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Sample records for osteoprotegerin total soluble

  1. Osteoprotegerin, Soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor- κ B Ligand, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsouvalas, Emmanouil; Vakaki, Marina; Kaparos, George; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Augoulea, Areti; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and biomarkers of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor- κ B ligand (OPG/RANKL) system in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) children and adolescents and controls. Subjects and Methods. Fifty six T1DM patients (mean ± SD age: 12.0 ± 2.7 years, diabetes duration: 5.42 ± 2.87 years and HbA1c: 8.0 ± 1.5%) and 28 healthy matched controls, were studied with anthropometric and laboratory measurements, including serum OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and cIMT. Results. Anthropometric, laboratory, and cIMT measurements were similar between T1DM youngsters and controls. However patients with longer diabetes duration (>/7.0 years) had indicatively higher cIMT (cIMT = 0.49 vs 0.44 mm, P 0.072) and triglyceride levels than the rest of the patients (93.7 vs 64.6 mg/dl, P 0.025). Both in the total study population (β 0.418, P 0.027) and among T1DM patients separately (β 0.604, P 0.013), BMI was the only factor associated with cIMT. BMI was further associated with OPG in both groups (β -0.335, P 0.003 and β -0.356, P 0.008 respectively), while sRANKL levels were not associated with any factor. Conclusions. BMI was the strongest independent predictor of cIMT among the whole population, and especially in diabetics, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of diabetes and adiposity on atherosclerotic burden. BMI was overall strongly associated with circulating OPG, but the causes of this association remain unclear. PMID:24288529

  2. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  3. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  8. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7–8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78–0.90 and 0.79–0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties. PMID:26217951

  9. Measurement of Soluble and Total Hexavalent Chromium in the Ambient Airborne Particles in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Shin, Jin Young; Fan, Zhihua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and may have both soluble and insoluble forms. The sum of the two forms is defined as total Cr(VI). Currently, there were no methods suitable for large-scale monitoring of total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This study developed a method to measure total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This method includes PM collection using a Teflon filter, microwave extraction with 3% Na2CO3-2% NaOH at 95°C for 60 minutes, and Cr(VI) analysis by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetry at 540 nm. The recoveries of total Cr(VI) were 119.5 ± 10.4% and 106.3 ± 16.7% for the Cr(VI)-certified reference materials, SQC 012 and SRM 2700, respectively. Total Cr(VI) in the reference urban PM (NIST 1648a) was 26.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg (%CV = 11.9%) determined by this method. The method detection limit was 0.33 ng/m3. This method and the one previously developed to measure ambient Cr(VI), which is soluble in pH ~9.0 aqueous solution, were applied to measure Cr(VI) in ambient PM10 collected from three urban areas and one suburban area in New Jersey. The total Cr(VI) concentrations were 1.05–1.41 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.99–1.56 ng/m3 in the summer. The soluble Cr(VI) concentrations were 0.03–0.19 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.12–0.37 ng/m3 in the summer. The summer mean ratios of soluble to total Cr(VI) were 14.3–43.7%, significantly higher than 4.2–14.4% in the winter. The winter concentrations of soluble and total Cr(VI) in the suburban area were significantly lower than in the three urban areas. The results suggested that formation of Cr(VI) via atmospheric chemistry may contribute to the higher soluble Cr(VI) concentrations in the summer. PMID:26120324

  10. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923

  11. Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.

    PubMed

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S; Griep, Linda M Oude; Griep, Linda M O; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S

    2015-11-14

    Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95% CI -2·97, -0·41) and attenuated to -1·01 mmHg (95% CI -2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95% CI -3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods. PMID:26328746

  12. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  13. Osteoprotegerin and Vascular Calcification: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Makarović, Sandra; Makarović, Zorin; Steiner, Robert; Mihaljević, Ivan; Milas-Ahić, Jasminka

    2015-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a key regulator in bone metabolism, that also has effect in vascular system. Studies suggest that osteoprotegerin is a critical arterial calcification inhibitor, and is released by endothelial cells as a protective mechanism for their survival in certain pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and other metabolic disorders. That has been shown in studies in vitro and in animal models. The discovery that OPG deficient mice (OPG -/- mice) develop severe osteoporosis and arterial calcification, has led to conclusion that osteoprotegerin might be mulecule linking vascular and bone system. Paradoxically however, clinical trials have shown recently that OPG serum levels is increased in coronary artery disease and correlates with its severity, ischemic cardial decompensation, and future cardiovascular events. Therefore it is possible that osteoprotegerin could have a new function as a potential biomarker in early identification and monitoring patients with cardiovascular disease. Amongst that osteoprotegerin is in association with well known atherosclerosis risc factors: undoubtedly it is proven its relationship with age, smoking and diabetes mellitus. There is evidence regarding presence of hyperlipoproteinemia and increased serum levels of osteoprotegerin. Also the researches have been directed in genetic level, linking certain single nucleotid genetic polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin and vascular calcification appearance. This review emphasises multifactorial role of OPG, presenting numerous clinical and experimental studies regarding its role in vascular pathology, suggesting a novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, showing latest conclusions about this interesting topic that needs to be further explored. PMID:26753467

  14. Development of a Total Organic Carbon method for the quantitative determination of solubility enhancement by cyclodextrins: Application to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) is known to enhance guest solubility in aqueous medium. Different techniques allow determining the evolution in solubility of individual guest compounds. However, examination of mixtures solubility encapsulated in CDs is still a challenge. This is mainly related to the difference in the response of mixture components to the applied technique or to the fact that most of the conventional methods examine the signal of an individual constituent of the mixture. Thus, applying current techniques may not reflect the behavior of the whole mixture. Here, we used for the first time Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis to explore and assess the efficiency of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to enhance the solubility of natural complex mixtures such as essential oils (EOs). Phase solubility studies were performed for eleven EOs with HP-β-CD. The TOC method has provided good validation parameters for linearity, precision and accuracy. For further validation of the method, phase solubility studies were performed with HP-β-CD for eugenol, as a model EO component. The eugenol solubility was determined by UV-Visible and TOC analyses in order to compare the results. Data obtained from both methods were similar (p < 0.05), thereby proving the effectiveness of the developed TOC method. Finally, the phase solubility diagrams of EOs showed that the solubilizing potential of CD increased proportionally with the decrease in EO intrinsic solubility. Results proved that TOC could be successfully applied to investigate CD/guest inclusion complexes and is expected to have a broad range of applications in the field of mixtures encapsulation. PMID:27046206

  15. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  16. Osteoprotegerin in Bone Metastases: Mathematical Solution to the Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Marc D.; Qu, Yiding; Komarova, Svetlana V.

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a common site for cancer metastasis. To create space for their growth, cancer cells stimulate bone resorbing osteoclasts. Cytokine RANKL is a key osteoclast activator, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a RANKL decoy receptor and an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, systemic application of OPG decreases metastatic tumor burden in bone. However, OPG produced locally by cancer cells was shown to enhance osteolysis and tumor growth. We propose that OPG produced by cancer cells causes a local reduction in RANKL levels, inducing a steeper RANKL gradient away from the tumor and towards the bone tissue, resulting in faster resorption and tumor expansion. We tested this hypothesis using a mathematical model of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the spatial dynamics of OPG, RANKL, PTHrP, osteoclasts, tumor and bone mass. We demonstrate that at lower expression rates, tumor-derived OPG enhances the chemotactic RANKL gradient and osteolysis, whereas at higher expression rates OPG broadly inhibits RANKL and decreases osteolysis and tumor burden. Moreover, tumor expression of a soluble mediator inducing RANKL in the host tissue, such as PTHrP, is important for correct orientation of the RANKL gradient. A meta-analysis of OPG, RANKL and PTHrP expression in normal prostate, carcinoma and metastatic tissues demonstrated an increase in expression of OPG, but not RANKL, in metastatic prostate cancer, and positive correlation between OPG and PTHrP in metastatic prostate cancer. The proposed mechanism highlights the importance of the spatial distribution of receptors, decoys and ligands, and can be applied to other systems involving regulation of spatially anisotropic processes. PMID:23093918

  17. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets: 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary calcium (Ca) can influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and therefore change the solubility of phosphorus (P) in manures. We investigate the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion in broilers by feeding 12 dietary treatments to broilers from 16 to 20 days of age. T...

  18. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  19. Osteoprotegerin in breast cancer: beyond bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weichhaus, Michael; Chung, Stephanie Tsang Mui; Connelly, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted protein and member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor superfamily. OPG has been well characterized as a regulator of bone metabolism which acts by blocking osteoclast maturation and preventing bone breakdown. Given this role, early studies on OPG in breast cancer focused on the administration of OPG in order to prevent the osteolysis observed with bone metastases. However OPG is also produced by the breast tumor cells themselves. Research focusing on OPG produced by breast tumor cells has revealed actions of OPG which promote tumor progression. In vitro studies into the role of OPG produced by breast tumor cells have demonstrated that OPG can block TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, in vivo studies show that OPG expression by breast tumors can promote tumor growth and metastasis. In addition it has been shown that OPG stimulates endothelial cell survival and tube formation thus it may indirectly promote breast tumor progression through impacting angiogenesis. This article will present a summary of the data concerning the tumor-promoting effects of OPG in breast cancer. PMID:26054853

  20. Characterisation of osteoprotegerin autoantibodies in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Real, Ana; Gilbert, Nick; Hauser, Barbara; Kennedy, Nick; Shand, Alan; Gillett, Helen; Gillett, Peter; Goddard, Clive; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina; Fraser, William D; Satsangi, Jack; Ralston, Stuart H; Riches, Philip L

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies neutralising the effect of the bone regulatory cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been described in a patient with severe osteoporosis and coeliac disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and epitope specificity of autoantibodies to OPG in patients with coeliac disease, and correlate their presence with bone mineral density. A direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed and used to screen patients with coeliac disease for autoantibodies to OPG. Recombinant fragments of OPG were made to evaluate the epitope specificity and affinity of these antibodies. Phenotype information of the patients was obtained by case note review. Raised titres of antibodies to OPG were found in 7/71 (9.8 %) patients with coeliac disease, compared with 1/72 (1.4 %) non-coeliac osteoporosis clinic control patients (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that a polyclonal antibody response to OPG is raised in these patients capable of recognising different epitopes of OPG with varying affinity. The titre of OPG antibodies was associated with lower bone mineral density Z-score of the hip in coeliac patients on univariate (p < 0.05) and multivariate analysis including age, sex height and weight as covariates (p < 0.01). Polyclonal antibodies to OPG are more common in patients with coeliac disease and are independently associated with lower bone mineral density Z-scores of the hip. Further work is required to establish the clinical utility of testing for OPG antibodies. PMID:26092508

  1. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750

  2. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  3. μTAS (micro total analysis systems) for the high-throughput measurement of nanomaterial solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantra, R.; Jarman, J.

    2013-04-01

    There is a consensus in the nanoecotoxicology community that better analytical tools i.e. faster and more accurate ones, are needed for the physicochemical characterisation of nanomaterials in environmentally/biologically relevant media. In this study, we introduce the concept of μTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems), which was a term coined to encapsulate the integration of laboratory processes on a single microchip. Our focus here is on the use of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) with conductivity detection microchip and how this may be used for the measurement of dissolution of metal oxide nanomaterials. Our preliminary results clearly show promise in that the device is able to: a) measure ionic zinc in various ecotox media with high selectivity b) track the dynamic dissolution events of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterial when dispersed in fish medium.

  4. Serum osteoprotegerin and sex steroid levels in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-Garcia, Rebeca; Avilés Perez, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez Ramírez, Amanda Rocio; Mijan, Jose Luis; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between sex steroids and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prostate cancer is not well established. Our aim was to evaluate serum OPG levels in patients with prostate cancer and its relationship with sex steroids, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and fractures. We performed a cross-sectional study including 91 patients with prostate cancer. We determined: bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, serum levels of sex steroids and osteoprotegerin, and prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures. Serum OPG levels were higher in patients with vertebral fractures (8.02 ± 2.0 vs 4.91 ± 0.28 pmol/L; P < .05). OPG level and the duration of hormonal therapy were related (r = 0.299, P = .004), but this association did not persist after adjustment for age. In patients without androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total testosterone (r = 0.508, P = .001) and bioavailable testosterone (r = 0.311, P = .037). In patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with levels of total estradiol (r = 0.199, P = .18), bioavailable estradiol (r = 0.37, P = .009), and free estradiol (r = 0.349, P = .016). In conclusion, in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy, serum OPG levels were correlated with the levels of total estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, and free estradiol. Our hypothesis is that in patients with androgen deprivation therapy, the higher relative estrogen levels could stimulate OPG production in response to the higher resorption state. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of OPG in androgen deprivation therapy-mediated bone loss. PMID:21903971

  5. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. Material and methods In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. Results No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis Conclusions Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:27407270

  6. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  7. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and water-soluble ions in clouds from a tropical montane cloud forest in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Gabriel J.; Gioda, Adriana; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Collett, Jeff

    Chemical characterization to determine the organic and nitrogen fractions was performed on cloud water samples collected in a mountaintop site in Puerto Rico. Cloud water samples showed average concentrations of 1.09 mg L -1 of total organic carbon (TOC), of 0.85 mg L -1 for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of and 1.25 mg L -1 for total nitrogen (TN). Concentrations of organic nitrogen (ON) changed with the origin of the air mass. Changes in their concentrations were observed during periods under the influence of African dust (AD). The ON/TN ratios were 0.26 for the clean and 0.35 for the AD periods. Average concentrations of all these species were similar to those found in remote environments with no anthropogenic contribution. In the AD period, for cloud water the concentrations of TOC were 4 times higher and TN were 3 times higher than during periods of clean air masses associated with the trade winds. These results suggest that a significant fraction of TOC and TN in cloud and rainwater is associated to airborne particulate matter present in dust. Functional groups were identified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) spectroscopy. This characterization led to the conclusion that water-soluble organic compounds in these samples are mainly aliphatic oxygenated compounds, with a small amount of aromatics. The ion chromatography results showed that the ionic species were predominantly of marine origin, for air masses with and without African dust influence, with cloud water concentrations of NO 3- and NH 4+ much lower than from polluted areas in the US. An increase of such species as SO 42-, Cl -, Mg 2+, K + and Ca 2+ was seen when air masses originated from northwest Africa. The changes in the chemical composition and physical properties of clouds associated with these different types of aerosol particles could affect on cloud formation and processes.

  8. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. PMID:24912692

  9. LUNG INJURY IS INDUCED BY INSOLUBLE AND TOTAL BUT NOT SOLUBLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) COLLECTED IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient air PM has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects; however, causative components have not been identified. The solubility of PM constituents and their bioavalability may influence their toxicity. Chemically characterized PM10 an...

  10. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  11. Quantification of Total Particulate Matter and Benzene-Soluble Fraction Inhalation Exposures in Roofing Workers Performing Tear-off Activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ronald H; Ferraro, John R; Dodson, James L; Hockman, Edwin L; McGovern, Amy E; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt shingle removal (tear-off) from roofs is a major job task for an estimated 174,000 roofers in the United States. However, a literature search showed that there are no published studies that characterize worker inhalation exposures to asphalt particulates during shingle tear-off. To begin to fill this gap, the present study of inhalation exposures of roofers performing asphalt shingle tear-off was undertaken. The airborne agents of interest were total particulate matter (TP) and organic particulates measured as the benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulate. The study's objectives were to measure the personal breathing zone (PBZ) exposures of roofing tear-off workers to BSF and TP; and to assess whether these PBZ exposures are different from ambient levels. Task-based PBZ samples (typical duration 1-5 hours) were collected during asphalt shingle tear-off from roofs near Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado. Samples were analyzed for TP and BSF using National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5042. As controls, area samples (typical duration 3-6 hours) were collected on the ground near the perimeter of the tear-off project Because of the presence of significant sources of inorganic particulates in the work environment, emphasis was placed on the BSF data. No BSF exposure higher than 0.25 mg/m3 was observed, and 69% of the PBZ samples were below the limit of detection (LOD). Due to unforeseen confounding, however, statistical comparisons of on-the-roof PBZ samples with on-the-ground area samples posed some special challenges. This confounding grew out of the interaction of three factors: statistical censoring from the left; the strong inverse correlation between LOD concentration and sampling duration; and variation in sampling durations between on-the-ground area samples and on-the-roof PBZ samples. A general linear model analysis of variance (GLM-ANOVA) was applied to help address the confounding. The results of this analysis

  12. An investigation of the applicability of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy for measurement of solubility and supersaturation of aqueous citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwila, Dilum D.; Carroll, Leslie B.; Berglund, Kris A.

    1994-04-01

    Currently applied methods for measurement of solubility and supersaturation based on viscometry, refractometry, interferometry and density require the separation of phases prior to measurement. ATR (attenuated total reflection) infrared spectroscopy provides a unique configuration in which the infrared spectrum of a liquid phase can be obtained in a slurry without phase separation. The applicability of the technique was investigated using a micro Circle ® open boat cell equipped with a ZnSe (zinc selenide) ATR rod. Experiments conducted with aqueous citric acid proved that ATR infrared spectroscopy can be successfully employed to determine solubility and supersaturation.

  13. Role of osteoprotegerin and its ligands and competing receptors in atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

    2006-11-01

    Vascular calcification significantly impairs cardiovascular physiology, and its mechanism is under investigation. Many of the same factors that modulate bone osteogenesis, including cytokines, hormones, and lipids, also modulate vascular calcification, acting through many of the same transcription factors. In some cases, such as for lipids and cytokines, the net effect on calcification is positive in the artery wall and negative in bone. The mechanism for this reciprocal relation is not established. A recent series of reports points to the possibility that two bone regulatory factors, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and its soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), govern vascular calcification and may explain the phenomenon. Both RANKL and OPG are widely accepted as the final common pathway for most factors and processes affecting bone resorption. Binding of RANKL to its cognate receptor RANK induces NF-kappaB signaling, which stimulates osteoclastic differentiation in preosteoclasts and induces bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) expression in chondrocytes. A role for RANKL and its receptors in vascular calcification is spported by several findings: a vascular calcification phenotype in mice genetically deficient in OPG; an increase in expression of RANKL, and a decrease in expression of OPG, in calcified arteries; clinical associations between coronary disease and serum OPG and RANKL levels; and RANKL induction of calcification and osteoblastic differentiation in valvular myofibroblasts. PMID:17169261

  14. Regulation of osteoprotegerin pro- or anti-tumoral activity by bone tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, F; Moriceau, G; Picarda, G; Rousseau, J; Trichet, V; Rédini, F

    2010-01-01

    Tumor development in bone is often associated with fractures, bone loss and bone pain, and improvement is still needed in therapeutic approaches. Bone tumors are related to the existence of a vicious cycle between bone resorption and tumor proliferation in which the molecular triad osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role. RANKL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is one of the main inducers of bone resorption. Its soluble receptor OPG represents a promising therapeutic candidate as it prevents bone lesions and inhibits associated tumor growth. However, its therapeutic use in bone tumors remains controversial due to its ability to bind and inhibit another member of the TNF superfamily, TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis. Through its heparin binding domain, OPG is also able to bind proteoglycans present in the bone matrix. This paper is an overview of the involvement of the micro-environment, as represented by the balance of RANKL/TRAIL and the presence of proteoglycans in the regulation of OPG biological activity in bone tumors. PMID:19733222

  15. Osteoprotegerin in Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Vascular Damage and Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Saglam, Mutlu; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Karaman, Murat; Gezer, Mustafa; Kilinc, Ali; Eyileten, Tayfun; Guler, Ahmet Kerem; Aydin, İbrahim; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Oguz, Yusuf; Covic, Adrian; Ortiz, Alberto; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-08-01

    Vascular injury and dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that has been linked to atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating OPG levels predict future cardiovascular events (CVE). Our aim was to evaluate the determinants of circulating OPG levels, to investigate the relationship between OPG and markers of vascular damage and to test whether OPG improves risk stratification for future CVE beyond traditional and renal-specific risk factors in a CKD population. 291 patients with CKD stage 1-5 not on dialysis were included in the study. In the multivariate analysis, OPG was a significant predictor for flow-mediated dilatation, but not for carotid intima media thickness levels. During follow-up (median 36 months, IQR = 32-42 months), 87 patients had CVE. In the Cox survival analysis, OPG levels were independently associated with CVE even after adjustment for traditional and renal-specific cardiovascular risk factors. The addition of OPG to a model based on commonly used cardiovascular factors significantly improved the reclassification abilities of the model for predicting CVE. We show for the first time that OPG improves risk stratification for CVE in a non-dialysis CKD population, above and beyond a model with established traditional and renal-specific cardiovascular risk factors, including estimated glomerular filtration rate and fibroblast growth factor 23. PMID:27016924

  16. [Determination of six C-Glycoside flavones and antitumor activity of water-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Hai-ming; Li, Ai; Xu, Lan-fang; Chen, Jian-nan; Huang, Song; He, Lian

    2015-04-01

    This research established an HPLC method for determination of six C-Glycoside flavones of warer-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus (Benth.) H. Hara, and studied the antitumor activity of the warer-soluble total flavonoids. The HPLC system consisted of Kromasil 100-5 C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column and a solution system of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid gradient elution at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL x min(-1) and the wavelength of detector was at 334 nm. The column temperature was 25 degrees C. The antitumor activity of water-soluble flavonoids was assayed using HepG2 cell as the tested cell. The linear ranges of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabinosylapigenin were 0.25-2.53, 0.12-1.20, 0.37-3.69, 0.16-1.63, 0.19-1.92, 0.14-1.42 microg, respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 99.6% (RSD 0.87%), 100.2% (RSD 2.0%), 99.6% (RSD 1.8%), 97.9% (RSD 1.5%), 98.8% (RSD 1.2%), 98.6% (RSD 1.2%), respectively. After exposure in 24, 48, 72 h, the total flavonoids showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells with IC50 as the evaluation index, the IC50 values of 1.89, 1.71, 1.51 g x L(-1), respectively. The method is quick, simple and accurate with good re- producibility, and can be used for determination of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabino- sylapigenin in the warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides var. gerardianus. The warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides have inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. PMID:26281595

  17. Angiotensin II Stimulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Functional Decompensation in Osteoprotegerin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Sekita-Hatakeyama, Yoko; Hao, Yilin; Sakamoto, Sumiharu; Kurogi, Syuji; Nakamura, Midori; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Funamoto, Taro; Sekimoto, Tomohisa; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Chosa, Etsuo; Kato, Johji; Asada, Yujiro; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Circulating and myocardial expressions of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand and osteoprotegerin are activated in heart failure; however, it remains to be determined their pathophysiological roles on left ventricular structure and function in interaction with renin-angiotensin system. We conducted experiments using 8-week-old osteoprotegerin(-/-)mice and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand-transgenic mice to assess whether they affect the angiotensin II-induced left ventricular remodeling. Subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II to osteoprotegerin(-/-)mice progressed the eccentric hypertrophy, resulting in left ventricular systolic dysfunction for 28 days, and this was comparable with wild-type mice, showing concentric hypertrophy, irrespective of equivalent elevation of systolic blood pressure. The structural alteration was associated with reduced interstitial fibrosis, decreased procollagen α1 and syndecan-1 expressions, and the increased number of apoptotic cells in the left ventricle, compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, angiotensin II infusion to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand-transgenic mice revealed the concentric hypertrophy with preserved systolic contractile function. Intraperitoneal administration of human recombinant osteoprotegerin, but not subcutaneous injection of anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand antibody, to the angiotensin II-infused osteoprotegerin(-/-)mice for 28 days ameliorated the progression of heart failure without affecting systolic blood pressure. These results underscore the biological activity of osteoprotegerin in preserving myocardial structure and function during the angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, independent of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand activity. In addition, the antiapoptotic and profibrotic actions of osteoprotegerin that emerged from our data might be involved in the mechanisms. PMID:27001297

  18. Osteoprotegerin Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis upon Microbial Invasion.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Maruyama, Kenta; Fujii, Hideki; Sugawara, Isamu; Ko, Shigeru B H; Yasuda, Hisataka; Matsui, Hidenori; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL's osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria or influenza virus also show elevated serum OPG levels. We then asked whether OPG upregulation following microbial invasion had an effect outside of bone. To do so, we treated mice with LPS and observed OPG production in pancreas, especially in β-cells of pancreatic islets. Insulin release following LPS administration was enhanced in mice lacking OPG, suggesting that OPG inhibits insulin secretion under acute inflammatory conditions. Consistently, treatment of MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with OPG decreased their insulin secretion following glucose stimulation in the presence of LPS. Finally, our findings suggest that LPS-induced OPG upregulation is mediated in part by activator protein (AP)-1 family transcription factors, particularly Fos proteins. Overall, we report that acute microbial infection elevates serum OPG, which maintains β-cell homeostasis by restricting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly preventing microbe-induced exhaustion of β-cell secretory capacity. PMID:26751951

  19. Osteoprotegerin and TRAIL in Acute Onset of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is a growing amount of evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its complications. We decided to investigate the behavior of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in terms of acute onset of AF. Methods and Results. We included 60 patients with acute onset of AF, candidates for pharmacological cardioversion. The presence of cardiovascular comorbidities was connected with higher concentration of OPG and lower level of TRAIL right from the first hours of AF paroxysm. The initial TRAIL level correlated also positively with left ventricle ejection fraction and negatively with left atrium diameter. We found subsequent increase of OPG in subgroups selected on the basis of CHA2DS2-VASc scoring. Although basal concentrations of studied markers did not allow prediction of the restoration of sinus rhythm, we observed important increase of TRAIL concentration in subgroup with sinus rhythm maintenance (94.11 ± 29.46 versus 111.39 ± 30.23 pg/mL; p = 0.002). Conclusions. OPG and TRAIL are associated with the underlying cardiovascular damage in AF, but their balance is modulated by the fact of sinus rhythm restoration. Determining the suitability of OPG and TRAIL as predictive markers in AF requires further prospective studies. PMID:26504794

  20. Osteoprotegerin Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis upon Microbial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Maruyama, Kenta; Fujii, Hideki; Sugawara, Isamu; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Yasuda, Hisataka; Matsui, Hidenori; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL’s osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria or influenza virus also show elevated serum OPG levels. We then asked whether OPG upregulation following microbial invasion had an effect outside of bone. To do so, we treated mice with LPS and observed OPG production in pancreas, especially in β-cells of pancreatic islets. Insulin release following LPS administration was enhanced in mice lacking OPG, suggesting that OPG inhibits insulin secretion under acute inflammatory conditions. Consistently, treatment of MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with OPG decreased their insulin secretion following glucose stimulation in the presence of LPS. Finally, our findings suggest that LPS-induced OPG upregulation is mediated in part by activator protein (AP)-1 family transcription factors, particularly Fos proteins. Overall, we report that acute microbial infection elevates serum OPG, which maintains β-cell homeostasis by restricting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly preventing microbe-induced exhaustion of β-cell secretory capacity. PMID:26751951

  1. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  2. Apportionment of air pollution sources with directional sampling size segregation and soluble/total elemental determination of air particlates in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.S.; Cheung, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    With an aim to improve the identification of pollution sources, to enhance the ability to resolve source types and to assist the interpretation of results, a computer controlled sampling station has been developed for directional sampling and size segregation of air particulates collected using a High Volume Sampler running at a flow rate of 40 cfm. A given set of criteria was monitored by the microcomputer to stop sampling during raining and calm period (<0.5 ms{sup -1}), and to start the pump when more than 60% of the wind direction data are within the designated sector. Two size fractions of the particulates were collected (coarse, 3.0-10 um, and fine, M 3.0 um) daily with a net sampling time of 16-24 hours. Elemental analysis was performed on the particulates sampled for their total and soluble contents using FTIR for the PAHs, Capillary Electrophoresis and DC Arc Plasma Emission Spectroscopy for soluble and total anion and cation analysis.

