii) CMEPs increased 28.5% (p = 0.045) from post-sprint 1 to post-sprint 10. Overall, arm-cycling sprints caused neuromuscular fatigue of the elbow flexors, which corresponded with decreased supraspinal and increased spinal excitability of the biceps brachii. The different post-sprint effects on supraspinal and spinal excitability may illustrate an inhibitory effect on supraspinal drive that reduces motor output and, therefore, decreases arm-cycling sprint performance. PMID:26799694

  7. Assessing Finger Joint Biomechanics by Applying Equal Force to Flexor Tendons In Vitro Using a Novel Simultaneous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tai-Hua; Lu, Szu-Ching; Lin, Wei-Jr; Zhao, Kristin; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Jou, I-Ming; Lee, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) are critical for finger flexion. Although research has recently focused on these tendons’ coactivity, their contributions in different tasks remain unclear. This study created a novel simultaneous approach to investigate the coactivity between the tendons and to clarify their contributions in different tasks. Methods Ten human cadaveric hands were mounted on our custom frame with the FDS and FDP of the third finger looped through a mechanical pulley connected to a force transducer. Joint range of motion, tendon excursion and loading force were recorded during individual joint motion and free joint movement from rest to maximal flexion. Each flexor tendon’s moment arm was then calculated. Results In individual motions, we found that the FDP contributed more than the FDS in proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 1.34 and all FDP-to-FDS excursion (P/S) ratios greater than 1.0 with force increase. However, the FDP contributed less than the FDS in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 0.95 and P/S ratios smaller than 1.0 throughout the whole motion except between 1.9% and 13.1% force. In free joint movement, the FDP played a greater role than the FDS, with an overall ratio of 1.37 and all P/S ratios greater than 1.0. Conclusions The new findings include differences in finger performance and excursion amounts between the FDS and FDP throughout flexion. Such findings may provide the basis for new hand models and treatments. PMID:27513744

  8. Functional linkages between motor cortical cells and elbow flexor muscles. Evidence for and characteristics of postspike facilitation.

    PubMed

    Fourment, A; Belhaj-Saïf, A; Maton, B

    1995-07-01

    1. Two monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) making high-level but submaximal isometric flexions of the elbow were investigated for the output effect of motor cortical cells on the electromyogram (EMG) activity of two main elbow flexors using the method of spike-triggered averaging of rectified EMGs (STAs). 2. Monkeys were trained to perform individual isometric contractions for > 2 s, and two series of > or = 20 contractions, the second series being at a greater force. EMG electrodes pairs were implanted in the biceps brachii and brachioradialis. A total of 257 cortical cells were found that discharged with the active and passive movements of the elbow. We examined the EMG postspike facilitations (PSFs) produced in either one or the two flexors for only those cells that discharged during the isometric contraction, and provoked PSFs in the two series of contractions. 3. The main characteristics of the EMG isometric contractions in the agonists were analyzed. Spectral analysis showed that the increases in the EMG median frequency with force stabilized at the force levels performed by monkeys. Cross correlation methods showed no cross talk between agonists. 4. The 26 selected cortical cells had a regular discharge frequency. Ten cells did not change frequency with a 22-30% force increase, 14 cells discharged at a higher frequency, and 2 cells discharged at a lower frequency. For single-cell frequencies of 5-65 Hz, interspike intervals < 10 ms were rare: the median and modal intervals were 20-30 ms. 5. The significance of PSFs with respect to the EMG background noise was estimated statistically. STAs from successive epochs under identical load conditions, and STAs performed at a distance from the trigger, showed that PSFs were authentic postspike effects and not sudden EMG changes synchronized by chance with the triggering cell. The features distinguishing PSF from secondary postspike EMG changes or coactivation and task-related effects were studied in simultaneous STAs of

  9. Cerebral Palsy Tendon Transfers: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris to Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis and Extensor Pollicis Longus Reroutement.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anchal; Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2016-08-01

    The flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor carpi radialis brevis transfer and extensor pollicis longus rerouting combined with thenar release are 2 successful surgical interventions for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The goal of both procedures is to improve quality of life for patients who have previously failed conservative management, and the degree of expected improvement is predicated on several patient variables, making careful patient selection crucial for ensuring successful outcomes. Here, surgical technique is described; risk factors are discussed, and outcomes related to both procedures are presented. PMID:27387086

  10. Efficiency of Hyaloglide in the prevention of the recurrence of adhesions after tenolysis of flexor tendons in zone II: a randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Riccio, M; Battiston, B; Pajardi, G; Corradi, M; Passaretti, U; Atzei, A; Altissimi, M; Vaienti, L; Catalano, F; Del Bene, M; Fasolo, P; Ceruso, M; Luchetti, R; Landi, A

    2010-02-01

    Hyaloglide is a hyaluronan-based gel based on a novel auto-crosslinked technology designed to reduce postsurgical adhesions. Its efficacy was assessed in a multicentred randomized controlled trial comparing the results of flexor tenolysis in zone 2 following failed flexor tendon repairs. In the control group a standard release was performed. In the treated group, Hyaloglide was applied into the flexor sheath and around the site of tenolysis. Forty-five patients, 19 controls and 26 treated with Hyaloglide, were enrolled in 13 centres. All the patients were evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 180 days after surgery by testing Total Active Motion, Quick-DASH questionnaire and number of working days lost after surgery. Patients in the Hyaloglide group had a statistically better recovery of finger motion at all time intervals and returned earlier to work and daily activities. The use of Hyaloglide did not appear to increase the complication rate. PMID:19710086

  11. Do rhythms exist in elbow flexor torque, oral temperature and muscle thickness during normal waking hours?

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Halliday, Tanya M; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of "time" on isometric elbow flexion torque, body temperature and muscle size without interrupting the sleep wake cycle in college aged males. Two hours following the participants normal wake time, oral temperature was measured, followed by muscle thickness of the upper and lower body using ultrasound, as well as elbow flexor torque via a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Measurements were repeated every 2h for 12h (Time points 1-7). To examine the repeatability of the rhythm, participants returned and completed the same procedures as before within 14days of their first circadian visit (Circadian visit 2). There was no time×day interaction for body temperature (p=0.29), nor were there main effects for time (p=0.15) or day (p=0.74). For MVC, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.93) or main effect for day (p=0.50), however, there was a main effect for time (p=0.01). MVC at time points 1 (86.4±6.4Nm) and 2 (87.1±6.2Nm) was greater than time points 4 (84.2±6.6Nm) and 6 (83.4±6.8Nm, p<0.05). Additionally, time point 5 MVC was greater than time point 4. For upper body muscle thickness, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.34), nor was there a main effect for day (p=0.38), or time (p=0.06). For lower body muscle thickness, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.57), nor was there a main effect for day (p=0.75), or time (p=0.13). Cosinor analyses revealed no group level rhythms for oral temperature, muscle thickness or strength (p>0.05), however, there were some individual rhythms noted for muscle thickness and strength. Results suggest that, when accounting for an individuals normal wake time, circadian rhythms of strength, temperature and muscle thickness are not apparent in most individuals. PMID:27020314

  12. Strength Training for the Intrinsic Flexor Muscles of the Foot: Effects on Muscle Strength, the Foot Arch, and Dynamic Parameters Before and After the Training

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance. PMID:24707086

  13. Presence of a long accessory flexor tendon of the toes in surgical treatment for tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon: case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome. PMID:26962495

  14. Isolated flexor digitorum profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA and IIB repaired with figure of eight sutures.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2011-02-01

    The 'figure of eight' suture technique for flexor tendon repair is known to be simple and strong but it has the major disadvantage of being bulky, with the knots outside the repair site. When the superficialis tendon is intact it may cause impingement and/or increase the work of flexion with postoperative mobilization and it is not known whether this bulky repair is suitable for isolated profundus injuries in zone II. A series of 36 patients (36 fingers) with clean-cut isolated flexor digitorum profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA/IIB were reviewed retrospectively. Repairs were done with three 'figure of eight' sutures and the pulleys proximal to the tendon laceration level were vented. Postoperatively, early active exercises were carried out. There were no ruptures. At a mean final follow-up of 6 months, the outcome (in range of motion) was excellent in 27 fingers and good in the remaining nine fingers by the Strickland criteria. It was concluded that the bulky 'figure of eight' technique can be used in isolated profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA/IIB. PMID:21045020

  15. Biomechanical and Electromyographic Comparisons of Isometric Trunk Flexor Endurance Test Postures: Prone Plank Versus V-Sit.

    PubMed

    Musalem, Lindsay L; Stankovic, Tatjana; Glisic, Drazen; Cook, Gillian E; Beach, Tyson A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate why holding times on 2 different tests of isometric trunk flexor endurance capacity (prone plank and v-sit) are weakly correlated. Body position and ground reaction force data from 10 men and 10 women were used to conduct static biomechanical analyses of both test postures, and bilateral activations of the rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques, latissimus dorsi, and lumbar and thoracic erector spinae were measured in a second sample of 15 men and 15 women while holding the test postures. No between-posture differences in net low back flexor moments were found (P = .111), but the lumbar spine was 28° more flexed in the v-sit than in the plank (P < .001). No between-posture differences were detected in the rectus abdominis (P = .397), external obliques (P = .204), internal obliques (P = .226), or lumbar erector spinae (P = .116) activation levels, but those of the thoracic erector spinae (P = .0253) and latissimus dorsi (P < .001) were greater in the plank than in the v-sit. Altogether, the findings suggest that differences between plank and v-sit holding times are most likely related to between-test differences in lumbar spine postures and shoulder demands. PMID:26252077

  16. Distinct and developmentally regulated activity-dependent plasticity at descending glutamatergic synapses on flexor and extensor motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Lenschow, Constanze; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) is paramount to synaptic processing and maturation. However, identifying the ADSP capabilities of the numerous synapses converging onto spinal motoneurons (MNs) remain elusive. Using spinal cord slices from mice at two developmental stages, 1–4 and 8–12 postnatal days (P1–P4; P8–P12), we found that high-frequency stimulation of presumed reticulospinal neuron axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induced either an NMDA receptor-dependent-long-term depression (LTD), a short-term depression (STD) or no synaptic modulation in limb MNs. Our study shows that P1–P4 cervical MNs expressed the same plasticity profiles as P8–P12 lumbar MNs rather than P1–P4 lumbar MNs indicating that ADSP expression at VLF-MN synapses is linked to the rostrocaudal development of spinal motor circuitry. Interestingly, we observed that the ADSP expressed at VLF-MN was related to the functional flexor or extensor MN subtype. Moreover, heterosynaptic plasticity was triggered in MNs by VLF axon tetanisation at neighbouring synapses not directly involved in the plasticity induction. ADSP at VLF-MN synapses specify differential integrative synaptic processing by flexor and extensor MNs and could contribute to the maturation of spinal motor circuits and developmental acquisition of weight-bearing locomotion. PMID:27329279

  17. Recovery of equine forelimb function after desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Savelberg, H H; Buchner, H H; Becker, C K

    1997-05-01

    The recovery process of the equine locomotor system after desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL-DDFT) was investigated by studying the movement patterns and joint moments in 6 horses before and 10 days and 6 months following surgery. Using a modified CODA-3 system the joint angles and angular velocities of the lower limb were assessed in the operated forelimb as before the operation. Simultaneously ground reaction forces were measured and joint moments calculated. At 10 days and 6 months after the operation the carpal joint started to bend earlier in the stance phase. At that instant, the fetlock joint was more extended and displayed a higher angular velocity. The moment of the coffin joint was significantly decreased 10 days after desmotomy. After 6 months it had recovered considerably, but still the shape of the curve was significantly different compared to that before the operation. The fetlock joint moment was not affected, but turned out to be generated for a greater part by the suspensory ligament and the superficial digital flexor 10 days after the operation. Further analysis of these results showed that 6 months after the desmotomy the locomotor system was able to cope with almost similar external moments. To accomplish this, it had adopted a new co-ordination pattern during the recovery process. PMID:9354283

  18. Bundles of Spider Silk, Braided into Sutures, Resist Basic Cyclic Tests: Potential Use for Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hennecke, Kathleen; Redeker, Joern; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Strauss, Sarah; Allmeling, Christina; Kasper, Cornelia; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Repair success for injuries to the flexor tendon in the hand is often limited by the in vivo behaviour of the suture used for repair. Common problems associated with the choice of suture material include increased risk of infection, foreign body reactions, and inappropriate mechanical responses, particularly decreases in mechanical properties over time. Improved suture materials are therefore needed. As high-performance materials with excellent tensile strength, spider silk fibres are an extremely promising candidate for use in surgical sutures. However, the mechanical behaviour of sutures comprised of individual silk fibres braided together has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we characterise the maximum tensile strength, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and fatigue response of silk sutures produced using different braiding methods to investigate the influence of braiding on the tensile properties of the sutures. The mechanical properties of conventional surgical sutures are also characterised to assess whether silk offers any advantages over conventional suture materials. The results demonstrate that braiding single spider silk fibres together produces strong sutures with excellent fatigue behaviour; the braided silk sutures exhibited tensile strengths comparable to those of conventional sutures and no loss of strength over 1000 fatigue cycles. In addition, the braiding technique had a significant influence on the tensile properties of the braided silk sutures. These results suggest that braided spider silk could be suitable for use as sutures in flexor tendon repair, providing similar tensile behaviour and improved fatigue properties compared with conventional suture materials. PMID:23613793

  19. The effects of 5-HT on sensory, central and motor neurons driving the abdominal superficial flexor muscles in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Strawn, J R; Neckameyer, W S; Cooper, R L

    2000-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces a variety of physiological and behavioral effects in crustaceans. However, the mechanisms employed by 5-HT to effect behavioral changes are not fully understood. Among the mechanisms by which these changes might occur are alterations in synaptic drive and efficacy of sensory, interneurons and motor neurons, as well as direct effects on muscles. We investigated these aspects with the use of a defined sensory-motor system, which is entirely contained within a single abdominal segment and consists of a 'cuticular sensory neurons segmental ganglia abdominal superficial flexor motor neurons-muscles' circuit. Our studies address the role of 5-HT in altering (1) the activity of motor neurons induced by sensory stimulation; (2) the inherent excitability of superficial flexor motor neurons; (3) transmitter release properties of the motor nerve terminal and (4) input resistance of the muscle. Using en passant recordings from the motor nerve, with and without sensory stimulation, and intracellular recordings from the muscle, we show that 5-HT enhances sensory drive and output from the ventral nerve cord resulting in an increase in the firing frequency of the motor neurons. Also, 5-HT increases transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction, and alters input resistance of the muscle fibers. PMID:11281271

  20. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability. PMID:26990722

  1. Flexor Carpi Radialis to Palmaris Longus Tendon Transfer for Spontaneous Rupture of the Flexor Carpi Radialis Tendon-A Review of an Uncommon Finding and Surgical Technique for Operative Correction.

    PubMed

    Shearin, Jonathan Winkworth; Walters, Brian; Yang, S Steven

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the flexor carpi radialis tendon (FCR) are rare and associated with systemic inflammatory diseases, localized tendinopathy related to scaphotrapezial-trapezoidal arthritis, or chronic immunosuppression from corticosteroids. While most cases do not require operative intervention, some patients develop weakness, impaired range of motion, and persistent pain. Previously reported surgical options include synovectomy, tendon stump resection, and osteophyte removal. We describe a surgical technique for patients with persistent symptomatology following FCR rupture in which the FCR is transposed end-to-side to the palmaris longus tendon. Three cases using this technique are presented with follow-up of 4-9 months that were collected at Lenox Hill Hospital. All three patients did well regarding specific outcome measures: grip strength, range of motion, and functional activity. FCR transfer to palmaris is an alternative to other surgical options for the spontaneous rupture of the FCR tendon in patients who remain symptomatic despite a course of non-operative therapy. PMID:27595965

  2. PXL01 in Sodium Hyaluronate for Improvement of Hand Recovery after Flexor Tendon Repair Surgery: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Monica E.; Dahlin, Lars B.; Fridén, Jan; Hagberg, Lars; Larsen, Sören E.; Wiklund, Kerstin; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative adhesions constitute a substantial clinical problem in hand surgery. Fexor tendon injury and repair result in adhesion formation around the tendon, which restricts the gliding function of the tendon, leading to decreased digit mobility and impaired hand recovery. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the peptide PXL01 in preventing adhesions, and correspondingly improving hand function, in flexor tendon repair surgery. Methods This prospective, randomised, double-blind trial included 138 patients admitted for flexor tendon repair surgery. PXL01 in carrier sodium hyaluronate or placebo was administered around the repaired tendon. Efficacy was assessed by total active motion of the injured finger, tip-to-crease distance, sensory function, tenolysis rate and grip strength, and safety parameters were followed, for 12 months post-surgery. Results The most pronounced difference between the treatment groups was observed at 6 months post-surgery. At this timepoint, the total active motion of the distal finger joint was improved in the PXL01 group (60 vs. 41 degrees for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.016 in PPAS). The proportion of patients with excellent/good digit mobility was higher in the PXL01 group (61% vs. 38%, p = 0.0499 in PPAS). Consistently, the PXL01 group presented improved tip-to-crease distance (5.0 vs. 15.5 mm for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.048 in PPAS). Sensory evaluation showed that more patients in the PXL01 group felt the thinnest monofilaments (FAS: 74% vs. 35%, p = 0.021; PPAS: 76% vs. 35%, p = 0.016). At 12 months post-surgery, more patients in the placebo group were considered to benefit from tenolysis (30% vs. 12%, p = 0.086 in PPAS). The treatment was safe, well tolerated, and did not increase the rate of tendon rupture. Conclusions Treatment with PXL01 in sodium hyaluronate improves hand recovery after flexor tendon repair surgery. Further clinical trials are warranted to determine the

  3. Bifurcated Bicipital Aponeurosis Giving Origin to Flexor and Extensor Muscles of the Forearm – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Maloor, Prasad A; Dsouza, Melanie R

    2016-01-01

    Bicipital aponeurosis is usually attached to the antebrachial fascia on the medial side of forearm and to posterior border of ulna assisting in the supination of the forearm along with biceps brachii muscle. Variations in the bicipital aponeurosis may lead to neurovascular compression as reported earlier. In the present case, the bicipital aponeurosis had two slips i.e. medial and lateral. Medial slip gave origin to some fibers of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis and the lateral slip gave origin to some fibers of brachioradialis. Such unusual slips of bicipital aponeurosis may distribute the stress concentration and may work in different directions affecting the supination of forearm by biceps brachii muscle and bicipital aponeurosis. PMID:27042440

  4. Absence of Flexor Carpi Radialis during an Elective Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty of the Thumb: A Rare Anatomical Variation

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation of unilateral flexor carpi radialis (FCR) absence. This rare anatomical variation posed a clinical dilemma to us and we highlight the importance of the surgeon being aware of this anatomical variation of an important structure both as a reconstruction tool and as an anatomical landmark. Methods. This anatomical variation of the unilaterally absent FCR was found upon dissection during a carpometacarpal arthroplasty of the thumb. Results. Upon the discovery of an absent FCR tendon, we proceeded with a simple trapeziectomy. Conclusions. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation of unilateral FCR absence. This rare anatomical variation may pose clinical dilemmas to the operating surgeon who aims to utilise the FCR either for tendon transfer, for tendon graft, or, as seen in our case, in the reconstruction of a carpometacarpal excision at the thumb. We highlight this diagnosis of suspicion, which may influence the clinical procedure. PMID:27051425

  5. In vivo measurements of flexor tendon and suspensory ligament forces during trotting using the thoroughbred forelimb model.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Aida, Hiroko; Hiraga, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred horse for measuring the force in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons (SDFT and DDFT), and the suspensory ligament (SL) during a trot. The mass, centers of gravity, and inertial moments in the metacarpus, pastern, and hoof segments were measured in 4 Thoroughbred horses. The moment arms of the SDFT, DDFT, and SL in the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints were measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The relationship between the fetlock joint angle and the force in the SL was assessed in 3 limbs of 2 Thoroughbred horses. The forces in the SDFT, DDFT, and SL during a trot were also measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The mass of the 3 segments, and the moment arms of the SDFT and DDFT in the fetlock joint of the Thoroughbred horses were smaller than those of the Warmblood horses, whereas the other values were almost the same in the 2 types. The calculated force in the SDFT with this Thoroughbred model reached a peak (4,615 N) at 39.3% of the stance phase, whereas that in the DDFT reached a peak (5,076 N) at 51.2% of the stance phase. The force in the SL reached a peak (11,957 N) at 49.4% of the stance phase. This lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred can be applied to studying the effects of different shoe types and change of hoof angle for the flexor tendon and SL forces. PMID:24834009

  6. Analysis of the gliding pattern of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon through the A2 pulley.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Amadio, Peter C; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Friction between a tendon and its pulley was first quantified using the concept of the arc of contact. Studies of human tendons conformed closely to a theoretical nylon cable/nylon rod model. However, we observed differences in measured friction that depended on the direction of motion in the canine model. We hypothesized that fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon affected the measurements and attempted to develop a theoretical model to explain the observations we made. Two force transducers were connected to each end of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon and the forces were recorded when it was moved through the A2 pulley toward a direction of flexion by an actuator and then reversed a direction toward extension. The changes of a force as a function of tendon excursion were evaluated in 20 canine paws. A bead cable/rod model was developed to simulate the canine tendon-pulley complex. To interpret the results, a free-body diagram was developed. The two prominent fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon were found to be responsible for deviation from a theoretical nylon cable gliding around the rod model, in a fashion analogous to the effect of the patella on the quadriceps mechanism. A bead cable/rod model qualitatively reproduced the findings observed in the canine tendon-pulley complex. Frictional coefficient of the canine flexor tendon-pulley was 0.016+/-0.005. After accounting for the effect created by the geometry of two fibrocartilaginous nodules within the tendon, calculation of frictional force in the canine tendon was possible. PMID:18328488

  7. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Michael T; Bertram, John E A; Syme, Douglas A; Hermanson, John W; Chase, P Bryant

    2014-10-01

    The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5-16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01-0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002-0.05 Wkg(-1)) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4-7 Hz), SDF (4-5 Hz) and SOL (0.5-1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross-bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  8. Specific modulation of spinal and cortical excitabilities during lengthening and shortening submaximal and maximal contractions in plantar flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the influence of the torque produced by plantar flexor muscles on cortical and spinal excitability during lengthening and shortening voluntary contractions. To that purpose, modulations of motor-evoked potential (MEP) and Hoffmann (H) reflex were compared in the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during anisometric submaximal and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexor muscles. For the submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, the target torque was set at 50% of their respective MVC force. The results indicate that the amplitudes of both MEP and H-reflex responses, normalized to the maximal M wave, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during lengthening compared with shortening submaximal contraction. For these two parameters, the reduction reached, respectively, 22.1 and 31.9% for the SOL and 34.5 and 29.3% for the MG. During MVC, normalized MEP and H reflex of the SOL were both reduced significantly by 19.9% (P < 0.05) and 29.9% (P < 0.001) during lengthening and shortening contraction, respectively, whereas no significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for MG. In addition, the silent period in the ongoing electromyogram (EMG) activity following the MEP was significantly (P < 0.01) briefer during lengthening than shortening contractions but did not differ (P > 0.05) between contraction intensities and muscles. Together, these results indicate that cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulation of muscle activation during shortening and lengthening contractions differ between synergistic muscles according to the torque produced. Data further document previous studies reporting that the specific modulation of muscle activation during lengthening contraction is not torque dependent. PMID:25324516

  9. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E.A.; Syme, Douglas A.; Hermanson, John W.; Chase, P. Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5–16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01–0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002–0.05 Wkg−1) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4–7 Hz), SDF (4–5 Hz) and SOL (0.5–1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross‐bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  10. Isokinetic assessment of the flexor-extensor balance of the knee in athletes with total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Terreri, A S; Ambrósio, M A; Pedrinelli, A; Albuquerque, R F; Andrusaitis, F; Greve, J M; Carazzato, J G; Amatuzzi, M M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the flexor-extensor group of muscles of the knee in young athletes diagnosed with a total rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Eighteen knees of 18 athletes (14 men and 4 women) with an average age of 21.6 years (range 16-32 years) were assessed with a Cybex 6000 model isokinetic apparatus. The average internal between occurrence of the injury and assessment was 10.2 months (range 2-48 months). There was an associated meniscal injury in eight of the knees. Athletes with any other kind of associated injury, limitation, or blockage of the movement of the joint, significant pain during the exam, or interval between injury and exam of less than two months were excluded from the study. The parameters studied were the peak torque-velocity and flexor-extensor relationships at the constant angular velocities of 60 degrees/sec and 240 degrees/sec. Previous warming-up was done by means of an ergometric bicycle and adaptation with 3 submaximal repetitions. The contra-lateral side, which presented no injury, was used as control. Peak torque (PT) at the constant velocity of 60 degrees/sec was greater than that at 240 degrees/sec for knees with and without injuries. However, there was no significant difference between the injured and uninjured sides at 60 degrees/sec or at 240 degrees/sec. The average value for the flexor-extensor relationship at 60 degrees/sec on the injured was 60% ((6), compared to 57% ((10) on the contra-lateral side. At 240 degrees/sec, the average value was 75% ((10) on the injured side, and 65% ((12) on the contra-lateral side. In conclusion, despite the complete rupture of the ACL of one knee, the average values for the flexor-extensor relationship were similar on the injured and uninjured sides at the velocity of 60 degrees/sec. As the velocity increased, an increase in the values for the flexor-extensor relationship of the knee also occurred, indicating a tendency of the performance of the flexor

  11. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced. PMID:14509917

  12. Comparison of a multifilament stainless steel suture with FiberWire for flexor tendon repairs--an in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Gordon, J A; Buckley, J M; Gordon, L

    2013-05-01

    Our goal was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of multifilament stainless steel suture (MFSS) and polyethylene multi-filament core FiberWire in flexor tendon repairs. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired in human cadaver hands with either a 4-strand cruciate cross-lock repair or 6-strand modified Savage repair using 4-0 and 3-0 multifilament stainless steel or FiberWire. The multifilament stainless steel repairs were as strong as those performed with FiberWire in terms of ultimate load and load at 2 mm gap. This study suggests that MFSS provides as strong a repair as FiberWire. The mode of failure of the MFSS occurred by the suture pulling through the tendon, which suggests an advantage in terms of suture strength. PMID:22745156