  3. Osteoprotegerin ameliorates sciatic nerve crush induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Bateman, T A; Dunstan, C R; Lacey, D L; Ferguson, V L; Ayers, R A; Simske, S J

    2001-07-01

    This study examines the ability of osteoprotegerin (OPG) to prevent the local bone resorption caused by sciatic nerve damage. Sixty-five 18-week-old male mice were assigned to one of six groups (n = 10-11/group). A baseline control group was sacrificed on day zero of the 10-day study. The remaining groups were placebo sham operated, placebo nerve crush (Plac NC) operated, 0.1 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (LOW), 0.3 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (MED), and 1.0 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (HI). Nerve crush or sham operations were performed on the right leg. The left leg served as a contralateral control to the nerve crushed (ipsilateral) leg. The difference in mass between the right and left femur and tibia was examined. Additionally, quantitative histomorphometry was performed on the right and left femur and tibia diaphyses. Nerve crush resulted in a significant loss of bone mass in the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral side. Bone mass for the ipsilateral bones of the Plac NC group were significantly reduced by 3.8% in the femur and 3.5% in the tibia compared to the contralateral limb. The percent diminution was reduced for OPG treated mice compared to the Plac NC group for both the femur and tibia. In the femur, the percent reduction of ipsilateral bone mass was reduced to 1.0% (LOW), 1.3% (MED) and 1.6% (HI) compared to the contralateral limb. In the tibia, loss of bone mass in the ipsilateral limb was reduced to 1.4% (LOW), 1.4% (MED), and 2.4% (HI) compared to the contralateral. OPG also decreased the amount of tibial endocortical resorption compared to the Plac NC group. In summary, OPG mitigated bone loss caused by damage to the sciatic nerve. PMID:11518255

  4. Concise total synthesis of water soluble metatacarboline A, C, D, E and F and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Badher; Mudiraj, Anwita; Khamushavalli, Geeviman; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2016-05-01

    The simple, concise, protecting group free and first total synthesis of Metatacarboline alkaloids (abbreviated as Mc) Mc A, C, D, E and F are reported. The core structure of metatacarboline alkaloids has been constructed by the classical Wittig reaction as key step from easily accessible starting materials with 40-75% overall yields. These synthesized compounds have been subjected to evaluate for their anticancer activity using C6 glioma cell lines. Mc D and Mc F showed significant antiproliferative activity, which was confirmed by MTT and Clonogenic assay. FACS analysis showed that Mc D and Mc F arrested the cell cycle at sub G0/G1 and G2/M phase of cell cycle respectively. Further, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of Mc D treated cells revealed activation of caspase dependent downstream signaling which led to apoptosis. PMID:26927685

  5. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  6. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set. PMID:26190596

  7. Effects of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy on Osteoprotegerin, Neopterin, and sRANKL Concentrations in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Katharina; Herold, Manfred; Russe, Elisabeth; Klotz, Werner; Weiss, Guenter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint erosions, progressive focal bone loss, and chronic inflammation. Methods. 20 female patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis were treated with anti-TNF-antibody adalimumab in addition to concomitant antirheumatic therapies. Patients were assessed for overall disease activity using the DAS28 score, and neopterin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) concentrations were determined before therapy and at week 12. Neopterin as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by commercial ELISAs. Results. Before anti-TNF therapy patients presented with high disease activity and elevated concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers. OPG concentrations correlated with neopterin (rs = 0.494, p = 0.027), but not with DAS28. OPG concentrations and disease activity scores declined during anti-TNF-treatment (both p < 0.02). Patients who achieved remission (n = 7) or showed a good response according to EULAR criteria (n = 13) presented with initially higher baseline OPG levels, which subsequently decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.018 for remission, p = 0.011 for good response). Conclusions. Adalimumab therapy was effective in modifying disease activity and reducing proinflammatory and bone remodelling cascades. PMID:26576067

  8. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-06-19

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  9. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-06-19

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:19393224

  10. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  11. The Function of Naringin in Inducing Secretion of Osteoprotegerin and Inhibiting Formation of Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tong; Wang, Lu; Tao, You; Ji, Yan; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the world. It is a metabolic disease characterized by reduction in bone mass due to an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoporosis causes fractures, prolongs bone healing, and impedes osseointegration of dental implants. Its pathological features include osteopenia, degradation of bone tissue microstructure, and increase of bone fragility. In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb Rhizoma Drynariae has been commonly used to treat osteoporosis and bone nonunion. However, the precise underlying mechanism is as yet unclear. Osteoprotegerin is a cytokine receptor shown to play an important role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Hence, activators and ligands of osteoprotegerin are promising drug targets and have been the focus of studies on the development of therapeutics against osteoporosis. In the current study, we found that naringin could synergistically enhance the action of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in promoting the secretion of osteoprotegerin by osteoblasts in vitro. In addition, naringin can also influence the generation of osteoclasts and subsequently bone loss during organ culture. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that natural compounds such as naringin have the potential to be used as alternative medicines for the prevention and treatment of osteolysis. PMID:26884798

  12. The Function of Naringin in Inducing Secretion of Osteoprotegerin and Inhibiting Formation of Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong; Wang, Lu; Tao, You; Ji, Yan; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the world. It is a metabolic disease characterized by reduction in bone mass due to an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoporosis causes fractures, prolongs bone healing, and impedes osseointegration of dental implants. Its pathological features include osteopenia, degradation of bone tissue microstructure, and increase of bone fragility. In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb Rhizoma Drynariae has been commonly used to treat osteoporosis and bone nonunion. However, the precise underlying mechanism is as yet unclear. Osteoprotegerin is a cytokine receptor shown to play an important role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Hence, activators and ligands of osteoprotegerin are promising drug targets and have been the focus of studies on the development of therapeutics against osteoporosis. In the current study, we found that naringin could synergistically enhance the action of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in promoting the secretion of osteoprotegerin by osteoblasts in vitro. In addition, naringin can also influence the generation of osteoclasts and subsequently bone loss during organ culture. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that natural compounds such as naringin have the potential to be used as alternative medicines for the prevention and treatment of osteolysis. PMID:26884798

  13. Influence of osteoclasts and osteoprotegerin on the mode of calcific degeneration of aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Lis, Grzegorz J; Czubek, Urszula; Jasek-Gajda, Ewa; Łoboda, Agnieszka; Dulak, Józef; Nessler, Jadwiga; Kapelak, Bogusław; Sadowski, Jerzy; Litwin, Jan A

    2016-03-22

    INTRODUCTION    Calcific aortic valve disease is associated with inflammation and calcification, thus the osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) system involved in osteoclastogenesis and inflammation may play a significant role in valve degeneration. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating OPG, sRANKL, and other bone metabolism markers can predict the presence of osteoclasts in stenotic valves and to evaluate their impact on the mode of degeneration. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study involved 60 patients with aortic stenosis who underwent valve replacement surgery and subsequently were divided into 2 groups: osteoclastic (n = 12) and nonosteoclastic (n = 48), according to the presence or absence of intravalvular osteoclasts. Before the surgery, we measured serum levels of OPG, sRANKL, osteocalcin, osteopontin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1β, and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to determine the extent of valve calcification, lipid accumulation, neovascularization, and the number and phenotype of macrophages. RESULTS    Compared with the nonosteoclastic group, patients with intravalvular osteoclasts had lower levels of OPG (P = 0.0006) and TNF-α (P = 0.02) and less frequently had diabetes (P = 0.04). Their valves showed higher incidence of ossification (P = 0.002), higher total (P = 0.008) and M2 macrophage counts (P = 0.0002), increased neovascularization (P = 0.003), and lower accumulation of lipids (P = 0.04). They also showed a negative correlation between valve calcification and age (r = -0.79, P = 0.002), which was not observed in patients without osteoclasts. In a multivariate analysis, low circulating OPG levels and the absence of diabetes were predictors of intravalvular osteoclastic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS    The presence of osteoclasts in stenotic valves associated with low circulating OPG levels and an

  14. Total and water-soluble phosphorus in broiler litter over three flocks with alum litter treatment and dietary inclusion of high available phosphorus corn and phytase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Moore, P A; Smith, D R; Rice, D W; Stilborn, H L; Rowe, D R; Lott, B D; Branton, S L; Simmons, J D

    2003-10-01

    Three pen trials were conducted to determine the main effect of alum addition to litter on form of poultry litter P using a 2 x 2 factorial structure of the subunit treatments: diets including high available phosphorus/low phytate corn (HAPC) and phytase (PHYT). Male broilers (1,760 per flock) were grown to 42 d having starter diets with 0.45% available P and grower diets with 0.35% available P. In the first trial, total litter P (tP) was greatest for the yellow dent corn (YDC) diet (12 g/kg) and least for the HAPC and PHYT combination (H&P) diet (6.9 g/kg) with the individual PHYT and HAPC diets falling in between at 9.1 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg tP. Also in the first trial, the litter water-soluble P (wP) was highest for PHYT (2.8 g/kg), least for the HAPC and H&P diets (1.5 g/kg) with the YDC diet falling between (2.2 g/kg). Alum was added to the litter after the first experiment. In the second and third experiments, alum inclusion significantly reduced the wP when compared with the treatments with no alum. In the third trial, the least wP was present in the alum-HAPC treatment. Phytase, YDC, and HAPC diets with no alum litter treatment generated the most wP. Since these diets appear to have little or no difference with respect to quantity of wP, this work suggests that form of litter P generated by alternative diets should be considered as criteria when attempting to reduce P in broiler litter applied to land. PMID:14601730

  15. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment. PMID:27085177

  16. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  17. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion. PMID

  18. Osteoprotegerin is Associated With Endothelial Function and Predicts Early Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Taichirou; Nakagomi, Akihiro; Kohashi, Keiichi; Kosugi, Munenori; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is linked to vascular atherosclerosis and calcification. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. The OPG levels are associated with the CIMT in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this pathway remain unclear. We investigated 114 CAD patients (89 men, 25 women; mean age: 68.7 ± 10.3 years) and measured the Gensini score (a marker of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis), the mean CIMT and the plasma levels of OPG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a marker of endothelial function). Early carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean CIMT > 1.0 mm. Only 33 of the 114 patients (28.9%) had early carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with early carotid atherosclerosis had higher OPG levels than those without. The OPG levels were found to be significantly associated with ADMA (r = 0.191, P = 0.046) and the mean CIMT (r = 0.319, P = 0.001), but not with the Gensini score. A receiver operating curve analysis revealed the optimal cut-off value of the OPG levels for predicting early carotid atherosclerosis to be 100 pmol/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed OPG ≥ 100 pmol/L to be significantly and independently associated with early carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 2.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.20, P = 0.017). These data indicate that OPG is significantly associated with endothelial function and predicts early carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CAD. PMID:26549398

  19. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

  20. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  1. Production of concentrates of mono- and dihydric phenols from the total water-soluble phenols formed in the high-speed pyrolysis of brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, E.I.; Belov, P.S.; Korenev, K.P.; Molchanova, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results are given of the separation of the water-soluble phenols obtained in the high-speed pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coals into uniform concentrates of mono- and dihydric phenols. It has been shown that the concentrate of monhydric phenols is suitable for working up by a known technology into phenolic products.

  2. Possible involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in PGE1-induced synthesis of osteoprotegerin in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    KAINUMA, SHINGO; OTSUKA, TAKANOBU; KUROYANAGI, GEN; YAMAMOTO, NAOHIRO; MATSUSHIMA-NISHIWAKI, RIE; KOZAWA, OSAMU; TOKUDA, HARUHIKO

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is firmly established as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. We have previously reported that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates the synthesis of osteoprotegerin through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The present study investigated the involvement of AMPK in PGE1-induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. The levels of osteoprotegerin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the phosphorylation of AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK were analyzed by western blotting. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of osteoprotegerin were determined by a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was revealed that PGE1 significantly induced the phosphorylation of the α and β subunits of AMPK in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). In addition, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct substrate of AMPK, was significantly phosphorylated by PGE1 (P<0.05). Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was revealed to suppress the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which significantly reduced the release and mRNA expression levels of PGE1-stimulated osteoprotegerin (P<0.05). However, the PGE1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK were not affected by compound C. The results of the present study indicated that AMPK may positively regulate PGE1-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts; thus providing novel insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying bone metabolism. PMID:27168848

  3. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  4. Changes in RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression after chronic exposure to indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with biomass fuel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with unprocessed biomass on membrane-bound and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand 1 (RANKL), its soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast precursor CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was investigated. Seventy-four pre-menopausal women from eastern India using biomass and 65 control women who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas were enrolled. PM10 and PM2.5 levels in their indoor air were measured with real-time aerosol monitors. The levels of membrane-bound RANKL on leukocytes and percentage CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in the subjects' blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Soluble RANKL and OPG in serum were measured by ELISA. The results showed that PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly higher in the indoor air of biomass-using households. Compared with the control women, the levels of CD4(+) and CD19(+) lymphocytes and circulating granulocytes with elevated levels of membrane-bound RANKL were higher in biomass users. The serum levels of RANKL were increased by 41% whereas serum OPG was reduced by 22% among biomass users. The absolute number of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was significantly increased in biomass users than the control women. After controlling for potential confounders, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were found to be positively associated with leukocyte and serum RANKL and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels, but negatively with serum OPG. From these results, we can conclude that chronic exposure to biomass smoke increased membrane-bound and soluble RANKL and circulating osteoclast precursors but decreased OPG, suggesting an increased risk of bone resorption and consequent osteoporosis in biomass-exposed women of a child-bearing age. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26691826

  5. Osteoprotegerin and RANKL in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengqian; Wang, Yu; Lu, Jingqiu; Xu, Jianhua

    2012-11-01

    Osteoporosis represents an important cause of morbidity in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who exhibit increased fracture risk. It is thought that osteoclast and its dysfunction which mediated by many cytokines are the principal pathogenesis of this bone disease, although the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) have been revealed in the pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of the OPG/RANKL system in RA-related bone loss. A total of 64 Chinese patients with RA and 60 healthy control subjects were involved. Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were measured by ELISA. BMD of nondominant forearm, lumbar spine(L(1-4)) and proximal femur, including femoral neck, Wards triangle, greater trochanter were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RA patients had a higher incidence of osteoporosis (23/64, 35.9%) than that in healthy controls (9/60, 15.0%) (P < 0.0001). They displayed lower BMD values than controls at positions of all detected region. Compared with healthy controls, RA group showed significantly higher serum levels of RANKL (48.4 ± 12.5 vs. 23.0 ± 11.2 pmol/l, P < 0.0001), lower serum levels of OPG (106.2 ± 40.6 vs. 231.6 ± 65.6 pg/ml, P < 0.0001), and OPG/RANKL ratio (2.4 ± 0.7 vs. 7.0 ± 1.1, P < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that in RA group, plasma rheumatoid factor concentration (β = -0.187, P = 0.031), swollen joint count (β = 0.567, P = 0.029), BMD at forearm (β = 0.324, P = 0.002), femoral Wards triangle (β = 0.370, P < 0.0001), and lumbar spine (β = 0.313, P = 0.003) were the contributors for serum OPG (R ( 2 ) = 0.718, P < 0.0001). Age (β = 0.241, P = 0.042) and BMD at femoral Wards triangle (β = -0.441, P < 0.0001) and lumbar spine (β = -0.320, P = 0.013) were the determinants for serum RANKL (R ( 2 ) = 0.616, P

  6. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. Isoliquiritigenin Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell-induced Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Ratio in Human Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Bone destruction induced by the metastasis of breast cancer cells is a frequent complication that is caused by the interaction between cancer cells and bone cells. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and the endogenous soluble RANKL inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), directly play critical roles in the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts. In patients with bone metastases, osteoclastic bone resorption promotes the majority of skeletal-related events and propagates bone metastases. Therefore, blocking osteoclast activity and differentiation via RANKL inhibition can be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer-associated bone diseases. We investigated the potential of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which has anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects, as a preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer cell-induced bone destruction. ISL at non-toxicity concentrations significantly inhibited the RANKL/OPG ratio by reducing the production of RANKL and restoring OPG production to control levels in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ISL reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated by CM of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, ISL may have inhibitory potential on breast cancer-induced bone destruction. PMID:26734591

  8. Isoliquiritigenin Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell-induced Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Ratio in Human Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Bone destruction induced by the metastasis of breast cancer cells is a frequent complication that is caused by the interaction between cancer cells and bone cells. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and the endogenous soluble RANKL inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), directly play critical roles in the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts. In patients with bone metastases, osteoclastic bone resorption promotes the majority of skeletal-related events and propagates bone metastases. Therefore, blocking osteoclast activity and differentiation via RANKL inhibition can be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer-associated bone diseases. We investigated the potential of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which has anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects, as a preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer cell-induced bone destruction. ISL at non-toxicity concentrations significantly inhibited the RANKL/OPG ratio by reducing the production of RANKL and restoring OPG production to control levels in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ISL reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated by CM of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, ISL may have inhibitory potential on breast cancer-induced bone destruction. PMID:26734591

  9. Diagnostic and Prognostic Properties of Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Acute Dyspnoea: Observations from the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Mohammed Osman; Pedersen, Marit Holmefjord; Brynildsen, Jon; Høiseth, Arne Didrik; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels are increased in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The diagnostic and prognostic merit of OPG measurement in patients admitted with acute dyspnoea is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of measuring OPG in patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea. Methods OPG was analysed by ELISA in 308 patients admitted due to acute dyspnoea. Investigators blinded to OPG results adjudicated the diagnosis for the index hospitalization. Clinical outcomes were obtained from hospital records. Results In total, 139 patients (45%) were hospitalized with acute HF. OPG levels on hospital admission were higher in patients with acute HF vs. no acute HF, 7.8 (5.5–10.4) vs. 5.4 (3.8–7.2) pmol/L, p<0.001. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC AUC) of OPG to discriminate between HF vs. non-HF was 0.695 [95% CI 0.636–0.754]. OPG did not provide incremental information to the ED physician’s prediction or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide regarding the diagnosis of acute HF. OPG levels (log transformed) were associated with mortality in crude analysis (HR (95% CI) 1.87 (1.34 to 2.61), p<0.001), but this association was attenuated and no longer significant after including established cardiac biomarkers into the model. Conclusion In patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea, OPG levels are higher in patients with acute HF than in those with dyspnoea from other causes. However, OPG does not provide incremental information beyond ED physician assessment for the diagnosis of acute HF or beyond clinical risk variables and established cardiac biomarkers concerning prognosis. PMID:27463973

  10. The effect of zoledronic acid on serum dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin, and RANKL in patients with Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, S A; Anastasilakis, A D; Efstathiadou, Z; Kita, M; Litsas, I; Avramidis, A; Arsos, G; Moralidis, E; Gerou, S; Pavlidou, V; Papatheodorou, A; Terpos, E

    2009-11-01

    Overexpression of dickkopf (DKK)-1 in pagetic osteoblast cultures resulted in stimulation of osteoclast proliferation and inhibition of osteoblast growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time in Paget's disease of bone (PDB): 1) the serum levels of DKK1; 2) the association of DKK-1 with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG); and 3) the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on serum DKK-1, RANKL, and OPG. The study was conducted as a prospective open-label cohort study. Eleven patients with PDB (median age 60 years) were recruited. Twelve age- gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy individuals were used as controls at baseline. Blood samples were obtained before treatment (baseline) and after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following ZOL infusion in patients with PDB. Patients with PDB had significantly higher RANKL (p=0.002), OPG (p=0.001), and bone markers (total alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen) compared with controls at baseline. There was no difference between groups in DKK-1 at baseline. Bone markers were both significantly decreased after therapy. Serum OPG, RANKL, RANKL:OPG ratio, and DKK-1 remained unaffected throughout the study. No correlations were found between OPG, RANKL, RANKL:OPG ratio, and DKK-1 at baseline nor between their changes during the study. Although both OPG and RANKL were increased in patients with PDB, ZOL had no effect on their serum levels. Serum DKK-1 was neither increased in patients with PDB nor related to OPG and RANKL, and was unaffected by ZOL. PMID:19670154

  11. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  12. Osteoprotegerin, Pericytes and Bone-Like Vascular Calcification Are Associated with Carotid Plaque Stability

    PubMed Central

    Davaine, Jean-Michel; Quillard, Thibaut; Brion, Régis; Lapérine, Olivier; Guyomarch, Béatrice; Merlini, Thierry; Chatelais, Mathias; Guilbaud, Florian; Brennan, Meadhbh Áine; Charrier, Céline; Heymann, Dominique; Gouëffic, Yann; Heymann, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vascular calcification, recapitulating bone formation, has a profound impact on plaque stability. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of bone-like vascular calcification (named osteoid metaplasia = OM) and of osteoprotegerin on plaque stability. Methods Tissue from carotid endarterectomies were analysed for the presence of calcification and signs of vulnerability according to AHA grading system. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), pericytes and endothelial cells were sought using immuno-histochemistry. Symptoms and preoperative imaging findings (CT-scan, MRI and Doppler-scan) were analyzed. Human pericytes were cultured to evaluate their ability to secrete OPG and to influence mineralization in the plaque. Results Seventy-three carotid plaques (49 asymptomatic and 24 symptomatic) were harvested. A significantly higher presence of OM (18.4% vs 0%, p<0.01), OPG (10.2% of ROI vs 3.4% of ROI, p<0.05) and pericytes (19% of ROI vs 3.8% of ROI, p<0.05) were noted in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic plaques. Consistently, circulating OPG levels were higher in the plasma of asymptomatic patients (3.2 ng/mL vs 2.5 ng/mL, p = 0.05). In vitro, human vascular pericytes secreted considerable amounts of OPG and underwent osteoblastic differentiation. Pericytes also inhibited the osteoclastic differentiation of CD14+ cells through their secretion of OPG. Conclusions OPG (intraplaque an plasmatic) and OM are associated with carotid plaque stability. Pericytes may be involved in the secretion of intraplaque OPG and in the formation of OM. PMID:25259713

  13. Total Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as Predictive Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colhoun, Helen M.; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham; Neil, Andrew; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Bao, Weihang; DeMicco, David A.; Preston, Gregory M.; Deshmukh, Harshal; Tan, Kathryn; Fuller, John H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) likely comprise both a secreted isoform (esRAGE) and wild-type RAGE cleaved from the cell membrane. Both sRAGE and esRAGE have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but prospective data are limited. We examined the relationship of sRAGE and esRAGE to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients followed for 3.9 years in a trial of atorvastatin: the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a nested case-control design sampling all incident cases of CVD with available plasma and randomly selecting three control subjects, who were free of CVD throughout follow-up, per case. Analysis was by Cox regression with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. RESULTS sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.88) and were both higher in those with lower BMI (P < 0.001), higher adiponectin (P < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.009), and white ethnicity (P < 0.001). Both sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with incident CHD events, independently of treatment allocation and the above factors; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74 (95% CI 1.25–2.41; P = 0.002) for a doubling of the sRAGE level; HR = 1.45 (1.11–1.89; P = 0.006) for a doubling of the esRAGE level. There was no significant association with stroke; HR for sRAGE = 0.66 (0.38–1.14). Atorvastatin, 10 mg daily, did not alter sRAGE. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of sRAGE and esRAGE are associated with incident CHD but not stroke in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21771973

  14. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  15. Compartmental flux and in situ methods underestimate total feed nitrogen as judged by the omasal sampling method due to ignoring soluble feed nitrogen flow.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, Pekka; Bayat, Alireza; Krizsan, Sophie J; Vanhatalo, Aila

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate ruminal feed N outflow in lactating cows using the omasal sampling, compartmental flux or in situ method. A total of five ruminally fistulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square study with 21 d periods. Experimental silages of grass or red clover harvested at two stages of maturity in addition to a supplement of 9·0 kg concentrate/d were fed to the cows. In vivo omasal N flow was determined using the omasal sampling technique. Ruminal in situ N flow was calculated from N intake and degradability (38 μm nylon bags). The samples of ruminal contents and faeces were divided into seven particle-size fractions by wet sieving; the concentrations of indigestible neutral-detergent fibre and N were used to calculate N flow in the compartmental flux method. In vivo omasal N flow was greater for the red clover silage diets than for the grass silage diets. The N flow calculated using the compartmental flux technique and that calculated using the in situ technique were highly correlated, but both were less than and poorly correlated with the in vivo N flow. In both in situ and compartmental flux techniques, forage maturity increased the particle-associated N flow, with the increase being significantly greater for the red clover diets than for the grass silage diets. In conclusion, the compartmental flux and in situ methods described the N flow associated with the particle fractions rather than the total ruminal outflow of feed N. PMID:23962678

  16. A fast and accurate method for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its comparison with established techniques.

    PubMed

    Gleisner, Heike; Einax, Jürgen W; Morés, Silvane; Welz, Bernhard; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    A fast and reliable method has been developed for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste, important quality control parameters in dentifrices. The method is based on the molecular absorption of gallium mono-fluoride, GaF, using a commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. Transversely heated platform tubes with zirconium as permanent chemical modifier were used throughout. Before each sample injection, a palladium and zirconium modifier solution and a gallium reagent were deposited onto the graphite platform and thermally pretreated to transform them into their active forms. The samples were only diluted and introduced directly into the graphite tube together with additional gallium reagent. Under these conditions the fluoride was stable up to a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, and the optimum vaporization (molecule formation) temperature was 1550 °C. The GaF molecular absorption was measured at 211.248 nm, and the limits of detection and quantification were 5.2 pg and 17 pg, respectively, corresponding to a limit of quantification of about 30 μg g(-1) (ppm) F in the original toothpaste. The proposed method was used for the determination of total and soluble fluorine content in toothpaste samples from different manufactures. The samples contained different ionic fluoride species and sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) with covalently bonded fluorine. The results for total fluorine were compared with those obtained with a modified conventional headspace gas chromatographic procedure. Accuracy and precision of the two procedures were comparable, but the proposed procedure was much less labor-intensive, and about five times faster than the latter one. PMID:21215545

  17. In vitro evaluation of osteoprotegerin in chitosan for potential bone defect applications

    PubMed Central

    Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, NA

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. OPG has been used systemically in the treatment of bone diseases. In searching for more effective and safer treatment for bone diseases, we investigated newly formulated OPG-chitosan complexes, which is prepared as a local application for its osteogenic potential to remediate bone defects. Methods We examined high, medium and low molecular weights of chitosan combined with OPG. The cytotoxicity of OPG in chitosan and its proliferation in vitro was evaluated using normal, human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts in 2D and 3D cell culture. The cytotoxicity of these combinations was compared by measuring cell survival with a tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and AlamarBlue assay. The cellular morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope. A propidium iodide and acridine orange double-staining assay was used to evaluate the morphology and quantify the viable and nonviable cells. The expression level of osteopontin and osteocalcin protein in treated normal human osteoblast cells was evaluated by using Western blot. Results The results demonstrated that OPG in combination with chitosan was non-toxic, and OPG combined with low molecular weight chitosan has the most significant effect on NHPL fibroblasts and stimulates proliferation of cells over the period of treatment.