  13. Effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang-Hyun; Boo, Jung-A; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain (CKC) in hemiplegia patients. [Methods] This study used a reversal design (A-B-A’) for a stroke with hemiplagia. The intervention program consisted of 30 min sessions, once a day, for 15 days. The subjects were trained for 15 sessions in total. Pelvic movements (anterior ·posterior tilting, elevation, depression, forward·backward rotation) during walking and gait speed were measured in hemiplegia patients. [Results] Overall, the angle of pelvic movements was increased in Treatment and, Baseline II compared with Baseline I. The gait speed was maximally increased in Baseline II, followed by Treatment and Baseline I. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain had a positive effect on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients. Also, after treatment, its effect on gait of hemiplegia patients was maintained. PMID:26957780

  14. Effect of pre-exercise phototherapy applied with different cluster probe sizes on elbow flexor muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Mateus; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Sakugawa, Raphael L; Lazzari, Caetano D; Baroni, Bruno M; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Phototherapy has been used for reducing muscle fatigue. In view of the various types of phototherapy cluster probes available in the market, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a similar phototherapy dosage with two different cluster probes on elbow flexor muscle fatigue: small cluster probe (SC = 9 diodes; 7.5 cm(2)) vs. large cluster probe (LC = 33 diodes; 30.2 cm(2)). Ten physically active male aged 18-35 years participate in a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which each participant was submitted to the same testing protocol in four sessions (separated by at least 48 h) with different treatments: LC-phototherapy, SC-phototherapy, LC-placebo, and SC-placebo. The elbow flexion maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) was performed before and after a fatigue protocol (60 % of MIVC until exhaustion). Electromyography (EMG) of the biceps brachii muscle was collected during all testing procedure. Phototherapy with dose of 60 J per muscle [LC: 33 diodes = 5 lasers (850 nm), 12 LEDs (670 nm), 8 LEDs (880 nm), and 8 LEDs (950 nm); SC: 9 diodes = 5 lasers (850 nm) and 4 LEDs (670 nm)] or placebo applications occurred before fatigue protocol. Two-way ANOVA (treatment and time factors) and one-way ANOVA were used, followed by LSD post hoc. Time to exhaustion was significantly higher in active LC (15 %; p = 0.031) and SC (14 %; p = 0.038) in comparison with their respective placebo treatments, without differences between LC and SC (p > 0.05) or between placebo conditions (p > 0.05). This larger exercise tolerance in phototherapy conditions was not accompanied by a higher decrement in the volunteers' maximal strength capacity (11-15 %; p > 0.05 for all). EMG signals presented no difference between the four condition tested here. In both large and small cluster probes (according parameters tested in this study) led to reduced fatigue in elbow flexor muscles, without

  15. Gene expression analysis of the pleiotropic effects of TGF-β1 in an in vitro model of flexor tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Youssef M; Al-Maliki, Alaa A; Chen, Tony; Juneja, Subhash C; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are among the most challenging problems for hand surgeons and tissue engineers alike. Not only do flexor tendon injuries heal with poor mechanical strength, they can also form debilitating adhesions that may permanently impair hand function. While TGF-β1 is a necessary factor for regaining tendon strength, it is associated with scar and adhesion formation in the flexor tendons and other tissues as well as fibrotic diseases. The pleiotropic effects of TGF-β1 on tendon cells and tissue have not been characterized in detail. The goal of the present study was to identify the targets through which the effects of TGF-β1 on tendon healing could be altered. To accomplish this, we treated flexor tendon tenocytes cultured in pinned collagen gels with 1, 10 or 100 ng/mL of TGF-β1 and measured gel contraction and gene expression using RT-PCR up to 48 hours after treatment. Specifically, we studied the effects of TGF-β1 on the expression of collagens, fibronectin, proteoglycans, MMPs, MMP inhibitors, and the neotendon transcription factors, Scleraxis and Mohawk. Area contraction of the gels was not dose-dependent with the TGF-β1 concentrations tested. We observed dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-16 (MT3-MMP) and decorin, and upregulation of biglycan, collagen V, collagen XII, PAI-1, Scleraxis, and Mohawk by TGF-β1. Inter-gene analyses were also performed to further characterize the expression of ECM and MMP genes in the tenocyte-seeded collagen gels. These analyses illustrate that TGF-β1 tilts the balance of gene expression in favor of ECM synthesis rather than the matrix-remodeling MMPs, a possible means by which TGF-β1 promotes adhesion formation. PMID:23251524

  16. A novel approach using tendon vibration of the human flexor carpi radialis muscle to study spinal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth; de Bruin, Hubert; Archambeault, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although most muscle spindle investigations have used the cat model and invasive measurement techniques, several investigators have used microneurography to record from the Ia and II fibres in humans during tendon vibration. In these studies the muscle spindle primary endings are stimulated using transverse vibration of the tendon at reflex sub-threshold amplitudes. Others have used low amplitude vibration and the stretch evoked M-wave response to determine reflex properties during both agonist and antagonist voluntary contractions. In the past we have developed a PC based instrument that uses Labview and a linear servomotor to study tendon reflex properties by recording stretch evoked M-wave responses from single tendon taps or electrical stimuli to the afferent nerve. In this paper we describe a further development of this system to provide precise vibrations of the tendon up to 65 Hz with amplitudes up to 4 mm. The resultant M-wave train is extracted from background noise via phase coherent subtractive filtering. Test results from vibrating the human distal flexor carpi radialis tendon at 10 and 30 Hz, for relaxed, slight flexion and slight extension, are also presented. PMID:19163861

  17. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING FLEXOR TENDONS AND RIGID GUIDE TRANSVERSE SCREW

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renato Luiz Bevilacqua; Acras, Sandor Dosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction using quadruple flexor tendons as grafts, with ligament fixation in the femur using a rigid guide transverse screw and in the tibia, using a cancellous screw with a fixing washer. Methods: 173 knees (166 from males and seven from females) that had undergone surgery with ACL reconstruction using this technique between December 2002 and February 2007 were evaluated. The mean age was 30 years (from 13 to 56 years), and the mean follow-up time was 30 months (6-55 months). We divided the knees into three groups, which were assessed using the Lysholm scale: Group A with six months of follow-up; Group B with 12 months of follow-up; and Group C with 24 months of follow-up. Results: We evaluated the results, and groups A, B and C received 94, 95 and 95 points respectively on the Lysholm scale. Conclusions: The surgical technique proved to be safe and easy to perform, with good results and a low complication rate. Also, its results were maintained throughout the study period of 24 months. PMID:27027002

  18. Development of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology against Tgf-β signaling to prevent scarring during flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Alayna E; Yukata, Kiminori; Geary, Michael B; Kondabolu, Sirish; Shi, Shanshan; Jonason, Jennifer H; Awad, Hani A; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-06-01

    Flexor tendons (FT) in the hand provide near frictionless gliding to facilitate hand function. Upon injury and surgical repair, satisfactory healing is hampered by fibrous adhesions between the tendon and synovial sheath. In the present study we used antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), specifically targeted to components of Tgf-β signaling, including Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf, to test the hypothesis that local delivery of ASOs and suppression of Tgf-β1 signaling would enhance murine FT healing by suppressing adhesion formation while maintaining strength. ASOs were injected in to the FT repair site at 2, 6 and 12 days post-surgery. ASO treatment suppressed target gene expression through 21 days. Treatment with Tgf-β1, Smad3 or Ctgf ASOs resulted in significant improvement in tendon gliding function at 14 and 21 days, relative to control. Consistent with a decrease in adhesions, Col3a1 expression was significantly decreased in Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf ASO treated tendons relative to control. Smad3 ASO treatment enhanced the maximum load at failure of healing tendons at 14 days, relative to control. Taken together, these data support the use of ASO treatment to improve FT repair, and suggest that modulation of the Tgf-β1 signaling pathway can reduce adhesions while maintaining the strength of the repair. PMID:25761254

  19. Development of Antisense Oligonucleotide (ASO) Technology Against Tgf-β Signaling to Prevent Scarring During Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Yukata, Kiminori; Geary, Michael B.; Kondabolu, Sirish; Shi, Shanshan; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Awad, Hani A.; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendons (FT) in the hand provide near frictionless gliding to facilitate hand function. Upon injury and surgical repair, satisfactory healing is hampered by fibrous adhesions between the tendon and synovial sheath. In the present study we used antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), specifically targeted to components of Tgf-β signaling, including Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf, to test the hypothesis that local delivery of ASOs and suppression of Tgf-β1 signaling would enhance murine FT healing by suppressing adhesion formation while maintaining strength. ASOs were injected in to the FT repair site at 2, 6 and 12 days post-surgery. ASO treatment suppressed target gene expression through 21 days. Treatment with Tgf-β1, Smad3 or Ctgf ASOs resulted in significant improvement in tendon gliding function at 14 and 21 days, relative to control. Consistent with a decrease in adhesions, Col3a1 expression was significantly decreased in Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf ASO treated tendons relative to control. Smad3 ASO treatment enhanced the max load at failure of healing tendons at 14 days, relative to control. Taken together, these data support the use of ASO treatment to improve FT repair, and suggest that modulation of the Tgf-β1 signaling pathway can reduce adhesions while maintaining the strength of the repair. PMID:25761254

  20. Anatomical study of the musculus deltoideus and musculus flexor carpi ulnaris in 3 species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Canova, Marco; Bedoni, Carla; Harper, Valeria; Rambaldi, Anna Maria; Bombardi, Cristiano; Grandis, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited information regarding the anatomy of the thoracic limb in European avian species, we decided to investigate the related muscles in the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), in the eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and in the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Therefore we performed a stratigraphic dissection of the wing in 3 subjects. The pars major and minor of the musculus deltoideus, despite being roughly in line with those reported by other authors in other species, displayed unique features. Concerning the pars propatagialis of the musculus deltoideus, from what was observed in the grey heron, we believe this structure can contribute to maintain the propatagial tension. In this way vibrations of this structure, which could cause diminished lift, are avoided. Moreover the peculiarity evidenced in the distal insertion of the common kestrel could influence the control of the pronation-supination of the wing during hovering. With respect to the musculus flexor carpi ulnaris, we believe the presence of a sesamoid-like structure at the base tendon, found in the grey heron and in the eurasian buzzard, may help complete the articular surfaces of the elbow. This study shows interesting data on species not previously examined and provides a possible functional correlation between the peculiarity observed and the kind of flight of each species. PMID:26681506

  1. In vitro mechanical properties of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses in relation to age.

    PubMed

    Becker, C K; Savelberg, H H; Barneveld, A

    1994-11-01

    The material properties of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL) of 21 forelimbs from horses between ages one day and 15 years were determined. The force (634-11416 N), failure stress (45-138 N/mm2), failure strain (7-24%) and tangent modulus (33-1639 MPa) are presented in relation to age. Tangent modulus did not indicate changes in elasticity due to age. The results demonstrate that complete ligament failures (CLF) of ALs of older horses (mean 7835 N) occur at lower forces than ALs of young adult horses (mean 8894 N). Sudden decreases, 'dips', in the force-time curves were noticed in ligaments from foals and yearlings and in ligaments from horses > 10 years. They were interpreted as the failure of a number of fibres which either fail at lower forces or are subject to higher forces than the rest. These differences in mechanical properties could be the result of age related differences in the material properties of ALs of older horses similar to alterations in collagenous tissue in other species. When analysing the data of the proximal, middle and distal regions of the ligaments separately, higher strain and elasticity were found in the distal compared to the proximal parts. It is suggested that the clinical occurrence of desmitis of the AL of older horses could be due to fibrillar failure caused by differences in the material properties of the ligaments. PMID:7889918

  2. In vivo tendon forces correlate with activity level and remain bounded: evidence in a rabbit flexor tendon model.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, P; Butler, D L; Korvick, D L; Proch, F S

    1998-11-01

    While some tendons and ligaments in the lower extremity develop peak forces proportional to the intensity of activity (Komi 1990; Komi et al., 1992; Korvick et al., 1996), others maintain a steady force regardless of activity level (Herzog et al., 1993; Prilutsky et al., 1994). Investigators (Biewener et al., 1988; Korvick et al., 1996) have also shown that peak knee and ankle tendon forces approach one-quarter to one-third of ultimate or failure force values. In the rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon model we tested several hypotheses, chiefly that peak in vivo forces not only increase with increasing activity but do not exceed one-third of their ultimate or failure values. The FDP tendon was instrumented in three animals, and each rabbit subjected to an experimental design involving three activity levels. Peak tensile forces and rates of rise and fall in tendon force increased significantly with increasing activity (p < 0.01). Further, the tendon maintained a non-zero force level throughout all trials. For the most vigorous activity, inclined hopping, tensile forces and stresses were, on average, within 30% of the tendon's ultimate force and stress values, respectively. Such in vivo measurements in different tendon systems should help investigators better understand the recruitment and contribution of important muscle-tendon units to joint stability and gait. PMID:9880061

  3. The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

    PubMed

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues. PMID:26685172

  4. The Effects of Temporal and Spatial Predictions on Stretch Reflexes of Ankle Flexor and Extensor Muscles While Standing

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how stretch reflex (SR) responses in the ankle extensor (soleus: SOL) and flexor (tibialis anterior: TA) muscles would be modulated with temporal and/or spatial predictions of external perturbations and whether their effects are specific to the standing posture. SR responses in the SOL/TA were elicited by imposing quick ankle toes-up/toes-down rotations while standing upright and in the supine position. We designed four experimental conditions based on pre-information about perturbations: no information (No Cue), the timing of the perturbation onset (TIM), the direction of the perturbation (DIR), and both the timing and direction of the perturbation (TIM/DIR). Each condition was separated and its order was counterbalanced. In the SR of TA evoked by toes-down rotation, integrated electromyography activities of the late component were significantly reduced in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with those in the No Cue and DIR conditions. The occurrence rate of late SR components that reflects how often the reflex response was observed was also lower in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with that in the No Cue and DIR conditions. On the other hand, no significant changes were seen among the four conditions in the early SR component in the TA and both SR components in the SOL. The same results in the occurrence rate were found in the supine position. The present results suggest (1) only temporal predictions have a remarkable effect on the SR excitability of the TA, and (2) this effect is independent of posture. PMID:27385043

  5. Neuromuscular adjustments of the knee extensors and plantar flexors following match-play tennis in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Périard, Julien D; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that impairments in lower limb maximal strength and voluntary activation (VA) are exacerbated following match-play tennis in hot compared with cool conditions. Methods Torque and VA were evaluated during brief (5 s) and sustained (20 s) maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) in 12 male tennis players before (pre) and after (post, 24 h and 48 h) ∼115 min of play in hot (∼37°C) and cool (∼22°C) conditions. Results Rectal temperature was higher following play in hot than in cool (∼39.2 vs ∼38.5°C; p<0.05). Torque production decreased from prematch to postmatch during the brief and sustained contractions in hot (KE: ∼22%; PF: ∼13%) and cool (KE: ∼9%, PF: ∼7%) (p<0.05). KE strength losses in hot were greater than in cool (p<0.05) and persisted for 24 h (p<0.05). Postmatch brief and sustained KE VA was lower in hot than in cool (p<0.05), in which VA was maintained. PF VA was maintained throughout the protocol. Peak twitch torque and maximum rates of torque development and relaxation in the KE and PF were equally reduced postmatch relative to prematch in hot and cool conditions (p<0.05), and were restored near baseline within 24 h. Conclusions Neuromuscular system integrity of the lower limbs is compromised immediately following match-play tennis in hot and cool conditions due to the development of peripheral fatigue. The larger and persistent KE strength losses observed under heat stress are associated with greater levels of central fatigue especially during sustained contractions. PMID:24668379

  6. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  7. Functional results from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the central third of the patellar ligament and flexor tendons☆

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Leao, Marcos George; Pampolha, Abelardo Gautama Moreira; Orlando Junior, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate knee function in patients undergoing reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the central third of the patellar ligament or the medial flexor tendons of the knee, i.e. quadruple ligaments from the semitendinosus and gracilis (ST-G), by means of the Knee Society Score (KSS) and the Lysholm scale. Methods This was a randomized prospective longitudinal study on 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between September 2013 and August 2014. They comprised 37 males and three females, with ages ranging from 16 to 52 years. The patients were numbered randomly from 1 to 40: the even numbers underwent surgical correction using the ST-G tendons and the odd numbers, using the patellar tendon. Functional evaluations were made using the KSS and Lysholm scale, applied in the evening before the surgical procedure and six months after the operation. Results From the statistical analysis, it could be seen that the patients’ functional capacity was significantly greater after the operation than before the operation. There was strong evidence that the two forms of therapy had similar results (p = >0.05), in all the comparisons. Conclusions The results from the ACL reconstructions were similar with regard to functional recovery of the knee and improvement of quality of life, independent of the type of graft. It was not possible to identify the best method of surgical treatment. The surgeon's clinical and technical experience and the patient are the factors that determine the choice of graft type for use in ACL surgery. PMID:27218084

  8. Gross ultrastructural changes and necrotic fiber segments in elbow flexor muscles after maximal voluntary eccentric action in humans.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard; Owe, Simen Gylterud

    2009-12-01

    Eccentric muscle actions are associated with ultrastructural changes. The severity and types of change depend on the nature of the stimulation protocol, and on the method for assessing such changes, and can be regarded as a continuum from mild changes to pathological-like changes. Most studies describing more severe changes have been performed on animals and only a few in humans, some using electrical stimuli. Hence, a debate has emerged on whether voluntary actions are associated with the pathological-like end of the continuum. The aim of this study was to determine whether severe muscle damage, i.e., extensive ultrastructural changes, is confined to animal studies and studies on humans using electrical stimuli. Second, because there is no generally approved method to quantify the degree of muscle damage, we compared two published methods, analyzing the Z disks or sarcomeres, as well as novel analyses of pathological-like changes. A group of untrained subjects performed 70 voluntary maximal eccentric muscle actions using the elbow flexors. On the basis of large reductions in maximal force-generating capacity (on average, -62 +/- 3% immediately after exercise, and -35 +/- 6% 9 days later), five subjects were selected for further analysis. Biopsies were taken from m. biceps brachii in both the exercised and nonexercised arm. In exercised muscle, more disrupted (13 +/- 4 vs. 3 +/- 3%) and destroyed (15 +/- 6 vs. 0%) Z disks were found compared with nonexercised muscle. A significant proportion of exercised myofibers had focal (85 +/- 5 vs. 11 +/- 7%), moderate (65 +/- 7 vs. 11 +/- 6%), and extreme (38 +/- 9 vs. 0%) myofibrillar disruptions. Hypercontracted myofibrils, autophagic vacuoles, granular areas, central nuclei, and necrotic fiber segments were found to various degrees. The present study demonstrates that the more severe end of the continuum of ultrastructural changes occurs in humans after voluntary exercise when maximal eccentric muscle actions are involved

  9. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves. PMID:20145573

  10. Relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and paratenon in zone V increases with wrist flexion angle.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), a paratenon-like structure inside the carpal tunnel. This pathology suggests repetitive and/or excessive shear forces are involved in injury development. We assessed relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent paratenon in Zone V using colour Doppler imaging as 16 healthy participants completed three long finger movements (metacarpophalangeal joint flexion, proximal and distal interphalangeal joint flexion, full finger flexion) in three wrist postures (30° extension, 0°, 30° flexion). While the type of finger movement did not affect tendon-paratenon relative motion, we found a significant main effect of wrist posture (p < 0.001). Relative displacement between the FDS tendon and paratenon (as a percentage of tendon displacement) increased from 27.2% (95%CI = 24.8-29.5%) in 30° wrist extension to 39.9% (95%CI = 37.3-42.4%) in 30° wrist flexion. Optical motion capture confirmed that wrist posture did not affect metacarpophalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.265) or proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.582). These results indicate that relative motion increased due to paratenon strain when the wrist was flexed. While our findings agree with previous cadaveric research in wrist flexion, we found that relative displacement decreased in 30° wrist extension (compared to 0°). These results differ from cadaveric research, possibly due to challenges maintaining anatomic fidelity of the viscoelastic paratenon tissue in vitro. Overall, our study suggests a greater susceptibility to shear injury during repetitive finger movements, particularly when the wrist is flexed. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1248-1255, 2016. PMID:26686976

  11. Bilateral Knee Extensor Fatigue Modulates Force and Responsiveness of the Corticospinal Pathway in the Non-fatigued, Dominant Elbow Flexors.

    PubMed

    Šambaher, Nemanja; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Behm, David George

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF) maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation (BPES) were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control). For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5 s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5 s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). In both conditions, overall, EF MVC force (p < 0.001) decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, Δ10.3%) decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG) activity (p = 0.43), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) amplitude (p = 0.908) or MEP silent period (SP; p = 0.776). However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/cervicomedullary MEP (CMEP) ratio (p = 0.042, ES = 2.5, Δ25%) and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p = 0.08, ES = 0.5, Δ20.4%). These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF. PMID:26869902

  12. Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Swanstrom, Michael D; Zarucco, Laura; Stover, Susan M; Hubbard, Mont; Hawkins, David A; Driessen, Bernd; Steffey, Eugene P

    2005-03-01

    The superficial (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles are critical for equine forelimb locomotion. Knowledge of their mechanical properties will enhance our understanding of limb biomechanics. Muscle contractile properties derived from architectural-based algorithms may overestimate real forces and underestimate shortening capacity because of simplistic assumptions regarding muscle architecture. Therefore, passive and active (=total - passive) force-length properties of the SDF and DDF muscles were measured directly in vivo. Muscles from the right forelimbs of four Thoroughbred horses were evaluated during general anesthesia. Limbs were fixed to an external frame with the muscle attached to a linear actuator and load cell. Each muscle was stretched from an unloaded state to a range of prefixed lengths, then stimulated while held at that length. The total force did not exceed 4000 N, the limit for the clamping device. The SDF and DDF muscles produced 716+/-192 and 1577+/-203 N maximum active isometric force (F(max)), had ascending force-length ranges (R(asc)) of 5.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4 cm, and had passive stiffnesses of 1186+/-104 and 1132+/-51 N/cm, respectively. The values measured for F(max) were much smaller than predicted based on conservative estimates of muscle specific tension and muscle physiological cross-sectional area. R(asc) were much larger than predicted based on muscle fiber length estimates. These data suggest that accurate prediction of the active mechanical behavior of architecturally complex muscles such as the equine DDF and SDF requires more sophisticated algorithms. PMID:15652557

  13. Flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle in resistant clubfoot patients: introduction of a new sign predicting its presence.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Samir; Mursal, Haitham; Rabih, Mohamed; Johari, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Clubfoot, talipes equino varus (TEV), is a common congenital foot anomaly. Some cases are resistant to conservative treatment. Many causes of resistance have been reported, among these, the presence of anomalous muscles; however, the effect of the presence of anomalous muscles on the outcome of conservative management is not well studied. These aberrant muscles are discovered during the extensive surgical release as an abnormal finding. The aim of this work is to study the demographic characteristics of patients with resistant TEV that necessitated extensive soft tissue release at Sudan Clubfoot Clinic and to document the prevalence of flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) muscle in a large series of clubfoot patients treated by extensive surgery: posteromedial release. Also, we introduce a new observation as an indication by which the surgeon can predict the presence of FDAL. On the basis of an observation that there is a special posture of the big toe in extension in relation to other flexed toes associated with the presence of FDAL, records of patients of clubfoot treated by extensive surgery between 2007 and 2012 at the Sudan Clubfoot Project were reviewed. Demographic characteristics were studied. Only patients with idiopathic TEV were included. Resistant clubfeet necessitated extensive release in 261 patients, 197 males and 64 females. Their ages ranged between 1 day and 15 years at presentation. FDAL muscle was found in 48 patients (54 feet) out of 261 patients (411 feet, 13.14%). In 46 of the 48 patients (95.8%), the presence of the FDAL could be predicted by a sign. FDAL is prevalent in 13% of resistant TEV cases requiring extensive soft tissue release, and the surgeon can expect resistant clubfoot and predict the presence of the FDAL in over 95% before he operates by observing the Samir-Adam sign. PMID:25493703

  14. Effects of eccentric training on torque-angular velocity-power characteristics of elbow flexor muscles in older women.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Rouji, M; Pousson, M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of eccentric training to improve elbow flexor muscle power in elderly subjects. Fourteen older female volunteers (age range 60-78 years) were randomly assigned into either a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). For the TG, the 21-session 7-week eccentric training program consisted of 5x6 eccentric muscle actions at 60-100% of concentric three maximal repetitions. Before and after training, maximal elbow flexions were performed against increasing inertia. Maximal isokinetic elbow flexions at four angular velocities (eccentric actions, -60 degrees s(-1), -30 degrees rads(-1); concentric actions, 30, 60 degrees s(-1)) and maximal isometric actions were also performed. Maximal power (Pmax) and an index of maximal shortening velocity (VImax)were determined. For all action conditions, the myoelectric activities of the biceps and the triceps brachii muscles were recorded and quantified as a root mean square (RMS) value. In the TG, maximal torque developed under isometric, isokinetic and inertial conditions increased significantly after training (ranging from 11 to 19%). Pmax and VImax also increased significantly (31.3 and 25.9%, respectively). These parameters remained unchanged in the CG. The RMS activity of the biceps and triceps muscles was not affected by eccentric training for all action conditions excepting the eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the RMS activity of the biceps increased significantly. The gains in maximal torque, Pmax and VImax observed after training would result more from intramuscular modifications than from changes in muscular activity, except for eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the torque gains could also be partly explained by a reduction in inhibition of the motor unit pool. PMID:15036395

  15. Bilateral Knee Extensor Fatigue Modulates Force and Responsiveness of the Corticospinal Pathway in the Non-fatigued, Dominant Elbow Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Šambaher, Nemanja; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Behm, David George

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF) maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation (BPES) were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control). For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5 s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5 s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). In both conditions, overall, EF MVC force (p < 0.001) decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, Δ10.3%) decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG) activity (p = 0.43), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) amplitude (p = 0.908) or MEP silent period (SP; p = 0.776). However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/cervicomedullary MEP (CMEP) ratio (p = 0.042, ES = 2.5, Δ25%) and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p = 0.08, ES = 0.5, Δ20.4%). These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF. PMID:26869902

  16. Trapeziectomy With Ligament Reconstruction and Tendon Interposition Arthroplasty With the Entire Width of the Flexor Carpi Radialis Tendon.