  18. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  19. The role of biosilica in the osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio in human osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Kolb, Ute; Schlossmacher, Ute; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-10-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that biosilica, synthesized by the enzyme silicatein, induces hydroxyapatite formation in osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Here we study the effect of biosilica on the expressions of osteoprotegerin [OPG] and the receptor activator for NF-kappaB ligand [RANKL] in the SaOS-2 cell model. We show that during growth of SaOS-2 cells on biosiliceous matrices hydroxyapatite formation is induced, while syntheses of cartilaginous proteoglycans and sulfated glycosaminoglycans are down-regulated. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed a strong time-depended increase in expression of OPG in biosilica exposed SaOS-2 cells while the steady-state expression level of RANKL remained unchanged. These results have been corroborated on the protein level by ELISA assays. Therefore, we propose that biosilica stimulated OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like cells counteracts those pathways that control RANKL expression and function (e.g. maturation of pre-osteoclasts and activation of osteoclasts). Hence, the data obtained in the present study reveal the considerable biomedical potential of biosilica for treatment and prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders. PMID:20673584

  20. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Corrales, Alfonso; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease –IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patients and their clinical and demographic characteristics were also evaluated. Whereas OPG and OPG/TRAIL ratio expression were significantly increased in RA patients compared to controls (fold change = 1.79, p = 0.013 and 2.07, p = 0.030, respectively), RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly decreased (fold change = 0.50, p = 0.020). No significant differences were found between patients and controls in RANKL and TRAIL expression. Interestingly, TRAIL expression was significantly higher in RA patients with IHD compared to those without IHD (fold change = 1.46, p = 0.033). Moreover, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) significantly decreased RANKL expression in RA patients (p = 0.016). Our study supports an important role of OPG and TRAIL in RA. Furthermore, it highlights an effect of biologic DMARDs in the modulation of RANKL. PMID:27403809

  1. Effects of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL on bone destruction and collapse in avascular necrosis femoral head.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ming-Yue; Liu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Shi-Qiong; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Gao, Hang-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVFH) is a clinically recalcitrant disease of hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulates the balance, maturation and function of osteoclast and bone remodeling. This study aims to investigate molecular pathways which leads to AVN by studying expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR is used to evaluate mRNA expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL. mRNA and protein level in normal and necrotic tissue from 42 samples of ANFH specimens were analyzed. OPG and RANKL protein levels are estimated by western blotting. The results indicated that OPG mRNA levels are higher but not significantly different in necrotic tissue than that in normal tissue (P>0.05). Although expression of RANK and RANKL is significantly lower than that of OPG, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels are higher in necrotic tissue than normal tissue (P<0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL show no significant difference. In conclusion, OPG, RANK and RANKL play important role in progress of bone remodeling in necrotic area and in disturbance of bone homeostasis, which might have an effect on bone destruction and subsequent collapse of hip joint. PMID:27508034

  2. Osteoprotegerin Polymorphisms in a Mexican Population with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Generalized Osteoporosis: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Cornejo-Toledo, Jesus Alejandro; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Aguilar-Chavez, Erika Anita; Alcaraz-Lopez, Miriam Fabiola; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Alicia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex phenomenon where genetic risk factors have been partially evaluated. The system formed by receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG): RANK/RANKL/OPG is a crucial molecular pathway for coupling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, since OPG is able to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activation. We aim to evaluate the association between SNPs C950T (rs2073617), C209T (rs3134069), T245G (rs3134070) in the TNFRSF11B (OPG) gene, and osteoporosis in RA. We included 81 women with RA and 52 healthy subjects in a cross-sectional study, genotyped them, and measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. Mean age in RA was 50 ± 12 with disease duration of 12 ± 8 years. According to BMD results, 23 (33.3%) were normal and 46 (66.7%) had osteopenia/osteoporosis. We found a higher prevalence of C allele for C950T SNP in RA. Polymorphisms C209T and T245G did not reach statistical significance in allele distribution. Further studies including patients from other regions of Latin America with a multicenter design to increase the sample size are required to confirm our findings and elucidate if C950T SNP could be associated with osteoporosis in RA. PMID:26065000

  3. Osteoprotegerin expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells promotes metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Weichhaus, Michael; Segaran, Prabu; Renaud, Ashleigh; Geerts, Dirk; Connelly, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that has been well characterized as a negative regulator of bone remodeling. OPG is also expressed in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. In vitro studies suggest that OPG exerts tumor-promoting effects by binding to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), thereby preventing induction of apoptosis. However, the in vivo effect of OPG expression by primary breast tumors has not been characterized. We knocked down OPG expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cells using shRNA and siRNA to investigate impact on metastasis in the chick embryo model. We observed a reduction in metastasis with OPG knockdown cells. We found that lowering OPG expression did not alter sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis; however, the OPG knockdown cells had a reduced level of invasion. In association with this we observed reduced expression of the proteases Cathepsin D and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 upon OPG knockdown, indicating that OPG may promote metastasis via modulation of protease expression and invasion. We conclude that OPG has a metastasis-promoting effect in breast cancer cells. PMID:24976340

  4. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Corrales, Alfonso; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease -IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patients and their clinical and demographic characteristics were also evaluated. Whereas OPG and OPG/TRAIL ratio expression were significantly increased in RA patients compared to controls (fold change = 1.79, p = 0.013 and 2.07, p = 0.030, respectively), RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly decreased (fold change = 0.50, p = 0.020). No significant differences were found between patients and controls in RANKL and TRAIL expression. Interestingly, TRAIL expression was significantly higher in RA patients with IHD compared to those without IHD (fold change = 1.46, p = 0.033). Moreover, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) significantly decreased RANKL expression in RA patients (p = 0.016). Our study supports an important role of OPG and TRAIL in RA. Furthermore, it highlights an effect of biologic DMARDs in the modulation of RANKL. PMID:27403809

  5. Osteoprotegerin in Exosome-Like Vesicles from Human Cultured Tubular Cells and Urine

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Martin, Alberto; Ucero, Alvaro Conrado; Zubiri, Irene; Posada-Ayala, Maria; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Ortiz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Urinary exosomes have been proposed as potential diagnostic tools. TNF superfamily cytokines and receptors may be present in exosomes and are expressed by proximal tubular cells. We have now studied the expression of selected TNF superfamily proteins in exosome-like vesicles from cultured human proximal tubular cells and human urine and have identified additional proteins in these vesicles by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Human proximal tubular cells constitutively released exosome-like vesicles that did not contain the TNF superfamily cytokines TRAIL or TWEAK. However, exosome-like vesicles contained osteoprotegerin (OPG), a TNF receptor superfamily protein, as assessed by Western blot, ELISA or selected reaction monitoring by nLC-(QQQ)MS/MS. Twenty-one additional proteins were identified in tubular cell exosome-like vesicles, including one (vitamin D binding protein) that had not been previously reported in exosome-like vesicles. Twelve were extracellular matrix proteins, including the basement membrane proteins type IV collagen, nidogen-1, agrin and fibulin-1. Urine from chronic kidney disease patients contained a higher amount of exosomal protein and exosomal OPG than urine from healthy volunteers. Specifically OPG was increased in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease urinary exosome-like vesicles and expressed by cystic epithelium in vivo. In conclusion, OPG is present in exosome-like vesicles secreted by proximal tubular epithelial cells and isolated from Chronic Kidney Disease urine. PMID:24058411

  6. Effects of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL on bone destruction and collapse in avascular necrosis femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ming-Yue; Liu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Shi-Qiong; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Gao, Hang-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVFH) is a clinically recalcitrant disease of hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulates the balance, maturation and function of osteoclast and bone remodeling. This study aims to investigate molecular pathways which leads to AVN by studying expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR is used to evaluate mRNA expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL. mRNA and protein level in normal and necrotic tissue from 42 samples of ANFH specimens were analyzed. OPG and RANKL protein levels are estimated by western blotting. The results indicated that OPG mRNA levels are higher but not significantly different in necrotic tissue than that in normal tissue (P>0.05). Although expression of RANK and RANKL is significantly lower than that of OPG, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels are higher in necrotic tissue than normal tissue (P<0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL show no significant difference. In conclusion, OPG, RANK and RANKL play important role in progress of bone remodeling in necrotic area and in disturbance of bone homeostasis, which might have an effect on bone destruction and subsequent collapse of hip joint. PMID:27508034

  7. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin’s effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  8. Variants of Osteoprotegerin Lacking TRAIL Binding for Therapeutic Bone Remodeling in Osteolytic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Jerome T.; Jarboe, John S.; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Chanda, Diptiman; Lee, Carnellia M.; Deivanayagam, Champion; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2015-01-01

    Osteolytic bone damage is a major cause of morbidity in several metastatic pathologies. Current therapies using bisphosphonates provide modest improvement, but cytotoxic side effects still occur prompting the need to develop more effective therapies to target aggressive osteoclastogenesis. Increased levels of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (TNFSF11/RANKL), leading to RANKL-RANK signaling, remains the key axis for osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B/OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL is significantly decreased in patients who present with bone lesions. Despite its potential in inhibiting osteoclast activation, OPG also binds to tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10/TRAIL), making tumor cells resistant to apoptosis. Towards uncoupling the events of TRAIL binding of OPG and to improve its utility for bone remodeling without inducing tumor resistance to apoptosis, OPG mutants were developed by structural homology modeling based on interactive domain identification and by superimposing models of OPG, TRAIL and its receptor DR5 (TNFRSF10B) to identify regions of OPG for rational design. The OPG mutants were purified and extensively characterized for their ability to decrease osteoclast damage without affecting tumor apoptosis pathway both in vitro and in vivo, confirming their potential in bone remodeling following cancer-induced osteolytic damage. PMID:25636966

  9. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  10. Use of spaceflight and spaceflight simulation to evaluate osteoprotegerin for treatment of disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Simske, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered naturally circulating protein (Amgen Inc.) that plays a role in regulating bone density. It inhibits the ability of osteoclasts to resorb bone by blocking the action of OPG ligand (OPGL). This limits osteoclastogenesis and the activation of mature osteoclasts and induces osteoclast apoptosis. Transgenic mice, altered to over-express OPG, develop increased bone density via dual X-ray absorptiometry analysis, similar to that of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice. Recombinant injection of OPG in mice increases metaphyseal trabecular bone volume of both the proximal tibia and distal femur. Recombinant OPG also ameliorates the effects of estrogen loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, causing an increase in bone volume and decreased osteoclast numbers relative to placebo controls. OPG has been examined for its ability to treat both tail suspension and nerve crush. OPG returns the mechanical properties of tail suspended mice to the levels of placebo treated nonsuspended controls. This increase in mechanical properties is not caused by returning formation levels to normal, but rather by inhibiting resorption while increasing percent mineral composition. OPG is also efficacious in treating nerve crush induced osteoporosis. The differences in bone mass (a consequence of disuse) between the crushed limb and contralateral control (noncrushed) is decreased by OPG treatment. .

  11. Effects of Minocycline on Urine Albumin, Interleukin-6, and Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Tong, Lili; Pak, Youngju; Andalibi, Ali; LaPage, Janine A.; Adler, Sharon G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We tested minocycline as an anti-proteinuric adjunct to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and measured urinary biomarkers to evaluate minocycline’s biological effects. Methods Design: Prospective, single center, randomized, placebo-controlled, intention-to-treat pilot trial. Inclusion. Type 2 diabetes/DN; Baseline creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min; proteinuria ≥ 1.0 g/day; Age ≥30 years; BP <150/95 mm Hg; intolerant of/at maximum RAASi dose. Protocol. 3-wk screening; Baseline randomization; Urine and blood measures at months 1, 2, 4, and Month 6 study completion. Urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin were measured in a subset. Primary outcome. Natural log of urine protein/creatinine (ln U P:Cr) ratio at Month 6 vs Baseline. Results 30 patients completed the study. The 15% decline in U P: Cr in minocycline patients (6 month P:Cr ÷ Baseline P:Cr, 0.85 vs. 0.92) was not significant (p = 0.27). Creatinine clearance did not differ in the 2 groups. Urine IL-6:Cr (p = 0.03) and osteoprotegerin/Cr (p = 0.046) decrements were significant. Minocycline modified the relationship between urine IL-6 and proteinuria, suggesting a protective biological effect. Conclusions Although the decline in U P:Cr in minocycline patients was not statistically significant, the significant differences in urine IL-6 and osteoprotegerin suggest that minocycline may confer cytoprotection in patients with DN, providing a rationale for further study. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01779089 PMID:27019421

  12. Distribution of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in calcified human carotid atheroma.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Catherine L; Isbilir, Salim; Basto, Pamela; Chen, Iou Yih; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vaduganathan, Periyanan; Reardon, Michael J; Lawrie, Gerald; Peterson, Leif; Morrisett, Joel D

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic vascular calcification is a significant component of atherosclerotic disease. Osteopontin (OPN), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are each thought to play central roles in the calcification or demineralization of atherosclerotic lesions. Abnormalities in the balance of these proteins may lead to perturbations in bone remodeling and arterial calcification. The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of these proteins in human carotid lesions and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) whereby they control the deposition or depletion of arterial calcification. Thirty-three patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within the previous 18 months and 11 control patients were enrolled. CEA specimens were analyzed by EBCT for calcification content in terms of Agatston (AGAT) and Volume scores. CEA specimens were then cut into 5 mm segments which were homogenized and extracted. Extracts were analyzed for tissue levels of calcium, phosphorus, ALP, OPN, RANKL, and OPG. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for the same components. In CEA tissue segments, the calcification levels (CHA AGAT) were inversely associated with the levels of OPG (r = -0.432/-0.579, p < 0.05) and positively associated with the levels of RANKL (r = 0.332/0.415, p < 0.05). In turn, the tissue levels of OPG were associated with homologous serum levels of OPG (r = 0.820/0.389, p < 0.001), and the tissue levels of RANKL were associated with the serum levels of homologous RANKL (r = 0.739/0.666, p < 0.0001). This study suggests that serum levels of OPG and RANKL may be useful biomarkers for estimating the degree of calcification in carotid atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26307009

  13. No evidence of circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin in patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Nazionale, Immacolata; Leone, Isabella; Montalcini, Tiziana; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Imeneo, Maria; Pujia, Arturo; Luzza, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in celiac disease (CD) patients, focusing on circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG). METHODS: Seventy asymptomatic CD adult patients on gluten-free diet (GFD) and harbouring persistent negative CD-related serology were recruited. Conventional risk factors for osteoporosis (e.g., age, sex, menopausal status, history of fractures, smoke, and body mass index) were checked and BMD was assessed by dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy. Serum samples from a selected sub-group of 30 patients, who were also typed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 haplotype, were incubated with homodimeric recombinant human OPG and tested by western blotting with an anti-OPG antibody after immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Despite persistent negative CD-related serology and strict adherence to GFD, 49 out of the 70 (74%) patients displayed low BMD. Among these patients, 13 (24%) showed osteoporosis and 36 (76%) osteopenia. With the exception of age, conventional risk factors for osteoporosis did not differ between patients with normal and low BMD. Circulating serum calcium and PTH levels were normal in all patients. Duodenal mucosa healing was found in 31 (82%) out of 38 patients who underwent repeat duodenal biopsy with 20 (64%) still displaying low BMD. The remaining 7 patients had an incomplete normalization of duodenal mucosa with 6 (84%) showing low BMD. No evidence of circulating antibodies against OPG was found in the serum of 30 celiac patients who were tested for, independent of BMD, duodenal histology, and HLA status. CONCLUSION: If any, the role of circulating autoantibodies against OPG in the pathogenesis of bone derangement in patients with CD is not a major one. PMID:22529691

  14. Association of osteoprotegerin and bone loss after adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Drew R.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Reinbolt, Raquel E.; Pan, Xueliang; Wesolowski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure (CIOF) results in rapid bone loss. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANK-L) signaling balances bone resorption and formation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for RANK, interrupting osteoclast activation and bone resorption. This study examined the relationship between OPG and bone loss in women with CIOF. Methods Premenopausal women with stage I/II breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated at chemotherapy initiation, 6 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ionized calcium, osteocalcin, and OPG were serially measured. CIOF was defined as a negative pregnancy test, FSH levels >30 MIU/mL, and ≥3 months of amenorrhea. Results Forty women were enrolled; 31 (77.5%) met CIOF criteria. BMD significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the CIOF group at both time points: LS BMD decreased from a median of 0.993 g/cm2 to 0.976 g/cm2 and 0.937 g/cm2 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. OPG was significantly elevated at 6 months (median increase 0.30 pmol/L, p = 0.015) and then decreased at 12 months to levels still above baseline (median difference 0.2 pmol/L, p = 0.70). Conclusions In what was likely a compensatory response to rapid bone loss, CIOF patients’ OPG levels increased at 6 months and then decreased at 12 months to values greater than baseline assessments. This phenomenon is described in other diseases, but never before in CIOF. PMID:25575458

  15. Auricular ossification: A newly recognized feature of osteoprotegerin-deficiency juvenile Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Gary S; Madson, Katherine L; McAlister, William H; Nenninger, Angela; Wenkert, Deborah; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    We report auricular ossification (AO) affecting the elastic cartilage of the ear as a newly recognized feature of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-deficiency juvenile Paget disease (JPD). AO and auricular calcification refer interchangeably to rigid pinnae, sparing the ear lobe, from various etiologies. JPD is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity accompanied by skeletal pain and deformity from rapid bone turnover. Autosomal recessive transmission of loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B encoding OPG accounts for most JPD (JPD1). JPD2 results from heterozygous constitutive activation of TNFRSF11A encoding RANK. Other causes of JPD remain unknown. In 2007, we reported a 60-year-old man with JPD1 who described hardening of his external ears at age 45 years, after 4 years of treatment with bisphosphonates (BPs). Subsequently, we noted rigid pinnae in a 17-year-old boy and 14-year-old girl, yet pliable pinnae in a 12-year-old boy, each with JPD1 and several years of BP treatment. Cranial imaging indicated cortical bone within the pinnae of both teenagers. Radiologic studies of our three JPD patients without mutations in TNFRSF11B showed normal auricles. Review of the JPD literature revealed possible AO in several reports. Two of our JPD1 patients had experienced difficult tracheal intubation, raising concern for mineralization of laryngeal elastic cartilage. Thus, AO is a newly recognized feature of JPD1, possibly exacerbated by BP treatment. Elastic cartilage at other sites in JPD1 might also ossify, and warrants investigation. PMID:26762549

  16. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  17. Marked Elevation in Plasma Osteoprotegerin Constitutes an Early and Consistent Feature of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    O’Regan, Niamh; Moxon, Chris; Gegenbauer, Kristina; O’Sullivan, Jamie M.; Chion, Alain; Smith, Owen P.; Preston, Roger J. S.; Brophy, Teresa M.; Craig, Alister G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adherence of infected erythrocytes to vascular endothelium causes acute endothelial cell (EC) activation during Plasmodium falciparum infection. Consequently, proteins stored in Weibel-Palade (WP) bodies within EC are secreted into the plasma. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) binds to VWF and consequently is stored within WP bodies. Given the critical role of EC activation in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, we investigated plasma OPG levels in children with P. falciparum malaria. At presentation, plasma OPG levels were significantly elevated in children with cerebral malaria (CM) compared to healthy controls (means 16.0 vs 0.8 ng/ml; p<0.01). Importantly, OPG levels were also significantly higher in children with CM who had a fatal outcome, compared to children with CM who survived. Finally, in children with CM, plasma OPG levels correlated with other established prognostic indices (including plasma lactate levels and peripheral parasite density). To further investigate the relationship between severe malaria and OPG, we utilised a murine model of experimental CM in which C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. Interestingly, plasma OPG levels were increased 4.6 fold within 24 hours following P. berghei inoculation. This early marked elevation in OPG levels was observed before any objective clinical signs were apparent, and preceded the development of peripheral blood parasitaemia. As the mice became increasingly unwell, plasma OPG levels progressively increased. Collectively, these data suggest that OPG constitutes a novel biomarker with prognostic significance in patients with severe malaria. In addition, further studies are required to determine whether OPG plays a role in modulating malaria pathogenesis. PMID:26766771

  18. Functional human T-cell immunity and osteoprotegerin ligand control alveolar bone destruction in periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yen-Tung A.; Nguyen, Hai; Gao, Xuijuan; Kong, Young-Yun; Gorczynski, Reginald M.; Singh, Bhagirath; Ellen, Richard P.; Penninger, Josef M.

    2000-01-01

    Periodontitis, a prime cause of tooth loss in humans, is implicated in the increased risk of systemic diseases such as heart failure, stroke, and bacterial pneumonia. The mechanisms by which periodontitis and antibacterial immunity lead to alveolar bone and tooth loss are poorly understood. To study the human immune response to specific periodontal infections, we transplanted human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HuPBLs) from periodontitis patients into NOD/SCID mice. Oral challenge of HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a well-known Gram-negative anaerobic microorganism that causes human periodontitis, activates human CD4+ T cells in the periodontium and triggers local alveolar bone destruction. Human CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells or B cells, are identified as essential mediators of alveolar bone destruction. Stimulation of CD4+ T cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans induces production of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPG-L), a key modulator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In vivo inhibition of OPG-L function with the decoy receptor OPG diminishes alveolar bone destruction and reduces the number of periodontal osteoclasts after microbial challenge. These data imply that the molecular explanation for alveolar bone destruction observed in periodontal infections is mediated by microorganism-triggered induction of OPG-L expression on CD4+ T cells and the consequent activation of osteoclasts. Inhibition of OPG-L may thus have therapeutic value to prevent alveolar bone and/or tooth loss in human periodontitis. This article may have been published online in advance of the print edition. The date of publication is available from the JCI website, http://www.jci.org. J. Clin. Invest. 106:R59–R67 (2000). PMID:10995794

  19. Serum, saliva, and GCF concentration of RANKL and osteoprotegerin in smokers versus nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Saied-Moallemi, Zahra; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Naseri, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of host response in periodontitis pathogenesis is confirmed, and it is well established that immune response plays a major role in the alveolar bone destruction. In the investigation of these responses, the role of receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is the most promising. Smoking can affect the RANKL-OPG system in a manner that will further enhance bone loss in periodontitis. The aim of this study is to assess the serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentration of RANKL and OPG in smoker versus nonsmoker untreated chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine subjects were included in the present cross-sectional study: 29 systemically healthy CP male patients (15 smokers, 14 nonsmokers) and 10 systemically and periodontally healthy nonsmoker male subjects. Serum, GCF, and whole saliva samples were obtained from the subjects. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used for assaying the concentrations of RANKL and OPG in the samples. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test were utilized to compare differences between the groups. Results: RANKL and OPG concentrations in saliva, serum, and GCF did not show any significant difference among all groups (P > 0.05). Salivary RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the nonsmoker CP group than in the healthy control group (P > 0.05) but they were not statistically significant among smoker periodontitis patients. Conclusions: The salivary RANKL/OPG ratio was higher in nonsmokers with periodontitis in comparison with smoker periodontitis patients. PMID:27195253

  20. Serum osteoprotegerin is associated with pulse pressure in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsofia K.; Mardare, Nicoleta G.; Czira, Maria E.; Deak, Gyorgy; Kiss, Istvan; Mathe, Zoltan; Remport, Adam; Ujszaszi, Akos; Covic, Adrian; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Mucsi, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP) reflects increased large artery stiffness, which is caused, in part, by arterial calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease. PP has been shown to predict both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in various patient populations, including kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a marker and regulator of arterial calcification, and it is related to cardiovascular survival in hemodialysis patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPG is associated with increased pulse pressure. We cross-sectionally analyzed the association between serum OPG and PP in a prevalent cohort of 969 KTX patients (mean age: 51 +/− 13 years, 57% male, 21% diabetics, mean eGFR 51 +/− 20 ml/min/1.73 m2). Independent associations were tested in a linear regression model adjusted for multiple covariables. PP was positively correlated with serum OPG (rho = 0.284, p < 0.001). Additionally, a positive correlation was seen between PP versus age (r = 0.358, p < 0.001), the Charlson Comorbidity Index (r = 0.232, p < 0.001), serum glucose (r = 0.172, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.133, p = 0.001) and serum cholesterol (r = 0.094, p = 0.003). PP was negatively correlated with serum Ca, albumin and eGFR. The association between PP and OPG remained significant after adjusting for multiple potentially relevant covariables (beta = 0.143, p < 0.001). We conclude that serum OPG is independently associated with pulse pressure in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26459001

  1. Osteoprotegerin exposure at different stages of osteoclastogenesis differentially affects osteoclast formation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Gu, Jianhong; Dai, Nannan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Dong; Song, Ruilong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Liu, Zongping

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), during the various stages of osteoclast differentiation, and additionally investigate its effects on osteoclast adhesion and activity. RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells were incubated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANKL for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days, followed by an additional 24-h incubation in the presence or absence of OPG (80 ng/mL). We examined osteoclast differentiation and adhesion capacity using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and immunofluorescence microscopy, and additionally examined cell growth in real time using the xCELLigence system. Furthermore, the expression levels of TRAP, RANK, integrin β3, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and vesicular-type H(+)-ATPase A1 were examined using western blotting. OPG exposure on day 1 enhanced the osteoclast growth curve as well as adhesion, and increased RANK and integrin β3 expression. In contrast, exposure to OPG at later time points (days 3-7) inhibited osteoclast differentiation, adhesion structure formation, and protease expression. In conclusion, the biological effects of OPG exposure at the various stages of osteoclast differentiation were varied, and included the enhanced adhesion and survival of preosteoclasts, the block of differentiation from the early to the terminal stages of osteoclastogenesis, and suppression of mature osteoclast activation following OPG exposure during the terminal differentiation stage, suggesting that the effects of OPG exposure differ based on the stage of differentiation. PMID:26044733

  2. Characterization of osteoprotegerin binding to glycosaminoglycans by surface plasmon resonance: Role in the interactions with receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and RANK

    SciTech Connect

    Theoleyre, S.; Kwan Tat, S.; Vusio, P.; Blanchard, F.; Gallagher, J.; Ricard-Blum, S.; Fortun, Y.; Padrines, M.; Redini, F.; Heymann, D. . E-mail: dominique.heymann@univ-nantes.fr

    2006-08-25

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL), a key inducer of osteoclastogenesis via its receptor RANK. We previously showed that RANK, RANKL, and OPG are able to form a tertiary complex and that OPG must be also considered as a direct effector of osteoclast functions. As OPG contains a heparin-binding domain, the present study investigated the interactions between OPG and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by surface plasmon resonance and their involvement in the OPG functions. Kinetic data demonstrated that OPG binds to heparin with a high-affinity (K {sub D}: 0.28 nM) and that the pre-incubation of OPG with heparin inhibits in a dose-dependent manner the OPG binding to the complex RANK-RANKL. GAGs from different structure/origin (heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) exert similar activity on OPG binding. The contribution of the sulfation pattern and the size of the oligosaccharide were determined in this inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that sulfation is essential in the OPG-blocking function of GAGs since a totally desulfated heparin loses its capacity to bind and to block OPG binding to RANKL. Moreover, a decasaccharide is the minimal structure that totally inhibits the OPG binding to the complex RANK-RANKL. Western blot analysis performed in 293 cells surexpressing RANKL revealed that the pre-incubation of OPG with these GAGs strongly inhibits the OPG-induced decrease of membrane RANKL half-life. These data support an essential function of the related glycosaminoglycans heparin and heparan sulfate in the activity of the triad RANK-RANKL-OPG.

  3. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Ma, Hong; Rose, Rebecca; Qazi, Sanjive

    2015-01-01

    In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD) burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL”) fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI) combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1) xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS) mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2) radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT. PMID:26097891

  4. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased. PMID:22952356

  5. Osteoprotegerin is an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A; Morony, Sean E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Simske, Steven J; Stodieck, Louis S; Warmington, Kelly S; Livingston, Eric W; Lacey, David L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss associated with microgravity exposure poses a significant barrier to long-duration spaceflight. Osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc) is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor that causes sustained inhibition of bone resorption after a single subcutaneous injection. We tested the ability of OPG-Fc to preserve bone mass during 12 days of spaceflight (SF). 64-day-old female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group) were injected subcutaneously with OPG-Fc (20mg/kg) or an inert vehicle (VEH), 24h prior to launch. Ground control (GC) mice (VEH or OPG-Fc) were maintained under environmental conditions that mimicked those in the space shuttle middeck. Age-matched baseline (BL) controls were sacrificed at launch. GC/VEH, but not SF/VEH mice, gained tibia BMD and trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) during the mission (P<0.05 vs. BL). SF/VEH mice had lower BV/TV vs. GC/VEH mice, while SF/OPG-Fc mice had greater BV/TV than SF/VEH or GC/VEH. SF reduced femur elastic and maximum strength in VEH mice, with OPG-Fc increasing elastic strength in SF mice. Serum TRAP5b was elevated in SF/VEH mice vs. GC/VEH mice. Conversely, SF/OPG-Fc mice had lower TRAP5b levels, suggesting that OPG-Fc preserved bone during spaceflight via inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Decreased bone formation also contributed to the observed osteopenia, based on the reduced femur periosteal bone formation rate and serum osteocalcin level. Overall, these observations suggest that the beneficial effects of OPG-Fc during SF are primarily due to dramatic and sustained suppression of bone resorption. In growing mice, this effect appears to compensate for the SF-related inhibition of bone formation, while preventing any SF-related increase in bone resorption. We have demonstrated that the young mouse is an appropriate new model for SF-induced osteopenia, and that a single pre-flight treatment with OPG-Fc can effectively prevent the deleterious effects of SF on mouse bone. PMID

  6. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand in children with early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 2-year prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of observations of serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not clear. To elucidate the potential role of OPG and RANKL in JIA we determined serum levels of OPG and RANKL in patients with early JIA compared to healthy children, and prospectively explored changes in relation to radiographic score, bone and lean mass, severity of the disease, and treatment. Methods Ninety children with early oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA (ages 6-18 years; mean disease duration 19.4 months) and 90 healthy children individually matched for age, sex, race, and county of residence, were examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up. OPG and RANKL were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses. Results Serum OPG was significantly lower in patients than controls at baseline, and there was a trend towards higher RANKL and a lower OPG/RANKL ratio. Patients with polyarthritis had significantly higher increments in RANKL from baseline to follow-up, compared to patients with oligoarthritis. RANKL was a significant negative predictor for increments in total body lean mass. Patients who were receiving corticosteroids (CS) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at follow-up had higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared with patients who did not receive this medication. Conclusions The data supports that levels of OPG are lower in patients with JIA compared to healthy children, and higher levels of RANKL is associated with more serious disease. RANKL was a significant negative predictor of lean mass in patients with JIA. The OPG/RANKL ratio was higher in patients on DMARDs or CS treatment. PMID:21134287

  7. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), but not Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), is Associated with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Ketlogetswe, Kerunne S; McKibben, Rebeccah; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xuihong; Dobs, Adrian S; Budoff, Matthew; Witt, Mallory D; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence; Margolick, Joseph B.; Post, Wendy S; Brown, Todd T.

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormalities in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis have been observed in HIV-infected persons and have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis in the general population. Objective To determine associations of serum OPG and RANKL concentrations with HIV infection and subclinical atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional study nested within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Setting Four US academic medical centers Participants There were 578 HIV-infected and 344 HIV-uninfected men. Main Outcome Measures Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT), and coronary stenosis and plaque characteristics (composition, presence and extent) were measured by coronary CT angiography. All statistical models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results OPG concentrations were higher and RANKL concentrations were lower among HIV-infected men compared to –uninfected men (p<0.0001 each). Among the HIV-infected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with the presence of CAC, mixed plaque, and coronary stenosis > 50%, but not with plaque extent. In contrast, among HIV-uninfected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with extent of both CAC and calcified plaque, but not their presence. RANKL concentrations were not associated with plaque presence or extent among HIV-infected men, but among HIV-uninfected men, lower RANKL concentrations were associated with greater extent of CAC and total plaque. Conclusions OPG and RANKL are dysregulated in HIV-infected men and their relationship to the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis varies by HIV-status. The role of these biomarkers in CVD pathogenesis and risk prediction may be different in HIV-infected men. PMID:26090754

  8. Seasonal variations and evidence for the effectiveness of pollution controls on water-soluble inorganic species in total suspended particulates and fine particulate matter from Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenxing; Arimoto, Richard; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Xuxiang; Du, Na; Okuda, Tomoaki; Nakao, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) samples were collected over Xi'an for a 1-yr period to characterize the seasonal variations of water-soluble inorganic ions and to evaluate the effectiveness of the pollution policies and controls during the past 10 yr. Mass concentrations of five cations (sodium [Na+], potassium [K+], ammonium [NH4+], calcium [Ca2+], and magnesium [Mg2+]) and four anions (fluoride [F-], chloride [Cl-], nitrate [NO3-], and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) were determined by ion chromatography. The yearly arithmetic-mean mass concentrations of the total measured water-soluble ions in TSP and PM2.5 were 83.9 +/- 58.4 and 45 +/- 34.3 microg x m(-3). The most abundant ions in TSP were SO4(2-), NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+; whereas in PM2.5 the dominant ions were SO4(2-), NH4 +, and NO3-. Most of the ions were more concentrated in the PM2.5 than in TSP, but two exceptions were Ca2+ and Mg2+. Comparisons of the molar ratios of Mg2+/Ca2+ in TSP indicated that fugitive dust was the main source for these two ions, and the influence of soil dust from outside of the city was most evident during dust storms. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3-, , NH4+, and K+ in TSP were highest in winter and lowest in spring, but Ca2+ was much higher in spring than other seasons because of suspended mineral dust. In PM2.5, NO3- and K+ also showed winter maxima, but SO4(2-) and NH4+ were highest in summer. Calculations of ion equivalents showed that TSP samples were more alkaline than PM2.5, the latter being weakly acidic in winter and autumn. High sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios occurred in summer and autumn, and there was evidence for the formation of ammonium bisulfate in TSP, ammonium sulfate in PM2.5, and ammonium nitrate in both fractions. Comparisons with the results of prior studies indicate that pollution controls in Xi'an have reduced the levels of air pollution over the past 10 yr. The SO4

  9. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in Bone Loss Related to Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ugay, Ludmila; Kochetkova, Evgenia; Nevzorova, Vera; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent clinical and biological researches have increasingly delineated the biomolecular pathways of bone metabolism regulation in COPD. We extended this work by examining the specific association and potential contribution of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in advanced COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of serum OPG, RANKL, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) with bone turnover in men with very severe COPD. Methods: Pulmonary function, T-score at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum OPG, RANKL, soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-I and II (sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II), osteocalcin (OC), and β-CrossLaps (βCL) levels were measured in 45 men with very severe stage COPD and 36 male non-COPD volunteers. COPD patients and healthy controls were compared using an independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. The Pearson coefficient was used to assess the relationships between variables. Results: OPG and OC were lower in male COPD patients than in control subjects whereas RANKL, serum βCL, TNF-α, and its receptors were higher. OPG directly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted (r = 0.46, P < 0.005), OC (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), LS (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and FN T-score (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). In contrast, serum RANKL inversely associated with LS and FN T-score (r = −0.62, P < 0.001 and r = −0.48, P < 0.001) but directly correlated with βCL (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). In addition, OPG was inversely correlated with RANKL (r = −0.39, P < 0.01), TNF-α (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and sTNFR-I (r = −0.40, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum OPG and RANKL levels are inversely associated with bone loss in men with advanced stage COPD. PMID:27411457

  10. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  11. Loss of osteoprotegerin expression in the inner ear causes degeneration of the cochlear nerve and sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shyan-Yuan; Kempfle, Judith S; Jensen, Jane B; Perez-Fernandez, Deborah; Lysaght, Andrew C; Edge, Albert S; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2013-08-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a key regulator of bone remodeling. Mutations and variations in the OPG gene cause many human diseases that are characterized by not only skeletal abnormalities but also poorly understood hearing loss: Paget's disease, osteoporosis, and celiac disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms of hearing loss in OPG deficiency, we studied OPG knockout (Opg(-/-)) mice. We show that they develop sensorineural hearing loss, in addition to conductive hearing loss due to abnormal middle-ear bones. OPG deficiency caused demyelination and degeneration of the cochlear nerve in vivo. It also activated ERK, sensitized spiral ganglion cells (SGC) to apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and survival of cochlear stem cells in vitro, which could be rescued by treatment with exogenous OPG, an ERK inhibitor, or bisphosphonate. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OPG in the regulation of SGC survival, and suggest a mechanism for sensorineural hearing loss in OPG deficiency. PMID:23607938

  12. Estrogens modulate RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin mediated interleukin-6 effect on thyrotoxicosis-related bone turnover in mice.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, J; Zbucki, R; Nikolajuk, A; Mysliwiec, P; Kaminski, K; Bondyra, Z; Dadan, J; Gorska, M; Winnicka, M M

    2011-04-01

    Interleukin-6 has been shown to cause imbalance between bone resorption and formation in thyrotoxicosis. The aim of the present study was an attempt to estimate the influence of estrogens on thyrotoxicosis-related disturbances in bone turnover in relation to RANKL-RANK/osteoprotegerin system in IL-6 deficient mice. The study was performed on 56, 12-13 weeks old, female mice: C57BL/6J (wild-type; WT) and C57BL/6J (IL6-/-Kopf) (IL-6 knock-out; IL6KO). The mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 7 mice in each one: 1. WT controls, 2. IL6KO controls, 3. WT mice with thyrotoxicosis, 4. IL6KO mice with thyrotoxicosis, 5. WT ovariectomized, 6. IL6KO ovariectomized, 7. WT ovariectomized mice with thyrotoxicosis, and 8. IL6KO ovariectomized mice with thyrotoxicosis. Experimental model of menopause was evoked by bilateral ovariectomy carried out in 8-9 weeks old mice. Thyrotoxicosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine at a dose of 1 μg/g daily over 21 days. The serum levels of TRACP5b, osteocalcin, OPG, and RANKL were determined by ELISA. RANKL serum concentrations were elevated significantly in all groups of ovariectomized mice as compared to respective controls, however, in a minor degree in IL6KO thyrotoxic mice as compared to wild-type animals. Osteoprotegerin serum levels were significantly increased in all thyrotoxic groups of mice except ovariectomized IL6KO animals. To sum up, the results of the present study suggest that IL-6 plays a key role in stimulation of RANKL-RANK/OPG system and this effect is strongly enhanced in conditions of accelerated bone turnover such as thyrotoxicosis and/or estrogen depletion. PMID:21332025

  13. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  14. Higher Levels of Osteoprotegerin and Immune Activation/Immunosenescence Markers Are Correlated with Concomitant Bone and Endovascular Damage in HIV-Suppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    D’Abramo, Alessandra; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Oliva, Alessandra; D’Agostino, Claudia; Al Moghazi, Samir; De Luca, Giulia; Iannetta, Marco; d’Ettorre, Gabriella; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients appear to have a significantly greater risk of non-AIDS comorbidities such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Subjects with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal bone mass, therefore a possible relation between these two conditions can be hypothesized. In the setting of HIV infection, several factors might contribute to bone disease and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between bone and cardiovascular disease and to investigate the role of traditional factors, T-cell phenotype and osteoprotegerin in HIV positive subjects on effective antiretroviral therapy. We included 94 HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression and 41 healthy subjects matched for age and gender as a control group. Carotid-Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT) and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed by ultrasound and DEXA, respectively. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation, senescence and osteoprotegerin plasma levels were measured by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Among HIV positive patients, 56.4% had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 45.7% had pathological c-IMT (>0.9mm). Subjects with pathological c-IMT and BMD exhibited higher CD4+ and CD8+ activated, CD8+ senescent and osteoprotegerin than subjects with normal c-IMT and BMD. HIV positive subjects with osteopenia/osteoporosis had higher c-IMT than subjects with normal BMD, and linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMD and c-IMT. Several factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV positive patients. Osteoprotegerin together with inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV positive patients could affect bone and vascular system and could be considered as a possible common link between these two diseases. PMID:26913505

  15. Higher Levels of Osteoprotegerin and Immune Activation/Immunosenescence Markers Are Correlated with Concomitant Bone and Endovascular Damage in HIV-Suppressed Patients.

    PubMed

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Oliva, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Claudia; Al Moghazi, Samir; De Luca, Giulia; Iannetta, Marco; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients appear to have a significantly greater risk of non-AIDS comorbidities such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Subjects with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal bone mass, therefore a possible relation between these two conditions can be hypothesized. In the setting of HIV infection, several factors might contribute to bone disease and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between bone and cardiovascular disease and to investigate the role of traditional factors, T-cell phenotype and osteoprotegerin in HIV positive subjects on effective antiretroviral therapy. We included 94 HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression and 41 healthy subjects matched for age and gender as a control group. Carotid-Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT) and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed by ultrasound and DEXA, respectively. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation, senescence and osteoprotegerin plasma levels were measured by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Among HIV positive patients, 56.4% had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 45.7% had pathological c-IMT (>0.9 mm). Subjects with pathological c-IMT and BMD exhibited higher CD4+ and CD8+ activated, CD8+ senescent and osteoprotegerin than subjects with normal c-IMT and BMD. HIV positive subjects with osteopenia/osteoporosis had higher c-IMT than subjects with normal BMD, and linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMD and c-IMT. Several factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV positive patients. Osteoprotegerin together with inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV positive patients could affect bone and vascular system and could be considered as a possible common link between these two diseases. PMID:26913505

  16. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  17. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  18. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. It is also found in psyllium, ...

  19. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB Ligand and Osteoprotegerin Regulation of Bone Remodeling in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Ann E.; Khosla, Sundeep; Kostenuik, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoclasts and osteoblasts dictate skeletal mass, structure, and strength via their respective roles in resorbing and forming bone. Bone remodeling is a spatially coordinated lifelong process whereby old bone is removed by osteoclasts and replaced by bone-forming osteoblasts. The refilling of resorption cavities is incomplete in many pathological states, which leads to a net loss of bone mass with each remodeling cycle. Postmenopausal osteoporosis and other conditions are associated with an increased rate of bone remodeling, which leads to accelerated bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Bone resorption is dependent on a cytokine known as RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand), a TNF family member that is essential for osteoclast formation, activity, and survival in normal and pathological states of bone remodeling. The catabolic effects of RANKL are prevented by osteoprotegerin (OPG), a TNF receptor family member that binds RANKL and thereby prevents activation of its single cognate receptor called RANK. Osteoclast activity is likely to depend, at least in part, on the relative balance of RANKL and OPG. Studies in numerous animal models of bone disease show that RANKL inhibition leads to marked suppression of bone resorption and increases in cortical and cancellous bone volume, density, and strength. RANKL inhibitors also prevent focal bone loss that occurs in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and bone metastasis. Clinical trials are exploring the effects of denosumab, a fully human anti-RANKL antibody, on bone loss in patients with osteoporosis, bone metastasis, myeloma, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:18057140

  20. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin ameliorates the decrease in both bone mineral density and bone strength in immobilized rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shin-ichi; Fujise, Nobuaki; Higashio, Kanji; Tsuda, Eisuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of immobilization-induced osteopenia are characterized by uncoupling of bone metabolism, i.e., increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in trabecular bone. Using such a rat model, the efficacy of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF)/osteoprotegerin, a novel secreted protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in reducing bone loss was investigated. Male Fischer rats were neurectomized and injected intramuscularly with either OCIF (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle once daily for 7 days. On the eighth day after sciatic neurectomy, significant bone loss was observed in the vehicle-injected rats. OCIF ameliorated the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of both the proximal and distal femur in a dose-dependent manner. OCIF also ameliorated the decrease in bone strength of the femoral neck at the highest dose. A high correlation (r = 0.805) was detected between the BMD of the distal femur and the bone strength of the femoral neck. When OCIF was administered intermittently to the immobilized rats twice weekly (on days 1 and 4) after immobilization, it also ameliorated the decrease in BMD of the distal femur. These results suggest that OCIF has therapeutic potential for the treatment of immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:11810411

  1. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general. PMID:26496385

  2. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness, preclinical atherosclerosis, and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Erdoğan, Turan; Türkyılmaz, Aysegül Kücükali; Devrimsel, Gül; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Beyazal, Mehmet; Sahin, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reportedly have a higher mortality and morbidity risk. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was recently defined as an important cardiovascular (CV) marker in the general population. We aimed to assess the relationship of serum OPG levels with arterial stiffness, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and clinical and laboratory data in AS patients. We examined 60 AS patients without CV disease or risk factors and 50 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), whereas functional capacity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Serum OPG levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness, whereas CIMT (examined via carotid ultrasonography) was used to evaluate preclinical atherosclerosis. The mean serum OPG level, PWV, and CIMT were significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (106.7 ± 50.9 vs. 58.1 ± 12.7 pg/mL; 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 m/s; 0.72 ± 0.13 vs. 0.57 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). In AS patients, the serum OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV and CIMT but were significantly correlated with erthrocyte sedimentation rate, BASFI, and ASDAS. AS patients without CV disease or risk exhibited high OPG levels and increased PWV and CIMT values. Although OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV or CIMT, future long-term follow-up studies will help define the predictive value of OPG in these patients. PMID:26847856

  3. Osteoprotegerin concentrations in patients with suspected reversible myocardial ischemia: observations from the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 1 Study.

    PubMed

    Røysland, Ragnhild; Røsjø, Helge; Høiseth, Arne Didrik; Gullestad, Lars; Badr, Pirouz; Kravdal, Gunnhild; Omland, Torbjørn

    2015-05-01

    Increased circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels have been associated with the prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and the risk of cardiovascular death. OPG is a cytokine of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is expressed in various cell types in the body, including osteoblasts, inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells/endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The main sources determining OPG levels in the circulation however, are not well understood, and whether reversible myocardial ischemia influences OPG levels are not known. Accordingly, OPG levels were measured in 198 patients referred for exercise stress testing and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In addition OPG levels were measured in 8 healthy control subjects performing a maximal bicycle stress test. Plasma samples were collected before, immediately after, 1.5h and 4.5h after exercise stress testing with MPI. OPG levels at baseline were not different in patient with reversible myocardial ischemia (n=19) and patients without reversible ischemia (n=179) (4.7 [3.6-5.5]pmol/L vs. 4.3 [3.4-5.2]pmol/L, p=0.21), and there was an increase in OPG levels immediately after exercise regardless of whether or not the patient had reversible ischemia on MPI (absolute increase: 0.2 [0-0.55]pmol/L vs. 0.3 [0-0.5]pmol/L, p=0.72). OPG levels also increased immediately after stress in the 8 control subjects (3.5 (3.2-3.8)pmol/L at baseline to 3.8 (3.5-4.7), p=0.008). In conclusion, OPG levels increase acutely during exercise stress testing, but this increase is likely caused by mechanisms other than myocardial ischemia. PMID:25748834

  4. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  5. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  6. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Madison A.; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N.; Johnston, Kathryn A.; Lopez, Karlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM−1 cm−1. No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  7. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility.

    PubMed

    Smith, Madison A; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N; Johnston, Kathryn A; Lopez, Karlo M

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM(-1 )cm(-1). No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  8. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  9. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  11. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  12. Secretion Patterns of Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Response to Acute and Chronic Energy Deprivation in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Foo, Joo-Pin; Chamberland, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoprotegerin (OPGN) is a bone-remodeling marker that is associated with various metabolic and vascular complications. Cross-sectional studies in humans have demonstrated an inverse association between leptin, a marker of energy sufficiency, and OPGN. The physiology of OPGN has not been fully elucidated to date. We thus aim to elucidate 1) whether OPGN levels exhibit any gender dimorphism or day/night secretion pattern; and 2) whether there is any effect of acute and/or chronic energy deprivation on its circulating levels and whether such effects are mediated through leptin. Materials and Methods: Study A: To evaluate OPGN secretion patterns and OPGN response to acute energy deprivation, we studied 12 healthy subjects under three different conditions for 72 h—in the isocaloric fed state, and during a fasting state with administration of either placebo or metreleptin in replacement doses. Blood samples were obtained every 15 min and pooled hourly during the last 24 h of the study. Study B: To evaluate the effect of chronic energy deprivation on OPGN secretion, we measured its levels in 14 obese subjects before and during weight loss after bariatric surgery. Results: OPGN levels exhibited a statistically significant (P < 0.01), albeit clinically limited in magnitude, day/night variation pattern in both genders (R2 = 14.68%; 10.7–14.8% reduction with lower levels around 1600–1800 h; P < 0.01). Males had lower OPGN levels compared to females (1.81 ± 0.04 vs. 3.65 ± 0.07 pmol/liter; P < 0.001). Three days of fasting with either placebo or metreleptin administration did not change OPGN levels. OPGN levels did not change during bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. Conclusions: OPGN levels are lower in men and exhibit a statistically significant, albeit clinically limited in magnitude, day/night secretion pattern. Neither acute nor chronic energy deprivation leading to significant weight loss has any effects on OPGN levels. Nomenclature Comment

  13. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  14. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  15. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Data regarding association between serum osteoprotegerin level, numerous of circulating endothelial-derived and mononuclear-derived progenitor cells in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Alexander E; Kremzer, Alexander A; Berezina, Tatyana A; Martovitskaya, Yulia V; Gronenko, Elena A

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as cluster of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities included abdominal obesity, high-normal blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose tolerance that exhibits has a growing prevalence worldwide. We investigated whether an elevated level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) predicts imbalance between different phenotypes of circulating endothelial (EPCs) and mononuclear (MPCs) progenitor cells in MetS patients. We have analyzed data regarding dysmetabolic disorder subjects without known CV disease), as well as with known type two diabetes mellitus. All patients have given their informed written consent for participation in the study. This article contains data on the independent predictors of depletion in numerous of circulating EPCs and MPCs in MetS patients. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of elevated OPG level in MetS patients with numerous of EPCs and MPCs beyond traditional CV risk factors. PMID:27508223

  17. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  19. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  1. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  2. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  3. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  4. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOEpatents

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  5. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents. PMID:26633347

  6. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  7. The association between carotid or femoral atherosclerosis and low bone mass in postmenopausal women referred for osteoporosis screening. Does osteoprotegerin play a role?

    PubMed

    Pennisi, P; Russo, E; Gaudio, A; Veca, R; D'Amico, F; Mangiafico, R A; Laspina, M; Tringali, G; Signorelli, S S; Fiore, C E

    2010-12-01

    Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis appear to be epidemiologically correlated. Most (but not all) animal and clinical studies suggest that osteoprotegerin (OPG) may represent a possible molecular link between bone loss and vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of OPG with bone mineral density (BMD) and vascular plaques, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the link between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The study population consisted of 100 consecutive postmenopausal women referred for routine osteoporosis screening. BMD was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of carotid or femoral plaques was examined by ultrasonography. OPG was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Seventy-two subjects had low bone mass and were categorized as osteopenic (32) or osteoporotic (40). Fifty-two subjects had one or more atherosclerotic plaques at carotid or femoral level. Both lumbar spine and femoral BMD were associated with the number of plaques (r=-0.5370; p<0.0001, and r=-0.4423; p=0.0012, respectively), however only spine BMD remained significantly associated with the number of plaques after adjustment. OPG serum values showed a significant association with age (r(2)=0.057; p=0.042). The association between OPG and the number of plaques was significant only in patients with concomitant involvement of carotid and femoral districts (r(2)=0.758; p<0.0001). PMID:20727694

  8. A new xenograft model of myeloma bone disease demonstrating the efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells expressing osteoprotegerin by lentiviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rabin, N; Kyriakou, C; Coulton, L; Gallagher, O M; Buckle, C; Benjamin, R; Singh, N; Glassford, J; Otsuki, T; Nathwani, A C; Croucher, P I; Yong, K L

    2007-10-01

    We describe a new model of myeloma bone disease in which beta2m NOD/SCID mice injected with KMS-12-BM cells develop medullary disease after tail vein administration. Micro-computed tomography analysis demonstrated significant bone loss in the tibiae and vertebrae of diseased animals compared to controls, with loss of cortical bone (P<0.01), as well as trabecular bone volume, thickness and number (P<0.05 for all). Bone marrow of diseased animals demonstrated an increase in osteoclasts (P<0.01) and reduction in osteoblasts (P<0.01) compared to control animals. Both bone loss and osteoclast increase correlated with the degree of disease involvement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were lentivirally transduced to express human osteoprotegerin (hOPG). Systemic administration of OPG expressing MSC reduced osteoclast activation (P<0.01) and trabecular bone loss in the vertebrae (P<0.05) and tibiae of diseased animals, to levels comparable to non-diseased controls. Because of its predominantly medullary involvement and quantifiable parameters of bone disease, the KMS-12-BM xenogeneic model provides unique opportunities to test therapies targeted at the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:17657224

  9. Dickkopf-1 negatively regulates the expression of osteoprotegerin, a key osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, by sequestering Lrp6 in primary and metastatic lytic bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hang; Zhang, Yuanjin; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yun-Yan; Sun, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an inverse role for Wnt signaling in the development of osteoclasts in the bone was demonstrated. In the present study, we examined whether there is a commonality in the mechanism of bone resorption and lysis that occur in a diverse set of bone metastatic lesions, as well as in primary bone lesions. Compared with control bone tissue and bone biopsies from patients with nonmetastatic primary tumors (i.e., breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and prostate carcinoma), patients with bone metastatic lesions from the three aforementioned primary tumors, as well as osteolytic lesions obtained from the bone biopsies of patients with multiple myeloma, demonstrated an upregulated expression of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, by coimmunoprecipitation, Dickkopf-1 pulled-down low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), which is a key downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of Lrp6 was unaltered in the osteometastatic lesions. This negative regulation was associated with a lowered expression of osteoprotegerin in the osteometastatic lesions, an observation that was previously reported to promote osteoclastogenesis. These findings provide a common mechanism for the inverse relationship between the Wnt signaling pathway and the development of primary or metastatic bone lesions. Pharmacological modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway might benefit the clinical management of primary and metastatic bone lesions. PMID:27310953

  10. Effect of gallium nitrate on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LI, JINGWU; WANG, GUANG-BIN; FENG, XUE; ZHANG, JING; FU, QIN

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by the progressive loss of bone mass and the micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fracture. Gallium has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of several diverse disorders that are characterized by accelerated bone loss. Osteoblasts orchestrate bone degradation by expressing the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), however they additionally protect the skeleton by secreting osteoprotegerin (OPG). Therefore, the relative concentration of RANKL and OPG in bone is a key determinant of bone mass and strength. The current study demonstrated that gallium nitrate (GaN) is able to counteract bone loss in an experimental model of established osteoporosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibited significantly increased bone mineral density following GaN treatment for 4 and 8 weeks by 19.3 and 37.3%, respectively (P<0.05). The bone volume of the OVX + GaN group was increased by 40.9% (P<0.05) compared with the OVX group. In addition, the current study demonstrated that GaN stimulates the synthesis of OPG however has no effect on the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR, western blotting and ELISA, resulting in an increase in the OPG/RANKL ratio and a reduction in osteoclast differentiation in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26647856

  11. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  14. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation, and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. In addition, the purification procedure serves as an example of how to use classical protein purifications methods, which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  15. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  16. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  17. Water soluble conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  18. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  19. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M.; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and Results The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared to participants with eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and low OPG, participants with eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated OPG had a 61% and 75% increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality respectively (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.05; P < 0.001 and HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55; P = 0.003). This relationship with mortality was independent of decline in renal function (P<0.05). Specific causes of death in individuals with elevated OPG and stage III CKD highlighted an excess of coronary heart disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P < 0.05). Conclusion The association between elevated OPG levels with CVD and all-cause mortality was more evident in elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:26222774

  20. Asymmetric dimethylarginine but not osteoprotegerin correlates with disease severity in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

    PubMed

    Pina, Trinitario; Genre, Fernanda; Lopez-Mejias, Raquel; Armesto, Susana; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Veronica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Corrales, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos A; Gonzalez-Vela, Maria C; Blanco, Ricardo; Hernández, Jose L; Llorca, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Patients with psoriasis, in particular those with severe disease, have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with the general population. The aim of the present study is to determine whether correlation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), two biomarkers associated with CV disease, and disease severity may exist in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We also aimed to establish if baseline serum levels of these two biomarkers could correlate with the degree of change in the clinical parameters of disease severity following the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in these patients. This was a prospective study on a series of consecutive non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who completed 6 months of therapy with anti-TNF-α-adalimumab. Patients with kidney disease, hypertension or body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or more were excluded. Metabolic and clinical evaluation was performed immediately prior to the onset of treatment and at month 6. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. Unlike OPG, a significant positive correlation between ADMA and resistin serum levels was found at the onset of adalimumab and also after 6 months of biologic therapy. We also observed a positive correlation between the percent of body surface area affected (BSA) and ADMA levels obtained before the onset of adalimumab and a negative correlation between baseline ADMA levels and a 6-month BSA change compared with baseline results. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ADMA levels correlate with clinical markers of disease severity. PMID:26364678

  1. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), The Endogenous Inhibitor of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL), is Dysregulated in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Widschwendter, Martin; Burnell, Matthew; Fraser, Lindsay; Rosenthal, Adam N.; Philpott, Sue; Reisel, Daniel; Dubeau, Louis; Cline, Mark; Pan, Yang; Yi, Ping-Cheng; Gareth Evans, D.; Jacobs, Ian J.; Menon, Usha; Wood, Charles E.; Dougall, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer development in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is a net consequence of cell-autonomous and cell nonautonomous factors which may serve as excellent targets for cancer prevention. In light of our previous data we sought to investigate the consequences of the BRCA-mutation carrier state on RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signalling. We analysed serum levels of RANKL, OPG, RANKL/OPG complex, oestradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) during menstrual cycle progression in 391 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and 782 noncarriers. These studies were complemented by analyses of RANKL and OPG in the serum and mammary tissues of female cynomolgus macaques (n = 88) and serum RANKL and OPG in postmenopausal women (n = 150). BRCA-mutation carriers had lower mean values of free serum OPG in particular in BRCA1-mutation carriers (p = 0.018) compared with controls. Among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, lower OPG levels were associated with germline mutation locations known to confer an increased breast cancer risk (p = 0.003). P is associated with low OPG levels in serum and tissue, particularly in BRCA-mutation carriers (rho = − 0.216; p = 0.002). Serum OPG levels were inversely correlated (rho = − 0.545, p < 0.001) with mammary epithelial proliferation measured by Ki67 expression and increased (p = 0.01) in postmenopause. The P–RANKL/OPG system is dysregulated in BRCA-mutation carriers. These and previously published data provide a strong rationale for further investigation of antiprogestogens or an anti-RANKL antibody such as denosumab for breast cancer prevention. PMID:26629528

  2. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  3. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake. PMID:18302966

  4. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  5. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  6. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  7. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  8. Solubility of cobalt in cement.

    PubMed

    Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B

    1978-02-01

    Unlike chromate, cobalt occurring as cobalt oxides in cement is not water-soluble in a detectable amount. Cobalt oxides are to some extent soluble in the presence of amino acids with which cobalt forms complexes. Such complexes can elicit patch test reactions. It is postulated that cobalt is more readily dissolved by forming complexes in eczematous skin than in normal skin. This may explain why cobalt sensitization in cement eczemas is secondary to chromate sensitivity. PMID:657784

  9. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  10. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  11. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  12. REMOVAL OF SOLUBLE BOD(5) IN PRIMARY CLARIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was directed to evaluating means for increasing BOD removal from primary treatment systems treating pulp and paper wastes. An improved understanding of the optimal conditions for soluble and colloidal BOD removal should permit increasing efficiency in total organic r...

  13. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  14. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  15. Carbollide solubility and chemical compatibility summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.J.

    1993-08-17

    This report examines the value of the cobalt dicarbollide anion as an effective form of in-tank precipitation. The cobalt dicarbollide anion (CDC) has been investigated for the possible replacement of tetraphenyl borate anion (TPB) for precipitation of cesium in SRS High Level Waste (HLW). The solubility of the cesium CDC in 5 M salt solutions and the reactivity with caustic have been studied extensively. The solubility of CSCDC in a mixture of 4 M sodium nitrate and 1 m sodium hydroxide is {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M at 40{degrees}C. Furthermore, the CDC decomposes in 1 M sodium hydroxide solution with apparent first order kinetics with a half-life of 7.3 days at 60 {degrees}C and 94 days at 40{degrees}C. Tank temperatures are currently estimated to approach 60{degrees}C during the ITP filtration cycle. This solubility and rapid decomposition of the CDC under highly alkaline conditions and high temperature would require increasing the quantity of CDC and nonradioactive cesium which must be added, increasing the cost of production. Increasing the quantity of CDC would necessitate recovery of the material, probably using a solvent extraction system. Due to the large amount of nonradioactive cesium which must be added, the total amount of precipitate formed exceeds that for TPB precipitation. Also, formation of sodium and/or potassium precipitates compete with cesium salt precipitation in 5 M salt solutions at lower temperature (<30{degrees}C). Decomposition generates hydrogen, which may lead to process complications.