    PubMed

    Marenghi, Letizia; Paterlini, Marco; Tocco, Silvio; Corradi, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    The original Burton-Pellegrini technique used to treat trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis suggests the use of half of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) width to reconstruct the ligament and perform the tendon interposition arthroplasty. In our study, unlike the original technique, we used the full thickness of the FCR and evaluated a sample of 100 thumbs (95 patients) preoperatively and postoperatively, with a mean follow-up of 36 months. According to the Eaton classification, 1 thumb was grade II, 81 were grade III, and 18 were grade IV. The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 62.4 years. The finger-tip pinch improved by 46.3%, the key pinch improved by 34.5%, the grip strength improved by 50.8%, and the Kapandji test improved by 7.4%. Pain measured with visual analog score improved by 78.8%. The self-administrated questionnaires DASH and PRWHE were completed postoperatively from 2006 to 2012, because the Italian version of PRWHE was not yet validated: the postoperative DASH and PRWHE were, respectively, 9.9 and 10.5. No complications such as metacarpal subluxation of the thumb, impingement, fracture of the first metacarpal base, or a decrease in the wrist function were found in our population after surgical treatment. Therefore, according to our series, this variation of the original Burton-Pellegini surgical technique provides pain relief, stability, and mobility of the thumb without any morbidity caused by the full harvest of the FCR tendon. PMID:27015407

  17. Effect of thoracic manipulation and deep craniocervical flexor training on pain, mobility, strength, and disability of the neck of patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Won-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of thoracic manipulation and deep craniocervical flexor training on the muscle strength and endurance, range of motion, and the disability index of the neck of patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-six patients with chronic neck pain participated. They received an intervention for 35 minutes a day, three times a week for 10 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups: group A (thoracic manipulation combined with deep craniocervical flexor training, n=16), group B (deep craniocervical flexor training, n=15), and group C (active self-exercise as a control group, n=15). Muscle strength and endurance, pain, neck disability index, and range of motion of the cervical and thoracic spine were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] Group A showed significant increases in muscle strength, endurance, and cervical and thoracic range of motion, and significant decreases in the pain and neck disability index, compared with groups B and C. [Conclusion] Although deep craniocervical flexor training is effective at improving neck function, thoracic manipulation combined with deep craniocervical flexor training was a more effective intervention for pain relief and improving the range of motion, muscle function, and neck disability of patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain. PMID:26957752

  18. Biochemical, histologic, and biomechanical characterization of native and decellularized flexor tendon specimens harvested from the pelvic limbs of orthopedically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Daniel G; Biskup, Jeffery J; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Scott, Ruth M; Groschen, Donna; Evans, Richard B; Conzemius, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biochemical and biomechanical properties of native and decellularized superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) harvested from the pelvic limbs of orthopedically normal dogs. SAMPLE 22 commercially supplied tendon specimens (10 SDFT and 12 DDFT) harvested from the pelvic limbs of 13 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein content were measured to biochemically compare native and decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens. Mechanical testing was performed on 4 groups consisting of native tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs) and decellularized tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs). All tendons were preconditioned, and tension was applied to failure at 0.5 mm/s. Failure mode was video recorded for each tendon. Load-deformation and stress-strain curves were generated; calculations were performed to determine the Young modulus and stiffness. Biochemical and biomechanical data were statistically compared by use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS Decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens had significantly less DNA content than did native tendons. No significant differences were identified between native and decellularized specimens with respect to glycosaminoglycan, collagen, or protein content. Biomechanical comparison yielded no significant intra- or intergroup differences. All DDFT constructs failed at the tendon-clamp interface, whereas nearly half (4/10) of the SDFT constructs failed at midsubstance. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Decellularized commercial canine SDFT and DDFT specimens had similar biomechanical properties, compared with each other and with native tendons. The decellularization process significantly decreased DNA content while minimizing loss of extracellular matrix components. Decellularized canine flexor tendons may provide suitable, biocompatible graft scaffolds for bioengineering applications such as tendon or ligament repair. PMID:27027838

  19. PERFORMANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON CLINICAL MEASURES OF DEEP CERVICAL FLEXOR ENDURANCE AND CERVICAL ACTIVE RANGE OF MOTION: IS HISTORY OF CONCUSSION A FACTOR?

    PubMed Central

    Ruediger, Thomas; Alsalaheen, Bara; Bean, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one million adolescent athletes participated in organized high school sanctioned football during the 2014-15 season. These athletes are at risk for sustaining concussion. Although cervical spine active range of motion (AROM) and deep neck flexor endurance may serve a preventative role in concussion, and widespread clinical use of measurements of these variables, reference values are not available for this population. Cost effective, clinically relevant methods for measuring neck endurance are also well established for adolescent athletes. Purpose The purpose of this study was to report reference values for deep cervical flexor endurance and cervical AROM in adolescent football players and examine whether differences in these measures exist in high school football players with and without a history of concussion. Methods Concussion history, cervical AROM, and deep neck flexor endurance were measured in 122 high school football players. Reference values were calculated for AROM and endurance measures; association were examined between various descriptive variables and concussion. Results No statistically significant differences were found between athletes with a history of concussion and those without. A modest inverse correlation was seen between body mass and AROM in the sagittal and transverse planes. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the participants with larger body mass had less cervical AROM in some directions. While cervical AROM and endurance measurements may not be adequate to identify adolescents with a history of previous concussions among high school football players. However, if a concussion is sustained, these measures can offer a baseline to examine whether cervical AROM is affected as compared to healthy adolescents. Level of Evidence 2c PMID:27104049

  20. The effect of orthopaedic shoeing on the force exerted by the deep digital flexor tendon on the navicular bone in horses.

    PubMed

    Willemen, M A; Savelberg, H H; Barneveld, A

    1999-01-01

    This study quantifies both the intended effect of orthopaedic shoeing to decrease the load on the navicular bone and the eventual undesired effects on gait performance. The compressive force exerted by the deep digital flexor tendon on the navicular bone and on the quality of the trot and redistribution of forces over the flexor tendons and the suspensory ligament were studied as a function of orthopaedic shoeing in 12 sound Dutch Warmblood horses. A modified CODA-3 gait analysis system and a force plate were used to quantify objectively the load on the lower limb. The quality of the trot was assessed using the same gait analysis system while the horses were trotting on the treadmill. The effects of shoes with heel wedges and egg-bar shoes were compared to flat shoes and unshod feet. When heel wedges were applied, the maximal force on the navicular bone was reduced by 24% (P<0.05) in comparison with flat shoes. Egg-bar shoes did not reduce the force on the navicular bone, but in unshod feet this force appeared to be 14% lower (P<0.05) compared to flat shoes. Egg-bar shoes cause the horse's trot to be slightly less animated (P<0.05), compared to flat shoes and shoes with heel wedges. It is concluded that shoes with heel wedges reduce the force on the navicular bone as a result of a decreased moment of force at the distal interphalangeal joint in combination with a decreased angle between the deep digital flexor tendon distally and proximally of the navicular bone. Therefore it can be expected that in horses suffering from navicular disease, heel wedges will have the expected beneficial effect on the pressure on the navicular bone, while the effect of egg-bar shoes remains doubtful. PMID:9952326

  1. Are Repeated Single-Limb Heel Raises and Manual Muscle Testing Associated With Peak Plantar-Flexor Force in People With Inclusion Body Myositis?

    PubMed Central

    Shrader, Joseph A.; Davenport, Todd E.; Joe, Galen; Rakocevic, Goran; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeated heel raises have been proposed as a method of ankle plantar-flexor strength testing that circumvents the limitations of manual muscle testing (MMT). Objective The study objective was to examine the relationships among ankle plantar-flexion isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), repeated single-limb heel raises (SLHRs), and MMT in people with myositis. Design This was a cross-sectional study with a between-group design. The ability to complete 1 SLHR determined group assignment (SLHR group, n=24; no-SLHR group, n=19). Methods Forty-three participants with myositis (13 women; median age=64.9 years) participated. Outcome measures included MVC, predicted MVC, Kendall MMT, and Daniels-Worthingham MMT. Results The Kendall MMT was unable to detect significant ankle plantar-flexor weakness established by quantitative methods and was unable to discriminate between participants who could and those who could not perform the SLHR task. Ankle plantar-flexion MVC was not associated with the number of heel-raise repetitions in the SLHR group (pseudo R2=.13). No significant relationship was observed between MVC values and MMT grades in the SLHR and no-SLHR groups. However, a moderate relationship between MVC values and MMT grades was evident in a combined-group analysis (ρ=.50–.67). Limitations The lower half of both MMT grading scales was not represented in the study despite the profound weakness of the participants. Conclusions Both Kendall MMT and Daniels-Worthingham MMT had limited utility in the assessment of ankle plantar-flexor strength. Repeated SLHRs should not be used as a proxy measure of ankle plantar-flexion MVC in people with myositis. PMID:24309617

  2. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature. PMID:26564735

  3. Flexor Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  4. Dasty3, a WEB framework for DAS

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, Jose M.; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Garcia, Leyla J.; Salazar, Gustavo A.; Gel, Bernat; Mulder, Nicola; Martin, Maria; Garcia, Alexander; Hermjakob, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Dasty3 is a highly interactive and extensible Web-based framework. It provides a rich Application Programming Interface upon which it is possible to develop specialized clients capable of retrieving information from DAS sources as well as from data providers not using the DAS protocol. Dasty3 provides significant improvements on previous Web-based frameworks and is implemented using the 1.6 DAS specification. Availability: Dasty3 is an open-source tool freely available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/dasty/ under the terms of the GNU General public license. Source and documentation can be found at http://code.google.com/p/dasty/. Contact: hhe@ebi.ac.uk PMID:21798964

  5. Nonoperative, dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture: influence of early weightbearing on biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex-a blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch; Dippmann, Christian; Ebskov, Lars; Troelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in patients randomized to early weightbearing or non-weightbearing in the nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 60 patients were randomized to full weightbearing from day 1 of treatment or non-weightbearing for 6 weeks. After 6 and 12 months, the peak passive torque at 20° dorsiflexion, the stiffness during slow stretching, and the maximal strength were measured in both limbs. The stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was significantly increased (p = .024) in the non-weightbearing group at 12 months. The peak passive torque was significantly lower for the affected limb at 6 months (91%; p = .01), and the stiffness was significantly lower for the affected limb during the early part of dorsiflexion at 6 (67%; p < .001) and 12 (77%; p < .001) months. In conclusion, an increased stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was found in the non-weightbearing group. The altered stiffness and strength in the affected limb could affect the coordination of gait and running. PMID:25618802

  6. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  7. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  8. BIOMECHANICS AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN RABBIT FLEXOR TENDONS REPAIRED USING THREE SUTURE TECHNIQUES (FOUR AND SIX STRANDS) WITH EARLY ACTIVE MOBILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  9. EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking.

    PubMed

    Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J

    2015-09-18

    Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, P<0.001). No differences were observed in the relative contribution of the force under the big toe to the entire sole between different plantarflexion torque levels (F=0.836, P=0.529). On the contrary, in the push-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL. PMID:26100463

  10. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure to microgravity: a pilot study examining the effects on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate ∼220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by ∼20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading. PMID:19286573

  11. Does Strand Configuration and Number of Purchase Points Affect the Biomechanical Behavior of a Tendon Repair? A Biomechanical Evaluation Using Different Kessler Methods of Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kalaci, Aydiner; Sevinç, Teoman Toni; Esen, Erdinc; Komurcu, Mahmut; Yanat, Ahmet Nedim

    2008-01-01

    This study compares the mechanical properties of modified Kessler and double-modified Kessler flexor tendon repair techniques and evaluates simple modifications on both methods. Forty fresh sheep flexor tendons were divided equally into four groups. A transverse sharp cut was done in the middle of each tendon and then repaired with modified Kessler technique, modified Kessler with additional purchase point in the midpoint of each longitudinal strand, double-modified Kessler technique, or a combination of outer Kessler and inner cruciate configuration based on double-modified Kessler technique. The tendons were tested in a tensile testing machine to assess the mechanical performance of the repairs. Outcome measures included gap formation and ultimate forces. The gap strengths of the double-modified Kessler technique (30.85 N, SD 1.90) and double-modified Kessler technique with inner cruciate configuration (33.60 N, SD 4.64) were statistically significantly greater than that of the two-strand modified Kessler (22.56 N, SD 3.44) and modified Kessler with additional purchase configuration (21.75 N, SD 4.03; Tukey honestly significant difference test, P < 0.000). There were statistically significant differences in failure strengths of the all groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.000). With an identical number of strands, the gap formation and ultimate forces of the repairs were not changed by additional locking purchase point in modified Kessler repair or changing the inner strand configuration in double-modified Kessler repair. The results of this study show that the number of strands across the repair site together with the number of locking loops clearly affects the strength of the repair; meanwhile, the longitudinal strand orientation and number of purchase points in a single loop did not affect its strength. PMID:18780108

  12. Clinical and biomechanical evaluation of three bioscaffold augmentation devices used for superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in donkeys (Equus asinus): An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed A.; Karrouf, Gamal I.; Zaghloul, Adel E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to carry out an in vivo and in vitro comparative evaluation of three bio-scaffold augmentation devices used for superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in donkeys. Twenty-four clinically healthy donkeys were assigned for three treatment trials (n = 8) using one of three bioscaffold materials (glycerolized bovine pericardium xenograft, tendon allograft and allograft with glycerolized by bovine pericardium). In addition, eight clinically healthy donkeys were selected to serve as control. Clinical signs of each animal were scored and the sum of all clinical indexes was calculated at each time point of the experiment. Four donkeys from each group were euthanized at 45 and 90 days postoperatively, respectively, for biomechanical and histopathological evaluation of treated superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). The failure stress in allograft shielding group significantly increased compared to the corresponding values of the other groups at 45 (62.7 ± 6.5 N mm−2) and 90 (88.8 ± 3.5 N mm−2) days postoperatively. The fetlock angle in the allograft shielding group at both 45 (112.8° ± 4.4) and 90 (123.8° ± 1.1) days postoperatively showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) relative to the values of the other groups and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared to normal angle (125° ± 0). However, the histomorphological findings revealed no remarkable changes between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the failure stress, fetlock angle and histomorphological findings may provide useful information about the healing characteristics of SDFT tenorrhaphy. The bio-scaffold augmentation devices, either xenogenic or allogenic, provide good alternative techniques accelerating SDFT healing with minimal adhesions in donkeys. PMID:25685407

  13. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure to microgravity: a pilot study examining the effects on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Caiozzo, V J; Haddad, F; Lee, S; Baker, M; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K M

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate approximately 220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by approximately 20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading. PMID:19286573

  14. Das morgendliche Brückenritual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Oliver

    Es wäre für Mediziner sehr interessant zu wissen, was für Kräfte genau in den menschlichen Knien wirken. Klar ist, dass sie recht groß sein müssen. Das Gewicht eines erwachsenen Mannes beträgt ca. 80 kg. Wenn davon je die Hälfte auf einem Bein ruht hat man schon mindestens 400 Newton pro Knie, beim Laufen, Springen, oder Treppensteigen noch viel mehr. Man will es aber noch viel genauer wissen. Die Kondylen, das sind die Kontaktflächen in den Knien, sind nicht eben. Es gibt dort Unregelmäßigkeiten, und die Kräfte konzentrieren sich dort. An einzelnen Stellen können die Kräfte dann noch viel höher sein.

  15. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  16. Adeno-associated virus-2-mediated TGF-β1 microRNA transfection inhibits adhesion formation after digital flexor tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y F; Mao, W F; Zhou, Y L; Wang, X T; Liu, P Y; Tang, J B

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion formation after digital flexor tendon injury greatly affects gliding function of the tendon, which is a major clinical complication after hand surgery. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has a critical role in adhesion formation during tendon healing. Persistent regulation of TGF-β1 through application of microRNA (miRNA) specifically inhibiting the function of TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-miRNA) holds promise for treatment of such a complication. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was used to transfer TGF-β1-miRNA to the chicken digital flexor tendons, which had been injured and surgically repaired. Four doses of AAV2-TGF-β1-miRNA (2 × 10(11), 2 × 10(10), 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(8) vector genomes (vg)) were used to determine the transfection efficiency. At postoperative 3 weeks, we found a positive correlation between the administered AAV2-TGF-β1-miRNA doses and transfection efficiency. The transfection rate ranged from 10% to 77% as the doses increased. Production of TGF-β1 protein in the tendons decreased on increasing vector dosage. When 2 × 10(11) and 2 × 10(10) vg were injected into the tendon, gliding excursion of the repaired tendon and work of flexion of chicken toes were significantly increased and adhesion score decreased 6 and 8 weeks later, indicating the improvement of tendon gliding and decreases in adhesion formations. However, the ultimate strength of the tendons transfected at the dose of 2 × 10(10) vg was 12-24% lower than that of the control tendons. The results of this study demonstrate that application of TGF-β1-miRNA had a mixed impact on tendon healing: adhesion around the tendon is reduced but strength of the tendon healing is adversely affected. Future studies should aim at maintaining the beneficial effects of reducing tendon adhesions, while eliminating the adverse effects of decreasing the healing strength. PMID:26381218

  17. Powered ankle exoskeletons reveal the metabolic cost of plantar flexor mechanical work during walking with longer steps at constant step frequency.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    We examined the metabolic cost of plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanical work during human walking. Nine healthy subjects walked at constant step frequency on a motorized treadmill at speeds corresponding to 80% (1.00 m s(-1)), 100% (1.25 m s(-1)), 120% (1.50 m s(-1)) and 140% (1.75 m s(-1)) of their preferred step length (L(*)) at 1.25 m s(-1). In each condition subjects donned robotic ankle exoskeletons on both legs. The exoskeletons were powered by artificial pneumatic muscles and controlled using soleus electromyography (i.e. proportional myoelectric control). We measured subjects' metabolic energy expenditure and exoskeleton mechanics during both unpowered and powered walking to test the hypothesis that ankle plantarflexion requires more net metabolic power (W kg(-1)) at longer step lengths for a constant step frequency (i.e. preferred at 1.25 m s(-1)). As step length increased from 0.8 L(*) to 1.4 L(*), exoskeletons delivered approximately 25% more average positive mechanical power (P=0.01; +0.20+/-0.02 W kg(-1) to +0.25+/-0.02 W kg(-1), respectively). The exoskeletons reduced net metabolic power by more at longer step lengths (P=0.002; -0.21+/-0.06 W kg(-1) at 0.8 L(*) and -0.70+/-0.12 W kg(-1) at 1.4 L(*)). For every 1 J of exoskeleton positive mechanical work subjects saved 0.72 J of metabolic energy ('apparent efficiency'=1.39) at 0.8 L(*) and 2.6 J of metabolic energy ('apparent efficiency'=0.38) at 1.4 L(*). Declining ankle muscle-tendon ;apparent efficiency' suggests an increase in ankle plantar flexor muscle work relative to Achilles' tendon elastic energy recoil during walking with longer steps. However, previously stored elastic energy in Achilles' tendon still probably contributes up to 34% of ankle muscle-tendon positive work even at the longest step lengths we tested. Across the range of step lengths we studied, the human ankle muscle-tendon system performed 34-40% of the total lower-limb positive mechanical work but accounted for only 7-26% of

  18. A Prospective Case-Control Study of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Spastic Plantar Flexor Muscles in Very Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Du, Lin; Shan, Ling; Dong, Hanyu; Feng, Junyan; Kiessling, Maren C.; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Schmitz, Christoph; Jia, Feiyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on plantar flexor muscle spasticity and gross motor function in very young patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was case-control study (level of evidence 3). The setting was the Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurorehabilitation, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Those with a diagnosis of CP and spastic plantar flexor muscles were recruited between April 2014 and April 2015. According to the parents’ decision, patients received 1 ESWT session per week for 3 months, with 1500 radial shock waves per ESWT session and leg with positive energy flux density of 0.03 mJ/mm2, combined with traditional conservative therapy (rESWT group) or traditional conservative therapy alone (control group). The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (primary outcome measure) and passive range of motion (pROM) measurements were collected at baseline (BL), 1 month (M1), and 3 months (M3) after BL. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 was collected at BL and M3. Sixty-six patients completed the final review at 3 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 60 months (mean age 27.0 ± 13.6 months; median age 22.0 months; 33.3% female). For the rESWT group (n = 34), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.6, 1.9, and 1.5 on the left side and 1.9, 1.7, and 1.2 on the right side. For the control group (n = 32), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1 on the left side and 1.8, 1.8, and 1.5 on the right side. The within-subject effects time × side and time × treatment were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Similar results were found for the improvement of mean pROM. GMFM-88 improved from BL to M3, but showed no statistically significant difference between the groups. There were no significant complications. This study demonstrates that the combination of rESWT and traditional conservative therapy is more

  19. A Prospective Case-Control Study of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Spastic Plantar Flexor Muscles in Very Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Du, Lin; Shan, Ling; Dong, Hanyu; Feng, Junyan; Kiessling, Maren C; Angstman, Nicholas B; Schmitz, Christoph; Jia, Feiyong

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on plantar flexor muscle spasticity and gross motor function in very young patients with cerebral palsy (CP).The design was case-control study (level of evidence 3).The setting was the Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurorehabilitation, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.Those with a diagnosis of CP and spastic plantar flexor muscles were recruited between April 2014 and April 2015.According to the parents' decision, patients received 1 ESWT session per week for 3 months, with 1500 radial shock waves per ESWT session and leg with positive energy flux density of 0.03 mJ/mm, combined with traditional conservative therapy (rESWT group) or traditional conservative therapy alone (control group).The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (primary outcome measure) and passive range of motion (pROM) measurements were collected at baseline (BL), 1 month (M1), and 3 months (M3) after BL. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 was collected at BL and M3.Sixty-six patients completed the final review at 3 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 60 months (mean age 27.0 ± 13.6 months; median age 22.0 months; 33.3% female). For the rESWT group (n = 34), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.6, 1.9, and 1.5 on the left side and 1.9, 1.7, and 1.2 on the right side. For the control group (n = 32), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1 on the left side and 1.8, 1.8, and 1.5 on the right side. The within-subject effects time × side and time × treatment were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Similar results were found for the improvement of mean pROM. GMFM-88 improved from BL to M3, but showed no statistically significant difference between the groups. There were no significant complications.This study demonstrates that the combination of rESWT and traditional conservative therapy is more effective than

  20. Ultrasound Findings in Hand Joints Involvement in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Its Correlation with Clinical DAS28 Score

    PubMed Central

    Naranje, Priyanka; Prakash, Mahesh; Sharma, Aman; Dogra, Sunil; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the frequency of the various ultrasound findings in hand joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate grayscale and Power Doppler ultrasonography findings with Disease Activity Score 28. Methods. This prospective study was performed in 30 patients. Ultrasound evaluation of 28 joints of both hands was undertaken and various findings were recorded including synovial hypertrophy, Power Doppler abnormality, soft tissue thickening, tendonitis, joint effusion, periosteal reaction, and erosions. Composite ultrasound scores and Disease Activity Score 28 were calculated and compared. Spearman correlation was used to see relationship between the ultrasound and DAS28 scores. Results. Ultrasound detected more abnormalities in the hand joints than did clinical examination. The frequency of various ultrasound abnormalities was as follows: Synovial hypertrophy was seen in 100%, Power Doppler abnormality suggesting hypervascularity was seen in 36.7%, soft tissue thickening was seen in 66.7%, periosteal reaction was seen in 33.3%, erosions were seen in 30% (mostly in DIP and PIP joints), and flexor tendonitis was seen in 6.7% of patients. Significant correlation was found between Disease Activity Score 28 and grayscale joint score (GSJS) (Spearman's ρ: 0.499; P: 0.005), grayscale joint count (GSJC) (ρ: 0.398; P: 0.029), and Power Doppler joint score (PDJS) (ρ: 0.367; P: 0.046). There was a statistically significant difference between remission and low disease activity group and moderate disease activity group in terms of GSJC, GSJS, PDJC, and PDJS (P < 0.05). These ultrasound measures were higher in moderate disease activity zone patients. Conclusion. Ultrasound is a useful modality for the objective assessment of psoriatic arthritis. Ultrasound including Power Doppler can be used as a modality for assessment of severity of psoriatic arthritis as it correlates with the clinical scoring. PMID:26858846

  1. Tendon-Holding Capacities of Two Newly Designed Implants for Tendon Repair: An Experimental Study on the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ağır, İsmail; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim; Başçı, Onur; Çaypınar, Barış; Erol, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two main factors determine the strength of tendon repair; the tensile strength of material and the gripping capacity of a suture configuration. Different repair techniques and suture materials were developed to increase the strength of repairs but none of techniques and suture materials seem to provide enough tensile strength with safety margins for early active mobilization. In order to overcome this problem tendon suturing implants are being developed. We designed two different suturing implants. The aim of this study was to measure tendon-holding capacities of these implants biomechanically and to compare them with frequently used suture techniques Materials and Methods: In this study we used 64 sheep flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Four study groups were formed and each group had 16 tendons. We applied model 1 and model 2 implant to the first 2 groups and Bunnell and locking-loop techniques to the 3rd and 4th groups respectively by using 5 Ticron sutures. Results: In 13 tendons in group 1 and 15 tendons in group 2 and in all tendons in group 3 and 4, implants and sutures pulled out of the tendon in longitudinal axis at the point of maximum load. The mean tensile strengths were the largest in group 1 and smallest in group 3. Conclusion: In conclusion, the new stainless steel tendon suturing implants applied from outside the tendons using steel wires enable a biomechanically stronger repair with less tendon trauma when compared to previously developed tendon repair implants and the traditional suturing techniques. PMID:25067965

  2. Fractionation of 50kGy electron beam irradiation: effects on biomechanics of human flexor digitorum superficialis tendons treated with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Yujie; Yang, Xu; Tian, Shaoqi; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Zhaoning; Hu, Baiqiang; Tian, Zhen; Sun, Kang

    2013-02-22

    The electron beam (Ebeam) irradiation has begun to be considered as an efficient alternative to gamma irradiation in the sterilization of allografts in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of human tendons after exposure to electron beam and free radical scavenger ascorbate. Forty human flexor digitorum superficialis tendons were prepared from five fresh cadavers and divided randomly into four groups: A, fresh (0kGy); B, 50kGy Ebeam irradiation; C, fractionated 50kGy Ebeam irradiation; D, fractionated 50kGy Ebeam on ascorbate-treated tendons. The fractionation of 50kGy was achieved by repeated irradiation of 2.5kGy for 20 repetitions. Biomechanical properties were analyzed during load-to-failure testing. The fresh tendons were found to be significant different in ultimate load, ultimate elongation relative to tendons in group B. Statistical differences were found between group B and C in ultimate load. No differences were detected between group A and C in all the parameters. Compare tendons in group C and D, significant differences were found in ultimate load and ultimate stress. It is recommended that fractionated 50kGy electron beam irradiation and free radical scavenger ascorbate should be applied in the sterilization of allografts tendons. PMID:23261247

  3. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-03-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  4. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. PMID:25760389

  5. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed Central

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  6. Usefulness of braided polyblend polyethylene suture material for flexor tendon repair in zone II by the side-locking loop technique.