  16. New ideas about the solubility of drugs.

    PubMed

    Box, Karl; Comer, John E; Gravestock, Tom; Stuart, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Methods are described for detecting precipitation of ionisable drugs under conditions of changing pH, estimating kinetic solubility from the onset of precipitation, and measuring solubility by chasing equilibrium. Definitions are presented for kinetic, equilibrium, and intrinsic solubility of ionisable drugs, supersaturation and subsaturation, and for chasers and non-chasers, which are two classes of ionisable drug with significantly different solubility properties. The use of Bjerrum Curves and Neutral-Species Concentration Profiles to depict solubility properties are described and illustrated with case studies showing super-dissolving behaviour, conversion between crystalline forms and enhancement of solubility through supersaturation, and the use of additives and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. PMID:19937815

  17. A review of drug solubility in human intestinal fluids: implications for the prediction of oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Augustijns, Patrick; Wuyts, Benjamin; Hens, Bart; Annaert, Pieter; Butler, James; Brouwers, Joachim

    2014-06-16

    The purpose of this paper is to collate all recently published solubility data of orally administered drugs in human intestinal fluids (HIF) that were aspirated from the upper small intestine (duodenum and jejunum). The data set comprises in total 102 solubility values in fasted state HIF and 37 solubility values in fed state HIF, covering 59 different drugs. Despite differences in the protocol for HIF sampling and subsequent handling, this summary of HIF solubilities provides a critical reference data set to judge the value of simulated media for intestinal solubility estimation. In this regard, the review includes correlations between the reported solubilizing capacity of HIF and fasted or fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF/FeSSIF). Correlating with HIF solubilities enables the optimal use of solubility measurements in simulated biorelevant media to obtain accurate estimates of intestinal solubility during drug development. Considering the fraction of poorly soluble new molecular entities in contemporary drug discovery, adequate prediction of intestinal solubility is critical for efficient lead optimization, early candidate profiling, and further development. PMID:23994640

  18. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lysine gingipain enhances osteoclast differentiation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β but suppresses that by interleukin-17A: importance of proteolytic degradation of osteoprotegerin by lysine gingipain.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tomohito; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Yamada, Atsushi; Takami, Masamichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Marie; Imamura, Takahisa; Akiyama, Chie; Yasuhara, Rika; Mishima, Kenji; Maruyama, Toshifumi; Kohda, Chikara; Tanaka, Kazuo; Potempa, Jan; Yasuda, Hisataka; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2014-05-30

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by alveolar bone resorption by osteoclasts. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an etiological agent for periodontitis, produces cysteine proteases called gingipains, which are classified based on their cleavage site specificity (i.e. arginine (Rgps) and lysine (Kgps) gingipains). We previously reported that Kgp degraded osteoprotegerin (OPG), an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor secreted by osteoblasts, and enhanced osteoclastogenesis induced by various Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (Yasuhara, R., Miyamoto, Y., Takami, M., Imamura, T., Potempa, J., Yoshimura, K., and Kamijo, R. (2009) Lysine-specific gingipain promotes lipopolysaccharide- and active-vitamin D3-induced osteoclast differentiation by degrading osteoprotegerin. Biochem. J. 419, 159-166). Osteoclastogenesis is induced not only by TLR ligands but also by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-17A, in inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. Although Kgp augmented osteoclastogenesis induced by TNF-α and IL-1β in co-cultures of mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, it suppressed that induced by IL-17A. In a comparison of proteolytic degradation of these cytokines by Kgp in a cell-free system with that of OPG, TNF-α and IL-1β were less susceptible, whereas IL-17A and OPG were equally susceptible to degradation by Kgp. These results indicate that the enhancing effect of Kgp on cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis is dependent on the difference in degradation efficiency between each cytokine and OPG. In addition, elucidation of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of OPG fragments revealed that Kgp primarily cleaved OPG in its death domain homologous region, which might prevent dimer formation of OPG required for inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that degradation of OPG by Kgp is a crucial event in the development of

  20. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  1. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  2. Solubility of leaf litter phosphorus and nitrogen from taiga and lowland tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreeg, L.; Mack, M. C.; Turner, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter returns significant quantities of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) to the soil environment in terrestrial ecosystems. The release of litter nutrients during decomposition can occur through mineralization of organic material and leaching. While leaching is an important component in our conceptual models of decomposition, the role of leaching in P and N release from leaf litter has been little investigated. Here we synthesize the results from two studies using recently senesced litter from taiga in Siberia and lowland tropical forest in Panama. We show that leaf litter P is highly soluble. On average, 35±10% (mean ± standard deviation) of total litter P was soluble from 41 species of trees and lianas from a lowland tropical forest during a 4 h extract. Similarly, the soluble fraction of litter P was high for recently senesced litter from the taiga - an average of 40±15% of total P was water soluble during a 24 h extract across nine species, which included a sedge, a tree and shrubs spanning two topographical positions (i.e., floodplain and upland). For both systems P extracted per gram litter mass was strongly predicted by total P concentration in initial litter (r2=0.66, p<0.001 in tropical forest; r2=0.63, p<0.001 in taiga). In addition, greater than 80% of the soluble P was inorganic P, suggesting leached P is readily available to plants and microbes. In contrast, litter N was relatively less soluble (<10±5% of the total leaf N on average for both systems), water soluble N per unit litter mass was only weakly predicted by total litter N (r2<0.35 for both systems), and organic N was prominent in extracts. The similarity in solubility results from two distinct latitudes and multiple life forms suggests differences in litter P and N solubility may be fundamental to how these two key nutrients cycle in terrestrial ecosystems across the globe.

  3. Characterization of Soluble Anthradithiophene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Brad; Chan, Calvin; Loth, Marsha; Anthony, John; Gundlach, David

    2010-03-01

    We will discuss the growth and electrical measurements of a newly developed, partially fluorinated anthradithiophene (F-ADT) derivative with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDMS) side groups. Single crystals of the material can be readily grown and device hole mobility is shown to exceed 0.05 cm^2/Vs with on/off ratios of 10^7. F- TBDMS ADT is also observed to be readily soluble with films spun cast onto surface treated SiO2 displaying a mobility >0.002 cm^2/Vs. These electrical measurements will be correlated with growth, morphology, and the performance of related F-ADT derivatives.

  4. Solubility of aluminum in the presence of hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberson, Charles Elmer; Hem, John David

    1969-01-01

    The total concentration of aqueous dissolved species of aluminum that will be present in equilibrium with microcrystalline gibbsite at various levels of complexing ligand concentration are shown graphically. The graphs can be used to estimate aluminum solubility, at 25?C and 1 atmosphere total pressure, when the pH of the solution, its ionic strength, and the total sulfate and fluoride concentrations are known. The standard free energy of formation of cryolite calculated from solubility experiments is --745.4 ? 1.0 kcal per mole at 25?C. Diagrams are included showing the solubility of cryolite in terms of aluminum, fluoride, and sodium concentrations. The stability fields of cryolite and microcrystalline gibbsite and their solubilities also are shown on pH-[F] diagrams.

  5. Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-11-10

    The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol %) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases. PMID:25145759

  6. Dynamics of water soluble phosphorus from surface applied broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Tasistro, Armando S; Picone, Liliana; Cabrera, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    Deionized water is routinely used as an extractant to determine soluble phosphorus (P) in broiler litter, but under N.E. Georgia conditions this technique may underestimate the hazard of P loss in runoff because the alkalinity of the broiler litter-water suspension limits the solubility of P compounds that may be solubilized after being spread on acidic field conditions. In this study under controlled conditions we measured soluble P in thatch and top soil after applying untreated broiler litter, residue of broiler litter after water extraction (WER), or residue of broiler litter after extraction with a 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer at pH 6 (BER). During the 60 d incubation, the WER released 18% more Total Dissolved P (TDP) than was determined through a conventional water extraction procedure, whereas the BER released 28% less TDP than the WER, which reflects the greater amount of TDP removed from the broiler litter by the buffer at pH 6.0. However, the total amount of TDP extracted by the MES buffer, which includes that removed at the initial extraction plus that released during the incubation, was 30% greater than the total amount of TDP extracted with water from the untreated litter plus the TDP extracted with water from the WER during the incubation. This result suggests the need to fine-tune the solid: liquid ratio and shaking time when the MES buffer is used. PMID:20661791

  7. Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Korean Native Steers Supplemented with Soluble Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Chang, S. S.; Choi, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of soluble protein supplements on concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in the liquid phase of ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD) of Korean native steers, and to investigate diurnal pattern in SNAN concentration in RD and OD. Three ruminally cannulated Korean native steers in a 3×3 Latin square design consumed a basal diet of rice straw and corn-based concentrate (control), and that supplemented (kg/d DM basis) with intact casein (0.24; IC) or acid hydrolyzed casein (0.46; AHC). Ruminal digesta was sampled using a vacuum pump, whereas OD was collected using an omasal sampling system at 2.0 h intervals after a morning feeding. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid (AA), peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD were assessed using the ninhydrin assay. Concentrations of free AA and total SNAN in RD were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in OD. Although free AA concentration was relatively high, mean peptide was quantitatively the most important fraction of total SNAN in both RD and OD, indicating that degradation of peptide to AA rather than hydrolysis of soluble protein to peptide or deamination may be the most limiting step in rumen proteolysis of Korean native steers. Diurnal variation in peptide concentration in OD for the soluble protein supplemented diets during the feeding cycle peaked 2 h post-feeding and decreased thereafter whereas that for the control was relatively constant during the entire feeding cycle. Diurnal variation in peptide concentration was rather similar between RD and OD. PMID:25049690

  8. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues.

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall; Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Villa, Mara; Willemoës, Martin; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Teilum, Kaare; Winther, Jakob R

    2016-07-19

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably, this chargeless protein is produced reasonably well in Escherichia coli, retains its stable three-dimensional structure, and is still capable of strong cellulose binding. To further deprive this protein of charges, we removed the N-terminal charge by acetylation and studied the protein at pH 2, where the C-terminus is effectively protonated. Under these conditions, the protein retains its function and proved to be both soluble and have a reversible folding-unfolding transition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a soluble, functional protein with no titratable side chains has been produced. PMID:27307139

  9. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savjani, Ketan T.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.; Savjani, Jignasa K.

    2012-01-01

    Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. PMID:22830056

  10. Thorium(IV) hydrous oxide solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.L.; Rai, D.

    1987-12-02

    The results of a study of the solubility of amorphous, hydrous ThO/sub 2/ over the pH range 3.5 - 14.2 are reported. The solubility is high at pH 3.5 and decreases rapidly at pH 4.5. The chemical modes of solubility over various pH ranges are discussed. No conclusive evidence for any amphoteric behavior of Th(IV) is reported. 22 references, 1 figure.

  11. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jacob G

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the processability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono-, di- and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH)(4)-H(2)O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH)(4)-NaCl-H(2)O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than 2M. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above 2M. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect. PMID:22934992

  12. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2012-12-01

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  13. Relationship between solubility and toxicity of coal liquefaction materials to the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Gray, R.H.; Scott, A.J.; Thomas, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The potential ecological risk from complex coal liquids that may be released to freshwater ecosystems is ultimately dependent on both the degree of solubility of parent material and the toxic properties of constitutent compounds that an organism is exposed to. Thus, highly water-soluble components that remain bioavailable and are present in the water column at acutely toxic concentrations pose a problem for many aquatic organisms. We screened coal liquids derived from several processes and under different process designs to evaluate the acute toxicity of their water-soluble fractions (WSFs) to Daphnia magna. The solubility of materials treated varied and WSFs ranged from 44 to 2260 mg/L total carbon (TC). The most soluble materials in water exhibited greater toxicity based on percent dilution of the WSF. However, toxicity was similar for all materials tested when based on soluble components (TC in solution). Chemical characterization of the WSFs indicated that phenols comprised the majority of the TC in solution. Because toxicity based on total phenols was generally greater than that for individual phenolics tested separately, other soluble chemical classes in the complex mixtures likely contribute to observed toxicity.

  14. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  15. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the metabolism of soluble amino acids and organic acids in barley primary leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of soluble amino acids and organic acids to CO2 enrichment were determined with barley primary leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant) grown in controlled environment chambers. Total soluble amino acids were enhanced 33% by CO2 enrichment when determined 9 days after sowing (DAS). However,...

  16. Nutritional composition and solubility of edible bird nest (Aerodramus fuchiphagus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimi, Nurfatin Mohd; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Edible bird nest (EBN) produced by certain swiftlet species mainly, Aerodromus fuciphagus. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the proximate and amino acid composition of EBN obtained from two regions in Peninsular Malaysia (Pahang-A & Terengganu-B). The solubility of edible bird nest with varying pH, temperature and time was also investigated in this study. The results showed that, the EBN contained crude protein accounted to 58.55% (A) and 55.48% (B), carbohydrate at22.28% (A) & 25.79% (B), moisture content 15.90% (A) & 15.87% (B), fat, 0.67% (A) & and 0.29% (B) and ash contents 2.60% (A) & 2.57% (B) respectively. The major amino acids found in edible bird nest EBN were Glutamic acid (9.61%), Aspartic acid (6.34%), Lysine (5.44 %) and also Leucine (5.30%). The total solubility of EBN was also found to be increased when the temperature was increased increase with distilled water yielding the highest total solubility of EBN compared to others buffer (different pH) solutions.

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 97. Solubility of Higher Acetylenes and Triple Bonded Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Peter G. T.

    2013-03-01

    Solubility of Ethyne in Liquids was published in 2001 as Vol. 76 of the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. The current work extends the coverage to the solubility in liquids of higher gaseous and liquid acetylenes and to derivatives that contain a triple carbon-carbon bond. Predictive methods for estimating solubilities in water are summarised and usually give values to within an order of magnitude. The literature has been surveyed to the end of 2010.

  18. TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, William R.

    The Hudson River Museum's Environmental Arts and Science Division has published this booklet describing their model educational program, "TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment," a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education utilizing existing curricula. For conducting the program model communities strategically located along the…

  19. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of heat-induced gel prepared with chicken salt-soluble proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Seo, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The technological effects of gamma irradiation (0, 3, 7, and 10 kGy) on chicken salt-soluble meat proteins in a model system were investigated. There were no significant differences in protein, fat, and ash content, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility among all samples. The samples with increasing gamma irradiation levels had higher pH, lightness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity, whereas moisture content, water holding capacity, redness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were the highest in the unirradiated control. The result from meat products using gamma irradiation was intended to provide a basic resource processing technology.

  1. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) co-localizes with receptor activator of NF-KB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-positive vesicles in rat osteoblasts and osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Solberg, L B; Stang, E; Brorson, S-H; Andersson, G; Reinholt, F P

    2015-02-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is well known as an osteoclast marker; however, a recent study from our group demonstrated enhanced number of TRAP + osteocytes as well as enhanced levels of TRAP located to intracellular vesicles in osteoblasts and osteocytes in experimental osteoporosis in rats. Such vesicles were especially abundant in osteoblasts and osteocytes in cancellous bone as well as close to bone surface and intracortical remodeling sites. To further investigate TRAP in osteoblasts and osteocytes, long bones from young, growing rats were examined. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy displayed co-localization of TRAP with receptor activator of NF-KB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in hypertrophic chondrocytes and diaphyseal osteocytes with Pearson's correlation coefficient ≥0.8. Transmission electron microscopy showed co-localization of TRAP and RANKL in lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) + vesicles in osteoblasts and osteocytes supporting the results obtained by confocal microscopy. Recent in vitro data have demonstrated OPG as a traffic regulator for RANKL to LAMP1 + secretory lysosomes in osteoblasts and osteocytes, which seem to serve as temporary storage compartments for RANKL. Our in situ observations indicate that TRAP is located to RANKL-/OPG-positive secretory lysosomes in osteoblasts and osteocytes, which may have implications for osteocyte regulation of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25201349

  2. Soluble Manganese(III) in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Oldham, V.; Madison, A.; Tebo, B.; Jones, M.; Jensen, L.; Owings, S.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have confirmed the presence of soluble manganese(III), which along with Mn(II) passes through a 0.2 μm filter, in suboxic marine waters. Here we applied a spectrophotometric method using a soluble porphyrin as a competitive ligand to calculate the concentrations and kinetics of Mn(II) and Mn(III) recovery. Data will be presented from the suboxic porewaters of the Saint Lawrence estuary, the suboxic and anoxic waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) accounts for up to 100% of the dissolved Mn pool with concentrations ranging from the detection limit of 50 nM to 80 μM at the oxic/anoxic interface of the non-sulfidic porewaters from the hemipelagic sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Data indicate weak-ligand complexation of Mn(III) formed from Mn(II) oxidation as well as reduction of MnO2. Complexation of Mn(III) in the anoxic waters of Chesapeake Bay appears stronger as the porphyrin could not outcompete the natural ligands binding Mn(III). Mn(III) complexes were reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine or hydrogen sulfide and detected as Mn(II). Soluble Mn(III) comprised up to 52 % of total dissolved Mn. Profiles over the course of a five day cruise showed that high Mn(III) concentrations (7.3 μM) were observed at low H2S (4.9 μM) whereas low Mn(III) (1.1 μM) was detected at high H2S (40 μM). The presence of Mn(III) in sulfidic waters indicated that it is kinetically stabilized in situ by strong ligands so reduction to Mn(II) was incomplete. One electron reductive dissolution of solid MnO2 particles formed at the oxic-anoxic interface appear to be the source of Mn(III). Lastly, soluble Mn(III) was detected in the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway (salinity ranging from freshwater to 31) bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn (maximum of 1.92

  3. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  4. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  5. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  6. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  7. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  8. Toward a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility: Increased Negative Surface Charge Correlates with Increased Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Shende, Varad R.; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. PMID:22768947

  9. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  10. Role of Acid Mobilization in Iron Solubility of Smaller Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.

    2011-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for phytoplankton. The majority of iron is transported from arid regions to the open ocean, but is mainly in an insoluble form. Since most aquatic organisms can take up iron only in the dissolved form, the amount of soluble iron is of key importance. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Compared to dust, combustion aerosols often contain iron with higher solubility. This paper discusses the factors that affect the iron solubility in mineral aerosols on a global scale using an aerosol chemistry transport model. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources such as biomass and fossil fuels burning. The iron solubility from onboard cruise measurements over the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in 2001 is used to evaluate the model performance in simulating soluble iron. Sensitivity simulations from dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species systematically underestimate the soluble iron concentration in fine particles. Improvement of the agreement between the model results and observations is achieved by the use of a faster iron dissolution rate in fine particles associated with anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., sulphate). Accurate simulation of the abundance of soluble iron in fine aerosols has important implications with regards to ocean fertilization because of the longer residence time of smaller particles, which supply nutrients to more remote ocean biomes. The model reveals a larger deposition of soluble iron for the fine mode than that for the coarse mode in northern oceans due to acid mobilization. The ratio of deposition rate of soluble iron in the fine mode to the total aerosols in the South Atlantic Ocean (40-60%) is less than that in northern oceans (70-100%). These results suggest that Patagonian dust

  11. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: II. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2006-12-01

    Bone is a structurally complex material, formed of both organic and inorganic chemicals. The organic compounds constitute mostly collagen and other proteins. The inorganic or bone mineral components constitute predominantly calcium, phosphate, carbonate, and a host of minor ingredients. The mineralized bone is composed of crystals which are closely associated with a protein of which collagen is an acidic polysaccharide material. This association is very close and the protein integrates into the crystalline structure. The mineralization involves the deposition of relatively insoluble crystals on an organic framework. The solubility process takes place when the outermost ions in the crystal lattice breakaway from the surface and become separated from the crystal. This is characteristic for ions dissolving in water or aqueous solutions at the specified temperature. The magnitude of solubility is temperature and pH dependent. Bone is sparingly soluble in most solvents. Enamel is less soluble than bone and fluoroapatite is the least soluble of all apatites in acid buffers. Collagen is less soluble in neutral salt solution than in dilute acid solutions at ambient temperatures. The solubility of collagens in solvents gradually decreases with increasing age of the bone samples.

  12. An investigation of the solubility of various compounds in the hydrofluoroalkane propellants and possible model liquid propellants.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P A; Seville, P C; McHale, H; Perkins, N C; Taylor, G

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate descriptive parameters that may predict the solubility of compounds in the hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellants and to identify a model HFA propellant that is liquid at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The solubility of 32 and 20 compounds chosen to give a wide range of physicochemical properties in HFA-134a and HFA-227, respectively, was measured. The Fedors solubility parameter and a computed log octanol water partition coefficient (CLOGP) were compared with the compounds' solubility in the HFA propellants. A total of 19 and 15 solutes had finite solubilities for HFA-134a and HFA-227, respectively, although the remaining solutes were miscible in all proportions. There was no apparent relation between solubility in HFA and the Fedors solubility parameter. This was not improved by considering the hydrogen-bonding potential of the compounds. When log solubility versus CLOGP was plotted, there was a linear relation for 16 and 12 of the compounds exhibiting a finite solubility in the HFA propellants, although four solutes (phenols) were displaced to the left of the linear relation. The remaining 3 compounds had much lower solubilities than was predicted from their CLOGPs, possibly as a consequence of their crystallinity (high melting points). Of the putative model propellants investigated (i.e., perfluorohexane (PFH), 1H-perfluorohexane [1H-PFH], and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol), 1H-PFH was the most promising, with a linear relation between solubility in 1H-PFH and solubility in HFA propellant being observed. The solubilities in 1H-PFH were approximately 11 and 26% of those in HFA-134a and HFA-227. PMID:11066021

  13. Reconciling modeled and observed atmospheric deposition of soluble organic nitrogen at coastal locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akinori; Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E.

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) species from air pollutants is a significant source of exogenous nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Here we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the supply of soluble organic nitrogen (ON) from anthropogenic sources to the ocean. Comparisons of modeled deposition with observations at coastal and marine locations show good overall agreement for inorganic nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen. However, previous modeling approaches result in significant underestimates of the soluble ON deposition if the model only includes the primary soluble ON and the secondary oxidized ON in gases and aerosols. Our model results suggest that including the secondary reduced ON in aerosols as a source of soluble ON contributes to an improved prediction of the deposition rates (g N m-2 yr-1). The model results show a clear distinction in the vertical distribution of soluble ON in aerosols between different processes from the primary sources and the secondary formation. The model results (excluding the biomass burning and natural emission changes) suggest an increase in soluble ON outflow from atmospheric pollution, in particular from East Asia, to the oceans in the twentieth century. These results highlight the necessity of improving the process-based quantitative understanding of the chemical reactions of inorganic nitrogen species with organics in aerosol and cloud water.

  14. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil. PMID:27391051

  15. Solubility prediction of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures using extended hildebrand solubility approach.

    PubMed

    Rathi, P B

    2011-11-01

    Extended Hildebrand solubility approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various propylene glycol-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility equation employs term interaction energy (W) to replace the geometric mean (δ(1)δ(2)), where δ(1) and δ(2) are the cohesive energy densities for the solvent and solute, respectively. The new equation provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy, W, is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ(1) of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures. The expression yields an error in mole fraction solubility of ~3.74%, a value approximating that of the experimentally determined solubility. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design. PMID:23112403

  16. Effect of pressure on ore mineral solubilities under hydrothermal conditions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Cygan, G.L.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combined solubilities of Fe, Zn and Pb sulphides were determined at elevated P and T in chloride solutions buffered in pH by a silicate assemblage of quartz monzonite composition plus added muscovite, and buffered in fS2 and fO2 by the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite. Higher T and higher chloride concentration favour higher metal solubilities, but the P effect is opposite. At 500oC, 0.5 kbar and 1 M total chloride, Fe, Zn, Pb solubilities were 8500, 4300 and 8700 ppm, respectively, whereas at 1 kbar they were 4200, 2400 and 2600 ppm, and at 2 kbar, 1700, 800 and 1200 ppm. The P effect is of considerable importance to problems of ore-mineral transport; the metal could be carried over long distances on a decreasing P gradient so long as the T decreases were sufficient; this condition could be approximated by a near-adiabatic transport cooling path. Such a condition is probably common for hydrothermal processes involving fairly deep-seated sources of heat and mineral components.-L.C.H.

  17. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  18. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a soluble enzyme membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Alfani, F; Iorio, G; Cantarella, M; Formisano, A; Gianfreda, L; Palescandolo, R; Scardi, V

    1979-08-01

    Recently enzyme immobilization techniques have been proposed that are mainly founded on the formation of an enzyme-gel layer onto the active surface of an ultrafiltration membrane within an unstirred ultrafiltration cell. If the membrane molecular-weight cutoff is less than the enzyme molecular weight and hence such as to completely prevent enzyme permeation (once the enzyme solution has been charged into the test cell and pressure applied to the system), a time progressive increase in enzyme concentration takes place at the upstream membrane surface that can eventually lead to gelation and hence to enzyme immobilization. However, depending on the total enzyme amount fed, the maximum enzyme concentration achieved in the unsteady state could be less than the gelation level. In this situation, no immobilization occurs and the enzyme still remains in the soluble form although it is practically confined within a limited region immediately upstream the membrane and at fairly high concentrations. In this paper, the experimental conditions that allow gelling to occur are discussed together with a theoretical analysis of the soluble enzyme membrane reactor which is obtained when no gelling takes place. Such a system could be usefully employed in performing kinetic analyses at high enzyme concentration levels that are still in the soluble form. PMID:454808

  19. Soluble endoglin, hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rathouska, Jana; Jezkova, Katerina; Nemeckova, Ivana; Nachtigal, Petr

    2015-12-01

    A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) is known to be an extracellular domain of the full-length membrane endoglin, which is elevated during various pathological conditions related to vascular endothelium. In the current review, we tried to summarize a possible role of soluble endoglin in cardiovascular pathologies, focusing on its relation to endothelial dysfunction and cholesterol levels. We discussed sEng as a proposed biomarker of cardiovascular disease progression, cardiovascular disease treatment and endothelial dysfunction. We also addressed a potential interaction of sEng with TGF-β/eNOS or BMP-9 signaling. We suggest soluble endoglin levels to be monitored, because they reflect the progression/treatment efficacy of cardiovascular diseases related to endothelial dysfunction and hypercholesterolemia. A possible role of soluble endoglin as an inducer of endothelial dysfunction however remains to be elucidated. PMID:26520890

  20. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  1. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  3. SOLUBLE ORGANIC NITROGEN CHARACTERISTICS AND REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses sources, concentrations, characteristics and methods for removal of Soluble Organic Nitrogen (SON) in wastewater. Removal by various physical, chemical and biological processes are described and molecular weight distribution is characterized. A significant p...

  4. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  5. Solubility product and thermodynamic functions for the holmium trifluoride - water system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Hill, T.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The total solubility, free ion concentrations in saturated solutions, solubility products and thermodynamic functions for the dissolution of holmium trifluoride hemihydrate together with the stability constants for the holmium mono- and diflouride complexes are reported in this paper. Conductometric and potentiometric methods were used to measure the solubilities for comparison of the results obtained therefrom. Our values for pK{sub SO}, the thermodynamic solubility product in terms of free ion concentrations of both ions, obtained from both methods are in agreement with one of the reported values. There are no values reported in the literature for the thermodynamic constants for the dissolution process to be compared with except for entropy change. Our values for the stability constants, measured by a simplified procedure, do not agree with those reported by previous authors.

  6. A miniature cell for gas solubility measurements in oils and bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Acosta, Edgar J.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A miniature cell has been designed and constructed to measure gas solubility in crude oils and bitumen. The cell was made of stainless steel with a total internal volume of 1.835 cc and only an oil sample of 0.4 cc was required for one set of measurements at different pressures. By using this small cell, the waiting time for reaching equilibrium was less than 10 min. The technique was validated by measuring CO2 gas solubility in two bitumen samples. The results were compared and found to be in very good agreement with available data. The apparatus was also used to study the effect of ashphaltene on CO2 solubility in bitumen. It was shown that ashphaltene had a negligible effect on CO2 solubility in bitumen.

  7. A miniature cell for gas solubility measurements in oils and bitumen.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Hooman; Acosta, Edgar J; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A miniature cell has been designed and constructed to measure gas solubility in crude oils and bitumen. The cell was made of stainless steel with a total internal volume of 1.835 cc and only an oil sample of 0.4 cc was required for one set of measurements at different pressures. By using this small cell, the waiting time for reaching equilibrium was less than 10 min. The technique was validated by measuring CO(2) gas solubility in two bitumen samples. The results were compared and found to be in very good agreement with available data. The apparatus was also used to study the effect of ashphaltene on CO(2) solubility in bitumen. It was shown that ashphaltene had a negligible effect on CO(2) solubility in bitumen. PMID:21456786

  8. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  9. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  10. Correlation of Catalytic Rates With Solubility Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; England, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Catalyst maximizes activity when its solubility parameter equals that of reactive species. Catalytic activities of some binary metal alloys at maximum when alloy compositions correspond to Hildebrand solubility parameters equal to those of reactive atomic species on catalyst. If this suggestive correlation proves to be general, applied to formulation of other mixed-metal catalysts. Also used to identify reactive species in certain catalytic reactions.

  11. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun

    2002-08-01

    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects. PMID:12171504

  12. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  13. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  14. Estimating the Aqueous Solubility of Pharmaceutical Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stephen J; Younis, Usir S; Myrdal, Paul B

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of crystalline solute solubility is well documented throughout the literature. However, the anhydrous crystal form is typically considered with these models, which is not always the most stable crystal form in water. In this study, an equation which predicts the aqueous solubility of a hydrate is presented. This research attempts to extend the utility of the ideal solubility equation by incorporating desolvation energetics of the hydrated crystal. Similar to the ideal solubility equation, which accounts for the energetics of melting, this model approximates the energy of dehydration to the entropy of vaporization for water. Aqueous solubilities, dehydration and melting temperatures, and log P values were collected experimentally and from the literature. The data set includes different hydrate types and a range of log P values. Three models are evaluated, the most accurate model approximates the entropy of dehydration (ΔSd) by the entropy of vaporization (ΔSvap) for water, and utilizes onset dehydration and melting temperatures in combination with log P. With this model, the average absolute error for the prediction of solubility of 14 compounds was 0.32 log units. PMID:27238488

  15. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  16. Solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1994-03-29

    The solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the major salt components and temperature. The components included in the study were the sodium salts of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, and carbonate. General findings from the study included: (1) uranium solubilities are very low (1-20 mg/L) for all solution compositions at hydroxide concentrations from 0.1 to 17 molar (2) carbonate, sulfate, and aluminate are not effective complexants for uranium at high hydroxide concentration, (3) uranium solubility decreases with increasing temperature for most alkaline salt solutions, and (4) uranium solubility increases with changes in solution chemistry that reflect aging of high level waste (increase in nitrite and carbonate concentrations, decrease in nitrate and hydroxide concentrations). A predictive model for the concentration of uranium as a function of component concentrations and temperature was fitted to the data. All of the solution components and temperature were found to be significant. There is a significant lack of fit for the model, which suggests that the dependence on the uranium solubility over the wide range of solution compositions is non-linear and/or that there are other uncontrolled parameters which are important to the uranium solubility.

  17. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  18. Influence of measurement uncertainties on soluble aerosol iron over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Johnson, M. S.; Hurley, D.; Dawson, K.

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust for global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of dust aerosol Fe associated with one of the flow-through leaching protocols to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. In the protocol aerosol Fe is defined soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to the analysis. To assess the concentrations of soluble Fe inferred by this flow-through leaching protocol we are using in situ measurements of dust size distribution with the prescribed of 50 % fractional solubility of Fe in less than 0.45 μm sized dust particles collected in the leachate. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using complex dust Fe dissolution module, or prescribed to be 1 and 4 %. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is typically higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (>30 %) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total dust mass. This study suggests that inconsistences in the operational definition of soluble Fe could contribute to the wide range of the fractional solubility of dust aerosol Fe reported in the literature.

  19. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-04-26

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degree}C, 30 {degree}C, 40 {degree}C, and 50 {degree}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic

  20. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  1. Low Soluble Syndecan-1 Precedes Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Gandley, Robin E.; Althouse, Andrew; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Bregand-White, Julia M.; McGonigal, Stacy; Myerski, Ashley C.; Gallaher, Marcia; Powers, Robert W.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndecan-1 (Sdc1; CD138) is a major transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the extracellular, luminal surface of epithelial cells and syncytiotrophoblast, thus comprising a major component of the glycocalyx of these cells. The “soluble” (shed) form of Sdc1 has paracrine and autocrine functions and is normally produced in a regulated fashion. We compared plasma soluble Sdc1 concentrations, in relation to placental Sdc1 expression, in uncomplicated (control) and preeclamptic pregnancies. Methods We evaluated soluble Sdc1 across uncomplicated pregnancy, and between preeclamptic, gestational hypertensive and control patients at mid-pregnancy (20 weeks) and 3rd trimester by ELISA. Placental expression level of Sdc1 was compared between groups in relation to pre-delivery plasma soluble Sdc1. Participants were recruited from Magee-Womens Hospital. Results In uncomplicated pregnancy, plasma soluble Sdc1 rose significantly in the 1st trimester, and reached an approximate 50-fold increase at term compared to post pregnancy levels. Soluble Sdc1 was lower at mid-pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia (P<0.05), but not gestational hypertension, compared to controls, and remained lower at late pregnancy in preeclampsia (P<0.01) compared to controls. Sdc1 was prominently expressed on syncytiotrophoblast of microvilli. Syncytiotrophoblast Sdc1 immunostaining intensities, and mRNA content in villous homogenates, were lower in preeclampsia vs. controls (P<0.05). Soluble Sdc1 and Sdc1 immunostaining scores were inversely associated with systolic blood pressures, and positively correlated with infant birth weight percentile. Conclusion Soluble Sdc1 is significantly lower before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, with reduced expression of Sdc1 in the delivered placenta, suggesting a role for glycocalyx disturbance in preeclampsia pathophysiology. PMID:27299886

  2. Dissolution rate and apparent solubility of poorly soluble drugs in biorelevant dissolution media.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Tsinman, Oksana; Sun, Na; Tsinman, Konstantin; Avdeef, Alex; Bergström, Christel A S

    2010-10-01

    A series of poorly soluble BCS class II compounds with "grease ball" characteristics were assessed for solubility and dissolution rate in biorelevant dissolution media (BDM) with the purpose of investigating which molecular structures gain most in solubility when dissolved under physiologically relevant conditions. The compounds were studied in four media (simulated intestinal fluid in fasted (FaSSIF pH 6.5) and fed state (FeSSIF pH 5.0), and their corresponding blank buffers (FaSSIF(blk) and FeSSIF(blk))) at a temperature of 37 °C. The experimental results were used to analyze which molecular characteristics are of importance for the solubility in BDM and for in silico modeling using multivariate data analysis. It was revealed that a majority of the compounds exhibited a higher dissolution rate and higher solubility in the FaSSIF and FeSSIF than in their corresponding blank buffers. Compounds which were neutral or carried a positive charge were more soluble in FeSSIF than FaSSIF. The acidic compounds displayed clear pH dependency, although the higher concentration of solubilizing agents in FeSSIF than FaSSIF also improved the solubility. Five of the ten compounds were upgraded to BCS class I when dissolved in FaSSIF or FeSSIF, i.e., the maximum dose of these compounds given orally was soluble in 250 mL of these BDMs. Lipophilicity as described by the log D(oct) value was identified as a good predictor of the solubilization ratio (R(2) = 0.74), and computed molecular descriptors were also shown to successfully predict the solubilities in BDM for this data set. To conclude, the physiological solubility of "grease ball" molecules may be largely underestimated in in vitro solubility assays unless BDM is used. Moreover, the results herein indicate that the improvement obtained in BDM may be possible to predict from chemical features alone. PMID:20507160

  3. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility. PMID:26548840

  4. Aqueous solubility of polychlorinated biphenyls related to molecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Opperhulzen, A.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.; Van der Steen, J.M.D.; Hutzinger, O.

    1988-06-01

    Aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls show a linear relationship between logarithms of aqueous activity coefficients and total surface areas (TSA) or total molecular volumes (TMV). The aqueous activity coefficients were calculated from experimental solubility data and values taken from the literature. The correlations improved substantially if a differential heat capacity between supercooled liquid and solid chemical (..delta..C/sub p/) equal to the entropy of fusion (..delta..S/sub f/), instead of ..delta..C/sub p/ = O, was assumed. In addition, it was found that dissolution of 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl was accompanied by positive enthalpy and entropy changes, the entropy being dominant at room temperature. For the former compound, it was shown that the entropy of fusion is approximately to J K/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/, which is in agreement with the Walden rule. For 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, it was shown that a Hildebrand plot provides a constant slope. This supported the assumption that differential heat capacity (..delta..C/sub p/) equals the entropy of fusion.

  5. Milled industrial beet color kinetics and total soluble solid contents by image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial beets are an emerging feedstock for biofuel and bioproducts industry in the US. Milling of industrial beets is the primary step in front end processing (FEP) for ethanol production. Milled beets undergo multiple pressings with water addition during raw beet juice extraction, and extracted...

  6. New recommendations for measuring collagen solubility.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María E; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-08-01

    The heat-solubility of intramuscular collagen is usually conducted in 1/4 Ringer's solution at pH7.4, despite this ionic strength and pH being inappropriate for post-rigor meat. The current work studied the percentage of soluble collagen and hydrothermal isometric tension characteristics of perimysial strips on bovine semitendinosus muscles in either 1/4 Ringer's solution, distilled water, PBS, or a solution of the same salt concentration as 1/4 Ringer's but at pH5.6. Values of % soluble collagen were lower at pH7.4 than 5.6. Increasing ionic strength reduced % soluble collagen. The maximum perimysial isometric tension was independent of the bathing medium, but the percent relaxation was higher at pH7.4 than at pH5.6, and increased with ionic strength of the media. It is recommended that future measurements of collagen solubility and tests on connective tissue components of post-rigor meat should be carried out in a solution of concentrations NaCl and KCl equivalent to those in 1/4 Ringer's, but at pH5.6, a pH relevant to post-rigor meat. PMID:27057755

  7. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  8. The solubility of uranium hexafluoride in perfluoroethers

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, E.J.

    1984-07-15

    The polyperfluoroethers are compatible with uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) and are suitable for use in diffusion pumps and in mechanical vacuum pumps which rely on oil as both the lubricant and the seal. The UF/sub 6/ is soluble in all fluids with which it is compatible. Because a number of vacuum pumps in the BOP facilities of the GCEP plant employ these perfluoroether oils as the working fluid and have oil chambers which are large, questions have been raised as to the relationships governing the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in these materials and the maximum quantities of UF/sub 6/ which could be dissolved in these oils under credible accident conditions. This report summarizes these solubility relations and the interaction of the UF/sub 6/ solubility and the pumping capability of this type of vacuum pump. It will be shown that, whereas the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in Fomblin Y25 fluoroether fluid under a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 760 torr and at the pump operating temperature of 160/sup 0/F is about 500 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil, the system controls are such as to isolate the system from the pumps before the quantity of UF/sub 6/ dissolved in the perfluoroether exceeds about 10 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Improvement in solubility of poor water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Swati; Mathew, George; Joseph, Lincy

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to combine recent literature on solid dispersion technology for solubility enhancement with special emphasis on mechanism responsible for the same by solid dispersion, various preparation methods, and evaluation parameters. Solubility behavior is the most challenging aspect for various new chemical entities as 60% of the new potential products possess solubility problems. This is the biggest reason for new drug molecules not reaching to the market or not reaches to full potential. There are various techniques to enhance the drug solubility such as particle size reduction, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, solid dispersion, etc. From this article it may be concluded that solid dispersion is an important approach for improvement of bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:23071955

  10. [Variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts content of Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiao-xian; Guo, Ying-ying; Si, Jin-ping; Wu, Ling-shang; Wang, Lin-hua

    2014-12-01

    To reveal the variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract contents of Dendrobium officinale, the polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents of three D. officinale strains were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method, respectively. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts and their total content were significantly different among D. officinale samples collected in different periods, and the variations were closely related to the phenology of D. officinale. Additionally, the quality variation of polysaccharides was closely related to the flowering of D. officinale, while the alcohol-soluble extracts was closely associated to the formation and germination of buds. According to the dynamic variation of these two compounds, it is more reasonable to harvest D. officinale at biennials pre-bloom than at specific harvesting month considering polysaccharides content. It is better to harvest before the germination of buds considering alcohol-soluble extracts. While with regards to both polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract, it is better to harvest this plant at the period from the sprouting to pre-bloom next year. PMID:25898575

  11. Association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Peipei; Tian, Yunfan; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Decreased natriuretic peptides are risk factors for diabetes. As a physiological activator of natriuretic peptides, corin may play a role in glucose metabolism. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis in a general population of China. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A population study in Suzhou, China. Participants A total of 2498 participants aged above 30 years were included in the study. Outcome measures The association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia was examined in men and women, using non-conditional logistic regression models, respectively. Results Serum soluble corin, in men and women, was significantly higher in participants with hyperglycaemia than in those without (all p<0.001). OR of hyperglycaemia positively and significantly increased with serum soluble corin quartiles, in men (p for trend <0.001) and in women (p for trend=0.050), even after multivariate adjustment. Participants with a serum soluble corin, in men (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.23) and women (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.61), over the median level, were more likely to have hyperglycaemia compared with the remaining participants, after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusions Hyperglycaemia was significantly and positively associated with increased serum soluble corin in men and women. Our findings suggest that serum soluble corin may be a risk factor or a biomarker of hyperglycaemia. PMID:26700277

  12. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. PMID:27282539

  13. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  14. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  15. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  16. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest. PMID:26572009

  17. SOLUBLE SOLIDS AND SIMPLE SUGARS MEASUREMENT IN INTACT MANGO USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soluble solids content (TSS, °Brix), sucrose, glucose and fructose are important quality attributes of mango (Magnifera indica) fruit and have been shown to be useful for determining fruit maturity. The approach to develop a rapid, reliable, nondestructive method for quality evaluation of man...

  18. Determination of P bioavailability in corn and sorghum distiller's dried grains with solubles for growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 barrows (29.6 kg BW) were used in a 34-day study to determine the effects of corn or sorghum distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, bone trains, and P bioavailability. One corn and three sorghum DDGS were each collected from different processing plants. Pi...

  19. Average concentration of soluble salts in leached soils inferred from the convective-dispersive equation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The convective-dispersive, or advective-dispersive, or CDE, equation has long been the model of choice for solute transport in soils. Using the total mass of soluble salts in soil profile to evaluate changes in salinity due to irrigation can be beneficial when the spatial variability of soil salini...

  20. Dietary Soluble Celluloses Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases in Fat Fed Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble, and to some extent, natural, unmodified cellulose demonstrate physiological activities, including plasma cholesterol-lowering. Male Syrian hamsters, ten per dietary treatment, were fed diets containing 5% total dietary fiber, 8% butterfat, 10% corn oil, 2% menhaden oil, and 0.1% cholestero...

  1. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  2. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  3. AN-107 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AN-107 sample using sodium hydroxide and de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AN-107 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions.

  4. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  5. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

  6. The water-soluble fraction of carbon, sulfur, and crustal elements in Asian aerosols and Asian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, R. M.; Majestic, B. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Schauer, J. J.

    We quantified the water-soluble species in 24 h average TSP (Dunhuang and Gosan) and PM1.0 (Gosan only) samples associated with the Spring 2001 Asian Dust season. Samples were analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble sulfur, and water-soluble crustal elements, as well as their bulk chemical composition. Water-soluble organic carbon in Gosan accounted for 28-83% (average=63%) of the particle-phase TSP total organic carbon, and 1-69% (average=23%) of the particle-phase PM1.0 organic carbon. Water-soluble sulfur, primarily in the form of sulfate, accounted for 2-22% of the TSP mass in Gosan, and 0.9-11% of the TSP mass in Dunhuang. The absolute concentrations and the soluble fraction of crustal elements in TSP samples collected at Gosan were found to correlate with the air mass source region as determined by back-trajectory analysis. For example, elevated levels of water-soluble sodium, potassium, and calcium were observed during dust events. These observations are likely the result of differences in anthropogenic sources, mineralogical composition of resuspended crustal materials, and atmospheric processing of the aerosols. Experiments were conducted using Asian soil samples to study the impact of acidification by nitric acid vapor on the solubility of crustal elements present in Asian desert and non-desert dusts. These experiments demonstrated that gaseous nitric acid attack leads to significant increases (>100% increase) in water-soluble calcium, magnesium, aluminum, manganese, and iron, while little or no increases in water-soluble sodium and potassium were observed in the soils.

  7. Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-30

    The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble

  8. Zoledronic acid increases the circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, with a further increase in lymphocyte-derived soluble RANKL in zoledronic acid- and glucocorticoid-treated mice stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Hori, Naoko; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent antiresorptive drug used in conjunction with standard cancer therapy to treat osteolysis or hypercalcemia due to malignancy. However, it is unclear how ZA influences the circulating levels of bone remodeling factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZA on the serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The following four groups of C57BL/6 mice were used (five mice per group): (1) the placebo+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; (2) the placebo+ZA group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks; (3) the prednisolone (PSL)+PBS group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; and (4) the PSL+ZA group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks. At the 3-week time point, all mice were subjected to oral inflammatory stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The sera of these mice were obtained every week and the levels of sRANKL and OPG were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the time of sacrifice, femurs were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological, and histomorphometric analyses. Our data indicated that ZA administration remarkably reduced bone turnover and significantly increased the basal level of sRANKL. Interestingly, the PSL+ZA group showed a dramatically elevated sRANKL level after LPS stimulation. In contrast, the PSL+ZA group in nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD-SCID mice), which are characterized by the absence of functional T- and B-lymphocytes, showed no increase in the sRANKL level. Our data suggest that, particularly with combination treatment of ZA and glucocorticoids, surviving lymphocytes might be the source of inflammation-induced sRANKL. Thus

  9. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  10. The Total Irradiance Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The first Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) launched on NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment in 2003 and quickly proved to be the most accurate and stable instrument on orbit for measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TIM’s design improvements over the older classical radiometers helped its selection on many subsequent missions, including NASA’s Glory, NOAA’s TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment, and the series of NASA’s Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor instruments currently underway. I will summarize the status of and differences between each of the TIMs currently on-orbit or in production.

  11. Intestinal drug solubility estimation based on simulated intestinal fluids: comparison with solubility in human intestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Clarysse, Sarah; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2011-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to validate both existing fasted and fed state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF and FeSSIF), and simpler, alternative media for predicting intraluminal drug solubility during drug discovery and early drug development. For 17 model drugs, the solubilizing capacity of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) (subscript indicates the use of crude taurocholate) and different concentrations of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) in phosphate buffer were correlated with the solubilizing capacity of human intestinal fluids (HIF) in the fasted and the early postprandial state. A good correlation between solubility in fasted HIF and FaSSIF(c) and between solubility in fed HIF and FeSSIF(c) was obtained, indicated by R(2) values of 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. Comparable values were obtained for 0.1% TPGS for the fasted state (R(2)=0.84) and 2% TPGS for the fed state (R(2)=0.84). Direct estimation of intestinal drug solubility by the measured solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) was acceptable. However, better estimates were obtained by calculating solubilities based on the equations describing the relationship between solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) as function of observed solubilities in HIF. Using this approach, the predictive value of the TPGS-based solvent system was also acceptable and comparable to that of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c). In conclusion, FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) can be considered biorelevant media for intestinal solubility estimation. A simpler TPGS-based system may be a valuable alternative with improved stability and lower cost. PMID:21570465

  12. Effects of CO2 enrichment on soluble amino acids and organic acids in barley primary leaves as a function of age, photoperiod, and chlorosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of soluble amino acids and organic acids to CO2 enrichment were determined using barley primary leaves (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant). Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers using either ambient (36 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 treatments. Total soluble amino acids were inc...

  13. Golden rule for buttressing vulnerable soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Berry, R Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Local weaknesses in the structure of soluble proteins have received little attention. The structure may be inherently weak at sites where hydration of the protein backbone is locally hampered by formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond which in turn is not fully stabilized through burial within a hydrophobic environment. The result is insufficient compensation for the thermodynamic cost of dehydrating the backbone polar groups. This work shows that these structural deficiencies, the unburied backbone hydrogen bonds, are compensated in natural proteins by disulfide bonds that are needed to maintain the structural integrity. Examination of all PDB-reported soluble structures reveals that, after suitable normalization, the number of disulfide bonds, X, correlates tightly with the number of unburied backbone hydrogen bonds, Y, beyond the baseline level Y = 20, revealing a simple balance relation: Y = 5X + 20. This equation introduces a 1:5 ratio associated with the buttressing of soluble proteins with structural deficiencies. The results are justified on thermodynamic grounds and have implications for biomolecular engineering as they introduce two constants of universal applicability determining the architecture of soluble proteins. PMID:20364868

  14. Soluble arsenic removal at water treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic profiles were obtained from full-scale conventional treatment (coagulation, Fe-Mn oxidation, or softening) plants, facilitating testing of theories regarding arsenic removal. Soluble As(V) removal efficiency was controlled primarily by pH during coagulation, be Fe{sup +2} oxidation and Fe(OH){sub 3} precipitation during Fe-Mn oxidation, and by Mg(OH){sub 2} formation during softening. Insignificant soluble As(V) removal occurred during calcite precipitation at softening plants or during Mn{sup +2} oxidation-precipitation at Fe-Mn oxidation plants. The extent of soluble As(V) removal during coagulation and softening treatments was lower than expected. Somewhat surprisingly, during coagulation As(V) removal efficiencies were limited by particulate aluminum formation and removal, because much of the added coagulant was not removed by 0.45-{mu}m-pore-size filters. At one utility, reducing the coagulation pH from 7.4 to 6.8 (at constant alum dose) improved removal of particulate aluminum, thereby enhancing soluble As(V) removal during treatment.

  15. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  16. Solubility of C60 in solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pradnya P; Jafvert, Chad T

    2008-02-01

    The potential large-scale production of fullerene C60 and its widespread use in consumer products may translate into occupational and public exposure and in long-term environmental exposure. To assess the risk and fate of C60 in the environment, it is important to understand its solvate formation in common industrial solvents as the solvates may affect various properties of C60 including reactivity and toxicity, particularly when solvates occur in C60 clusters. In this study, the solubility measurements in mixed solvent system can provide useful information about solvate formation. The solubility of C60 was measured in pure toluene, tetrahydrofuran, ethanol, and acetonitrile to be 3000, 11, 1.4, and 0.04 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, the solubility of C60 was measured in mixtures of toluene-acetonitrile, toluene-ethanol, toluene-tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran. The solubility data were modeled with some accuracy using Wohl's equation. The estimated crystal energy term for C60 in tetrahydrofuran was different than that in the other solvents, indicating that the C60 solid phase in equilibrium with tetrahydrofuran solution may be a solvated crystal. PMID:18323111

  17. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  18. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  19. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  20. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  1. Surface shear inviscidity of soluble surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Nowbahar, Arash; Mansard, Vincent; Leal, L. Gary; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Mecca, Jodi M.; Tucker, Christopher J.; Squires, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Foam and emulsion stability has long been believed to correlate with the surface shear viscosity of the surfactant used to stabilize them. Many subtleties arise in interpreting surface shear viscosity measurements, however, and correlations do not necessarily indicate causation. Using a sensitive technique designed to excite purely surface shear deformations, we make the most sensitive and precise measurements to date of the surface shear viscosity of a variety of soluble surfactants, focusing on SDS in particular. Our measurements reveal the surface shear viscosity of SDS to be below the sensitivity limit of our technique, giving an upper bound of order 0.01 μN·s/m. This conflicts directly with almost all previous studies, which reported values up to 103–104 times higher. Multiple control and complementary measurements confirm this result, including direct visualization of monolayer deformation, for SDS and a wide variety of soluble polymeric, ionic, and nonionic surfactants of high- and low-foaming character. No soluble, small-molecule surfactant was found to have a measurable surface shear viscosity, which seriously undermines most support for any correlation between foam stability and surface shear rheology of soluble surfactants. PMID:24563383

  2. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, and Ar Solubility in Serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to constrain the solubility of He, Ne, and Ar in natural samples of antigorite from three locations. Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material [1] and well gases [2] indicate that noble gases are recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. The mechanism by which uncharged atoms can be bound to a mineral and subsequently recycled remains unclear, but recent experimental work suggests that ring structures in silicate minerals are ideal sites for noble gases [3]. Serpentine contains such ring structures and is abundant in subducting slabs, providing significant potential for control of the recycling of noble gases. Experiments were performed in a cold seal pressure vessel at 350°C using a mix of equal parts He, Ne, and Ar as the pressure media (Brown University, USA). Pressures varied from 0.15 to 1.13 kbar total pressure and durations varied from 20 to 188 hours. Samples were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry (Open University, UK). He and Ne reached equilibrium during the experiments and both exhibit Henrian behavior. Data from the cleanest sample reduces the error by approximately an order of magnitude over previous work [3] and confirms that He is significantly more soluble (HCHe=6.05x10-10 mol/g/bar) than Ne (HCNe=5.12x10-12 mol/g/bar) in antigorite. Preliminary data from the cleanest sample suggests that Ar is more soluble than both He and Ne (HCAr=1.94x10-10 mol/g/bar). This provides a mechanism for fractionation of noble gases during recycling. 1. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G., and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Jackson, C.R.M., Parman, S.W., Kelley, S.P., Cooper, R.F., GCA, 159, 1-15, 2015

  3. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  5. Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR- ...

  6. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  7. Amlodipine and atorvastatin improved hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B/osteoprotegerin system in spontaneous hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingchao; Liu, Fan; Liu, Demin; Du, Hong; Hao, Jie; Yang, Xiuchun; Cui, Wei

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to study the role of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/RANK/OPG) system in cardiac hypertrophy in a spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR) model and the effects of amlodipine and atorvastatin intervention. Thirty-six-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into four groups: 1) SHR control group; 2) amlodipine alone (10 mg/kg/d) group, 3) atorvastatin alone (10 mg/kg/d) group, 4) combination of amlodinpine and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d for each) group. Same gender, weight, and age of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with normal blood pressure were used as normal control. Drugs were administered by oral gavage over 12 weeks. The thicknesses of left ventricle walls, left ventricle weight, and cardiac function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular pressure and function were assessed by hemodynamic examination. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and collagen accumulation in cardiac tissue were measured by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining, respectively. The hydroxyproline content of cardiac tissue was examined by biochemistry technique. RANKL, RANK and OPG mRNA, protein expression and tissue localization were studied by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Treatment with amlodipine or atorvastatin alone significantly decreased left ventricular mass index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis in SHR (each P < 0.05). Moreover, combined amlodipine and atorvastatin treatment induced significant reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis in SHR to a greater extent than each agent alone (P < 0.05). Compared with WKY rats, the myocardial expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG was increased. Both amlodipine and atorvastatin reduced RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression, with the best effects seen with the combination. Based on our results

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  9. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality. PMID:27060638

  10. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous mixtures of alkanolamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dawodu, O.F.; Meisen, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The solubility of CO[sub 2] in water + N-methyldiethanolamine + monoethanolamine (MDEA + MEA) and water + N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine (MDEA + DEA) are reported at two compositions of 3.4 M MDEA + 0.8 M MEA or DEA and 2.1 M MDEA + 2.1 M MEA or DEA at temperatures from 70 to 180 C and CO[sub 2] partial pressures from 100 to 3,850 kPa. The solubility of CO[sub 2] in the blends decreased with an increase in temperature but increased with an increase in CO[sub 2] partial pressure. At low partial pressures of CO[sub 2] and the same total amine concentration, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings were in the order MDEA + MEA > MDEA + DEA > MDEA. However, at high CO[sub 2] partial pressures, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings in the MDEA solutions were higher than those of the MDEA + MEA and MDEA + DEA blends of equal molar strengths due to the stoichiometric loading limitations of MEA and DEA. The nonadditivity of the equilibrium loadings for single amine systems highlights the need for independent measurements on amine blends.

  11. On the solubility of aluminum in cryolitic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ødegård, R.; Sterten, Å.; Thonstad, J.

    1988-06-01

    The solubility of aluminum in NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 melts with various additives was found to increase with increasing NaF/AlF3 molar ratio (CR) and increasing temperature and to decrease with additions of A12O3, CaF2, MgF2, and LiF to the melts. With the use of literature data for the activities of NaF and A1F3 in cryolitic melts, three dissolution reaction models were found to give a good fit to the experimental solubility data. According to the most probable of these models the total concentration of dissolved aluminum (aluminum and sodium species) is given by cAl = cNa(diss) + cAlF2- + cAl2F3- + cAl3F4- + cAl4F5- In NaF rich melts, aluminum will dominantly dissolve as sodium, while at cryolite ratios commonly used in aluminum electrowinning (CR = 2.25 to 2.7) the AlF{-2/-}-ion is the predominant dissolved metal species. Other species (A12F3 -, A13F4-, A14F5-) were found to be of some significance only in melts with high excess A1F3 (CR < 2).