    PubMed

    Ryoke, Koji; Uchio, Yuji; Yamagami, Nobuo; Kuwata, Suguru; Nozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Tsujimoto, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries in zone II were treated in 14 fingers of 13 patients with our method. Firstly, a 2-strand core suture was made by the side-locking loop technique using a USP 2-0-sized braided polyblend polyethylene suture, then 7-strand peripheral cross-stitches were added using a USP 5-0-sized monofilament nylon suture. Post-operative exercises included passive flexion and extension without external fixation on the next day of surgery. Average follow-up observation period was 18 months. As results, the Strickland method of assessment for surgical outcome showed excellent in eight digits and good in five digits, though there was a poor outcome in one digit. Our suture method enabled early post-operative mobilisation exercise without using a splint, while preventing adhesion between the repaired tendon and peripheral tissues, which is considered to provide far greater ultimate tensile strength and a smaller gap at the sutured site than by the conventional method. PMID:24875521

  7. Preparation and characterization of antiadhesion barrier film from hyaluronic acid-grafted electrospun poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous membranes for prevention of flexor tendon postoperative peritendinous adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Hao; Shalumon, K T; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Peritendinous adhesion is one of the common complications encountered after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, and it can be minimized by introducing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. An electrospun hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(caprolactone) (PCL-g-HA) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) is proposed as an alternative to current antiadhesion barrier films. HA is covalently grafted to surface-aminolyzed PCL nanofibers, using carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Pristine PCL and PCL-g-HA NFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. In vitro cell culture with fibroblasts showed that PCL-g-HA NFMs reduced cellular adhesion on the membrane surface while maintaining cell proliferation. Animal experiments using a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model confirmed the efficacy of PCL-g-HA in reducing peritendinous adhesion, based on gross observation, histology, joint flexion-angle measurements, gliding tests, and biomechanical evaluation. PMID:25187711

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-I gene-enhanced mesenchymal stem cells improve structural aspects of healing in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Lauren V; Lynch, Maureen E; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Yeager, Amy E; Kornatowski, Matthew A; Nixon, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    Tendinitis remains a catastrophic injury among athletes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been investigated for use in the treatment of tendinitis. Previous work has demonstrated the value of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to stimulate cellular proliferation and tendon fiber deposition in the core lesion of tendinitis. This study examined the effects of MSCs, as well as IGF-I gene-enhanced MSCs (AdIGF-MSCs) on tendon healing in vivo. Collagenase-induced bilateral tendinitis lesions were created in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons (SDFT). Tendons were treated with 10 x 10(6) MSCs or 10 x 10(6) AdIGF-MSCs. Control limbs were injected with 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Ultrasound examinations were performed at t = 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Horses were euthanized at 8 weeks and SDFTs were mechanically tested to failure and evaluated for biochemical composition and histologic characteristics. Expression of collagen types I and III, IGF-I, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4) were similar in MSC and control tendons. Both MSC and AdIGF-MSC injection resulted in significantly improved tendon histological scores. These findings indicate a benefit to the use of MSCs and AdIGF-MSCs for the treatment of tendinitis. PMID:19350658

  9. Changes in supraspinal and spinal excitability of the biceps brachii following brief, non-fatiguing submaximal contractions of the elbow flexors in resistance-trained males.

    PubMed

    Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Copithorne, David B; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Button, Duane C; Power, Kevin E

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of 5 brief (2s), intermittent, submaximal elbow flexors voluntary contractions at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on measures of central (i.e. supraspinal and spinal) excitability. Supraspinal and spinal excitability of the biceps brachii were assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES) of the corticospinal tract, respectively. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), TMES-induced cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs), Erb's point peripheral nerve stimulation and MVC were assessed prior to and following submaximal voluntary contractions at 50% of MVC. The MEP to CMEP ratio increased (584±77.2%; p=0.011) and CMEP amplitudes decreased (62±3.0%; p=0.02) immediately post-exercise. MVC force output did not change immediately post-exercise. The results suggest that brief, non-fatiguing intermittent submaximal voluntary contractions transiently enhance supraspinal excitability while decreasing spinal excitability. The impact of these changes on one's ability to generate or maintain force production remains unknown. PMID:26415709

  10. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance.

    PubMed

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-12-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers. PMID:27284509

  11. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  12. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  13. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  14. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    PubMed

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR. PMID:26173440

  15. A leucine-rich diet and exercise affect the biomechanical characteristics of the digital flexor tendon in rats after nutritional recovery.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Benevides, Gustavo Pereira; Alferes, Leda Maria Totti; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Gomes, Laurecir

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the capacity of athletic performance depends on adequate nutrition, which ensures optimal function of the musculoskeletal system, including tendon stability. However, little is known about the status of tendons and extracellular matrix modifications during malnutrition and nutritional recovery when leucine is used in response to exercise conditioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collagen content and biomechanical aspects of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in malnourished rats submitted to nutritional recovery (control diet or leucine-rich diet) and aerobic physical activity. After 60 days of undernourishment (6% protein diet), the malnourished rats were subsequently nutritionally recovered with a control diet or leucine-rich diet and trained or not (swimming, without overload) for 5 weeks. The biomechanical analysis and quantification of hydroxyproline were assessed in the DDFT in all experimental groups. The leucine-rich diet increased hydroxyproline content in the tension region, independently of the training. In the compression region, hydroxyproline content was higher in the malnourished and leucine-trained groups. Biomechanical analysis showed a lower load in the malnourished and all-trained groups. The lowest stress was observed with control-trained animals. The nutritional-recovered groups showed higher strain values corresponding to control group, while the lowest values were observed in malnourished and trained groups. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet stimulates collagen synthesis of the DDFT, especially when in combination with physical exercise, and seems to determine the increase of resistance and the biomechanical characteristics of tendons. PMID:21107621

  16. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  18. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  19. Reproducibility of a non-invasive ultrasonic technique of tendon force measurement, determined in vitro in equine superficial digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Evrard, Delphine; Pourcelot, Philippe

    2009-09-18

    A non-invasive ultrasonic (US) technique of tendon force measurement has been recently developed. It is based on the relationship demonstrated between the speed of sound (SOS) in a tendon and the traction force applied to it. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the variability of this non-linear relationship among 7 equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons, and the reproducibility of SOS measurements in these tendons over successive loading cycles and tests. Seven SDF tendons were equipped with an US probe (1MHz), secured in contact with the skin overlying the tendon metacarpal part. The tendons were submitted to a traction test consisting in 5 cycles of loading/unloading between 50 and 4050N. Four tendons out of the 7 were submitted to 5 additional cycles up to 5550N. The SOS-tendon force relationships appeared similar in shape, although large differences in SOS levels were observed among the tendons. Reproducibility between cycles was evaluated from the root mean square of the standard deviations (RMS-SD) of SOS values observed every 100N, and of force values every 2m/s. Reproducibility of SOS measurements revealed high between successive cycles: above 500N the RMS-SD was less than 2% of the corresponding traction force. Reproducibility between tests was lower, partly due to the experimental set-up; above 500N the difference between the two tests stayed nevertheless below 15% of the corresponding mean traction force. The reproducibility of the US technique here demonstrated in vitro has now to be confirmed in vivo. PMID:19647261

  20. A study of the distribution of color Doppler flows in the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds during their training periods

    PubMed Central

    HATAZOE, Takashi; ENDO, Yoshiro; IWAMOTO, Yohei; KOROSUE, Kenji; KURODA, Taisuke; INOUE, Saemi; MURATA, Daiki; HOBO, Seiji; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of exercise and tendon injury with Doppler flows appearing in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of young Thoroughbreds during training periods. The forelimb SDFTs of 24 one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds clinically free of any orthopaedic disorders were evaluated using grey-scale (GS) and color Doppler (CD) images during two training periods between December 2013 to April 2015. Twelve horses per year were examined in December, February, and April in training periods that began in September and ended in April. The SDFT was evaluated in 3 longitudinal images of equal lengths (labelled 1, 2, 3 in order from proximal to distal), and 6 transversal images separated by equal lengths (labelled 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in order from proximal to distal) of the metacarpus using both GS and CD. The running (canter and gallop) distance for 1 month before the date of the ultrasonographic examinations was increased in December, February, and April in both of the two training periods. CD flows defined as rhythmically blinking or pulsatory colored signals were found in 56 of 864 (6.4%) transversal CD images, in 28, 12, 13, and 3 images of 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B, respectively, and in 7, 14, and 35 images captured in December, February, and April, respectively. There were no longitudinal or transversal GS images indicating injury in the SDFTs in either of the two training periods. The increase of CD flows in the proximal regions of the SDFT are possibly related to the increase of the running distance during the training periods of the one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds. Because no injury was diagnosed in the SDFTs by GS images during the training periods, the increase of CD flows in the proximal parts of SDFT is not necessarily predictive of tendon injury in the near future during the training period of young Thoroughbreds. PMID:26858574

  1. DAS: A Data Management System for Instrument Tests and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Conforti, V.; Zoli, A.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Dadina, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Data Access System (DAS) is a and data management software system, providing a reusable solution for the storage of data acquired both from telescopes and auxiliary data sources during the instrument development phases and operations. It is part of the Customizable Instrument WorkStation system (CIWS-FW), a framework for the storage, processing and quick-look at the data acquired from scientific instruments. The DAS provides a data access layer mainly targeted to software applications: quick-look displays, pre-processing pipelines and scientific workflows. It is logically organized in three main components: an intuitive and compact Data Definition Language (DAS DDL) in XML format, aimed for user-defined data types; an Application Programming Interface (DAS API), automatically adding classes and methods supporting the DDL data types, and providing an object-oriented query language; a data management component, which maps the metadata of the DDL data types in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS), and stores the data in a shared (network) file system. With the DAS DDL, developers define the data model for a particular project, specifying for each data type the metadata attributes, the data format and layout (if applicable), and named references to related or aggregated data types. Together with the DDL user-defined data types, the DAS API acts as the only interface to store, query and retrieve the metadata and data in the DAS system, providing both an abstract interface and a data model specific one in C, C++ and Python. The mapping of metadata in the back-end database is automatic and supports several relational DBMSs, including MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  2. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  3. Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Harald

    Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun? Da der Mensch ein Teil des Universums ist, muss er etwas mit dem Universum zu tun haben. Das Universum stellt ja ganz allgemein den größten Ursache-Wirkung-Zusammenhang dar, über den hinaus zwar noch gedacht und gerechnet, aber nichts mehr beobachtet oder gemessen werden kann. Es definiert also nicht nur die Möglichkeiten materiell-energetischer Seinsformen sondern auch deren Grenzen. Leben, bzw. menschliches Leben stellt im Universum dann zwar eine spezielle Form, aber eben nur eine Form materieller Daseinsstruktur dar. Neben Galaxien, Gas, Sternen, Planeten, Asteroiden und anderen Formen unbelebter Materie gibt es eben auch noch Lebewesen. Das klingt nach Inventur, nach Aufzählung ohne Unterschied. Diese einfache erste Betrachtung liefert vielleicht die ein oder andere Anregung für ein weiteres Suchen nach Substanzen, aber ein wesentliches Moment geht hier verloren. Ich meine die empirische, sehr gut abgesicherte Tatsache, dass das Universum, wie alles was es enthält, eine Entwicklung durchlaufen hat und auch weiterhin durchläuft - nennen wir diese Entwicklung die kosmische Evolution.

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of influenza virus mutants selected with the sialidase fusion protein DAS181

    PubMed Central

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen B.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Hedlund, Maria; Jensen, Kellie A.; Aschenbrenner, Laura M.; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses (IFVs) frequently achieve resistance to antiviral drugs, necessitating the development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action. DAS181 (Fludase®), a sialidase fusion protein, may have a reduced potential for generating drug resistance due to its novel host-targeting mechanism of action. Methods IFV strains B/Maryland/1/59 and A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) were subjected to >30 passages under increasing selective pressure with DAS181. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates were characterized in vitro and in mice. Results Despite extensive passaging, DAS181-selected viruses exhibited a very low level of resistance to DAS181, which ranged between 3- and 18-fold increase in EC50. DAS181-selected viruses displayed an attenuated phenotype in vitro, as exhibited by slower growth, smaller plaque size and increased particle to pfu ratios relative to wild-type virus. Further, the DAS181 resistance phenotype was unstable and was substantially reversed over time upon DAS181 withdrawal. In mice, the DAS181-selected viruses exhibited no greater virulence than their wild-type counterparts. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of DAS181-selected viruses revealed mutations in the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) molecules and also changes in HA and NA function. Conclusions Results indicate that resistance to DAS181 is minimal and unstable. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates exhibit reduced fitness in vitro, likely due to altered HA and NA functions. PMID:21097900

  5. ESCAPS study protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of ‘Early electrical stimulation to the wrist extensors and wrist flexors to prevent the post-stroke complications of pain and contractures in the paretic arm’

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sprigg, Nikola; James, Marilyn; Walker, Marion F; Allatt, Kate; Mehta, Rajnikant; Pandyan, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of patients with stroke experience impaired arm function, which is persistent and disabling for an estimated 40%. Loss of function reduces independence in daily activities and impacts on quality of life. Muscles in those who do not recover functional movement in the stroke affected arm are at risk of atrophy and contractures, which can be established as early as 6 weeks following stroke. Pain is also common. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of delivering early intensive electrical stimulation (ES) to prevent post-stroke complications in the paretic upper limb. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (n=40) with embedded qualitative studies (patient/carer interviews and therapist focus groups) and feasibility economic evaluation. Patients will be recruited from the Stroke Unit at the Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Trust within 72 h after stroke. Participants will be randomised to receive usual care or usual care and early ES to the wrist flexors and extensors for 30 min twice a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. The initial treatment(s) will be delivered by an occupational therapist or physiotherapist who will then train the patient and/or their nominated carer to self-manage subsequent treatments. Ethics and dissemination This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, East Midlands Nottingham1 Research Ethics Committee (ref: 15/EM/0006). To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind of the early application (within 72 h post-stroke) of ES to both the wrist extensors and wrist flexors of stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. The results will inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial. Dissemination will include 2 peer-reviewed journal publications and presentations at national conferences. Trial

  6. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  7. Discrepancies in assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome by DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP

    PubMed Central

    Olesińska, Marzena; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Mańczak, Małgorzata; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Wojdasiewicz, Piotr; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a difference exists between DAS28 from CRP and DAS28 from ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). Material and methods One group comprised patients with RA and sSS, the control group comprised patients with RA. The inclusion criteria for the RA and sSS group have been specified as follows: presence of at least one symptom of dryness, and also presence of anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B or at least focus score of one in biopsy. Results The disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was assessed using both ESR and CRP in 60 patients with RA and sSS and 59 patients with RA alone. However, concordance between these two methods was good (Cohen's κ coefficient κ = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.75 in the first group and κ = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.86 in the control group). In the group with RA and sSS, the mean value of DAS28-ESR = 5.2, whereas the mean value of DAS28-CRP = 4.7 (p < 0.0001). In the group with RA alone, mean DAS28-ESR = 4.7 while mean DAS28-CRP = 4.6; no significant difference was identified. Moreover, in RA patients with sSS, mean ESR = 39 mm/h compared with mean CRP at 25 mg/l. 79% of all patients demonstrated dysproteinaemia. There were connections between higher ESR and dysproteinaemia. In the control group there was no statistically significant difference between CRP and ESR. Conclusions Both DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP are useful outcome measures in RA. However, in patients with RA and sSS, DAS28 should be evaluated based on CRP. PMID:27536205

  8. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  9. Statistical Quality Control of Moisture Data in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Rukhovets, L.; Todling, R.

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical quality control algorithm was recently implemented in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The final step in the algorithm consists of an adaptive buddy check that either accepts or rejects outlier observations based on a local statistical analysis of nearby data. A basic assumption in any such test is that the observed field is spatially coherent, in the sense that nearby data can be expected to confirm each other. However, the buddy check resulted in excessive rejection of moisture data, especially during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The analysis moisture variable in GEOS DAS is water vapor mixing ratio. Observational evidence shows that the distribution of mixing ratio errors is far from normal. Furthermore, spatial correlations among mixing ratio errors are highly anisotropic and difficult to identify. Both factors contribute to the poor performance of the statistical quality control algorithm. To alleviate the problem, we applied the buddy check to relative humidity data instead. This variable explicitly depends on temperature and therefore exhibits a much greater spatial coherence. As a result, reject rates of moisture data are much more reasonable and homogeneous in time and space.

  10. Homo sapiens und das 21. Jahrhundert - evolutionsbiologische Betrachtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Jochen

    Was meinen wir, wenn wir vom 21. Jahrhundert sprechen? Es ist ein Zeitraum, der sich durch die Festlegung des Menschen ergibt, die nach Christi Geburt verstrichene Zeit in Jahren zu zählen. Eine kulturelle Leistung, die primär auf der Fähigkeit beruht, das Phänomen Zeit a priori wahrnehmen zu können. Die Antizipation der Zeit ist in der Welt der Organismen ein weit verbreitetes Prinzip. Entsprechend existieren auf zellulären bis zu zentralnervösen Ebenen verschiedenste Mechanismen, die dies ermöglichen. So basiert die Zeitwahrnehmung des Menschen auf zentralnervösen Strukturen und Prozessen phylogenetisch älterer Hirnstrukturen, die ihrerseits die Körperfunktionen von der zellulären bis zur Verhaltensebene steuern und regeln und sie damit an exogene Zeitregime, wie z. B. den Tag-Nacht-Rhythmus (circadianer Rhythmus), anpassen. Die Chronobiologie weist nach, welch große adaptive Bedeutung zeitantizipierende Mechanismen für die Organismen haben, das heißt Fitness fördernd sind (Piechulla 1999; Spork 2004). Die für verschiedene Kulturen des Menschen maßgebliche Zeitrechnung basiert auf der quantitativen Erfassung kosmisch oder irdisch regelmäßig wiederkehrender Ereignisse.

  11. M-DAS: System for multispectral data analysis. [in Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    M-DAS is a ground data processing system designed for analysis of multispectral data. M-DAS operates on multispectral data from LANDSAT, S-192, M2S and other sources in CCT form. Interactive training by operator-investigators using a variable cursor on a color display was used to derive optimum processing coefficients and data on cluster separability. An advanced multivariate normal-maximum likelihood processing algorithm was used to produce output in various formats: color-coded film images, geometrically corrected map overlays, moving displays of scene sections, coverage tabulations and categorized CCTs. The analysis procedure for M-DAS involves three phases: (1) screening and training, (2) analysis of training data to compute performance predictions and processing coefficients, and (3) processing of multichannel input data into categorized results. Typical M-DAS applications involve iteration between each of these phases. A series of photographs of the M-DAS display are used to illustrate M-DAS operation.

  12. Allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in combination with platelet rich plasma are safe and effective in the therapy of superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Ricco, S; Renzi, S; Del Bue, M; Conti, V; Merli, E; Ramoni, R; Lucarelli, E; Gnudi, G; Ferrari, M; Grolli, S

    2013-01-01

    Overstrain tendonitis are common pathologies in the sport horses. Therapeutic approaches to tendon healing do not always result in a satisfactory anatomical and functional repair, and healed tendon is often characterized by functional impairment and high risk of reinjury. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) have been proposed as novel therapeutic treatments to improve the tendon repair process. MSCs are multipotent, easy to culture and being originated from adult donors do not pose ethical issues. To date, autologous MSCs have been investigated mainly in the treatment of large bone defects, cardiovascular diseases, osteogenesis imperfecta and orthopaedic injuries both in human and veterinary medicine. The clinical applications in which autologous MSCs can be used are limited because patient-specific tissue collection and cell expansion require time. For clinical applications in which MSCs should be used right away, it would be more practical to use cells collected from a donor, expanded in vitro and banked to be readily available when needed. However, there are concerns over the safety and the efficacy of allogeneic MSCs. The safety and efficacy of a therapy based on the use of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) associated to platelet rich plasma (PRP) were evaluated in 19 horses affected by acute or subacute overstrain superficial digital flexor tendonitis (SDFT). The application of allogeneic ASCs neither raised clinical sign of acute or chronic adverse tissue reactions, nor the formation of abnormal tissue in the long-term. After a follow-up of 24 months, 89.5% horses returned to their previous level of competition, while the reinjury rate was 10.5%, comparable to those recently reported for SDFT treated with autologous bone marrow derived MSCs. This study suggests that the association between allogeneic ASCs and PRP can be considered a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of SDF tendonitis

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  14. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  15. Development of Ga-67 labeled DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugate as a thrombus imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, S

    1987-01-01

    A cluster method developed for labeling large molecular proteins with radioactive metal was applied for 67Ga-labeled fibrinogen. A large number of deferoxamine (DFO) was introduced to human fibrinogen using dialdehyde strarch (DAS) as a spacer-functional polymer. The synthesized DFO-DAS-fibrinogen mentioned above was easily labeled with GaCl3 (67Ga) solution (2 mCi/5 mg). The basic investigations found that 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen was applicable to the diagnosis of thrombus, and clinical trials were carried out under the physician-sponsored IND. In our further investigation, improvement of the 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen reagent was attempted to obtain high specific radioactivity. This was accomplished with the more familiar 67Ga citrate. From the results of a series of experiments, 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen of a new composition labeled using 67Ga citrate with high specific radioactivity (2 mCi/3 mg) was prepared, and both reagents were evaluated as thrombus imaging agents from the chemical and biological aspects. The labeling efficiency and clottability of both 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugates were satisfactorily high, more than 95% and 80%, respectively. The biodistribution in rats showed that both 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugates were essentially the same. These results suggest that there are no significant differences between reagents. At present, the improved reagents are being supplied for the second clinical trials under physician-sponsored IND. PMID:3438481

  16. Crosslinking effect of dialdehyde starch (DAS) on decellularized porcine aortas for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan; Li, Li; Yang, Xu; Yu, Xixun

    2015-08-01

    Biological tissue-derived biomaterials must be chemically modified to avoid immediate degradation and immune response before being implanted in human body to replace malfunctioning organs. DAS with active aldehyde groups was employed to replace glutaraldehyde (GA), a most common synthetic crosslinking reagent in clinical practice, to fix bioprostheses for lower cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to evaluate fixation effect of DAS. The tensile strength, crosslinking stability, cytotoxicity especially the anti-calcification capability of DAS-fixed tissues were investigated. The tensile strength and resistance to enzymatic degradation of samples were increased after DAS fixation, the values maintained stably in D-Hanks solution for several days. Meanwhile, ultrastructure of samples preserved well and the anti-calcification capability of samples were improved, the amount of positive staining points in the whole visual field of 15% DAS-fixed samples was only 0.576 times to GA-fixed ones. Moreover, both unreacted DAS and its hydrolytic products were nontoxic in cytotoxicity study. The results demonstrated DAS might be an effective crosslinking reagent to fix biological tissue-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering. PMID:26038106

  17. Ulnar Nerve Injury after Flexor Tendon Grafting.

    PubMed

    McCleave, Michael John

    2016-10-01

    A 43-year-old female is presented who underwent a two-stage tendon reconstruction and developed a low ulnar nerve palsy postoperatively. Exploration found that the tendon graft was passing through Guyon's canal and that the ulnar nerve was divided. This is a previously unreported complication. The reconstruction is discussed, the literature reviewed and a guide is given on how to identify the correct tissue plane when passing a tendon rod. PMID:27595967

  18. A Safety Evaluation of DAS181, a Sialidase Fusion Protein, in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Jeffrey L.; Kang, Seong-Kwi; Choi, Bo In; Hedlund, Maria; Aschenbrenner, Laura M.; Cecil, Beth; Machado, GloriaMay; Nieder, Matthew; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    DAS181 is a novel inhaled drug candidate blocking influenza virus (IFV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections through removal of sialic acid receptors from epithelial surface of the respiratory tract. To support clinical development, a 28-day Good Laboratory Practices inhalation toxicology study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, achieved average daily doses based on exposure concentrations were 0.47, 0.90, 1.55, and 3.00 mg/kg/day of DAS181 in a dry powder formulation. DAS181 was well tolerated at all dose levels, and there were no significant toxicological findings. DAS181 administration did not affect animal body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, ophthalmology, respiratory parameters, or organ weight. Gross pathology evaluations were unremarkable. Histological examination of the lungs was devoid of pulmonary tissue damage, and findings were limited to mild and transient changes indicative of exposure and clearance of a foreign protein. DAS181 did not show any cytotoxic effects on human and animal primary cells, including hepatocytes, skeletal muscle cells, osteoblasts, or respiratory epithelial cells. DAS181 did not cause direct or indirect hemolysis. A laboratory abnormality observed in the 28-day toxicology study was mild and transient anemia in male rats at the 3.00 mg/kg dose, which is an expected outcome of enhanced clearance of desialylated red blood cells resulting from systemic exposure with DAS181. Another laboratory observation was a transient dose-dependent elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which can be attributed to reduced ALP clearance resulting from increased protein desialylation due to DAS181 systemic exposure. These laboratory parameters returned to normal at the end of the recovery period. PMID:21572096

  19. Phase 1 clinical trials of DAS181, an inhaled sialidase, in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zenilman, Jonathan M; Fuchs, Edward J; Hendrix, Craig W; Radebaugh, Christine; Jurao, Robert; Nayak, Seema U; Hamilton, Robert G; McLeod Griffiss, J

    2015-11-01

    DAS181, (study drug, Fludase®) was developed for treatment of influenza and parainfluenza infections. Delivered by inhalation, DAS181 cleaves sialic acid receptors from respiratory epithelial cells. Treatment of influenza for three days with DAS181 reduced viral shedding. To increase deposition in the upper airways and decrease systemic absorption, the particle size was increased to 10μm. We conducted two Phase I trials with three cohorts, randomized 2:1, active drug to placebo. The initial cohort got a single 20mg dose of DAS181, or placebo; the second, 20mg DAS181 or placebo for 10days, and the third got 20mg of DAS181 or placebo for 3days. Formulations differed slightly in their excipients. Subjects in the 1- and 3-day cohorts completed dosing without serious adverse events. Two subjects in the 10-day cohort stopped at Day 9 after developing respiratory and systemic symptoms, and a third experienced a decrease in FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s) after the 9th dose and a further decline after the 10th dose. Plasma DAS181, in the 10-day cohort, peaked and began falling before the last dose. Antibodies, predominately IgG with neutralizing activity, were detected in 15/18 subjects by Day 30. The highest IgG concentrations were in the 10-day cohort. The respiratory adverse events occurring after seven days and rapid drug clearance during continued dosing are consistent with the induction of DAS181 antibodies. This could preclude use of this medication for longer than seven days or for repeated courses. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration Nos. NCT 00527865 and NCT 01651494.). PMID:26391974

  20. VIIRS ocean color data visualization and processing with IDL-based NOAA-SeaDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-11-01

    The NOAA Sea-viewing Data Analysis System (NOAA-SeaDAS) is an Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based satellite data visualization, analysis, and processing system based on the version 6.4 of the NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-ofview (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) released in 2012. NOAA-SeaDAS inherited all the original functionalities of SeaDAS 6.4 and was upgraded with many new functions and new sensor supports, particularly the support of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP). The main goal of the NOAA-SeaDAS development is primarily in support of NOAA ocean color team's calibration and validation activities. The current version of NOAA-SeaDAS can visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR or Level-1B data) produced by the NOAA Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), ocean color Environmental Data Records (EDR or Level-2 data) produced by the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level- 2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, and Level-3 data binned or mapped from Level-2 data produced by NOAA-MSL12. NOAA-SeaDAS is currently serving an active IDL user group at NOAA and will serve other institutions and universities in the future. The goal is to allow various scientific users to visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS data from Level-1B through Level-2 and Level-3. In addition, NOAA-SeaDAS can also visualize satellite images from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), as well as many other satellite ocean color sensors, e.g., SeaWiFS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), etc. NOAA-SeaDAS is under constant development to create new system functionalities and enhance user experience. With constantly increasing volume in the global ocean color data archive, NOAA-SeaDAS will play an important role in support of global marine environment data analysis and various scientific applications.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  2. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  3. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  4. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  5. Das Lob der Sternkunst. Astronomie in der deutschen Aufklärung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, R.

    Contents: 1. Einleitung. 2. Die Astronomie im Rahmen der Aufklärungs-Physik. 3. Das Lob der Sternkunst. 4. Ein Blick auf die Sternwarten. 5. Allgemeine Darstellungen der Sternkunde. 6. Schleppende Rezeption: Das kopernikanische Weltbild. 7. Himmelsphysik: Die Debatte um die causa gravitatis. 8. Theorie der Himmelskörper. 9. Die Erde als Gegenstand der Astronomie. 10. Die Sonne. 11. Der Mond. 12. Die Planeten. 13. Die Kometen. 14. Die Fixsterne. 15. Die Entstehung der Welt. 16. Beiträge der Astrotheologie. 17. Der Kampf gegen die Astrologen.

  6. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  7. Repeatability of Surface Wave Velocity Estimates from Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, N.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Martin, E. R.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Robertson, M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Bjella, K.; Ulrich, C.

    2015-12-01

    The repeatability of surface wave velocity estimates from local ambient noise hinges on the stability of the crosscorrelation function for the receiver pair in the presence of a variable noise field, assuming near-surface soil properties are invariant over the duration of the surveys. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) data recorded on a linear trenched fiber optic cable sensor can accurately sample surface waves in a near continuous fashion (>1 kHz) with high spatial resolution (>1 receiver/m) and long range (10's of km). DAS recordings of ambient noise represent a unique means to explore the practical reliability of field-scale seismic property estimation from seismic interferometry. We test this hypothesis using continuous DAS field recordings from a shallow trench experiment near a busy road with diurnally-variable traffic patterns. Continuous records are processed using a modified ambient noise workflow consisting of receiver pair crosscorrelation, signal stacking, dispersion analysis, and a Monte Carlo search procedure to determine a best-fitting Vs model. The same processing flow is also applied to campaign data acquired with geophones to determine the repeatability benefit of trenched DAS deployment.

  8. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  9. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  10. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... multispecies Category A or B DAS, or catches regulated species or ocean pout while on a sector trip; or a... an ocean quahog (OQ 6) open access permit; (6) Effective January 1, 2009, a vessel issued a Maine... multispecies limited access permit, a valid surfclam and ocean quahog permit specified at § 648.4(a)(4), or...

  11. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  12. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dante Fratta

    2016-03-31

    This metadata submission includes the coordinates of the DAS and DTS surface and borehole arrays, the list of file names, and the list of recorded files during testing at the PoroTomo Natural Laboratory at Brady Hot Spring in Nevada. Testing was completed during March 2016.

  13. A Brief History of the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2008-01-01

    The J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre celebrated its 40th anniversary on September 1, 2007, followed by The University of Alberta's 100th anniversary in 2008. The year 2008 also brought the appointment of a new Director for the Centre. As the immediate past Director of the Centre, the author recounts some of the history of the J.P. Das…

  14. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  15. Flashbacks: Reminiscences from 40 Years with the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reminisces about his 40 years with the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre. He begins by recalling his early years with the Centre. He follows it up with his middle years, as well as his later years with the Centre. The author ends his flashback by "bragging" about some of the extraordinary scholars who have…

  16. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  17. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  18. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  19. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  20. Proposal of adaptive wireless cell configuration for RoF-DAS over WDM-PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Fukada, Youichi; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Radio on fiber (RoF) - distributed antenna system (DAS) over wavelength division multiplexing - passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) has been proposed as a next generation radio access network (RAN). This system employs optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) over one WDM channel to multiplex and transmit various types of wireless interfaces such as 3.9G, Wireless LAN and WiMAX. A combination of star and bus topologies has employed to cover a wider service area. The optical transmission loss is caused notably at remote base stations (RBSs) quipped on a WDM bus link. The loss is relatively small, but at the RBS far from the center station (CS), the RBS suffers the large accumulated loss, so the reduction of cell size provides the increasing of the number of RBSs, causes the degradation of the SNR of RoF link. This paper addresses this trade-off problem, and considers the application to the actual service area by the channel capacity investigation of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON with computer simulation. Then, this paper focuses on the flexibility of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON, considers the adaptive wireless cell configuration according to population fluctuations of day and night, or densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas, respectively.

  1. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  2. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The DAO's support of the EOS project along with the requirement of producing long-term reanalysis datasets with an unvarying system levy a large I/O burden on the future system. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now converting the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). If the MPI-based GEOS DAS is to meet these production requirements, we must make I/O from the parallel system efficient. We have designed a scheme that allows efficient I/O processing while retaining portability, reducing the need for post-processing, and producing data formats that are required by our users, both internal and external. The first phase of the GEOS DAS Parallel I/O System (GPIOS) will expand upon the common method of gathering global data to a Single PE for output. Instead of using a PE also tasked with primary computation, a number of PEs will be dedicated to I/O and its related tasks. This allows the data transformations and formatting required prior to output to take place asynchronously with respect to the GEOS DAS assimilation cycle, improving performance and generating output data sets in a format convenient for our users. I/O PEs can be added as needed to handle larger data volumes or to meet user file specifications. We will show I/O performance results from a prototype MPI GCM integrated with GPIOS. Phase two of GPIOS development will examine ways of integrating new software technologies to further improve performance and build scalability into the system. The maturing of MPI-IO implementations and

  3. DAS28 score vs. ultrasound examination for assessment of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: comparison and discussion of pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Dura, Marta; Blumfield, Einat; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Żuchowski, Pawel; Wilińska-Jankowska, Arnika; Jeka, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease which is characterized by symetrical multiple joints involvement and extra-articular symptoms. Current EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA include disease activity parameters, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which are used to calculate disease activity scores, including DAS and DAS28. Recently attempts have been made to assess disease activity using imaging diagnostic modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). Due to significant progress in therapy effectiveness and early RA diagnosis possibility, imaging modalities become increasingly meaningful and many clinical trials confirm their usefulness. However, there are no consistent criteria for objective assessment of therapy effectiveness based on US. Moreover, it is not US availability that limits its common use, but rather significant variability between operators. This is why US remains only an additional tool to assess therapy efficacy with regard to DAS/DAS28 index.

  4. The WHO-DAS II: psychometric properties in the measurement of functional health status in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Theresa H; Abrams, Harvey B; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H; Doyle, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHODAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument

  5. Validation of Land-Surface Mosaic Heterogeneity in the GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Molod, Andrea; Houser, Paul R.; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-01-01

    The Mosaic Land-surface Model (LSM) has been included into the current GEOS Data Assimilation System (DAS). The LSM uses a more advanced representation of physical processes than previous versions of the GEOS DAS, including the representation of sub-grid heterogeneity of the land-surface through the Mosaic approach. As a first approximation, Mosaic assumes that all similar surface types within a grid-cell can be lumped together as a single'tile'. Within one GCM grid-cell, there might be 1 - 5 different tiles or surface types. All tiles are subjected to the grid-scale forcing (radiation, air temperature and specific humidity, and precipitation), and the sub-grid variability is a function of the tile characteristics. In this paper, we validate the LSM sub-grid scale variability (tiles) using a variety of surface observing stations from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. One of the primary goals of SGP ARM is to study the variability of atmospheric radiation within a G,CM grid-cell. Enough surface data has been collected by ARM to extend this goal to sub-grid variability of the land-surface energy and water budgets. The time period of this study is the Summer of 1998 (June I - September 1). The ARM site data consists of surface meteorology, energy flux (eddy correlation and bowen ratio), soil water observations spread over an area similar to the size of a G-CM grid-cell. Various ARM stations are described as wheat and alfalfa crops, pasture and range land. The LSM tiles considered at the grid-space (2 x 2.5) nearest the ARM site include, grassland, deciduous forests, bare soil and dwarf trees. Surface energy and water balances for each tile type are compared with observations. Furthermore, we will discuss the land-surface sub-grid variability of both the ARM observations and the DAS.

  6. Datta-and-Das spin transistor controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, A. S.; Kibis, O. V.; Kavokin, A. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    We developed the theory of spin dependent transport through a spin-modulator device (so-called Datta-and-Das spin transistor) in the presence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). Solving the Schrödinger problem for dressed electrons, we demonstrated that the field drastically modifies the spin transport. In particular, the dressing field leads to renormalization of spin-orbit coupling constants that varies conductivity of the spin transistor. The present effect paves the way for controlling the spin-polarized electron transport with light in prospective spin-optronic devices.

  7. The S2 VLBI Systems: DAS, RT/PT and Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William T.; Bujold, Marc; Cannon, Wayne H.; Carlson, Brent R.; Dewdney, Peter E.; Feil, Georg H.; Newby, Paul; Novikov, Alexander; Popelar, Josef; Wietfeldt, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The S2 VLBI system synthesizes wide IF bandwidths by rapidly switching the local oscillator (LO) frequency in a small (1-4) number of baseband converters (BBC's). Data are recorded on video cassettes using an array of 8 VHS transports. Characteristics of the S2 Data Acquisition System (DAS), the S2 Record and Playback Terminals (RT and PT) and the S2 Correlator are summarized. The bandwidth synthesis (BWS) frequency switching sequence used in a series of system validation experiments is presented.

  8. Das Neutron, der Kosmos und die Kräfte: Neutronen in der Teilchenphysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldner, Torsten

    2003-05-01

    Das Neutron besitzt eine einzigartige Kombination von Eigenschaften. Sie ermöglicht die Untersuchung aller vier elementaren Kräfte. Dabei wurden beeindruckende Resultate erzielt, wie die Präzisionsmessungen der elektrischen Ladung des Neutrons oder der Feinstrukturkonstante zeigen. Die genaue Bestimmung der schwachen Wechselwirkungsstärke der Nukleonen liefert der Astrophysik wichtige Daten. Die Messung eines von Null verschiedenen elektrischen Dipolmoments des Neutrons könnte einen entscheidenden Hinweis über die Physik jenseits des Standardmodells der Teilchenphysik geben. Doch auch zur Aufklärung von Unsicherheiten innerhalb des Standardmodells selbst tragen Neutronen bei.

  9. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of In Vivo Binding of the Master Regulator DasR in Streptomyces coelicolor Identifies Novel Non-Canonical Targets

    PubMed Central

    Świątek-Połatyńska, Magdalena A.; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Gubbens, Jacob; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Smith, Colin P.; Rigali, Sébastien; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomycetes produce a wealth of natural products, including over half of all known antibiotics. It was previously demonstrated that N-acetylglucosamine and secondary metabolism are closely entwined in streptomycetes. Here we show that DNA recognition by the N-acetylglucosamine-responsive regulator DasR is growth-phase dependent, and that DasR can bind to sites in the S. coelicolor genome that have no obvious resemblance to previously identified DasR-responsive elements. Thus, the regulon of DasR extends well beyond what was previously predicted and includes a large number of genes with functions far removed from N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, such as genes for small RNAs and DNA transposases. Conversely, the DasR regulon during vegetative growth largely correlates to the presence of canonical DasR-responsive elements. The changes in DasR binding in vivo following N-acetylglucosamine induction were studied in detail and a possible molecular mechanism by which the influence of DasR is extended is discussed. Discussion of DasR binding was further informed by a parallel transcriptome analysis of the respective cultures. Evidence is provided that DasR binds directly to the promoters of all genes encoding pathway-specific regulators of antibiotic production in S. coelicolor, thereby providing an exquisitely simple link between nutritional control and secondary metabolism. PMID:25875084

  11. Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode: The history of an unsuccessful book.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers an introduction to Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode (1883), and recounts the history of its controversial reception by Cohen's early sympathizers, who would become the so-called 'Marburg school' of Neo-Kantianism, as well as the reactions it provoked outside this group. By dissecting the ambiguous attitudes of the best-known representatives of the school (Paul Natorp and Ernst Cassirer), as well as those of several minor figures (August Stadler, Kurd Lasswitz, Dimitry Gawronsky, etc.), this paper shows that Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode is a unicum in the history of philosophy: it represents a strange case of an unsuccessful book's enduring influence. The "puzzle of Cohen's Infinitesimalmethode," as we will call it, can be solved by looking beyond the scholarly results of the book, and instead focusing on the style of philosophy it exemplified. Moreover, the paper shows that Cohen never supported, but instead explicitly opposed, the doctrine of the centrality of the 'concept of function', with which Marburg Neo-Kantianism is usually associated. PMID:27474182

  12. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  13. Trends and variability of climate and river flow in the region of Costa das Baleias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Genz, F; Tanajura, C A S

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort by the scientific community to regionalize climate studies to support local development plans. The area of interest is the Costa das Baleias on the east coast of northeast Brazil. It is located in a transition region of precipitation trends, and so assessing the local signal and magnitude is necessary. A series of annual anomalies of surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge were analyzed from 1946 to 2010. The modified Mann-Kendall test was applied to detect trends. Temperature anomalies showed a consistent positive trend since 1950. Precipitation anomalies tended to decrease, though not significantly. River discharge rates showed a consistent positive trend. However, from the 1980s onwards, both the precipitation and the river discharge anomalies had the same decreasing tendency. The precipitation and discharge behavior are likely due to the combined effect of human interventions in the river basins including local, synoptic and global climate effects. The inter-annual variability was characterized by spectral analysis. Cycles were identified for the precipitation and the river discharge with periods of 2-3 years, 3-4 years, 7-8 years and 11-12 years. The decadal frequency is consistent with the South Atlantic and El Niño indices. This work strongly indicates that climate is changing in Costa das Baleias and further work is needed to investigate the mechanisms that link local to large-scale variability. PMID:23128620

  14. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  15. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  16. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  17. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  18. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  19. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the professionalization of these teachers in the field of primary science education. With the development of this instrument, we sought to fulfill the need for a statistically and theoretically valid and reliable instrument to measure pre-service and in-service teachers' attitudes. The DAS Instrument is based on a comprehensive theoretical framework for attitude toward (teaching) science. After pilot testing, the DAS was revised and subsequently validated using a large group of respondents (pre-service and in-service primary teachers) (N = 556). The theoretical underpinning of the DAS combined with the statistical data indicate that the DAS possesses good construct validity and that it proves to be a promising instrument that can be utilized for research purposes, and also as a teacher training and coaching tool. This instrument can therefore make a valuable contribution to progress within the field of science education.

  20. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  1. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  2. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-01

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  3. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  4. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  5. DAS181 Treatment of Severe Parainfluenza Virus 3 Pneumonia in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, B.; D'Souza, A.; Pasquini, M.; Saber, W.; Fenske, T. S.; Moss, R. B.; Drobyski, W. R.; Hari, P.; Abidi, M. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) may cause life-threatening pneumonia in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Currently, there are no proven effective therapies. We report the use of inhaled DAS181, a novel sialidase fusion protein, for treatment of PIV type 3 pneumonia in two allogeneic hematopoietic SCT recipients with respiratory failure. PMID:26941799

  6. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  7. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  8. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  9. Elevated Background in DAS-I ELISA for the Detection of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Mandarin Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy tissue extracts from mandarin orange varieties occasionally resulted in elevated absorbance which can exceed twice that of healthy sweet orange tissue extracts in DAS-I-ELISA detection with an expressed coat protein polyclonal antiserum of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). This problem occurs se...

  10. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  11. Parallel Proportion Fair Scheduling in DAS with Partial Channel State Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhanjun; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Dongming; You, Xiaohu

    A parallel multiplexing scheduling (PMS) scheme is proposed for distributed antenna systems (DAS), which greatly improves average system throughput due to multi-user diversity and multi-user multiplexing. However, PMS has poor fairness because of the use of the “best channel selection” criteria in the scheduler. Thus we present a parallel proportional fair scheduling (PPFS) scheme, which combines PMS with proportional fair scheduling (PFS) to achieve a tradeoff between average throughput and fairness. In PPFS, the “relative signal to noise ratio (SNR)” is employed as a metric to select the user instead of the “relative throughput” in the original PFS. And only partial channel state information (CSI) is fed back to the base station (BS) in PPFS. Moreover, there are multiple users selected to transmit simultaneously at each slot in PPFS, while only one user occupies all channel resources at each slot in PFS. Consequently, PPFS improves fairness performance of PMS greatly with a relatively small loss of average throughput compared to PFS.

  12. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  13. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  14. An initial test of an Intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensing (iDAS) in the ice in Lake Mendota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castongia, E.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2013-12-01

    A Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) was deployed to assess wave propagation detection in ice using fiber-optic cable. The acoustic field is sensed continuously along an optical fiber cable by interrogating it with pulses of light. The Sensor (iDAS manufactured by Silixa) samples the coupled medium as to the fiber, as waves travel through the medium, at several kilohertz along every meter of the cable. In March 2012 measurements were carried out along a triangular shaped array on the frozen surface of Lake Mendota. The purpose of the test was to assess the applicability of DAS to determine near surface geophysical properties from its unique way of measuring acoustic fields. We constructed an equilateral triangle array with a side length of 30 meters by freezing optical fiber cables into the sub surface layer of the ice which ranged in thickness between 15 to 20 cm. The fiber cables were frozen to a depth of about 10 cm to achieve uniform cable-ice coupling. The cable sensor was continuous and was looped about 4 times around to get multiple readings at each sampling location, and resulted in a total cable length of about 445 meters. Two different cable constructions were tested. The first type was of tight-buffered central stainless steel capillary tube and the second type of steel-reinforced central stainless steel loose tube. Seismic shots were generated using a sledge hammer and steel plate. Various shot sequences were taken along three different directions to assess the response and sensitivity of the system. A vertical geophone array was also deployed for a reference measurement every 5 meters along each of the sides of the triangle. Every 10 meters, the vertical geophones were complemented by two horizontal geophones. Analysis of the data showed that wavefronts of first arrivals were clearly visible from even the furthest shot location which enabled calculations of properties of the ice as the wavefronts traveled through it. Differences in sign in the recorded

  15. Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer for Calcific Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael A; Catanzariti, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Calcific insertional Achilles tendinopathy can result in significant pain and disability. Although some patients respond to nonoperative therapy, many patients are at risk for long-term morbidity and unpredictable clinical outcomes. There is no evidence-based data to support the timing of operative invention, choice of procedures, or whether equinus requires treatment. This article suggests the need for a classification system based on physical examination and imaging to help guide treatment. There is an obvious need for evidence-based studies evaluating outcomes and for properly conducted scientific research to establish appropriate treatment protocols. PMID:26590729

  16. Interlimb communication to the knee flexors during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Andrew J T; Geertsen, Svend S; Andersen, Jacob B; Sinkjær, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    A strong coordination between the two legs is important for maintaining a symmetric gait pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. In humans as well as animals, receptors arising from the quadriceps muscle group influence the activation of ipsilateral muscles. Moreover, strong contralateral spinal connections arising from quadriceps and hamstring afferents have been shown in animal models. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess if such connections also exist in humans and to elucidate on the possible pathways. Contralateral reflex responses were investigated in the right leg following unexpected unilateral knee joint rotations during locomotion in either the flexion or extension direction. Strong reflex responses in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) muscle with a mean onset latency of 76 ± 6 ms were evoked only from ipsilateral knee extension joint rotations in the late stance phase. To investigate the contribution of a transcortical pathway to this response, transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation were applied. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but not transcranial electrical stimulation, were facilitated when elicited at the time of the cBF response to a greater extent than the algebraic sum of the cBF reflex and motor evoked potentials elicited separately, indicating that a transcortical pathway probably contributes to this interlimb reflex. The cBF reflex response may therefore be integrated with other sensory input, allowing for responses that are more flexible. We hypothesize that the cBF reflex response may be a preparation of the contralateral leg for early load bearing, slowing the forward progression of the body to maintain dynamic equilibrium during walking. PMID:23918771

  17. Resonance and antiresonance of symmetric and asymmetric cantilevered piezoelectric flexors.

    PubMed

    Smits, J G; Choi, W S; Ballato, A

    1997-01-01

    The resonances of dynamically excited symmetric piezoelectric bimorphs have been determined from the equations of state. Under the effect of sinusoidal stimuli: a moment exerted at the tip M, a force exerted perpendicular to the plane of the bimorph also applied at the tip F, a uniformly applied pressure p, and an electrode voltage V, they respond with a sinusoidal tip rotation alpha, tip deflection delta, volume displacement nu, and electrode charge Q. All of the former are related to all of the latter through a dynamic admittance matrix B. The antiresonance frequency of the capacitance C have been found while also antiresonance in off-diagonal elements have been determined. The latter indicate that at these frequencies the bimorph does not work as an actuator or sensor in the particular domain of the off-diagonal. The mode shape at these antiresonance frequencies has been determined. The antiresonance of b(14) determines that for this frequency the tip has deflection but no rotation, while the antiresonance of b(24 ) indicates that the tip has rotation but no deflection. No antiresonance in the volume displacement is found, indicating that the bimorph is a pressure converter (microphone) at all frequencies. Micromachined piezoelectric heterogeneous bimorphs have been fabricated using the techniques of I.C. fabrication. Their deflections have been measured as a function of frequency and applied voltage, while these have been compared with the theoretical predictions. An anomalously large quadratic deflection has been found, superimposed on the linear piezoelectric behavior. The agreement between the linear part of the experimental deflection and the theory was quite good. PMID:18244123

  18. MiDas: automatic extraction of a common domain of discourse in sleep medicine for multi-center data integration.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI's Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry. PMID:22195180

  19. MiDas: Automatic Extraction of a Common Domain of Discourse in Sleep Medicine for Multi-center Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI’s Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry. PMID:22195180

  20. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative CTM predictions of Antarctic ozone recovery to GCM and DAS generated meteorological fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D; Bergmann, D

    2003-12-04

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using the output of a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 K and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Relative changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation due to a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is {approx}20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl{sub y} at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  1. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst. Sie ist als Entscheidungsgrundlage unabdingbar und gibt Antworten auf folgende Fragen: Was kostet unserem Unternehmen/unserer Organisation1 schlechte Datenqualität? Können wir uns das leisten?

  2. Efficacy of Soybean's Event DAS-81419-2 Expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ac to Manage Key Tropical Lepidopteran Pests Under Field Conditions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, L H; Castro, B A; Rossetto, J; Silva, O A B N; Moscardini, V F; Zobiole, L H S; Santos, A C; Valverde-Garcia, P; Babcock, J M; Rule, D M; Fernandes, O A

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) event DAS-81419-2 (Conkesta technology) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expresses Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins to provide protection from feeding by several lepidopteran pests. A total of 27 field experiments across nine locations were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in southern and central Brazil to characterize the efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybean infested with Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R2 and R4) crop developmental stages. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was compared to that of a non-Bt isogenic variety managed with or without applications of commercial foliar insecticides for lepidopteran control. DAS-81419-2 soybean consistently experienced defoliation levels of 0.5% or less (compared with 20.05-56.74% in the non-Bt, nonsprayed treatment) and larval survival of < 0.1% in all four species across the vegetative and reproductive plant stages evaluated. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was significantly higher than commercial foliar insecticides applied to the non-Bt variety. DAS-81419-2 soybeans containing two highly effective Bt proteins are expected to be a more robust IRM tool compared to single-trait Bt technologies. The consistent efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybeans across years, locations, and crop stages suggests that it will be a valuable product for management of hard-to-control key lepidopteran pests in South American soybean production. PMID:27401112

  3. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  4. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  5. Properties of Noise Cross Correlation Functions Obtained from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.; Clarke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The field test of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) conducted at Garner Valley, California on September 11-12, 2013 provided a continuous overnight record of ambient noise. The DAS array recorded ground motions every one meter of optical cable that was arranged approximately in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 160 m by 80 m. The long dimension of the array was adjacent to a state highway. Three hours of record were used to compute noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) in one-minute windows. The trace from each sensor channel was pre-processed by downsampling to 200 Hz, followed by normalization in the time-domain and bandpass filtering between 2 and 20 Hz (Bensen et al., 2007). The one-minute NCFs were then stacked using the time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking method (Schimmel & Gallart, 2007). The NCFs between channels were asymmetrical reflecting the direction of traffic noise. The group velocities were found using the frequency-time analysis method. The energy was concentrated between 5 and 15 Hz, which falls into the typical traffic noise frequency band. The resulting velocities were between 100 and 300 m/s for frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz, which are in the same range as described in the results for surface-wave dispersion obtained using an active source for the same site (Lancelle et al., 2015). The group velocity starts to decrease for frequencies greater than ~10 Hz, which was expected on the basis of a previous shear-wave velocity model (Steidl et al., 1996). Then, the phase velocity was calculated using the multichannel analysis of surface wave technique (MASW - Park et al., 1999) with 114 NCFs spaced one meter apart. The resulting dispersion curve between 5 and 15 Hz gave phase velocities that ranged from approximately 170 m/s at 15 Hz to 250 m/s at 5 Hz. These results are consistent with other results of active-source DAS and seismometer records obtained at the Garner Valley site (e.g., Stokoe et al. 2004). This analysis is

  6. Variações nos períodos de pulsação das estrelas PG 1159-035 e G117-B15-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. E. S.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    A medida que uma estrela evolui, sua trajetória no diagrama-HR passa pelas chamadas "faixas de instabilidade" podendo tornar-se uma variável. Ao longo da seqüência das anãs brancas existem três faixas de instabilidade, contando com a faixa das pré-anãs brancas (DOs). Estrelas nestas faixas podem apresentar pulsações não-radiais com períodos bastante estáveis, ente 100 e 1000 segundos. Os períodos de pulsação sofrem variações com a evolução da estrela, podendo aumentar ou diminuir. As DOs, por serem mais quentes evoluem mais rapidamente e isto faz com que as variações em seus períodos de pulsação sejam maiores (em magnitude) do que as variações que ocorrem nos períodos de pulsação de anãs brancas pulsantes mais frias como as DBs e as DAs. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados das medidas das variações de períodos de pulsação de duas estrelas: a PG 1159-035 e a G117-B15-A. Essas duas estrelas estão nos extremos da seqüência das anãs brancas: a PG 1159-035 é uma pré-anã branca (DO) e seus períodos de pulsação variam na ordem de 1 segundo a cada 3000 anos. Já a G117-B15-A é uma DA e seus períodos de pulsação variam cerca de 1 segundo a cada 30 milhões de anos.