  12. Observations on the Solubility of Skeletal Carbonates in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Chave, K E; Deffeyes, K S; Weyl, P K; Garrels, R M; Thompson, M E

    1962-07-01

    Carbonate skeletal materials of marine organisms exhibit a wide range of solubilities in aqueous solutions. In most cases, the dissolution of the carbonate mineral is irreversible and therefore the material can have no true equilibrium solubility. Relative solubilities have been measured in distilled water and in sea water. The least soluble mineral appears to be calcite with low magnesium content; the most soluble is calcite containing 20 to 30 percent MgCO(3) in solid solution. Aragonite has an intermediate solubility. PMID:17774123

  13. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  14. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  15. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  16. Total colonoscopy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. B.; Laage, N. J.; Campbell, C. A.; Douglas, J. R.; Walker-Smith, J. A.; Booth, I. W.; Harries, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-three total colonoscopies were performed on 115 children with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years. The major indications were suspected inflammatory bowel disease and unexplained rectal bleeding. Ninety-seven per cent of all procedures were carried out with sedation only. Adult colonoscopes were used in most of the patients but in babies and small children paediatric instruments were preferable. Total colonoscopy was possible in all patients with a patent colon. The terminal ileum was examined in 63 patients. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully carried out in 8 children and multiple haemangiomas were electrocoagulated in one. Total colonoscopy in this paediatric series proved to be at least as easy, rapid, well-tolerated, and safe as in adults. In selected patients as single colonoscopy can give an accurate diagnosis with biopsy proof and sometimes the opportunity for definitive treatment. PMID:7065694

  17. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  18. Modelling, solubility and pK(a) of five sparingly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Zukowski, Lukasz

    2011-01-17

    Drug solubility is an important aspect of drug development. The objective of this investigation was to measure solubilities of five drugs (cimetidine, phenylbutazone, fenbufen, nitrofurantoin, triamterene) at constant pH in range of temperature from 270 to 340K in three solvents: water, ethanol and 1-octanol with the dynamic-visual method and the saturation shake-flask method using spectrophotometric analysis. The Barton group contribution method was used for the calculations of molar volumes of solutes. The thermodynamic description of the solubility curves was made using the thermophysical properties obtained with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). The DSC measurements have shown different than existing in the literature enthalpies of melting for phenylbutazone and fenbufen. The experimental solubility data also differ from the literature data, normally measured at one, or two temperatures only. The solubility data have been correlated by means of three commonly known excess Gibbs energy, G(E) equations. The activity coefficients of drugs at saturated solutions were calculated from the experimental data. Reexamination of the pK(a) values using diluted solutions was made with the Bates-Schwarzenbach method for the pK(a) measurements. The association constants and corresponding pK(a) values of drugs were close to the most of the literature data. We hope that our new solubility data, thermophysical data, and pK(a) values will improve all prediction-methods and their precision. PMID:21034801

  19. Biorelevant solubility of poorly soluble drugs: rivaroxaban, furosemide, papaverine and niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Szőke, Vera; Völgyi, Gergely; Horváth, Péter; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2013-09-01

    In this work the biorelevant solubility of four drugs representing different acid-base property, wide range of lipohilicity and low aqueous solubility was studied. The equilibrium solubility of rivaroxaban (non-ionizable), furosemide (acid), papaverine (base) and niflumic acid (ampholyte) was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF pH 1.2), in simulated intestinal fluid fasted state (FaSSIF pH 6.5) and fed state (FeSSIF pH 5.0) and their corresponding blank buffers at a temperature of 37 °C using saturation shake-flask method. The concentration was measured by optimized HPLC analysis. The solubilizing effect of bile acid/lipid micelles as additive components of biorelevent media (BRM) is expressed with the solubility ratio (SR: SBRM/Sblank buffer) and the food effect was estimated from SFeSSIF/SFaSSIF coefficient. It was revealed that ionization plays primarily role in solubility of compounds which undergo ionization in BRM. The solubilizing effect in FaSSIF was marginal for the neutral compound (rivaroxaban) and for molecules are anionic at pH 6.5 (furosemide and niflumic acid). The higher concentration of solubilizing agents in FeSSIF improved the solubility of papaverine carrying positive charge and niflumic acid being partially zwitterionic at pH 5.0. PMID:23770783

  20. Analysis of effect of the solubility on gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, W. E., Jr.; Evans, J. W.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made of the gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lung models and in homogeneous lung models with the same total blood flow and ventilation. It is shown that the ratio of the rate of gas transfer of the inhomogeneous lung model over the rate of gas transfer of the homogeneous lung model as a function of gas solubility always has the qualitative features for gases with linear dissociation curves. This ratio is 1 for a gas with zero solubility and decreases to a single minimum. It subsequently rises to approach 1 as the solubility tends to infinity. The early portion of the graph of this function is convex, then after a single inflection point it is concave.

  1. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. PMID:26776044

  2. Effect of radio frequency heating on nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amro B; Pawelzik, Elke; von Hoersten, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In this study, radio frequency heat treatment at varying temperatures (50, 55, and 60°C) was applied to investigate its impact on the nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn. The nutritive value was measured in terms of crude protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, bioavailability of Fe and Ca, and antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents. No significant change in total and digestible protein of corn flour was observed after treatments. On the other hand, the availability of Ca and Fe was significantly increased, whereas the antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents were decreased after radio frequency heating. Moreover, protein solubility was found significantly (P < 0.05) higher in treated corn than in control sample. Regarding these results, radio frequency heating at controlled temperature up to 60°C might be used as postharvest method to enhance the nutritional quality of corn. PMID:27625771

  3. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  4. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  5. Therapeutic effects of soluble dietary fiber consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunye; Zeng, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Hongting; Liu, Jun; Fan, Rong; Zhu, Wenyi; Yuan, Lijia; Qin, Yu; Chen, Shihui; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Ying; Wan, Jing; Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (DF) reduces the risk of developing diabetes and may have therapeutic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soluble DF on metabolic control in patients with DM2. A total of 117 patients with DM2 between the ages of 40 and 70 were assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered extra soluble DF (10 or 20 g/day), or to a control group (0 g/day) for one month. Blood glucose, serum insulin and connecting peptide (C-peptide) levels, and the insulin resistance index, as determined using the homeostatic model assessment method, were measured during fasting and up to 2-h postprandially prior to and following one month of treatment. Other measurements included serum levels of glycated albumin (GA), blood lipid profiles, and an analysis of the blood pressure, body weight and waist/hip ratio of all patients. Following intervention, the levels of 2-h blood glucose, fasting insulin and lipoprotein(a), and the insulin resistance index, were significantly improved in all groups. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose, 2-h insulin, fasting C-peptide, 2-h C-peptide, GA and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly improved in the soluble DF groups. The 20 g/day soluble DF group exhibited significantly improved fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein levels, as well as a significantly improved insulin resistance index. In addition, 10 and 20 g/day soluble DF significantly improved the waist and hip circumferences and levels of TGs and apolipoprotein A. The results of the present study suggested that increased and regular consumption of soluble DF led to significant improvements in blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and metabolic profiles, without improving the secretory function of the islets of Langerhans, over a short-term intervention period in patients with DM2. PMID:27446349

  6. Soluble iron dust export in the high altitude Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo-Pérez, L. M.; Rodríguez, S.; Galindo, L.; García, M. I.; Alastuey, A.; López-Solano, J.

    2016-05-01

    Every summer huge amounts of desert dust particles are exported from the hyperarid subtropical Sahara to the North Atlantic the so-called Saharan Air Layer (SAL), a dry, warm and dust-laden corridor that expands from the North African coast (1-5 km.a.s.l.) to the Americas above the marine boundary layer. Because of the potential impact of the dust deposited on the ocean on marine biogeochemistry and climate, we studied the Fe solubility (in seawater) of atmospheric aerosols samples directly collected in the SAL off the North African coast, i.e. the fresh aerosols recently exported from the Sahara in the SAL. The aerosol sampling was performed at ∼2400 m.a.s.l. in Izaña observatory in Tenerife island. In the total aerosols, we found low Fe concentrations and high fractional Fe solubility (FFS ∼2%) in the North Atlantic free troposphere airflows and high Fe concentrations and low FFS (∼0.7%) within the SAL; the resulting FFS versus total dust (or total Fe) plot shows a hyperbolic trend attributed to the conservative mixing of 'fine combustion aerosols' and 'lithogenic mineral dust'. We then focused on the soluble Fe in the SAL. Our results indicate that ∼70% of soluble Fe is associated with the dissolution of submicron dust particles, probably involving Fe-bearing clays. We found a FFS of submicron dust (∼6%) higher than that typically observed in submicron particles of soil dust samples (<1%). The correlation between FFS and the ammonium-sulphate/dust ratio and the low variability in the Fe/Al ratio in the dust samples, suggests that the increase in the FFS of submicron dust aerosols (with respect to soil dust particles) may be related to the presence of acid pollutants mixed with dust. Previous studies had focused on dust processing and changes of Fe solubility during the trans-Atlantic transport of dust in the SAL. We found that submicron dust exported off the coast of North Africa may have already experienced acid processing over the Sahara, i

  7. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  8. Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  9. Total absorption Cherenkov spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovski, E. I.

    2015-05-01

    A short review of 50 years of work done with Cherenkov detectors in laboratories at the Lebedev Physical Institute is presented. The report considers some issues concerning the use of Cherenkov total absorption counters based on lead glass and heavy crystals in accelerator experiments.

  10. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  11. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  12. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  13. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  14. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  15. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  16. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  17. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  18. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  19. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  20. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  1. Guidance for Total Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoose, William H.

    Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

  2. Preparation of Hydrochlorothiazide Nanoparticles for Solubility Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vaculikova, Eliska; Cernikova, Aneta; Placha, Daniela; Pisarcik, Martin; Peikertova, Pavlina; Dedkova, Katerina; Devinsky, Ferdinand; Jampilek, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be considered as a useful tool for improving properties of poorly soluble active ingredients. Hydrochlorothiazide (Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System) was chosen as a model compound. Antisolvent precipitation-solvent evaporation and emulsion solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of 18 samples containing hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles. Water solutions of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Tween 80 and carboxymethyl dextran were used in mass concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5%. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as solvents of the model compound. The particle size of the prepared samples was measured by dynamic light scattering. The selected sample of hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl dextran sodium salt with particle size 2.6 nm was characterized additionally by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of this sample was 6.5-fold higher than that of bulk hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:27490530

  3. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs. PMID:16399376

  4. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core–shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the 'confined effect' and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties. PMID:27308672

  5. Nanoparticle Solubility in Liquid Crystalline Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; Roberts, Tyler F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2013-03-01

    Liquid crystalline materials often incorporate regions (defects) where the orientational ordering present in the bulk phase is disrupted. These include point hedgehogs, line disclinations, and domain boundaries. Recently, it has been shown that defects will accumulate impurities such as small molecules, monomer subunits or nanoparticles. Such an effect is thought to be due to the alleviation of elastic stresses within the bulk phase, or to a solubility gap between a nematic phase and the isotropic defect core. This presents opportunities for encapsulation and sequestration of molecular species, in addition to the formation of novel structures within a nematic phase through polymerization and nanoparticle self-assembly. Here, we examine the solubility of nanoparticles within a coarse-grained liquid crystalline phase and demonstrate the effects of nanoparticle size and surface interactions in determining sequestration into defect regions.

  6. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  7. Increased concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble CD40L in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Iván G; Jaramillo, Julio C; Alarcón, Marcelo L; Gutiérrez, César L; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Segovia, Fabián M; Leiva, Elba M; Mujica, Verónica E; Icaza, Gloria; Dí, Nora S

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a high incidence rate of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia [high LDL-c (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and low HDL-c (high density lipoprotein cholesterol)] and insulin resistance or glucose intolerance. In the context of MS, alterations in the plasmatic levels of some soluble forms of cell adhesion molecules can appear, e.g., soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and soluble CD40L (sCD40L). The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sCD40L in MS and non-MS groups and to associate these molecules with the diagnostic criteria of MS. A total of 185 non-smokers between 45 and 64 years of age were included. Of these, 93 corresponded to the MS group and the remaining 92 to a non-MS group (according to modified ATP III criteria). The serum concentration of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sCD40L was determined by commercial solid phase ELISA. The results were expressed as a median and interquartile range. The MS group showed high levels of sVCAM-1 (558.9 ng/ml; 481.3-667.6 ng/ml) compared with the non-MS group (405.2 ng/ml; 361.0-470.5 ng/ml) (p<0.0001). As well, the median level of sCD40L (3.0 ng/ml; 2.1l-11.7 ng/ml) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the non-MS group (2.6 ng/ml; 2.3-3.4 ng/ml) (p=0.0061). sE-selectin levels did not differ significantly between the groups: 73.9 ng/ml (58.3-87.0 ng/ml) and 68.5 ng/ml (51.6-97.5 ng/ml) in the MS and non-MS group, respectively. In conclusion, the serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sCD40L, but not sE-selectin, were significantly higher in patients with MS than in subjects that did not present MS. MS may therefore increase the expression of cell adhesion molecules, probably through endothelial activation. PMID:21475854

  8. Wormhole growth in soluble porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, R.H.; Griffiths, S.K. )

    1990-09-24

    Analytical solutions are derived for the quasisteady shape and speed of a single wormhole resulting from the coupled processes of Darcian fluid motion and chemical dissolution in a soluble permeable material. For an initially unsaturated medium, two-dimensional solutions are obtained by addressing an inverted free-boundary problem in which the spatial coordinates are treated as dependent variables on the plane of a complex potential. For initially saturated materials, solutions are obtained by analogy to Ivantsov's problem of dendrite growth.

  9. Murine lung immunity to a soluble antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, D.N.; Bice, D.E.; Siegel, D.W.; Schuyler, M.R. Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM )

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that soluble antigen triggers antigen-specific immunity in the respiratory tract in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen, the authors examined the development of local and systemic immunity in C57BL/6 mice after intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of a soluble, large molecular weight protein neoantigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Specific anti-KLH IgG and IgM first appeared in the sera of mice on day 7 after primary immunization by i.t. instillation of KLH, with specific serum antibody concentrations remaining elevated at day 11. Cultured spleen cells obtained from mice after primary immunization released only low levels of specific IgM, and no specific IgG. No specific antibody was released by cell populations derived from the lungs of animals undergoing primary immunization. When presensitized mice were given an i.t. challenge with KLH, responses differed markedly from those following primary immunization. Lung-associated lymph node cell populations from challenged mice released greater amounts of specific antibody earlier than did cell populations, which after primary immunization had not released detectable amounts of specific antibody in vitro, released easily detectable amounts of specific antibody after challenge. Thus, i.t. instillation of soluble KLH generates specific immunity in mice in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen. Specific responses following primary immunization occur largely within draining lung-associated lymph nodes. In contrast, presensitized animals challenged i.t. with soluble KLH mount secondary antibody responses in both lung and lung-associated lymph nodes.

  10. Solubility of hydroxyapatite/mica composites.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E G; Hara, T; Herø, H

    1996-01-01

    The solubility of some inorganic materials was studied. It was found that Ca dissolution was high in calcium phosphates with Ca/P ratios 1.67-2.0. Dissolution of P was moderate compared with dissolution of Ca. The composites, HA content 70 wt-%, and HA showed to be corrosion resistant. Dissolution of alumina in the mineral muscovite, used as a filler material, was found to be neglectable and dependent on the density of the composite. PMID:8761517

  11. Soluble expression of pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus in Escherichia coli by tightly controlling basal expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ana; Li, Yamei; Liu, Xiuxia; Long, Quan; Yang, Yankun; Bai, Zhonghu

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase (BaPul13A) is a widely used debranching enzyme in the starch industry. A few details have been reported on the heterologous expression of BaPul13A in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study compares different E. coli expression systems to improve the soluble expression level of BaPul13A. When pET22b(+)/pET28a(+) was used as the expression vector, the soluble expression of BaPul13A can be achieved by tightly controlling basal expression, whereas pET-20b(+)/pGEX4T2 leads to insoluble inclusion bodies. An efficient process control strategy aimed at minimizing the formation of inclusion bodies and enhancing the production of pullulanase was developed by a step decrease of the temperature in a 5-L fermentor. The highest total enzyme activity of BaPul13A reached 1,156.32 U/mL. This work reveals that the T7 promoter with lac operator and lacI gene collectively contribute to the soluble expression of BaPul13A, whereas either a T7 promoter alone or combined with the lac operator and lacI gene results in poor solubility. Basal expression in the initial growth phase of the host significantly affects the solubility of BaPul13A in E. coli. PMID:25312401

  12. A novel percolation method for determining solubilities of pharmaceutical agents in semisolid vehicles.

    PubMed

    Spangler, M; Harris, D

    1999-01-01

    A novel technique was developed to quantify the solubility of pharmaceutical actives in semisolid formulations. Ointments and emulsions of increasing potencies were sheared to disrupt their internal microcrystalline networks. These sheared materials were held in taut cheesecloth pouches, and the bleed that percolated out was collected and assayed for active potency. The solute concentration in the bleed was proportional to the concentration of the solute in solution in the formulation. Plots of bleed active potency against total formulation potency rose linearly to the point of formulation saturation. Above saturation, bleed potencies remained constant, producing plateaus on the solubility plots. The formulation potency at the onset of plateau quantified the saturation solubility of the active in each formulation. This technique was demonstrated with butylparaben in three ointment bases, and with hydrocortisone in an emulsion formulation. The solubility estimates thus obtained were confirmed experimentally by optical microscopy. This novel technique permits saturation solubilities to be determined for a range of semisolid formulations, with much greater accuracy than was previously possible. PMID:10578509

  13. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  14. Helium solubility and behaviour in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maugeri, E.; Wiss, T.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Desai, K.; Thiriet, C.; Rondinella, V. V.; Colle, J.-Y.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2009-03-01

    A set of devices was developed in order to infuse UO2 disks with helium, at high temperature and pressure, to measure the helium infused quantity and from these data to calculate the helium solubility in the UO2 matrix. Samples of UO2 single crystal and UO2 polycrystal were infused at a temperature of 1473 and 1743 K in a helium atmosphere ranging between 50 and 100 MPa. These samples were then annealed and the helium released was measured with a mass spectrometer. From the obtained spectra it was possible to give an interpretation of the helium release mechanism and to calculate its solubility in the UO2 lattice in these specific thermodynamic conditions. Additionally to the helium solubility measurement from infused samples, a 37 years old sample of 238PuO2, retrieved from an old 242Cm radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), containing radiogenic helium, was also measured to widen perspectives of this kind of measurements to damaged sample more representative of spent fuel.

  15. Cosolvency of dimethyl isosorbide for steroid solubility.

    PubMed

    Zia, H; Ma, J K; O'Donnell, J P; Luzzi, L A

    1991-04-01

    Dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), which is currently under investigation for its potential use as a pharmaceutical vehicle and drug permeation enhancer, is a water-miscible liquid with relatively low viscosity. The solubilization behavior of DMI as a cosolvent for nonpolar drugs was characterized via dielectric constant measurements of binary solvent systems containing DMI and either water, propylene glycol (PG), or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Evidence from the dielectric constant profiles and NMR studies suggest that DMI undergoes complexation with water and PG, but not with PEG, through hydrogen bonding interactions. The solvent complexation exhibited a major effect on the solubilities of prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone in the mixed solvent systems. Maximum solubility of each drug was found to occur near a DMI/water or DMI/PG concentration ratio of 1:2. In the DMI-PEG mixed system, while there is no apparent interaction between DMI and PEG molecules, the solubility of prednisone was found to increase with decreasing dielectric constant. PMID:1871047

  16. Solubility of nitrous oxide in amine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bensetiti, Z.; Iliuta, I.; Larachi, F.; Grandjean, B.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in 13 amine solvents and solutions was correlated to amine mole fractions and temperature using feedforward neural networks. This general correlation, using a massive database, predicted N{sub 2}O solubility at temperatures between 283 and 398 K in pure solvents [H{sub 2}O, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanolamine (AMP)], in binary aqueous amine solutions [H{sub 2}O/MEA, H{sub 2}O/DEA, H{sub 2}O/MDEA, and H{sub 2}O/AMP], and in ternary aqueous amine blends [AMP/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, AMP/DEA/H{sub 2}O, DEA/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, MDEA/MEA/H{sub 2}O, and AMP/MEA/H{sub 2}O]. Combined with the N{sub 2}O analogy, this present improved correlation can be advantageously implemented in amine plant design software and procedures for the prediction of CO{sub 2} solubility in amine blend solutions over wide temperature and concentration ranges.

  17. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F.; Johnston, C.T.

    2013-07-01

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  18. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  19. Fluorite solubility equilibria in selected geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Jenne, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Calculation of chemical equilibria in 351 hot springs and surface waters from selected geothermal areas in the western United States indicate that the solubility of the mineral fluorite, CaF2, provides an equilibrium control on dissolved fluoride activity. Waters that are undersaturated have undergone dilution by non-thermal waters as shown by decreased conductivity and temperature values, and only 2% of the samples are supersaturated by more than the expected error. Calculations also demonstrate that simultaneous chemical equilibria between the thermal waters and calcite as well as fluorite minerals exist under a variety of conditions. Testing for fluorite solubility required a critical review of the thermodynamic data for fluorite. By applying multiple regression of a mathematical model to selected published data we have obtained revised estimates of the pK (10,96), ??Gof (-280.08 kcal/mole), ??Hof (-292.59 kcal/mole), S?? (16.39 cal/deg/mole) and CoP (16.16 cal/deg/mole) for CaF2 at 25??C and 1 atm. Association constants and reaction enthalpies for fluoride complexes with boron, calcium and iron are included in this review. The excellent agreement between the computer-based activity products and the revised pK suggests that the chemistry of geothermal waters may also be a guide to evaluating mineral solubility data where major discrepancies are evident. ?? 1977.

  20. Solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Mahir; Oktay, Münir; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Copur, Mehmet

    2005-03-17

    The solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. The effects of HCl concentration and temperature on the solubility were evaluated, and the thermodynamic parameters of the dissolution were calculated. It was found that the solubility isotherms had a minimum at about 0.5M HCl concentration at all the temperatures studied and that solubility decreased with the increase of temperature at all the HCl concentration range investigated. PMID:15752843

  1. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems. PMID:23530342

  2. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  3. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains...

  6. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. 520.110 Section 520.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble...

  8. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. 520.110 Section 520.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking...

  9. Solubility data are compiled for metals in liquid zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, I. G.; Johnson, I.

    1967-01-01

    Available data is compiled on the solubilities of various metals in liquid zinc. The temperature dependence of the solubility data is expressed using the empirical straight line relationship existing between the logarithm of the solubility and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature.

  10. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  11. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  12. Total Syntheses of Perenniporides.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masao; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    The total syntheses of perenniporide A (1) and related compounds have been achieved. Starting from 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (9), difluorodienone 6 was obtained by oxidative dearomatization, which served as a platform for the high-pressure cycloaddition and for the introduction of the C3-methoxy group. The synthesis allowed access to the natural congeners 2 and 3, enabling assignment of the absolute structures of these natural products. PMID:26555442

  13. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  14. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  15. Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function. PMID:21584206

  16. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  17. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. PMID:26593554

  18. Solubility parameters of hypromellose acetate succinate and plasticization in dry coating procedures.

    PubMed

    Klar, Fabian; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2016-10-01

    Solubility parameters of HPMCAS have not yet been investigated intensively. On this account, total and three-dimensional solubility parameters of HPMCAS were determined by using different experimental as well as computational methods. In addition, solubility properties of HPMCAS in a huge number of solvents were tested and a Teas plot for HPMCAS was created. The total solubility parameter of about 24 MPa(0.5) was confirmed by various procedures and compared with values of plasticizers. Twenty common pharmaceutical plasticizers were evaluated in terms of their suitability for supporting film formation of HPMCAS under dry coating conditions. Therefore, glass transition temperatures of mixtures of polymer and plasticizers were inspected and film formation of potential ones was further investigated in dry coating of pellets. Contact angles of plasticizers on HPMCAS were determined in order to give a hint of achievable coating efficiencies in dry coating, but none was found to spread on HPMCAS. A few common substances, e.g. dimethyl phthalate, glycerol monocaprylate, and polyethylene glycol 400, enabled plasticization of HPMCAS; however, only triethyl citrate and triacetin were found to be suitable for use in dry coating. Addition of acetylated monoglycerides to triacetin increased coating efficiency, which was likewise previously demonstrated for triethyl citrate. PMID:26925982

  19. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tanks upernate solutions - FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-09-16

    The solubilities of seven sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernatant simulant solutions during FY 1997. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. The solubility of sodium acetate was measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25C, 30C, 40C, and 50C that were both unsaturated and saturated with sodium nitrate. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nitrilotriacetate (NTA), formate, and oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions that were saturated with sodium nitrate. In addition, solubilities of sodium EDTA, citrate, glycolate, and NTA were measured in a complex waste matrix. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate citrate, EDTA, NTA, and formate were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubility of sodium oxalate in solutions saturated with sodium nitrate were quite low. The presence of additional sodium in the waste simulant solutions that were saturated with sodium nitrate slightly lowered the solubilities of each of the organic salts. Solubilities were, however, high enough to prevent solid sodium salts of all the organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions, except for sodium oxalate. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these soluble compounds (an unlikely situation

  20. Predicting Melting Points of Organic Molecules: Applications to Aqueous Solubility Prediction Using the General Solubility Equation.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, J L; van Mourik, T; Mitchell, J B O

    2015-11-01

    In this work we make predictions of several important molecular properties of academic and industrial importance to seek answers to two questions: 1) Can we apply efficient machine learning techniques, using inexpensive descriptors, to predict melting points to a reasonable level of accuracy? 2) Can values of this level of accuracy be usefully applied to predicting aqueous solubility? We present predictions of melting points made by several novel machine learning models, previously applied to solubility prediction. Additionally, we make predictions of solubility via the General Solubility Equation (GSE) and monitor the impact of varying the logP prediction model (AlogP and XlogP) on the GSE. We note that the machine learning models presented, using a modest number of 2D descriptors, can make melting point predictions in line with the current state of the art prediction methods (RMSE≥40 °C). We also find that predicted melting points, with an RMSE of tens of degrees Celsius, can be usefully applied to the GSE to yield accurate solubility predictions (log10 S RMSE<1) over a small dataset of drug-like molecules. PMID:27491032

  1. Head-To-Head Comparison of Different Solubility-Enabling Formulations of Etoposide and Their Consequent Solubility-Permeability Interplay.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Lindley, David; Carr, Robert A; Zocharski, Philip; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of different solubility-enabling formulations, and their consequent solubility-permeability interplay. The low-solubility anticancer drug etoposide was formulated in several strengths of four solubility-enabling formulations: hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, the cosolvent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400), the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The ability of these formulations to increase the solubility of etoposide was investigated, followed by permeability studies using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and examination of the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. All formulations significantly increased etoposide's apparent solubility. The cyclodextrin-, surfactant-, and cosolvent-based formulations resulted in a concomitant decreased permeability that could be modeled directly from the proportional increase in the apparent solubility. On the contrary, etoposide permeability remained constant when using the ASD formulation, irrespective of the increased apparent solubility provided by the formulation. In conclusion, supersaturation resulting from the amorphous form overcomes the solubility-permeability tradeoff associated with other formulation techniques. Accounting for the solubility-permeability interplay may allow to develop better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby maximizing the overall absorption of lipophilic orally administered drugs. PMID:25989509

  2. Chemical Characterization of Soluble Phosphorus Forms along a Hydrologic Flowpath of a Forested Stream Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of soluble phosphorus (P) forms were determined in compartments of a hydrologic pathway in a forested watershed (Walker Branch, Tennessee). Rainfall, throughfall, soil water, groundwater, stream water, and water from two sites in Melton Hill reservoir downstream of Walker Branch were examined for soluble reactive and total soluble phosphorus (SRP and TSP). Soluble unreactive P (SUP) was determined from their difference. An increase of TSP from rainfall to throughfall indicated leaching or wash off of P from the canopy. SRP and SUP decreased markedly as water percolated through the soil, suggesting biological uptake and/or geochemical adsorption of phosphate groups on soil particles. Changes in soluble P. concentrations within the stream channel supported previous evidence for biological control of P dynamics in Walker Branch. Overall, SUP (an estimate of soluble organic P) constituted a significant fraction of the total soluble P present in each compartment of the flowpath. An analytical technique using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the inositol phosphates (IP's) was developed and used in characterizing organic P fractions of natural systems. Commercial orthophosphate, inositol monophosphate (IMP), and inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) were adequately separated from each other on Aminex A-27 resin using a sodium chloride/tetrasodium EDTA gradient elution. The technique was used to separate an enzyme hydrolysate mixture of IP's into five components. IHP was separated from PO{sub 4} and IMP in a wheat bran extract using the HPLC method. Alkaline bromination was used to extract IP's from a Walker Branch soil sample and HPLC was used to examine the extract; at least three IP peaks were recognized. Using the HPLC technique, an attempt was made to detect the presence of IP's in a Walker Branch groundwater sample concentration by ultrafiltration. The concentration process was unsuccessful possibly due to filtration

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase X, malate dehydrogenase and total protein in rat spermatozoa during epididymal transit.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Ponce, R H; Blanco, A

    1986-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme X (LDH X), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and total soluble protein have been determined in lysates of spermatozoa isolated from caput, corpus and cauda of rat epididymis. Transit of spermatozoa through epididymis is accompanied by a reduction of LDH X, MDH and total protein per cell in sexually rested animals. The profiles of reduction along epididymal segments are different for the three variables studied. Mating with receptive females during the 5 days prior to determinations increases significantly the levels of MDH in spermatozoa from all sections of epididymis and produces increase of total soluble protein in the cells contained in cauda. PMID:3956158

  4. Cell Model of In-cloud Scavenging of Highly Soluble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Elperin, T.; Fominykh, A.; Krasovitov, B.