  7. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  8. Compositional equivalence of DAS-444Ø6-6 (AAD-12 + 2mEPSPS + PAT) herbicide-tolerant soybean and nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Lepping, Miles D; Herman, Rod A; Potts, Brian L

    2013-11-20

    Soybeans from transgenic event DAS-444Ø6-6 are the first to express three proteins that provide tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicides. DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme from the soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans , which provides tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize ( Zea mays ), which provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate; and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes , which provides tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nutrient and antinutrient composition of forage and grain from DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean are similar to those of nontransgenic soybean. Forage was analyzed for proximates, fiber, and minerals; grain analyses further included vitamins, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and antinutrients and bioactive components (lectin, phytic acid, raffinose, stachyose, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones). Results indicate that DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. Findings are consistent with similar studies for other input traits, as endogenous plant metabolic pathways that influence composition are expected to be less affected by transgenesis compared with traditional plant-breeding methods. PMID:24191699

  9. Development and evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for rapid detection of Tembusu virus using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  10. Development and Evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for Rapid Detection of Tembusu Virus Using Monoclonal Antibodies against the Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  11. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Daniel K. W.; Lee, Edmond P. F.; Dyke, John M.

    2016-05-01

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (˜800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  12. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2016-05-14

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (∼800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed. PMID:27179480

  13. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  14. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  15. Free convection in a parallelogrammic porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model.

    PubMed

    Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Sheremet, Mikhail A; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The free convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluids in a parallelogrammic enclosure filled with porous media is numerically analyzed. The bottom and top of the enclosure are insulated while the sidewalls are subject to limited temperature difference. The Darcy flow and the Tiwari and Das' nanofluid models are considered. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations are numerically solved using a finite difference code. The results are reported for isotherms and streamlines as well as Nusselt number as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, porosity, types of the porous matrix, inclination angle, aspect ratio and different Rayleigh numbers. It is found that the presence of the nanoparticles inside the enclosure deteriorates the heat transfer rate, which is caused due to the increase of dynamic viscosity by the presence of nanoparticles. Therefore, in applications in which the nanofluids are used for their advantages, such as enhanced dielectric properties or antibacterial properties, more caution for the heat transfer design of the enclosure is necessary. PMID:25993540

  16. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  17. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  18. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  19. Latent factor structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: a confirmatory factor analysis in a Chinese setting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Das, J P

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children. Test-retest reliability was examined in a random subsample of 30 children at a five-week interval. The clinical discrimination of the D-N CAS was also examined by comparing children with and without ADHD (18 children in each group) and by comparing children with and without Chinese reading disabilities (18 children in each group). The current Chinese sample demonstrated a four-factor solution for cognitive performance among children with normal development: Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing and Successive processing (χ2(48)=91.90, p=.000; χ2/df=1.92, RMSEA=.050, GFI=.966, CFI=.954). Moreover, all subtests of the battery demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (r=.72-.90, p<.01) at a five-week interval among the subjects of the small subsample. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children on the Attention factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS, and children with Chinese reading disabilities performed significantly worse than normal children on the Simultaneous processing factor (p<.01), the Successive processing factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS. These findings suggested that the current four-factor structure of the D-N CAS was similar to the original factor structure of the test. The latent factor of the D-N CAS was fairly stable across the cultures. Moreover, the D-N CAS can distinguish between children with ADHD or Chinese reading disabilities and normally developed children. PMID:21571501

  20. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    Since 2007 the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC research team has implemented a geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Fogo volcano by means of applying different geochemical methods in a regularly basis (diffuse degassing surveys, fumarole gas sampling, etc.). This program was improved by setting up a geochemical permanent station (CHA01) to perform continuous measurements of soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities at Chã das Caldeiras, more specific in Portela village, since April 20, 2013. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion and/or advection mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn activities were performed by an alpha-spectrometer after pumping the soil gas from a thermally isolated PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground. Even though during the study period the recorded data did not show high 222Rn activity values, a change in the temporal evolution of soil gas 222Rn activity was observed. During the first six months, from April to October, 2013, recorded time series of 222Rn and 220Rn activities showed normal background levels with values of 80.5 and 55.2 Bqm-3, respectively. However, from October, 2013, to February, 2014, 222Rn time series showed an increase trend reaching peak values of 396 Bqm-3 and having an average activity of 134 Bqm-3 until the removal of the station on November 25, 2014 due to the potential danger of being destroyed by the lava flows. The observed increase in the soil gas 222Rn activity from October 2013 to February 2014 occurs almost at the same time of slight observed changes in the vertical displacements detected by the geodetic network installed at the Fogo Island by the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC/Nagoya University research team. Since seismic data are not available, we cannot conclude if the observed changes in soil

  1. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  2. The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) - a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, A T; Saunders, A M; Larsen, P; Albertsen, M; Stevenson, M; Nielsen, J L; Nielsen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called 'The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)'. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry out trouble-shooting. A core microbial community has been defined comprising the majority of microorganisms present in the plants. Time series have been established, providing an overview of temporal variations in the different plants. Interestingly, although most microorganisms were present in all plants, there seemed to be plant-specific factors that controlled the population composition thereby keeping it unique in each plant over time. Statistical analyses of FISH and operational data revealed some correlations, but less than expected. MiDas-DK (www.midasdk.dk) will continue over the next years and we hope the approach can inspire others to make similar projects in other parts of the world to get a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in wastewater engineering. PMID:23752384

  3. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  4. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of SÃO Miguel das MISSÕES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  5. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  6. Impact of climate change on snow distribution in Japan estimated using data from the remote weather stations (AMeDAS) and Spot VGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Tsuyama, I.; Tanaka, N.

    2010-12-01

    Change of the amount of snow by climate change is possibly remarkable in Japan, because air temperature is relatively high as snowy area in the world. And the change of the amount of snow cover highly depends on the supply form of precipitation (rain or snow) in winter corresponding to the change of the temperature in addition to the change of precipitation. And vegetation distribution of Japan is highly affected by snow conditions (snow duration and snow accumulation). To evaluate the change of snow condition in Japan climate change, daily change of SWE of 1km mesh was estimated using daily precipitation and air temperature of AMeDAS(Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) data. And using this model, changes of SWE and snow cover period were estimated in condition of global warming. Daily air temperature and precipitation on 1km mesh were estimated over all of Japan by interpolation of the AMeDAS data. AMeDAS is a system that observes the temperature and precipitation, etc. per hour automatically in about 1,300 places (about 17km spacing) in Japan. And daily change of SWE of each point was calculated using degree-day method and threshold temperature for the distinction between snow and rain using these data. We used precipitation and air temperature data of AMeDAS for 23 years from 1980 to 2002. Snow melt coefficient and elevation dependency of winter precipitation of each grid were optimized by snow duration estimated using satellite data (S3 index of Spot VGT) from 1990 to 2000 To estimate the change in the snow accumulation for the years from 2031 to 2051 and from 2081 to 2100, we used the climate change scenario of a high-resolution Regional Climate Model with a 20-km mesh size (RCM20) developed at the Meteorological Research Institute based on the Special Report for Emission Scenario (SRES)-A2. Estimated snow duration was evaluated in 10 points of mountainous snow measurement stations. Averaged error was about 4 days from 1980 to 1999. And estimated

  7. DasPy 1.0 - the Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework in combination with the Community Land Model 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, X.; He, G.; Kumbhar, P.; Montzka, C.; Kollet, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Rosolem, R.; Zhang, Y.; Vereecken, H.; Franssen, H.-J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data from multiple model state variables into a simulation model. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. We developed an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with the C++ and Fortran programming languages. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be introduced by perturbed atmospheric forcing data, and represented by perturbed soil and vegetation parameters and model initial conditions. The Community Land Model (CLM) was integrated as the model operator. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM), COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) and the Two-Source Formulation (TSF) were integrated as observation operators for the assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy has been evaluated in several assimilation studies of neutron count intensity (soil moisture), L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid Message Passing Interface and Open Multi-Processing techniques. All the input and output data flows are organized efficiently

  8. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions. PMID:10937388

  9. Development of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of four events of genetically modified maize: DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON863 and MON88017.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Mano, Junichi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous event-specific detection of four events of GM maize, i.e., DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON88017, and MON863. The single laboratory examination of analytical performance using simulated DNA mixtures containing GM DNA at various concentrations in non-GM DNA suggested that the limits of detection (LOD) of the multiplex PCR method were 0.16% for MON863, MIR604, and MON88017, and 0.078% for DAS-59122-7. We previously developed a nonaplex (9plex) PCR method for eight events of GM maize, i.e., Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, T25, and TC1507. Together with the nonaplex PCR method, the newly developed method enabled the detection and identification of eleven GM maize events that are frequently included in commercial GM seed used in Japan. In addition, this combinational analysis may be useful for the identification of combined event products of GM maize. PMID:20595789

  10. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    PubMed

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  11. Effect of thermal stratification on free convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Dinarvand, S.; Pop, I.

    2015-05-01

    Natural convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid in conditions of thermal stratification has been numerically studied. The mathematical model has been formulated in terms of the dimensionless stream function and temperature using the Darcy-Boussinesq approximation and Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model with new more realistic empirical correlations for the physical properties of the nanofluids. Formulated partial differential equations along with the corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by the finite difference method. Particular efforts have been focused on the effects of the Rayleigh number, thermal stratification parameter, porosity of the porous medium, solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles, and the solid matrix of the porous medium (glass balls and aluminum foam) on the local and average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms. It has been observed an essential effect of thermal stratification parameter on heat and fluid flow fields.

  12. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  13. Short-term monitoring of a gas seep field in the Katakolo bay (Western Greece) using Raman spectra DTS and DAS fibre-optic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Finfer, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Kordella, S.; Papatheodorou, G.; Geraga, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    2012-12-01

    A wide submarine seep of thermogenic gas in the Katakolo bay, Western Greece, was monitored passively using the intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS) and Ultima Raman spectra Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS), in order to study the thermal and noise signal of the bubble plumes released from the seafloor. Katakolo is one one of the most prolific thermogenic gas seepage zones in Europe and the biggest methane seep ever reported in Greece. Very detailed repetitive offshore gas surveys, including marine remote sensing (sub-bottom profiling, side scan sonar), underwater exploration by a towed instrumented system (MEDUSA), long-term monitoring benthic station (GMM), compositional and isotopic analyses, and flux measurements of gas, showed that: (a) gas seepage takes place over an extended area in the Katakolo harbour and along two main normal faults off the harbour; (b) at least 823 gas bubble ( 10-20 cm in diameter) plumes escaping over an area of 94,200 m2, at depths ranging from 5.5 to 16 m; (c) the gas consists mainly of methane and has H2S levels of hundreds to thousands ppmv, and shows significant amounts of other light hydrocarbons like ethane, propane, iso-butane and C6 alkanes, (d) offshore and onshore seeps release the same type of thermogenic gas; (e) due to the shallow depth, more than 90 % of CH4 released at the seabed enters the atmosphere, and (f) the gas seeps may produce severe geohazards for people, buildings and construction facilities due to the explosive and toxicological properties of methane and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. For the short-term monitoring, the deployment took place on a site located inside the harbour of Katakolo within a thermogenic gas seepage area where active faults are intersected. The iDAS system makes it possible to observe the acoustical signal along the entire length of an unmodified optical cable without introducing any form of point sensors such as Bragg gratings. When the bubble plumes are released by the

  14. Application of a Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) for Shallow Seismic Investigations of a Fractured Dolostone Aquifer in Guelph, Ontario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, J. D.; Parker, B. L.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock aquifers requires detailed characterization of the discrete features that control flow, as well as the properties of the rock matrix. This requires multiple, high-resolution, depth discrete datasets that provide different, but complementary information. Distributed fibre optic sensing is a relatively new technology used to continuously monitor properties along the entire length of an optical fibre. Technological advances over the past few years have brought the sensitivity and spatial resolution to the point where shallow (<200m) borehole applications are practicable. Recent studies using fibre optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS) have shown excellent application of DTS for characterizing groundwater flow in both continuously sealed and open boreholes. This presentation highlights the results of a field trial at the Bedrock Aquifer Research Station on the University of Guelph campus (Ontario, Canada) where a single fibre optic cable was interrogated by both a DTS (Ultima-DTS) and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS). DAS is a relatively recent development that allows an optical fibre to be used as a receiver for seismic imaging. These seismic images are produced by sending an optical pulse down the fibre and analyzing the effects of seismic waves on the propagating light. Numerous vertical seismic profiles were collected and the effects of different fibre optic cable structures and coupling techniques were examined. The seismic profiles will help delineate structural features and lithological contacts away from the borehole wall, and will assist in correlating other geophysical, hydraulic, or geological logs collected in the boreholes across the site. Preliminary results show promise for shallow seismic imaging and continued field trials will allow refinement of the technique.

  15. Evaluation of two evidence-based knowledge transfer interventions for physicians. A cluster randomized controlled factorial design trial: the CardioDAS Study.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Emmanuel; Kasparian, Christelle; Cucherat, Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Haugh, Margaret; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Nony, Patrice

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of two modes of evidence-based knowledge transfer ('active' and 'passive' modes) in terms of improvement of intention of prescription, knowledge, and real prescription in practice, we performed an open randomized controlled trial (CardioDAS) using a factorial design (two tested interventions: 'active' and 'passive' knowledge transfer) and a hierarchical structure (cluster of physicians for each department level). The participants were cardiologists working in French public hospitals. In the 'passive' transfer group, cardiologists received evidence-based knowledge material (available on Internet) every week for a duration of 1 year. In the 'active' transfer group, two knowledge brokers (EA, PN) visited the participating departments (every 2 months for 1 year, 2 h per visit). The primary outcome consisted in the adjusted absolute mean variation of score (difference between post- and pre-study session) of answers to simulated cases assessing the intention to prescribe. Secondary outcomes were the variation of answers to a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) assessing knowledge and of the conformity of real prescriptions to evidence-based reference assessing the behavioral change. Twenty-two French units (departments) of cardiology were randomized (72 participating cardiologists). In the 'active' transfer group, the primary outcome was more improved than that in the control (P = 0.031 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 5 points/100). The change in knowledge transfer (MCQ) was also significant (P = 0.039 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 6 points/100). However, no benefit was shown in terms of prescription conformity to evidence. For the 'passive' mode of knowledge transfer and for the three outcomes considered, no improvement was identified. CardioDAS findings confirm that 'active' knowledge transfer has some impact on participants' intent to prescribe and knowledge, but no effect on

  16. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment. PMID:25698666

  17. Tenosynovial Osteochondromatosis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus in a Division I Tennis Player.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Timothy W; Hogrefe, Christopher P; Hall, Mederic M; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-11-01

    Tenosynovial (extra-articular) chondromatosis (TC) is a condition characterized by the cartilaginous proliferation of synovial cells derived from the synovial lining of bursa and tendon sheaths. These lesions are often multinodular and most commonly present with complaints of swelling or pain. Treatment of TC primarily entails surgical excision. There are no known reports of TC in collegiate athletes. We present a case of TC in a Division I tennis player. PMID:25514138

  18. Mycobacterium arupense flexor tenosynovitis: case report and review of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 40 clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elena; Vasoo, Shawn; Simner, Patricia J; Rizzo, Marco; Mason, Erin L; Walker, Randall C; Deml, Sharon M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Wengenack, Nancy L; Sia, Irene G

    2014-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic tenosynovitis in the hand of a 58-year-old cattle farmer. Surgical biopsy specimens grew Mycobacterium arupense. The patient responded to surgery and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolate from this patient and 39 additional clinical isolates are presented. PMID:24789193

  19. Prior Heat Stress Effects Fatigue Recovery of the Elbow Flexor Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masaki; Shields, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Long-lasting alterations in hormones, neurotransmitters and stress proteins after hyperthermia may be responsible for the impairment in motor performance during muscle fatigue. Methods Subjects (n = 25) performed a maximal intermittent fatigue task of elbow flexion after sitting in either 73 or 26 deg C to examine the effects of prior heat stress on fatigue mechanisms. Results The heat stress increased the tympanic and rectal temperatures by 2.3 and 0.82 deg C, respectively, but there was full recovery prior to the fatigue task. While prior heat stress had no effects on fatigue-related changes in volitional torque, EMG activity, torque relaxation rate, MEP size and SP duration, prior heat stress acutely increased the pre-fatigue relaxation rate and chronically prevented long-duration fatigue (p < 0.05). Discussion These findings indicate that prior passive heat stress alone does not alter voluntary activation during fatigue, but prior heat stress and exercise produce longer-term protection against long-duration fatigue. PMID:21674526

  20. The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Karen; Gandevia, Simon C; Todd, Gabrielle; Petersen, Nicolas T; Taylor, Janet L

    2006-01-01

    Subjects quickly fatigue when they perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Much of the loss of force is from processes within muscle (peripheral fatigue) but some occurs because voluntary activation of the muscle declines (central fatigue). The role of central fatigue during submaximal contractions is not clear. This study investigated whether central fatigue developed during prolonged low-force voluntary contractions. Subjects (n = 9) held isometric elbow flexions of 15% MVC for 43 min. Voluntary activation was measured during brief MVCs every 3 min. During each MVC, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was followed by stimulation of either brachial plexus or the motor nerve of biceps brachii. After nerve stimulation, a resting twitch was also evoked before subjects resumed the 15% MVC. Perceived effort, elbow flexion torque and surface EMG from biceps, brachioradialis and triceps were recorded. TMS was also given during the sustained 15% MVC. During the sustained contraction, perceived effort rose from ∼2 to ∼8 (out of 10) while ongoing biceps EMG increased from 6.9 ± 2.1% to 20.0 ± 7.8% of initial maximum. Torque in the brief MVCs and the resting twitch fell to 58.6 ± 14.5 and 58.2 ± 13.2% of control values, respectively. EMG in the MVCs also fell to 62.2 ± 15.3% of initial maximum, and twitches evoked by nerve stimulation and TMS grew progressively. Voluntary activation calculated from these twitches fell from ∼98% to 71.9 ± 38.9 and 76.9 ± 18.3%, respectively. The silent period following TMS lengthened both in the brief MVCs (by ∼40 ms) and in the sustained target contraction (by ∼18 ms). After the end of the sustained contraction, the silent period recovered immediately, voluntary activation and voluntary EMG recovered over several minutes while MVC torque only returned to ∼85% baseline. The resting twitch showed no recovery. Thus, as well as fatigue in the muscle, the prolonged low-force contraction produced progressive central fatigue, and some of this impairment of the subjects' ability to drive the muscle maximally was due to suboptimal output from the motor cortex. Although caused by a low-force contraction, both the peripheral and central fatigue impaired the production of maximal voluntary force. While central fatigue can only be demonstrated during MVCs, it may have contributed to the disproportionate increase in perceived effort reported during the prolonged low-force contraction. PMID:16556656

  1. Fishing-injury-related flexor tenosynovitis of the hand: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Young-Afat, Danny A; Dayicioglu, Deniz; Oeltjen, John C; Garrison, Audene P

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections occurring after fishing and other marine-related activities may involve uncommon bacteria that are not susceptible to the conventional or empiric antibiotic therapy used to treat soft tissue infections. Therefore appropriate treatment is often delayed and could lead to severe hand damage. An illustrative case of fishing-related injury leading to complicated tenosynovitis and horseshoe abscess caused by Mycobacterium marinum and its treatment course is outlined. Laceration of the skin during boating is fairly common. Because of the rarity of some of the bacteria, referrals to the appropriate specialist including hand surgeons and infectious disease specialists should occur in early stages. M. marinum infections should always be considered in injuries related to seawater and fishing as this may lead to early appropriate treatment and prevent severe damage. PMID:23401823

  2. Alteration of Muscle Function After Electrical Stimulation Bout of Knee Extensors and Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Triffaux, Mylène; Demoulin, Christophe; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10) received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s) induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES). Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS), muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex) as well as 24h (d+1), 48h (d+2) and 120h (d+5) after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10) were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex); CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex)). The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. Key points A stimulation bout of quadriceps and hamstrings that reflects usual application of NMES, increases indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, muscle weakness and stiffness and serum CK activity). The occurrence of muscle damage could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appears higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. PMID:24150067

  3. Giant cell tumor of the flexor tendon of the wrist: US and MRI evaluation. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bassetti, E.; Candreva, R.; Santucci, E.

    2011-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a benign proliferative lesion of synovial origin that may affect the joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. We report the case of a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising from the carpal tunnel of the wrist in a 47-year-old woman. The patient underwent ultrasound (US) examination and subsequently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:23396659

  4. Thrombosed vascular malformation within the flexor tendon sheath of the index finger in the palm

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Nele, Gisella; La Rusca, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Vascular malformations are relatively infrequent among benign lesions of the hand. We report the case of an arteriovenous malformation in a 48-year-old white woman presenting a mass in her left hand without any symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and the lesion completely removed by surgery. PMID:27252973

  5. Knee Extensor and Flexor Torque Development with Concentric and Eccentric Isokinetic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.; Pierson, Lee M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Wootten, David F.; Selmon, Serah E.; Ramp, Warren K.; Herbert, William G.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed muscular torque and rate of torque development following concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training. Thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to either CON or ECC training groups. Training consisted of knee extension and flexion of the nondominant leg three times per week for 20 weeks (SD = 1). Eccentric training…

  6. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance <10%, are of 745, 777, 836 and 1022 Ma. The 777 ± 4 Ma age obtained for the Chácara das Pedras orthogneiss is the first Early Cryogenian magmatic age determined for granitoids in the Porto Alegre region, although

  7. Water Quality-Quantity Evaluation of the Ribeirão das Posses Watershed, Brazil, applying the AgES-W model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. R.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Santos, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Brazil is under a period of drought that has impacted the conservation of watersheds and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. In this context agro-hydrological modeling tools can generate information of water response over time in response to climate and landuse changes. A 12-km2 watershed which has suffered from anthropogenic activities is the Ribeirão das Posses watershed that is located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais State and is a headwater catchment of the Jaguari river, one of the contributing rivers of the Cantareira Reservoir Complex in the state of São Paulo. This watershed had its landscape changed over the last century from native forests to more homogeneous vegetation for pastures and small crops and some forest plantations fragments with eucalyptus. Currently, the Conservative Waters project has planted some small areas with vegetation of native species, especially where there are springs and at the top of the hills, in order to recover degraded areas and improve the hydrogeochemistry in this study basin. In this context, the AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model is presented to simulate the water movement and storage in agricultural watersheds with different spatial resolutions of land areas or hydrological responses units. The objectives are to evaluate the quality and quantity of water in Ribeirão das Posses Basin using measured data, then simulate these responses in space and time to test the AgES-W model. The period chosen for research was from 2011 to 2015, because the water quality data were collected during this period. The answers that we hope to find out are: How well does the AgES-W model simulate this Brazilian watershed in the tropics? What are the future prospects of the quality and quantity of water in this basin? The results will help to guide hydrological simulations in similar tropical environments in Brazil in this and other agricultural watersheds with AgES-W.

  8. Using a multi-user desktop-based virtual reality system to recreate the São Miguel das Missões ruins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Selan R; Fraga, Letícia S

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a project initiated back in 1999, in which Virtual Reality is applied in order to create a virtual community over the Internet. The desktop-based multi-user virtual reality system recreates a three-dimensional environment based on photogrammetric maps from the São Miguel das Missões church ruins. The ruins correspond to one of the Jesuit Mission (settlement) which was active in the south of Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries. It has a great importance to the local region in terms of cultural, historic, and tourist aspects. It has also been inscribed in the UNESCO's world heritage list since 1983. This electronic mock-up allows several interactive operations such as community chats, electronic message exchanging, message boards, walking-through, discussion groups, and embedding of other media such as movies, sound, and html pages. The only requirement necessary to access the community is a web browser powered with any Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) plug-in freely available over the Internet. It is expected that such a solution improves the conservation and dissemination of the Brazilian historic patrimony, congregating history, art, and tourist information in one place on the Internet. PMID:12448784

  9. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages. PMID:27276381

  10. Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy - a single centre, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction With the development of increasing numbers of potential therapeutic agents in inflammatory disease comes the need for effective biomarkers to help screen for drug efficacy and optimal dosing regimens early in the clinical trial process. This need has been recognized by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, which has established guidelines for biomarker validation. To seek a candidate synovial biomarker of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we determined whether changes in immunohistochemical markers of synovial inflammation correlate with changes in disease activity scores assessing 28 joints (ΔDAS28) or magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores (ΔMRI) in patients with PsA treated with a biologic agent. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with PsA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsies and MRI scans of an inflamed knee joint at baseline and 12 weeks after starting treatment with either anakinra (first 10 patients) or etanercept (subsequent 15 patients) in two sequential studies of identical design. DAS28 scores were measured at both time points. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD68 and Factor VIII (FVIII) was performed on synovial samples and scored by digital image analysis (DIA). MRI scans performed at baseline and at 12 weeks were scored for synovitis semi-quantitatively. The ΔDAS28 of the European League Against Rheumatism good response definition (>1.2) was chosen to divide patients into responder and non-responder groups. Differences between groups (Mann Whitney U test) and correlations between ΔDAS28 with change in immunohistochemical and MRI synovitis scores (Spearman's rho test) were calculated. Results Paired synovial samples and MRI scans were available for 21 patients (8 anakinra, 13 etanercept) and 23 patients (8 anakinra, 15 etanercept) respectively. Change in CD3 (ΔCD3) and CD68 expression in the synovial sublining layer (ΔCD68sl) was significantly greater in the disease

  11. Guidelines on Management of Human Infection with the Novel Virus Influenza A (H1N1) – A Report from the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Schout, Denise; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; de Camargo Teixeira, Jose Manoel; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; de Arruda Martins, Milton; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July, 2009. Since then, 9.249 cases were confirmed in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. The Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. The purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence concerning diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. In addition, we propose guidelines for the management of this pandemic emphasizing Hospital das Clínicas “bundles” for the control of the pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1). PMID:19841710

  12. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Ser

  13. Using the DAS-ELISA Test to Establish an Effective Distance Between Bait Stations for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Natural Areas.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinbo; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Gerard, Patrick; Scott, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive pest that has spread throughout the United States and is a problem in natural and managed habitats in South Carolina. Foraging patterns and the effectiveness of liquid baits for control of this pest have been studied in urban areas. However, similar studies have not been conducted in natural areas such as parks, picnic grounds, or campsites. L. humile populations can be large and widespread, making them a major nuisance pest for visitors to these natural areas. The primary objective of this study was to determine an effective distance between bait stations for control of L. humile in a natural area. A double antibody-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) procedure was used to detect individual ants that consumed rabbit immunoglobin (IgG) protein for marking and tracking. In both lab and field conditions, there was a significant difference in the detection of IgG in ants fed protein marker mixed with sugar water compared with ants only fed sugar water. Additional field studies revealed that an individual ant could retain detectable levels of protein marker for 3 d and that an ant feeding on IgG containing bait could be detected over 15 m from the original bait source. Overall, we found that using liquid ant baits, with a placement of 20 m between stations, was effective in reducing L. humile numbers between April to October, 2012 in a natural park area of Lake Greenwood State Park, SC. PMID:26470341

  14. Thirteen week feeding study with transgenic maize grain containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Susan A; Lamb, Ian; Schmidt, Jean; Deege, Lora; Morrisey, Michael J; Harper, Marc; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Sanders, Craig; Locke, Mary; Mattsson, Joel L; Fuentes, Angel; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Maize line 1507, containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (1507), is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sbsp. aizawai and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes throughout the plant including in the grain expression of the Cry1F protein confers in planta resistance to the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner: Crambidae) and other lepidopteran pests. Expression of the PAT protein confers tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current study evaluated the nutritional performance of rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain in a subchronic rodent feeding study. The grains in this study, 1507, its near-isogenic control (33P66), and a non-GM commercial hybrid (33J56) contained similar amounts of proximates, amino acids, minerals, anti-nutrients, and secondary metabolites. The subchronic feeding study compared standard toxicology response variables in rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain with those in rats fed diets containing non-GM maize grains. All diets were prepared according to the specifications of PMI Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet 5002 (PMI) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to Sprague-Dawley rats for approximately 90 days. In-life response variables included indicators of dietary performance and weekly evaluations for clinical signs of toxicity. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in the nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between any pair of treatment groups. These results demonstrate that 1507 maize grain is as safe and as nutritious as non-GM maize grain. PMID:17097206

  15. Das singuläre Modell der über der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrikas lokalisierten Elektronenzustände

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeyev, O. F.; Lysov, B. A.; Pavlova, O. S.; Ternov, I. M.

    Wir schlagen ein neues Modell zur Beschreibung der in der Nähe der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrika lokalisierten Elektronenzustände vor. Dabei wird die Nichteindeutigkeit der selbstadjungierten Erweiterung des Hamilton-Operators der elektrostatischen Bildkräfte an der flachen Grenze Dielektrikum-Vakuum benutzt. Im Unterschied zum bekannten Modell von Grimes enthält das von uns vorgeschlagene Modell nur einen einzigen phänomenologischen Parameter, den Vermischungswinkel. Es zeigt sich, daß die entsprechende Wahl des Vermischungswinkels es erlaubt, die spektroskopischen Daten von elektrischen Dipolübergängen zwischen den Einteilchen-Elektronenzuständen, die über der Oberfläche flüssigen 4He und 3He sowie festen Wasserstoffe lokalisiert sind, vollständig zu beschreiben.Translated AbstractA Singular Model of Electronic States, Localized over the Surface of Cryogenized DielectricA new model for the description of localized electronic states near the surface of a cryogenized dielectric is proposed. In this model an ambiguity of the self-adjoined extention of the Hamiltonian for the problem of the motion of an electron in the field of the electrostatic image at flat boundary dielectric-vacuum is used. The proposed model, in contrast with the well known model of Grimes, contains as only phenomenological parameter the mixing angle. It is shown that the proper choise of the mixing angle makes it possible to completely account for the spectroscopic data on electric dipole transitions between singleparticle electronic states localized over the surfaces of 4He, 3He and also solid hydrogen.

  16. Das mechatronische Fahrwerk der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, Peter

    Technologiesprünge gab es immer wieder in der Geschichte der Automobiltechnologie, so auch in der Kraftfahrzeugbremse, die seit ihren Anfängen eine stete Weiterentwicklung erfahren hat (Bild 40-1). So erlangten schon mechanische Bremsen durchaus ein hohes Niveau, ehe die Hydraulik Mitte der zwanziger Jahre für Komfort und Sicherheit vollkommen neue Perspektiven eröffnete, welche durch Einführung der Hilfskraft(servo)bremsanlagen Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts noch erweitert wurden. Den wichtigsten Technologiesprung, den der Kunde als Fortschritt erkennt und dementsprechend honoriert, ermöglichte die Elektronik Mitte der siebziger Jahre. ABS, ASR, EBV und nicht zuletzt ESC wären ohne sie nicht vorstellbar.

  17. Das sprachliche Register (Speech Registers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess-Luttich, Ernest W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The linguistic behavior of a given individual varies; he will on different occasions speak (or write) differently according to what may be roughly described as different social situations: he will use a number of different registers. The application of such registers both in the field of text analysis and in the preparation of teaching materials…

  18. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  19. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  20. Epidemiology of Human Infection with the Novel Virus Influenza A (H1H1) in the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil – June–September 2009

    PubMed Central

    Schout, Denise; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; de Camargo Teixeira, Jose Manoel; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; de Arruda Martins, Milton; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July 16, 2009. Since then, 46,810 cases of acute respiratory syndrome have been reported in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. Through September 16, we have confirmed 9,249 cases of novel influenza A H1N1in Brazil, including 699 deaths. The mortality rate observed in Brazil is 0.47/100,000 inhabitants and varies according to region. In this period, São Paulo registered 3733 cases (40.3% of the total) of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection and 327 deaths, reflecting a mortality rate of 0.79/100,000 inhabitants. The Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC) is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. During the winter of 2009, 472 patients in this hospital were diagnosed with H1N1 infection; of these, 210 were admitted, and 16 died. To control this pandemic and to provide adequate care for these patients, the Hospital das Clínicas implemented “bundles” including prevention strategies, an epidemiologic surveillance service, availability of fast diagnosis, antiviral treatment and training of staff. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the epidemiologic features of novel human influenza A (H1N1) infection in the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo during the winter period of the 2009 pandemic. PMID:19841711

  1. Appearance of reciprocal facilitation of ankle extensors from ankle flexors in patients with stroke or spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Crone, C; Johnsen, L L; Biering-Sørensen, F; Nielsen, J B

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological role of reciprocal facilitation between antagonistic motoneuron pools in spasticity. The soleus H-reflex was conditioned by prior stimulation of the peroneal nerve in 15 healthy subjects, six hemiplegic patients and 11 spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. The hemiplegic patients were tested from soon after the onset of hemiplegia and up to 2 years later. Whereas stimulation of the peroneal nerve produced short-latency inhibition of the soleus H-reflex in healthy subjects, it produced facilitation in spastic SCI and hemiplegic patients. This facilitation was demonstrated to have a low threshold compatible with activation of group I afferents and was most likely mediated by an oligosynaptic (reciprocal) excitatory pathway. The facilitation appeared in parallel with the development of hyperactive Achilles tendon reflexes, which was the only clinical finding that could be correlated positively with the facilitation. It is suggested that the appearance of reciprocal excitation plays a role in the pathophysiology of spasticity. PMID:12538415

  2. Long-term practice induced plasticity in the primary motor cortex innervating the ankle flexor in football juggling experts.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masato; Kubota, Shinji; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Fujimoto, Shusaku; Funase, Kozo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of M1 innervating the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) induced by the long-term practice of football juggling using a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique. Ten football juggling experts and ten novices participated in this study. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) and the H-reflex were recorded from the right TA during isometric dorsiflexion at 10% of maximum voluntary contraction. The MEP input-output curve of the experts was steeper than that of the novices, and reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition and long-interval intracortical inhibition were observed in the experts. In contrast, the ratio of Hmax to Mmax did not differ between the groups. Our results show that football juggling experts displayed enhanced excitability in the M1 innervating the TA, which was induced by the long-term practice of the ankle movements required to perform football juggling well. PMID:24457217

  3. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    PubMed

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support phase of the pacing gait. Compared with other species, llama skeletal muscles are well suited for greater force generation combined with higher fatigue resistance during exercise. These characteristics are interpreted as being of high adaptive value, given the llama's habitat and its use as a pack animal. PMID:22625659

  4. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama

    PubMed Central

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-01-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama’s characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major – TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis – DS and pars acromialis – DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support phase of the pacing gait. Compared with other species, llama skeletal muscles are well suited for greater force generation combined with higher fatigue resistance during exercise. These characteristics are interpreted as being of high adaptive value, given the llama’s habitat and its use as a pack animal. PMID:22625659

  5. A Comparison of Total and Intrinsic Muscle Stiffness Among Flexors and Extensors of the Ankle, Knee and Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined 3 methods that assessed muscle stiffness. Muscle stiffness has been quantified by tissue reactive force (transverse stiffness), vibration, and force (or torque) over displacement. Muscle stiffness also has two components: reflex (due to muscle sensor activity) and intrinsic (tonic firing of motor units, elastic nature of actin and myosin cross bridges, and connective tissue). This study compared three methods of measuring muscle stiffness of agonist-antagonist muscle pairs of the ankle, knee and elbow.

  6. Development of 2D Ultrasound Tracking Software and Hardware to Monitor Multiple Flexor Tendon Displacement for Applications Toward Hand Prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, Kelly Joanne

    Nowadays, almost 900 million people have no access to clean drinking water [1]. This problem plagues mostly the third world countries, and Haiti is one of them. The lack of access to safe drinking water in the third world countries is one of the biggest problems facing these populations. 32 million people are without water access in Latin America and Caribbean [2]. 3.3 million people are situated in Haiti [3]. The most serious consequence of the failure of providing clean water is widespread water-related disease and death. This paper presents the design of the application of river and underground water purification system using green technology, powered by solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, as well as the design of water pumping systems powered also by solar power using PV panels. Basically, all the third world countries which have drinking water crisis also have electricity problems, and Haiti is one of them. 12.5% of Haiti population has access to electricity "officially" [4]. Thus, purifying water using the solar energy that is widely available in Haiti, is the best way to go to provide the population with potable water. This thesis presents a complete study including health effects of unsafe drinking water, and environmental effects of powering the purification system by using conventional power plant as opposed to green source of energy, design of the systems including pumping systems and the PV that power the purification machine and the pumps, financial study for the whole project, and market analysis for Haiti.

  7. Vernetztes Lernen: Eine Unterrichtseinheit mit Heinrich von Kleists Erzahlung "Das Erdbeben in Chili" und Crista Wolfs Roman "Kein Ort. Nirgends" (Networked Learning: An Instructional Unit with Heinrich von Kleist's Story "The Earthquake in Chile" and Christa Wolf's Novel "No Place, No Where").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidecker, Martina Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Presents an instructional model, using Kleist's story "Das Erdbeben in Chili" and Christa Wolf's novel Kei Ort. Nirgends" as a basis. The model clearly distinguishes itself from quantitative models and mediates solid literary knowledge through an inductive approach. Learning takes place in a multidimensional space that makes possible multiple…

  8. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured. PMID:26849891

  9. Cometa Hyakutake (C/1996 B2): análise do gás e características físicas das partículas de poeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    A completa caracterização e compreensão do núcleo de um cometa novo é de fundamental importância para a elucidação dos processos físicos e químicos atuantes na época da formação do Sistema Solar. O Cometa Hyakutake, conjuntamente com o Cometa Hale-Bopp representam os objetos mais brilhantes que visitaram o Sistema Solar Interno nos últimos 20 anos. Neste Trabalho, nós aplicamos o Método Semi-Empírico das Magnitudes Visuais (MSEMV) à aproximadamente 4000 dados observacionais que correlacionam a magnitude visual absoluta com a distância heliocêntrica para o Cometa Hyakutake nas fases pré- e pós-periélicas. Como produto da aplicação desse método, conseguimos caracterizar dimensionalmente seu núcleo e área ativa efetiva. As taxas de produção dos radicais CN, C2 e C3, obtidos a partir de dados disponíveis na literatura, revelam que, além de muito brilhante, o Hyakutake é um cometa "normal" no sentido de Cochran (1986). Desse modo, deduzimos as taxas de perdas de água (em moléculas/s) a partir da análise de sua magnitude visual aparente, e as convertemos em taxas de perdas de gás (em g/s), despreendido pelo nucleo cometário. Com o auxílio do modelo fotométrico clássico da poeira, realizamos uma análise sistemática e uniforme dessa componente cometária, a partir dos fluxos observacionais no contínuo, para os comprimentos de onda 365,0 e 484,5 nm, assumindo que esses fluxos são o resultado da radiação solar espalhada por grãos de partículas micrométricos presentes na coma. Com isso, pudemos obter as taxas de produção (em g/s), cores (relativas à cor neutra solar), e as dimensões efetivas médias das partículas de poeira, bem como as razões poeira-gás.

  10. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. PMID:27289151

  11. Composition of grain and forage from insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn, MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax), is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lundry, Denise R; Burns, J Austin; Nemeth, Margaret A; Riordan, Susan G

    2013-02-27

    Monsanto Company and Dow AgroSciences LLC have developed the combined-trait corn product MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax, a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC). The combination of four biotechnology-derived events into a single corn product (stacking) through conventional breeding provides broad protection against lepidopteran and corn rootworm insect pests as well as tolerance to the glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium herbicide families. The purpose of the work described here was to assess whether the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of the combined-trait product are comparable to those in conventional corn. Compositional analyses were conducted on grain and forage from SmartStax, a near-isogenic conventional corn hybrid (XE6001), and 14 conventional reference hybrids, grown at multiple locations across the United States. No statistically significant differences between SmartStax and conventional corn were observed for the 8 components analyzed in forage and for 46 of the 52 components analyzed in grain. The six significant differences observed in grain components (p < 0.05) were assessed in context of the natural variability for that component. These results demonstrate that the stacked product, SmartStax, produced through conventional breeding of four single-event products containing eight proteins, is compositionally equivalent to conventional corn, as previously demonstrated for the single-event products. PMID:23311749

  12. Internationale Schulreformtendenzen und das Problem der Lehrerausbildung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupisiewicz, Czeslaw

    1982-09-01

    The main theme of this article is that the socio-economic and educational changes which have occurred in industrialized countries in the past 20 to 25 years necessitate a thorough reform of the present system of teacher education. The first group of such changes includes the information explosion, greater occupational mobility, the growing significance and increasing role of the sciences, the development of the mass media, higher educational aspirations, technical development, the acceleration of the psycho-physical development of children and youth, and the injurious effects of the uncontrolled development of the constantly changing civilisation (deterioration of the human environment, diseases caused by the effects of civilisation, etc.). In the face of these changes, teachers must not remain indifferent and teacher education systems have to take them into account. Within the second group of changes influencing the content and methods of teacher education, the most important is the generalisation of education at the pre-school, primary and secondary school levels and also at the university level. As a result, education in many types of school and at ever higher levels has lost the elitist character it still had, not so long ago, and has become a mass activity. This has considerably affected teachers' work and, necessarily, also the work of the teacher education systems. In present-day schools it is necessary to emphasize not only the transmission of knowledge of the `know that' type, as was done in the past, but also problem-solving, independent individual and group work, etc., which will enable children and young people to acquire `know-how' and `know-why'. This must also be reflected in teacher education. In order to adapt the teacher education systems to the requirements of the changing society, a reform of the goals, contents and methods of the system will have to be prepared and implemented as a prerequisite and starting point for a global reform of the entire education system.

  13. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  14. Physikgeschichte Das Rätsel bleibt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Die jüngst erfolgte Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten aus dem Privatarchiv der Familie Bohr [1] über den geheimnisumwitterten Besuch von Werner Heisenberg in Kopenhagen im September 1941 hat in den deutschen Medien große Resonanz gefunden [2]. Tatsächlich verraten uns die jetzt veröffentlichten Dokumente sehr viel mehr über die Zeit ihres Entstehens als über den Besuch selbst.

  15. Das Gluck des Lehrers (The Teacher's Happiness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the ethics of teaching concerns the relationship between the teaching and the good life. Uses Bernard Williams' ethics/morality distinction. Connects the question of "why teach?" with the question "how should I live?" Asks why the practice of teaching is worth it in terms of self growth and monetary gains. (CAJ)

  16. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the

  17. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  18. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  19. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the expression of the flexor synergy in the paretic arm in chronic stroke is dependent on shoulder abduction loading.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Drogos, Justin; Veltink, Fleur; Anderson, Caitlyn; Concha Urday Zaa, Janny; Hanson, Laura Imming; Dewald, Julius P A

    2015-01-01

    Reaching ability of the paretic upper extremity in individuals with stroke decreases with increased shoulder abduction (SABD) loads. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been implemented to improve movement ability following stroke. However, results from previous studies vary, perhaps due to the influence of impairment level and the type of motor tasks that were used to study the effects of tDCS. This study specifically examines the impact of SABD loading on the effects of tDCS in 9 individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke. In 3 different sessions, participants repeated a reaching assessment with various SABD loads (supported on a haptic table, 25%, and 50% of maximum voluntary SABD torque) in random order, pre and post one of the following 15-min tDCS protocols: anodal stimulation of lesioned M1, cathodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1, or anodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1. Sham stimulation was also conducted preceding one of the tDCS sessions. The averaged maximum reaching distance over valid trials was calculated for each condition. We observed significant interactions between SABD load, tDCS protocol and time (i.e., pre or post-tDCS). Post hoc test showed that anodal stimulation of the lesioned M1 caused a clear trend (p = 0.058) of increasing the reaching ability at a medium level of SABD loading (25%), but not for higher loads (50%). This suggests that anodal stimulation increases residual corticospinal tract activity, which successfully increases reaching ability at moderate loads; however, is insufficient to make significant changes at higher SABD loads. We also found that cathodal stimulation of the non-lesioned M1 significantly (p = 0.018) decreased the reaching distance at a high level of SABD loading (50%). This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of tDCS on the reaching ability is dependent on SABD loads in individuals with moderate to severe stroke. PMID:26029081

  20. Effects of Lumbosacral Manipulation on Isokinetic Strength of the Knee Extensors and Flexors in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Grant D.; Nitz, Arthur J.; Abel, Mark G.; Symons, T. Brock; Shapiro, Robert; Black, W. Scott; Yates, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manual manipulations targeting the lumbar spine and/or sacroiliac joint on concentric knee extension and flexion forces. Torque production was measured during isometric and isokinetic contractions. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind crossover design with 21 asymptomatic, college-aged subjects who had never received spinal manipulation. During 2 separate sessions, subjects’ peak torques were recorded while performing maximal voluntary contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric knee extension and flexion were recorded at 60° of knee flexion, in addition to isokinetic measurements obtained at 60°/s and 180°/s. Baseline measurements were acquired before either treatment form of lumbosacral manipulation or sham manipulation, followed by identical peak torque measurements within 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results A statistically significant difference did not occur between the effects of lumbosacral manipulation or the sham manipulation in the percentage changes of knee extension and flexion peak torques at 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Similar, nonsignificant results were observed in the overall percentage changes of isometric contractions (spinal manipulation 4.0 ± 9.5 vs sham 1.2 ± 6.3, P = .067), isokinetic contractions at 60°/s (spinal manipulation − 4.0 ± 14.2 vs sham − 0.3 ± 8.2, P = .34), and isokinetic contractions at 180°/s (spinal manipulation − 1.4 ± 13.9 vs sham − 5.5 ± 20.0, P = .18). Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that spinal manipulation does not yield an immediate strength-enhancing effect about the knee in healthy, college-aged subjects when measured with isokinetic dynamometry. PMID:26793035

  1. Fractal feature of sEMG from Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle correlated with levels of contraction during low-level finger flexions.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Naik, Ganesh R

    2010-01-01

    This research paper reports an experimental study on identification of the changes in fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) with the changes in the force levels during low-level finger flexions. In the previous study, the authors have identified a novel fractal feature, Maximum fractal length (MFL) as a measure of strength of low-level contractions and has used this feature to identify various wrist and finger movements. This study has tested the relationship between the MFL and force of contraction. The results suggest that changes in MFL is correlated with the changes in contraction levels (20%, 50% and 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) during low-level muscle activation such as finger flexions. From the statistical analysis and by visualisation using box-plot, it is observed that MFL (p ≈ 0.001) is a more correlated to force of contraction compared to RMS (p≈0.05), even when the muscle contraction is less than 50% MVC during low-level finger flexions. This work has established that this fractal feature will be useful in providing information about changes in levels of force during low-level finger movements for prosthetic control or human computer interface. PMID:21096230

  2. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a

  3. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  4. Erfolgsfaktoren von Lehrstellenmarketing in der dualen berufsbildung: das beispiel Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Fritz

    2006-09-01

    SUCCESS FACTORS OF APPRENTICESHIP MARKETING IN A SYSTEM OF DUAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING: THE CASE OF SWITZERLAND - The dual system of vocational training, utilizing both company training and vocational school, is generally acknowledged to be a successful model, but a decreasing number of trainee posts in Switzerland poses a crisis for the approach. One strategy for overcoming the problem involves offering incentives for companies to create new trainee posts. The present study explores the necessary conditions for successfully influencing the number of trainee posts through apprenticeship marketing. A comparision of qualitative case studies of six marketing projects demonstrates that while context, in the sense of basic structural conditions and political sensibility for the problematic, plays a role in the success of a project, what is central is above all the form of the trainee-post marketing project itself. This has to do with the behaviour of the actors involved as well as the choice of the mode of governance and project organization. The latter has to do with making available requisite technical and personal resources, coordination on the part of the project direction, and giving those responsible the necessary room to act in implementing the project.

  5. Licht und Entwicklung — das Phytochromsystem der Pflanzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, H.

    1981-04-01

    In photosynthetic green plants light is the decisive environmental factor. The terrestrial green plant is organized almost ideally in a way so as to absorb and process light quanta. The genetic adaptation to the factor, light, has taken place in the course of the genetic evolution (phylogeny) of terrestrial plants. However, light also affects the individual development (ontogeny) profoundly insofar as the genes which control normal development of a higher plant can only express themselves fully in the presence of light. Thus, the development of a higher plant (“photomorphogenesis”) is characterized by the obligatory interaction between genes and environment (light). The mechanisms of “transduction of light signals”, i.e. the biophysical and molecular events during photomorphogenesis, are described in the present article.

  6. Excising das All: Evolving Maxwell waves beyond Scri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanMeter, James R.; Fiske, David R.; Misner, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    We study the numerical propagation of waves through future null infinity in a conformally compactified spacetime. We introduce an artificial cosmological constant, which allows us some control over the causal structure near null infinity. We exploit this freedom to ensure that all light cones are tilted outward in a region near null infinity, which allows us to impose excision-style boundary conditions in our finite difference code. In this preliminary study we consider electromagnetic waves propagating in a static, conformally compactified spacetime.

  7. Vernetztes regionales Engagement - Das Beispiel Heilbronn-Franken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarsana, Laura; Glückler, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    At a regional scale, a variety of actors from all three sectors of private, public and civil society act together in a philanthropic field. This article deals with the question of how cooperation in charitable action unfolds in this field. Using the example of the region of Heilbronn-Franconia, the empirical case unpacks the dominance of local and regional forms of philanthropy and reconstructs two successful examples of intersectoral collaboration. However, the analysis also demonstrates the limits of the external designability that are due to the individuality of charitable actors, their diverse objectives and the contextuality of the regional environment. The realization of synergies through regional governance therefore succeeds only by respecting the dedication and self-determination of philanthropic commitment and by creating legitimate and sensitive structures of moderation and facilitation.

  8. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  9. Out of Flexland: The Third and Last of Mr. Flexman's Twisty Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir

    1992-01-01

    Discusses flexible polyhedrons, called flexors, that can be bent so that the faces stay rigid while the angles between them seem to change. Presents models representing flexors and directions on how examples can be constructed. (MDH)

  10. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  11. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    , al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  12. Kindern das Wort Geben ein interkulturell-kreativer Arbeitsansatz, aufgezeigt an der Arbeit mit tibetischen Migrantenkindern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabkin, Gabriele

    2001-03-01

    Promotion of creativity in the cause of peace and international understanding is a fundamental part of the UNESCO programme to build a culture of peace. A central aspect of this undertaking consists in encouraging children to express themselves freely on this subject in writing and art. An approach has been developed to stimulate children's creativity and to create a link between creative expression and education for intercultural understanding. This article is divided into two parts. The first explains the pedagogical and psychological concepts behind this approach. The second describes a project in which these concepts were applied. It focuses on a minority dispersed over many parts of the world, namely children of Tibetan families. The description is accompanied by commentaries of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, arising from a personal audience granted to the author in 1999.

  13. NSP-North Dakota delays $2 million substation project by using DAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.

    1994-12-31

    This case study will discuss a substation capacity problem recently faced by Northern States Power (NSP) of Grand Forks, ND, and how the problem was resolved. In the Late 1980`s, it became apparent that some sort of substation capacity relief would be required for the electric distribution system of Grand Forks. After studying alternatives, the chosen solution was to implement a distribution automation system allowing for load transfer between substations. In the following, we will discuss: (1) the problem faced by NSP; (2) the implementation of the DA system; (3) advantages and disadvantages of the chosen solution; (4) the results of the system; (5) future expansion plans; and (6) some practical advice.

  14. Das Spiel mit dem Rollenspiel (The Game with Role-Playing)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Maintains that role-play should not become the pre-eminent method in foreign language teaching, since it does not reach the broad goals of learning, such as the systematic acquisition of language material, achievement measuring, or the expression of personal views of many participants in adult education (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  15. Das AL-Konzept: Ein Konzept für Bearbeitungszentren zur Großserienfertigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllner, Ralf

    In der Großserienfertigung hält der Trend weg von Transferstraßen und Rundtaktmaschinen nun schon mehrere Jahre ungebrochen an. Vielfach wurden diese klassischen Einrichtungen zur Produktion hoher Stückzahlen inzwischen durch Fertigungsanlagen, wie z.B. Fertigungsmodule oder mehrspindlige Bearbeitungszentren ersetzt. Die Motivation hierzu ist vielschichtig. Eine ständig zunehmende Variantenanzahl der zu fertigenden Teile neben einem oft sehr unterschiedlichen Stückzahlbedarf begründet den Wunsch nach kleineren flexiblen Einheiten für die Fertigung. Um während der Produktionsphase eines Bauteils auf Stückzahlschwankungen reagieren zu können wird zudem eine bessere Skalierbarkeit gefordert, als es Transferstraßen und Rundtaktmaschinen ermöglichen.

  16. Das Ende der Nacht [The End of the Night (2nd enlarged ed.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Hölker, Franz; Uhlmann, Thomas; Freyhoff, Anja

    2013-09-01

    We provide provide an overview of the history of lighting and of the problems arising from artificial lighting. The book covers the following topics: A brief history of light (ch. 1); night and light in cultural history (ch. 2); light pollution in central Europe (ch. 3); Moths and artificial lights (ch. 4); Artificial lighting and birds (ch. 5); Ocean turtles as victims of beach lighting (ch. 6); Moon light as a zeitgeber for the marine fauna (ch. 7); the influence of artificial light at night on freshwater ecology (ch. 8); artificial light and human health (ch. 9); the loss of the night in a 24 hours society (ch. 10).

  17. Informationsqualität für das Management mit TOPAS®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Otto-Ernst; Möller, Frank; Skrablies, Werner

    Management-Entscheidungen hängen nicht zuletzt von Informationen ab, die auf sinnvollen und verlässlichen Daten beruhen und kommuniziert werden. In diesem Kontext verwenden wir die folgende Sichtweise: Daten sind die Gesamtheit der verfügbaren Texte, Zahlen und Statistiken, Graphiken, Bilder, Audio- und Videodokumente usw. — unabhängig von deren Nutzung für die jeweilige Unternehmung.

  18. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Karsten; Hamel, Jürgen

    The papers of this volume are dedicated to Johannes Kepler, the astronomy of his time, and the consequences of his researches. They deal with the reception on the Copernican system of the world at the court of landgrave William IV in Kassel and the use of astronomy at a princely court in the 16th century, exemplified by the Kassel residence. Two contributions discuss a text fragment in Kepler's Astronomia Nova and the dimensions of the geo- and heliocentric systems of the world in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum. Other contributions deal with mathematical aspects un Kepler's exchange of letters, the biography of Kepler's discussion partner Ph. Feselius, as well as the early reception of the Tabulae Rudolphinae in the calendar literature, telescopes in Kepler's time, Chr. Scheiner's optical theory of the eye, and finally in the continuation of the heliocentric world system by Otto von Guericke's natural philosophy and science. In conclusion, the documents of the planned call of Kepler to Rostock university, as well as the first publication of a recently found, hitherto unknown letter by Kepler.

  19. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) for marine and ecological research from aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The efforts of researchers at Mississippi State University to utilize space-age technology in the development of a self-contained, portable data acquisition system for use in marine and ecological research are presented. The compact, lightweight data acquisition system is capable of recording 14 variables in its present configuration and is suitable for use in either a boat, pickup truck, or light aircraft. This system will provide the acquisition of reliable data on the structure of the environment and the effect of man-made and natural activities on the observed phenomenon. Utilizing both self-contained analog recording and a telemetry transmitter for real-time digital readout and recording, the prototype system has undergone extensive testing.

  20. O Universo das Sociedades Numa Perspectiva Relativa: Exercícios de Etnoastronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Érika Akel; Pessoa Martins, Karla; Maciel Araujo, Lidiane; Sauma Filho, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This work developed at the Planetarium of Pará employing workshops designed for visitor schools (public, private, specials groups), promotes the popularization of the Ethnoastronomy with the aim of diffusing values based on a cultural diversity tolerance and the need of harmonic interplay between people and environment. Using stories and debates, the relationship between humans and the Cosmos is traced from antiquity until today, with the help of slides as a didactic resource. Thus, many conceptions about the origin of the Universe are shown; as well as some constellations created along the History, ending with the present scientific manner of know and explain the World. We then demonstrate the links between space, time and culture with the Cosmos vision. The need to think the World within a plural context to create respect for other different persons is emphasized. Este trabalho, desenvolvido no Planetário do Pará através de oficinas com escolas visitantes (públicas, privadas e grupos especiais), promove a popularização da Etnoastronomia, com o objetivo de difundir valores pautados na tolerância à diversidade cultural e na necessidade da convivência harmônica entre o ser humano e o meio ambiente. Através da contação de histórias e promoção de debate, é tratada a relação dos humanos com o céu desde a antiguidade até os dias atuais, tendo como apoio didático o uso de slides. Assim, são mostradas diversas concepções de origem do Universo; algumas constelações criadas no decorrer da História; e a atual forma científica de conhecer e explicar o mundo. Demonstrando-se, então, a interligação entre espaço, tempo e cultura com a visão do Cosmo. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de se pensar o mundo numa perspectiva relativa ou plural, de forma a propiciar o respeito ao ser diferente.

  1. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  2. Bring Back "Das Kapital" Punishment! Credit Crunch and the Fall of the "Knowledge Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Ian; Clarke, John

    2010-01-01

    This article contrasts the collapse of the twin political certainties of the 20th century--"scientific socialism" (1989) and "scientific capitalism" (2008). Such a collapse restores Uncertainty to her throne, and brings back the need to radically rethink political possibilities for the future. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. Auswirkungen einer Pipeline-Verlegung auf das marine Benthos im Tidebecken von Baltrum-Langeoog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bernem, K. H.

    1999-12-01

    In order to investigate possible effects on benthic communities resulting from the landfall of the “EU-ROPIPE” gas pipeline in areas of the Wadden Sea National Park of Lower Saxony the following seasonal surveys were carried out by the GKSS-Research-Centre during 1993 1997: a) Assessment of species number and abundance of subtidal and intertidal macrofauna, b) Intertidal documentation of demersal fish and decapod crab stocks, c) Intertidal assessment of species composition and abundance of microalgae. Sublittoral sampling was mainly carried out by bottom-grabs and box-dredges at about 120 locations recorded by GPS. Sediment cores of intertidal benthic communities at 6 locations were processed for macrofauna and microalgae. Species numbers and abundances of sublittoral benthic macrofauna decreased during 1994 as well in those areas directly affected as well as in areas 500 to 1000m removed from the construction activities. Most notably, the relatively high species richness of a hard-bottom community, rare in Wadden Sea areas, was strongly disturbed. During the same period the spatial distribution and abundance of intertidal filter feeders decreased as well as the abundance of vagile predating polychaetes and amphipods at locations situated near low tide level. A local stock of the low dispersive Goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) was nearly totally destroyed. Decreases in the abundances of juvenile Plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and decapod crabs ( Crangon crangon, Carcinus maenas) could only be shown during July/October 1994 in those areas of working activities which were directly connected to the tidal migration paths of these species. During 1994/95 numbers and abundances of diatom species prefering fine grained sediments with a high amount of organic material increased significantly. A recovery started immediately after conclusion of the refilling measures in 1995. A complete documentation of the community-resilience, however, was masked by fluctuations following the ice-winter in 1995/96.

  4. Dynamisierung und Erstarrung in der modernen Gesellschaft - Das Beschleunigungsphänomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Hartmut

    Dass die Geschichte der Moderne die Geschichte einer ungeheuren Beschleunigung "des Lebens“, "der Kultur“, "der Geschichte“ oder gar "der Zeit selbst“ sei, ist eine Behauptung, der man in Büchern über die Moderne - gelehrten wie ungelehrten - so häufig begegnet, dass sie geradezu als eine Binsenweisheit gelten kann. Völlig unklar bleibt dabei jedoch in aller Regel, was sich dabei wirklich beschleunigt hat und welcher Begriff von Beschleunigung dieser Auffassung zugrunde liegt. Ich will im Folgenden zunächst einen wissenschaftlich vertretbaren Begriff von Beschleunigung entwickeln, um danach mit Hilfe dieses Instruments zu überprüfen, inwieweit die Geschichte der Moderne wirklich als eine Beschleunigungsgeschichte aufgefasst werden kann.

  5. 50 CFR 648.53 - Target total allowable catch, DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be made electronically via the Federal web portal, www.pay.gov, or other Internet sites as... payment Web site and the paper bill. Payment options shall include payment via a credit card, as...

  6. Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Annemarie

    1986-03-01

    This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

  7. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 648.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... managed by other FMPs (in pounds, landed weight), on board at the time the vessel first offloads its catch... species managed by other FMPs, from each broad stock area prior to crossing the VMS demarcation line,...

  8. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... species retained, including species managed by other FMPs (in pounds, landed weight), on board at the time... species managed by other FMPs, from each broad stock area prior to crossing the VMS demarcation line,...

  9. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... managed by other FMPs (in pounds, landed weight), on board at the time the vessel first offloads its catch... species managed by other FMPs, from each broad stock area prior to crossing the VMS demarcation line,...

  10. Consideracoes Extemporaneas acerca das Metodologias Qualitativas (Extemporaneous Considerations about Qualitative Methodology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucci, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    Considers the differences between quantitative and qualitative research. Cites some essays by Adorno when he was living in New York which led to the conclusion that empirical data has much to say and discusses the theoretical-methodological contributions in a recent master's thesis in education. (BT)

  11. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    In the beginning Copernicus' system of the world did not have empirical confirmation. In this situation, Kepler's research, as well as the astronomical observations with the telescope, invented in 1608, played a decisive role. Under the assumption of the central position of the Sun, Kepler discovered the elliptical orbital motion of the planets as a base of the computation of noticeably improved ephemerides. The first telescopic observations - Jupiter's moons, phases of Venus, sunspots, surface features of the moon -, gave important arguments for Copernicus' system. Galilei was one of the first who used the telescope for astronomical research.

  12. Das Bildungswesen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Education in the Federal Republic of Germany).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Bernhard

    In this paper delivered at Georgetown University, the Minister of Culture of Rheinland-Pfalz compares various aspects of the state of education in the United States and Germany, and draws conclusions for future planning. The areas he discusses are: (1) the politics of education, including controversy over federal and state responsibilities for…

  13. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Point Light 43°50.2′ 69°30.4′ 8. A point west of Halfway Rock 43°38.0′ 70°05.0′ 9. A point east of Cape... Ledge Light 42°16.2′ 70°45.6′ 16. Farnham Rock Lighted Bell Buoy 42°05.6′ 70°36.5′ 17. Cape Cod Canal... on either a common pool or sector trip must declare the following information via VMS or IVR,...

  14. In vivo three-dimensional mechanical actions of individual.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Peng, Qiyu; Schafer, David A; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li Qun

    2008-11-01

    The flexor-pronator mass is thought to be the primary dynamic valgus stabilizer of the elbow and protects the ulnar collateral ligament. However, in vivo multiaxis actions of individual muscles of the flexor-pronator group and their roles in valgus stability have not been investigated quantitatively. This study tested the hypothesis that individual muscles of the flexor-pronator muscle group produce a significant varus moment that provides elbow valgus stability. The flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and pronator teres were selectively activated, and the resulting multiaxis moments at the elbow measured at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of elbow flexion using a six-axis force sensor were analyzed for their role in generating varus moment and protecting the ulnar collateral ligament. Considerable offaxis moments were generated by each muscle tested. Through the range of elbow flexion, the varus moment was the major component of the multiaxis action of the flexor carpi ulnaris (p < .001). The flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres had significant actions as elbow flexors and pronators (p < or = .032); these muscles also had a significant varus contribution at 90 degrees elbow flexion (p < or = .019). The results suggest that the flexor-pronator muscle group plays an important role in valgus stability of the elbow. In particular, the flexor carpi ulnaris creates a significant varus moment, which is important in unloading and protecting the ulnar collateral ligament. Rehabilitation and strengthening of the flexor-pronator muscle group may help prevent failure of the ulnar collateral ligament and may also help compensate for a medially insufficient elbow. PMID:19075301

  15. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  16. How human gait responds to muscle impairment in total knee arthroplasty patients: Muscular compensations and articular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Moazen, Mehran

    2016-06-14

    Post-surgical muscle weakness is prevalent among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a probabilistic multi-body dynamics (MBD) to determine whether and to what extent habitual gait patterns of TKA patients may accommodate strength deficits in lower extremity muscles. We analyzed muscular and articular compensations in response to various muscle impairments, and the minimum muscle strength requirements needed to preserve TKA gait patterns in its habitual status. Muscle weakness was simulated by reducing the strength parameter of muscle models in MBD analysis. Using impaired models, muscle and joint forces were calculated and compared versus those from baseline gait i.e. TKA habitual gait before simulating muscle weakness. Comparisons were conducted using a relatively new statistical approach for the evaluation of gait waveforms, i.e. Spatial Parameter Mapping (SPM). Principal component analysis was then conducted on the MBD results to quantify the sensitivity of every joint force component to individual muscle impairment. The results of this study contain clinically important, although preliminary, suggestions. Our findings suggested that: (1) hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip extensor weakness; (2) hip extensor, hip adductor and ankle plantar flexor muscles compensated for hip flexor weakness; (3) hip and knee flexor muscles responded to hip abductor weakness; (4) knee flexor and hip abductor balanced hip adductor impairment; and (5) knee extensor and knee flexor weakness were compensated by hip extensor and hip flexor muscles. Future clinical studies are required to validate the results of this computational study. PMID:27063251

  17. Staged tendon grafts and soft tissue coverage

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system. PMID:22022043

  18. Measures of Strength and Fitness for Older Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; Hiebert, Lujean M.

    The overall strength of the musculature does not require testing of large numbers of muscle groups and can be accomplished from three or four tests. Small batteries of strength tests have been devised to predict total strength. The best combination of tests for males are thigh flexors, leg extensors, arm flexors, and pectoralis major. The battery…

  19. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  20. DAsHER CD: Developing a Data-Oriented Human-Centric Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. P.; Yu, M.; Sun, M.; Qin, H.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that face Earth scientists is the resource discovery, access, and sharing in a desired fashion. EarthCube is targeted to enable geoscientists to address the challenges by fostering community-governed efforts that develop a common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of collecting, accessing, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources, through the use of advanced technological and computational capabilities. Here we design an Enterprise Architecture (EA) for EarthCube to facilitate the knowledge management, communication and human collaboration in pursuit of the unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. The design results will provide EarthCube a reference framework for developing geoscience cyberinfrastructure collaborated by different stakeholders, and identifying topics which should invoke high interest in the community. The development of this EarthCube EA framework leverages popular frameworks, such as Zachman, Gartner, DoDAF, and FEAF. The science driver of this design is the needs from EarthCube community, including the analyzed user requirements from EarthCube End User Workshop reports and EarthCube working group roadmaps, and feedbacks or comments from scientists obtained by organizing workshops. The final product of this Enterprise Architecture is a four-volume reference document: 1) Volume one is this document and comprises an executive summary of the EarthCube architecture, serving as an overview in the initial phases of architecture development; 2) Volume two is the major body of the design product. It outlines all the architectural design components or viewpoints; 3) Volume three provides taxonomy of the EarthCube enterprise augmented with semantics relations; 4) Volume four describes an example of utilizing this architecture for a geoscience project.

  1. A Proposta Jesuitica de Educacao: Uma Leitura das Constituicoes (The Jesuit Proposal of Education: A Reading of the Constitutions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paiva, Jose Maria; Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand the Jesuit education proposal in the reforming context from which it came. States that the Constitutions established the renewing function of school education based on the sacred vision of the world: God is placed as the ultimate end, and objectives are learning, formation of good customs, and apostleship. (BT)

  2. Unternehmerische Verantwortung in der Stadt- und Regionalentwicklung. Einführung in das Themenheft "Corporate Regional Responsibility"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiese, Matthias; Schiek, Meike

    2016-03-01

    Firms assume increasing importance within co-operative modes of regional and urban governance. Further to just filling gaps left by the retreat of the welfare state, firms recognise the impact of their regional and local business environment on their performance, especially when it comes to attracting and retaining highly-skilled personnel. As an introduction to this issue, this contribution introduces the basic concept of corporate social responsibility and its regional variation, corporate regional responsibility.

  3. Dermatomyositis: analysis of 109 patients surveyed at the Hospital das Clínicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins; dos Reis, Vitor Manuel Silva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatomyositis affects striated muscles, skin and other organs. OBJECTIVE To characterize the disease from January 1992 to December 2002, assessing its classification, cutaneous and systemic manifestations, and also laboratory results, therapeutic and prognostic findings compared to those in the literature. METHODS Data were obtained from medical records of 109 patients who were classified into five groups: 23 juvenile dermatomyositis; 59 primary idiopathic dermatomyositis; 6 amyopathic dermatomyositis; 7 dermatomyositis associated with neoplasms and 14 dermatomyositis associated with other connective tissue diseases. RESULTS Sixty patients were classified as "definite" diagnosis; 33 as "possible"; four as "probable" and 12 and as amyopathic. The average age at diagnosis was 36 years. Cutaneous manifestations occurred in all patients; the most frequent symptom was loss of proximal muscle strength; the most common pulmonary disorder was interstitial lung disease, and gastritis was the most prevalent digestive manifestation. Tumors were documented in 6.42% of cases. Lactate dehydrogenase was the muscle enzyme most frequently elevated in the majority of cases. Skin biopsies were performed in 68 patients; muscle biopsies in 53; and electroneuromyographies in 58 patients. The most commonly used treatment was corticotherapy and the mortality rate was 14.7%. CONCLUSION in this sample, the disease appeared in younger individuals, was more frequent in women and the association with cancer was small. PMID:25184910

  4. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  5. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  6. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to transfer IFQ, the Regional... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual...

  7. Das Einheitsprinzip im DDR-Bildungswesen = The Principle of Unity in the Educational System of the GDR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Gerhart

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the application of the principle of unity in different historical phases of the East German educational system. Argues that East German successes in reducing the number of socially underprivileged were always accompanied by a sharpening of the trade-off between educational equality and excellence, for which no solution was found. (DSK)

  8. Hepatologie Neuere Forschungsergebnisse in ihrer Bedeutung für das Verständnis von Leberkrankheiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerok, W.; Blum, H. E.; Offensperger, W.; Offensperger, S.; Andus, T.; Groß, V.; Heinrich, P. C.

    1991-06-01

    By two exemplary clinical situations — acute viral hepatitis, acute-phase reaction of the liver — the significance of basic research for the understanding of clinical phenomena and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is demonstrated. The very different phenomena following infection with the hepatitis-B-virus can be explained by the variation in the interactions of virus and liver cell, by the immune reaction of the host, and by mutants of the virus. The reaction of the liver to an extrahepatic infection is mediated by interleukin-6, and characterized by an alteration in protein metabolism. The synthesis of acute-phase proteins is increased. The proteins confine the local injury and establish the homeostasis of the organism.

  9. 50 CFR 648.53 - Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch limits (ACL), annual catch targets (ACT), DAS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... failure to meet the requirements of the regulations in 50 CFR part 648. Upon denial of an application to... section, and research set-aside specified in Section 648.56(d). The ABC/ACL for the 2013 fishing year is... this section, after deducting incidental catch, observer set-aside, and research set-aside,...

  10. Werbung im Englischunterricht: Das Beispiel Einhorn - Onehorn - Unicorn (Advertising Material in English Teaching: The Example "Einhorn-Onehorn-Unicorn")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruettgens, Hannelore

    1976-01-01

    Presents an advertisement from "Der Spiegel," composed in English that is saturated with Germanisms. Teaching procedures based on this are suggested: finding and classifying errors, composing alternative versions, translating into German, retranslating into English. Suggestions are given for further work based on the students' own experience.…

  11. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  12. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst.

  13. Integration and validation testing for PhEDEx, DBS and DAS with the PhEDEx LifeCycle agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeser, C.; Chwalek, T.; Giffels, M.; Kuznetsov, V.; Wildish, T.

    2014-06-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data handled by the CMS dataflow and workflow management tools poses new challenges for cross-validation among different systems within CMS experiment at LHC. To approach this problem we developed an integration test suite based on the LifeCycle agent, a tool originally conceived for stress-testing new releases of PhEDEx, the CMS data-placement tool. The LifeCycle agent provides a framework for customising the test workflow in arbitrary ways, and can scale to levels of activity well beyond those seen in normal running. This means we can run realistic performance tests at scales not likely to be seen by the experiment for some years, or with custom topologies to examine particular situations that may cause concern some time in the future. The LifeCycle agent has recently been enhanced to become a general purpose integration and validation testing tool for major CMS services. It allows cross-system integration tests of all three components to be performed in controlled environments, without interfering with production services. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of the LifeCycle agent. We describe how it is used for small-scale debugging and validation tests, and how we extend that to large-scale tests of whole groups of sub-systems. We show how the LifeCycle agent can emulate the action of operators, physicists, or software agents external to the system under test, and how it can be scaled to large and complex systems.

  14. Das Pinealorgan der Wirbeltiere: ein Modell für Untersuchungen von Rezeptor-und Effektormechanismen in neuronalen Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, Horst-W.; Wicht, Helmut

    1991-10-01

    Cell and molecular biological investigations have greatly contributed to our understanding of receptor and effector mechanisms in sensory, neuronal, and endocrine cells. A fascinating aspect of this line of research is how such mechanisms have evolved and how they interact with each other. As shown in this contribution, the vertebrate pineal organ is an interesting model to study these problems, because it undergoes a conspicuous transformation during phylogeny, comprises two well-chraracterized receptor mechanisms (photoreception and adrenoreception), and acts upon its targets via neuronal and neuroendocrine signals.

  15. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point. PMID:26484578

  16. Tendon Injuries of the Hand in Kirikkale, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Elif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tendon injuries are one of the most common injuries of the hand and challenging problems in trauma surgery. They usually require surgical repair and unlike the single tendon injuries, flexor tendon injuries have higher morbidities when accompanied with nerve injuries. In the present study, I aimed to report the clinical experiences and outcomes about tendon injuries. METHODS A total of 180 patients (149 males, 31 females) between 17 and 56 years old were operated in the clinic due to tendon injury. Seventy isolated extensor tendon injuries, 60 isolated flexor tendon injuries, 30 multiple flexor tendon and major nerve injuries, 18 combined extensor and flexor tendon injuries, and 2 combined extensor, flexor and major nerve injuries were treated. All patients were admitted to the clinic in acute phase and operated immediately. Physiotherapy was started in the third day of the operation. RESULTS Patients were followed up between 6 and 18 months (mean 12.4 months). There was not any major complications except one female patient (0.5%) who did not conform to the treatment protocol after flexor tendon injury. Fifteen patients (8.5%) had poor flexor range of motion. The other patients were healed uneventfully. CONCLUSION Tendon healing may cause some complications from mild to severe degrees. However, atraumatic surgery and a comprehensive postoperative early physiotherapy could decrease these complication rates.

  17. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  18. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  19. Mechanical analysis of avian feet: multiarticular muscles in grasping and perching

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Spencer B.; Sustaita, Diego; Odhner, Lael U.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    The grasping capability of birds' feet is a hallmark of their evolution, but the mechanics of avian foot function are not well understood. Two evolutionary trends that contribute to the mechanical complexity of the avian foot are the variation in the relative lengths of the phalanges and the subdivision and variation of the digital flexor musculature observed among taxa. We modelled the grasping behaviour of a simplified bird foot in response to the downward and upward forces imparted by carrying and perching tasks, respectively. Specifically, we compared the performance of various foot geometries performing these tasks when actuated by distally inserted flexors only, versus by both distally inserted and proximally inserted flexors. Our analysis demonstrates that most species possess relative phalanx lengths that are conducive to grasps actuated only by a single distally inserted tendon per digit. Furthermore, proximally inserted flexors are often required during perching, but the distally inserted flexors are sufficient when grasping and carrying objects. These results are reflected in differences in the relative development of proximally and distally inserted digital flexor musculature among ‘perching’ and ‘grasping’ taxa. Thus, our results shed light on the relative roles of variation in phalanx length and digit flexor muscle distribution in an integrative, mechanical context. PMID:26064598

  20. Functional analysis of patients who have had a modified Van Nes rotationplasty.

    PubMed

    Steenhoff, J R; Daanen, H A; Taminiau, A H

    1993-10-01

    Electromyographic analysis of gait in eight patients who had had a modified Van Nes rotationplasty was performed to compare the activity of the flexors and extensors of the ankle on the side of the operation with that of the flexors and extensors of the knee on the normal, contralateral side. The resemblance in the activity of the extensors was more pronounced than that of the flexors. In three patients, the angle of flexion of the knee throughout the gait cycle was the same on the side of the rotationplasty as on the normal side. There was more symmetry in the swing phase than has been reported for patients who have had an above-the-knee amputation. The strength of the dorsiflexors of the ankle on the side of the rotationplasty was 68 percent and that of the flexors was 71 per cent when compared with that of the muscles of the normal ankle. PMID:8408133