    2012-04-01

    active gas in a gaseous phase and for the total concentration in the liquid phase for the case of the hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid absorption by cloud droplets. The developed cell model of in-cloud scavenging of highly soluble gases or parameterizations based on its results can be easily integrated into online coupled meteorology-chemistry or climate-chemistry models, where the cloud processes and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants are considered together with two-way interactions.

  5. Total photoabsorption in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1992-06-01

    The Frascati-Genova collaboration proposes to measure the total photonuclear cross section on a wide range of nuclei between 500 MeV and 2 GeV, to obtain informations on the interaction of baryon resonances with nucleons and on the onset of the shadowing effect. The experiment could be performed in the Hall B as soon as the tagging facility will be ready and before the end of the installation of the CLAS spectrometer. The requirements for the photon beam, like maximum energy, intensity and beam definition, are not so strong so that the experiment would also be a good first test of the tagged photon facility.

  6. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  7. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  8. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position. PMID:26252484

  9. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  10. Total Synthesis of (-)-Exiguolide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigao; Xie, Hengmu; Li, Hongze; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2015-10-01

    A concise total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide has been completed in an overall 2.8% yield over 20 steps in the longest linear path. The key strategies involve (1) Prins cyclization/homobromination of dienyl alcohol with the B ring-substituted aldehyde, prepared by Prins cyclization/bromination, to construct the A ring with excellent cis-Z stereochemical control and (2) an unusual side chain installation/macrocyclization strategy featuring Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by a ring-closing metathesis reaction to deliver the target. PMID:26371396

  11. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration. PMID:11913258

  12. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular containers enhance the solubility and bioactivity of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Da; Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Nguyen, Duc; Zhang, Ben; Wittenberg, James B.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Briken, Volker; Isaacs, Lyle

    2012-06-01

    The solubility characteristics of 40-70% of new drug candidates are so poor that they cannot be formulated on their own, so new methods for increasing drug solubility are highly prized. Here, we describe a new class of general-purpose solubilizing agents—acyclic cucurbituril-type containers—which increase the solubility of ten insoluble drugs by a factor of between 23 and 2,750 by forming container-drug complexes. The containers exhibit low in vitro toxicity in human liver, kidney and monocyte cell lines, and outbred Swiss Webster mice tolerate high doses of the container without sickness or weight loss. Paclitaxel solubilized by the acyclic cucurbituril-type containers kills cervical and ovarian cancer cells more efficiently than paclitaxel alone. The acyclic cucurbituril-type containers preferentially bind cationic and aromatic drugs, but also solubilize neutral drugs such as paclitaxel, and represent an attractive extension of cyclodextrin-based technology for drug solubilization and delivery.

  13. Overcoming the Solubility Limit with Solubility-Enhancement Tags: Successful Applications in Biomolecular NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although the rapid progress of NMR technology has significantly expanded the range of NMR-trackable systems, preparation of NMR-suitable samples that are highly soluble and stable remains a bottleneck for studies of many biological systems. The application of solubility-enhancement tags (SETs) has been highly effective in overcoming solubility and sample stability issues and has enabled structural studies of important biological systems previously deemed unapproachable by solution NMR techniques. In this review, we provide a brief survey of the development and successful applications of the SET strategy in biomolecular NMR. We also comment on the criteria for choosing optimal SETs, such as for differently charged target proteins, and recent new developments on NMR-invisible SETs. PMID:19731047

  14. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  15. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  16. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  17. Solubility of inert gases in homogenates of canine lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, I H; Wagner, P D

    1979-06-01

    The solubility of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), ethane, cyclopropane, halothane, diethyl ether, and acetone in homogenates of dog lung tissue were measured and compared with values obtained in dog blood. The measurements were made to provide data for a method for determining distribution of ventilation, blood flow, and tissue volume (Physiologist 20: 95, 1977) and for reasons discussed, the blood was not washed from the tissue prior to homogenization. All gases except SF6 were significantly more soluble in blood than lung tissue, whereas SF6 was 3.7 times more soluble in tissue than blood. It was further found that SF6 is 5 times more soluble, and ethane is twice as soluble in tissue obtained from lungs containing blood than in tissue obtained from rinsed lungs, suggesting that measurements of parenchymal solubility made on tissue from sinsed lungs may be considerably in error for some lipid-soluble gases. PMID:224018

  18. Solubility-driven lead optimisation: Recent examples and personal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nadia M

    2016-07-01

    Solubility is recognised as one of the most important physicochemical parameters necessary for a successful clinical candidate. Despite that, there are few articles in the medicinal chemistry literature with a specific focus on solubility-driven optimisation of lead compounds. This could be because the importance of measuring solubilities as part of the optimisation process is relatively underappreciated, or the fact that obtaining sufficient high quality solubility data is difficult. This review gives examples of solubility-driven optimisation programs from the last fifteen years, and explores recent developments in solubility measurement techniques. Quantitative NMR methods are highlighted; these offer the potential to provide high quality solubility measurements in a cost-effective and high-throughput manner. PMID:27161281

  19. Water-soluble derivatives of 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Zitko, B A; Howes, J F; Razdan, R K; Dalzell, B C; Dalzell, H C; Sheehan, J C; Pars, H G; Dewey, W L; Harris, L S

    1972-08-01

    Delta1-Tetrahydrocannabinol, which is resinous and insoluble in water and therefore difficult to study pharmacologically, can be converted to a watersoluble derivative without loss of its biological activity. This has been achieved by preparing esters bearing a nitrogen moiety with the use of carbodiimide as the condensing agent. The availability of such water-soluble derivatives will allow the evaluation of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol in self-administration studies in monkeys for its addiction liability potential in man. This technique of water solubilization is also applicable to other compounds of chemical and biological significance. PMID:5043146

  20. Exactly soluble quantum wormhole in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.; Yoon, Myung Seok

    2004-11-15

    We are presenting a quantum traversable wormhole in an exactly soluble two-dimensional model. This is different from previous works since the exotic negative energy that supports the wormhole is generated from the quantization of classical energy-momentum tensors. This explicit illustration shows the quantum-mechanical energy can be used as a candidate for the exotic source. As for the traversability, after a particle travels through the wormhole, the static initial wormhole geometry gets a back reaction which spoils the wormhole structure. However, it may still maintain the initial structure along with the appropriate boundary condition.

  1. SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Ketzlach, N.

    1957-05-01

    A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

  2. Soluble N-Substituted Organosilane Polybenzimidazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, J. R.; Luther, T. A.; Orme, C. J.; Jones, M. G.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.

    2007-10-01

    Six organosilane derivatives were synthesized, and are more soluble in common organic solvents (tetrahydrofuran and chloroform) than the parent polybenzimidazole. Our polymer modification pathway provides a straightforward synthesis that can be carried out at room temperature and give reasonable yields. Solution 1H NMR spectra of both the parent and deprotonated polybenzimidazoles are reported. Based upon the NMR analysis in CDCl3, nearly all of the benzimidazole N-H positions are substituted by the organosilane moieties. Some of the modified polymers have similar thermal properties compared to the parent polymer, and the average molecular weights are higher for the substituted polybenzimidazoles than the parent PBI.

  3. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  4. Water-soluble titanium alkoxide material

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2010-06-22

    A water soluble, water stable, titanium alkoxide composition represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.6N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.2(CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub- .3-2,4,6).sub.2 with a theoretical molecular weight of 792.8 and an elemental composition of 63.6% C, 8.1% H, 14.1% N, 8.1% O and 6.0% Ti.

  5. The use of wetlands and chemical injections to control sediment and soluble phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, Jim; Bjorneberg, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture accounts for ~25% of the total US cropland, yet comprises 55% of the US crop value. These systems play a major role in US production agriculture, and thus it is important to manage irrigated systems to maintain or improve environmental quality. Irrigated agriculture in the western has historically utilized furrow irrigation. It has long been recognized that furrow irrigation causes particle detachment and transport, leading to increased sediment and nutrient (e.g. P) loads to receiving water bodies. The use of engineered wetlands in furrow irrigation settings can help capture sediment and sediment-bound P (>90-95%). One of the main water quality challenges that exists today is reducing soluble P in irrigation waters returning to receiving water bodies. This presentation will focus on the use of strategically located wetlands in conjunction with chemical injections (alum or polyaluminum chloride) to reduce water soluble P in order to meet total maximum daily P loads in receiving water bodies.

  6. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  7. Solubility and Thermal Stability Investigation of Titan Tholins: New Insight from NMR Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the solubility and thermal stability of Titan’s aerosol analogs (tholins) to understand the basic property of organics on Titan and the potential for chemical modification upon in situ sampling. The tholin generated by AC discharge in CH4/N2 (5/95) mixture preferentially dissolves in polar solvent to non-polar solvent, totally soluble in DMSO (>21.5 mg/mL), 60% in mass soluble in methanol, 25% in acetone, 27% in acetonitrile and 30% in water while only 1% in benzene and chloroform. The 1H solution-state NMR spectra of respective deuterated solutions exhibit the structural information of the soluble fraction in each solvent, confirming the large percentage of polar species in tholins. The solubility study not only helps us understand the solubility of Titan’s aerosols in possible liquid phase in Titan’s surface/atmosphere, but also provides the basis for the solvent selection and methods development of liquid separation and/or solution based analysis in future Titan missions. These include methods such as NMR and LC/MS, which can be non-destructive providing objective information regarding nascent chemical identification. Thermal stability studies demonstrate the thermal lability of tholins and indicate significant structural changes of when heated beyond 150 oC for even short time periods in inert atmospheres. Dynamic studies at 200 oC demonstrate that several predominant chemical reactions fit first-order reaction kinetics with half-lives between 5 to 141 minutes. This study is critical to ongoing discussion regarding the development of in situ analysis methods and instruments for Titan mission and other outer planet exploration.

  8. Physical stability of solid dispersions with respect to thermodynamic solubility of tadalafil in PVP-VA.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, K; Sawicki, W; Kozyra, A; Tajber, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate physical stability of solid dispersions in respect to the drug, tadalafil (Td), in vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA). Nine solid dispersions of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) varied in terms of quantitative composition (1:9-9:1, w/w) were successfully produced by spray-drying. Their amorphous nature, supersaturated character and molecular level of mixing (a solid solution structure) were subsequently confirmed using DSC, PXRD, SEM and calculation of Hansen total solubility parameters. Due to thermal degradation of both components before the melting point of Td (302.3°C), an approach based on the drug crystallization from the supersaturated solid dispersion was selected to calculate the solubility of Td in the polymer. Annealing of the Td/PVP-VA solid dispersion (1:1, w/w) at selected temperatures above its Tg resulted in different stable solid dispersions. According to the Gordon-Taylor equation their new Tgs gave the information about the quantitative composition which corresponded to the thermodynamic solubility of Td in PVP-VA at given temperatures of annealing. The obtained relationship was fitted to the exponential function, with the calculated solubility of Td of 20.5% at 25°C. This value was in accordance with the results of hot stage polarizing light microscopy as well as stability tests carried out at 80°C and 0% RH, in which Td solid dispersions containing 10-20% of the drug were the only systems that did not crystallize within two months. A thermal analysis protocol utilizing a fast heating rate was shown to generate Td solubility data complementing the solid dispersion method. The Flory-Huggins model applied for the Td/PVP-VA system yielded the solubility value of 0.1% at 25°C, showing the lack of applicability in this case. PMID:26247119

  9. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  10. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  11. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  12. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  13. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  14. Influence of water treatment residuals on phosphorus solubility and leaching.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H A; O'Connor, G A; Lu, P; Brinton, S

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies compared the ability of water treatment residuals (WTRs) to alter P solubility and leaching in Immokalee sandy soil (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquod) amended with biosolids and triple superphosphate (TSP). Aluminum sulfate (Al-WTR) and ferric sulfate (Fe-WTR) coagulation residuals, a lime softening residual (Ca-WTR) produced during hardness removal, and pure hematite were examined. In equilibration studies, the ability to reduce soluble P followed the order Al-WTR > Ca-WTR = Fe-WTR > hematite. Differences in the P-fixing capacity of the sesquioxide-dominated materials (Al-WTR, Fe-WTR, hematite) were attributed to their varying reactive Fe- and Al-hydrous oxide contents as measured by oxalate extraction. Leachate P was monitored from greenhouse columns where bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) was grown on Immokalee soil amended with biosolids or TSP at an equivalent rate of 224 kg P ha(-1) and WTRs at 2.5% (56 Mg ha(-1)). In the absence of WTRs, 21% of TSP and 11% of Largo cake biosolids total phosphorus (PT) leached over 4 mo. With co-applied WTRs, losses from TSP columns were reduced to 3.5% (Fe-WTR), 2.5% (Ca-WTR), and <1% (Al-WTR) of applied P. For the Largo biosolids treatments all WTRs retarded downward P flux such that leachate P was not statistically different than for control (soil only) columns. The phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [Pox]/ [Al(ox) + Fe(ox)], where Pox, Al, and Fe(ox) are oxalate-extractable P, Al, and Fe, respectively) based on a simple oxalate extraction of the WTR and biosolids is potentially useful for determining WTR application rates for controlled reduction of P in drainage when biosolids are applied to low P-sorbing soils. PMID:12175057

  15. Microemulsion formulation of clonixic acid: solubility enhancement and pain reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Mi; Park, Kyung-Mi; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Chong-Kook

    2002-01-01

    Clonixic acid is currently marketed as a salt form because of its poor water-solubility. However, the commercial dosage form causes severe pain after intramuscular or intravenous injection. To improve the solubility of clonixic acid and to reduce pain on injection, clonixic acid was incorporated into oil-in-water microemulsions prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of varying ratios of oil and surfactant mixture. As an oil phase for drug incorporation, up to 14% castor oil could be included in the pre-microemulsion concentrate without a significant increase in droplet size. Both drug contents and droplet size increased as the weight ratio of Tween 20 to Tween 85 decreased. Taken together, when microemulsions were prepared from pre-microemulsion concentrate composed of 5:12:18 weight ratio of castor oil:Tween 20:Tween 85, clonixic acid could be incorporated at 3.2 mg mL(-1) in the microemulsion with a droplet size of less than 120 nm. The osmotic pressure of this microemulsion was remarkably lower than the commercial formulation, irrespective of the dilution ratios. The rat paw-lick test was used to compare pain responses among formulations. The microemulsion formulation significantly reduced the number of rats licking their paws as well as the total licking time, suggesting less pain induction by the microemulsion formulation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of clonixic acid after intravenous administration of the clonixic acid microemulsion to rats were not significantly different from those of the commercial formulation, lysine clonixinate. The present study suggests that microemulsion is an alternative formulation for clonixic acid with improved characteristics. PMID:11829128

  16. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  17. PLUMBOSOLVENCY REDUCTION BY HIGH PH AND LOW CARBONATE-SOLUBILITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of a pH > or = 9.0 and a low total inorganic carbonate (TIC) concentration of 10 to 80 mg as CaCO3/L on lead solubility. The results were compared with those of earlier experiments in which the pH was 8.0 to 8.5. In the experiments t...

  18. LINKING MANURE PROPERTIES TO SOIL PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILITY: IMPORTANCE OF THE CARBON TO PHOSPHORUS RATIO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure can increase P transfer in runoff, although the risk depends in part on the characteristics of the manure. We assessed this for calcareous soils using swine manures with a range of total P (6.8'4.9 g P per kg), water-soluble P (4.3'8.0 g P per kg), and C:P ratios (31'67)....

  19. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Donald T.

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  20. Solubility of HFCs in pentaerythritol tetraalkyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlstroem, A.; Vamling, L.

    2000-02-01

    The solubilities of difluoromethane (HFC32), 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (HFC125), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a), 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC143a) and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC152a) in pentaerythritol tetranonanoate, pentaerythritol tetra-2-ethylbutanoate, and pentaerythritol tetra-2-ethylhexanoate have been measured at temperatures between 303 and 363 K and pressures between 0.07 and 2.1 MPa. Henry's constant and the activity coefficient for HFCs at infinite dilution were derived for measurements below 0.34 MPa. The measurements were made by an isochoric method with an uncertainty of <2% for Henry's constant and <3% at high pressure. Within the investigated temperature range, solubilities for HFCs in pentaerythritol tetraalkyl esters decrease in the following order: HFC152a > HFC134a > HFC32 > HFC125 > HFC143a. The experimental data have been correlated with a Flory-Huggins model with an extended temperature dependence, which is able to describe the data with a deviation from measured data of <2.7%.

  1. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17{degrees}--74{degrees}C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  2. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17[degrees]--74[degrees]C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  3. Selective Water-Soluble Gelatinase Inhibitor Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Lee, Mijoon; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Ikejiri, Masahiro; Suckow, Mark A.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2011-01-01

    SB-3CT (1), a selective and potent thiirane-based gelatinase inhibitor, is effective in animal models of cancer metastasis and stroke; however, it is limited by poor aqueous solubility and extensive metabolism. We addressed these issues by blocking the primary site of metabolism and capitalizing on a prodrug strategy to achieve >5000-fold increased solubility. The amide prodrugs were quantitatively hydrolyzed in human blood to a potent gelatinase inhibitor, ND-322 (3). The arginyl amide prodrug (ND-478, 5d) was metabolically stable in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes. Both 5d and 3 were non-mutagenic in the Ames II mutagenicity assay. The prodrug 5d showed moderate clearance of 0.0582 L/min/kg, remained mostly in the extracellular fluid compartment (Vd = 0.0978 L/kg), and had a terminal half-life of >4 h. The prodrug 5d had superior pharmacokinetic properties than 3, making the thiirane class of selective gelatinase inhibitors suitable for intravenous administration in treatment of acute gelatinase-dependent diseases. PMID:21866961

  4. Solubilities of tetracosane in hydrocarbon solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Brecevic, L.; Garside, J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of tetracosane (n-C[sub 24]H[sub 50]) in heptane (n-C[sub 7]H[sub 16]), dodecane (n-C[sub 12]H[sub 26]), a mixture of isomers of decahydronaphthalene (C[sub 10]H[sub 18]), and m and p-xylene (C[sub 8]H[sub 10]) have been determined over the temperature range 279.3--305.8 K. These solvents were chosen as being representative of the types of molecules present in fuel oils. The results are well described by the equation ln x[sub 2] = [minus]([Delta]H[sup d]/RT) + ([Delta]S[sup d]/R) for which the parameters [Delta]H[sup d] and [Delta]S[sup d] are given. The liquid-phase activity coefficients for the solid at 293.2 K have been derived from the measured solubilities and compared with values calculated from the Scatchard-Hildebrand equation and the UNIFAC group contribution method. Relatively good agreement is obtained using the Scatchard-Hildebrand equation, especially in the case of normal hydrocarbon solvents.

  5. Soluble Mediators Regulating Immunity in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew Aaron; van Haren, Simon Daniël; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at term delivery than in adults, and lower still at preterm delivery. The extracellular environment also has a critical influence on immune cell maturation, activation, and effector functions, and many of the factors in plasma, including hormones, vitamins, and purines, have been shown to influence these processes for leukocytes of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The ontogeny of plasma factors can be viewed in the context of a lower effectiveness of immune responses to infection and immunization in early life, which may be influenced by the striking neonatal deficiency of complement system proteins or enhanced neonatal production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, among other ontogenic differences. Accordingly, we survey here a number of soluble mediators in plasma for which age-dependent differences in abundance may influence the ontogeny of immune function, particularly direct innate interaction and skewing of adaptive lymphocyte activity in response to infectious microorganisms and adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:25309541

  6. Soluble Monomeric IgG1 Fc*

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody fragments are emerging as promising biopharmaceuticals because of their relatively small size and other unique properties. However, compared with full-size antibodies, these antibody fragments lack the ability to bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and have reduced half-lives. Fc engineered to bind antigens but preserve interactions with FcRn and Fc fused with monomeric proteins currently are being developed as candidate therapeutics with prolonged half-lives; in these and other cases, Fc is a dimer of two CH2-CH3 chains. To further reduce the size of Fc but preserve FcRn binding, we generated three human soluble monomeric IgG1 Fcs (mFcs) by using a combination of structure-based rational protein design combined with multiple screening strategies. These mFcs were highly soluble and retained binding to human FcRn comparable with that of Fc. These results provide direct experimental evidence that efficient binding to human FcRn does not require human Fc dimerization. The newly identified mFcs are promising for the development of mFc fusion proteins and for novel types of mFc-based therapeutic antibodies of small size and long half-lives. PMID:22518843

  7. Controls on Calcite Solubility in Metamorphic and Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Eguchi, J.; Galvez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Calcite is an important hydrothermal alteration product in a wide range of environments. The role of calcite in hydrothermal alteration depends on its solubility in geologic fluids, especially H2O. At ambient T and P, calcite solubility is low and it exhibits well-known declining, or "reverse", solubility with rising T. However, experimental and theoretical studies show that increasing P yields higher solubility and restricts the region of reverse solubility behavior to higher temperature. At 0.2 GPa the reverse solubility region lies at T>600°C; at 0.5 GPa, >800°C. Thus, whereas calcite possesses relatively low solubility in pure H2O in shallow hydrothermal systems (typically <10 ppm C), it is substantially more soluble at conditions of middle and lower crustal metamorphism and magmatism, reaching concentrations ≥1000 ppm. At the higher P of subduction zones, aragonite solubility in H2O is even greater. Thus, neglecting other solubility controls, calcite precipitation is favored as crustal fluids cool and/or decompress. However, the solubility of calcite in H2O also depends strongly on other solutes, pH, and fO2. Sources of alkalinity decrease calcite solubility. In contrast, sources of acidity such as CO2 and Cl increase solubility. Crustal fluids can be enriched in alkali halides such as NaCl. Calcite solubility increases with increasing salt content at a given P and T. From approximately seawater salinity to salt saturation, the fluid behaves as a dilute molten salt and calcite solubility increases as the square of the salt mole fraction regardless of the alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) or halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) considered. Similar behavior is seen in mixed salt solutions. At lower salinities, solubility behavior is as expected in dilute electrolyte solutions. The transition from dilute electrolyte to molten salt is fundamental to the properties of crustal fluids. Reduction of carbonate species or CO2 in the fluid to CH4, which is common during serpentinization of

  8. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).

  9. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  10. Compositional characteristics of a chloroform/methanol soluble protein fraction from spinach chloroplast membranes.

    PubMed

    Henriques, F; Park, R B

    1976-05-14

    Extraction of an aqueous suspension of spinach chloroplast lamellae with a chloroform/methanol mixture leads to solubilization of about 1/3 of the total membrane protein. Amino acid analysis of the chloroform/methanol-soluble protein shows that this fraction is largely enriched in the hydrophobic residues proline, leucine, alanine and phenylalanine and considerably depleted in polar amino acids, namely lysine and arginine. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the solubilized material reveals the presence of a variety of low molecular weight polypeptides (molecular weight less than or equal to 25 000), with more than 50% of the total fraction being contributed by a 25 000 dalton band. This band, which accounts for about 25% of the total chloroplast lamellar protein, has recently been identified as the main component of the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex. The physiological role of most of the chloroform/methanol-soluble protein fraction is not known at present. From its chemical properties and apparent biological inertness, we propose that it plays mainly a structural role in situ, interacting with the lipid moiety of the chloroplast membrane. The material insoluble in the aqueous chloroform/methanol mixture is largely enriched in manganese, iron, cytochrome and water-soluble proteins, such as chloroplast coupling factor and ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. PMID:179588

  11. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  12. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Mahanta, Sunayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years). The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained) hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80°) and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°). Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°). However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25°) of extension (45°) out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100). Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18%) out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head were replaced

  13. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  14. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  15. Endoscopic Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Titus D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT). Methods and Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion: ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible. PMID:20202393

  16. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  17. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented. PMID:21775941

  18. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH<2 and pH>8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products. PMID:27132828

  19. Neutralization of soluble, synaptotoxic amyloid β species by antibodies is epitope specific.

    PubMed

    Zago, Wagner; Buttini, Manuel; Comery, Thomas A; Nishioka, Christopher; Gardai, Shyra J; Seubert, Peter; Games, Dora; Bard, Frédérique; Schenk, Dale; Kinney, Gene G

    2012-02-22

    Several anti-amyloid β (Aβ) antibodies are under evaluation for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical studies using the N-terminal-directed anti-Aβ antibody bapineuzumab have demonstrated reduced brain PET-Pittsburg-B signals, suggesting the reduction of Aβ plaques, and reduced levels of total and phosphorylated tau protein in the CSF of treated AD patients. Preclinical studies using 3D6 (the murine form of bapineuzumab) have demonstrated resolution of Aβ plaque and vascular burdens, neuritic dystrophy, and preservation of synaptic density in the transgenic APP mouse models. In contrast, few studies have evaluated the direct interaction of this antibody with synaptotoxic soluble Aβ species. In the current report, we demonstrated that 3D6 binds to soluble, synaptotoxic assemblies of Aβ(1-42) and prevents multiple downstream functional consequences in rat hippocampal neurons including changes in glutamate AMPA receptor trafficking, AD-type tau phosphorylation, and loss of dendritic spines. In vivo, we further demonstrated that 3D6 prevents synaptic loss and acutely reverses the behavioral deficit in the contextual fear conditioning task in transgenic mouse models of AD, two endpoints thought to be linked to synaptotoxic soluble Aβ moieties. Importantly C-terminal anti-Aβ antibodies were ineffective on these endpoints. These results, taken with prior studies, suggest that N-terminal anti-Aβ antibodies effectively interact with both soluble and insoluble forms of Aβ and therefore appear particularly well suited for testing the Aβ hypothesis of AD. PMID:22357853

  20. Cloning and Optimization of Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor165 Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Ali; Babashamsi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a coordinate regulator of physiological angiogenesis during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and reproductive functions. There are several types of VEGF, including VEGF165. VEGFs stimulate endothelial cell growth, angiogenesis, and capillary permeability. Low induction temperature is a major factor for expression of the recombinant VEGF165 in soluble form. The purpose of this study was cloning and optimization of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor165 expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: In this study, total RNA of HeLa cell [cervix epithelium] was extracted. The VEGF165 gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), and then VEGF165 was subcloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET-32a(+) and transformed into BL21 (DE3) E. coli strain. VEGF165 expression was optimized by fine adjustments such as induction time and incubation temperature. VEGF165 was analyzed by DNA sequencing prior to expression and the protein was further characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using His•tag specific polyclonal antibody. Results: Our results demonstrated that VEGF165 was successfully cloned and expressed in pET-32a(+) vector. Optimization of the expression procedure showed that, induction by 1 mM IPTG at OD600=0.7 and overnight incubation at 22°C resulted in the highest expression levels of soluble VEGF165. Conclusion: In this study, the expression of VEGF165 in a high soluble level was successfully cloned and optimized. PMID:26855732

  1. Placement in an acidic environment increase the solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamid Reza; Borna, Zahra; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Valizadeh, Hadi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in an acidic environment. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four metal rings were prepared, filled with WMTA and randomly divided into two groups. The samples in groups 1 and 2 were set in synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.4 and 4.4, respectively and then were transferred to beakers containing synthetic tissue fluid with pH values of 7.7 and 4.4. Solubility of WMTA samples were calculated at the 9 experimental intervals. Data was analyzed with two-factor ANOVA and Bonferroni test (P < 0.03). Results: The total solubility of WMTA in groups 1 and 2 were −9.1796 ± 1.9158% and −1.1192 ± 2.6236%, (P = 0.028) with weight changes of 9.1574 ± 2.1432% and 7.3276 ± 1.5823%, respectively (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that solubility of WMTA increases in acidic environments and additional therapeutic precautions should be taken to decrease inflammation in endodontic treatment. PMID:23833462

  2. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.; Benezeth, Pascale

    1996-01-24

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2 - 10, depending on ionic strength), temperature (100 - 250°C) and ionic strength (0.03 - 1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results at low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90°C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  3. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Benezeth, P.

    1996-01-01

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2-10, depending on ionic strength) temperature (100- 250{degrees}C) and ionic strength (0.03-1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen- electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results as low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90{degrees}C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  4. Use of nanoparticular and soluble anionic celluloses in coagulation-flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sirviö, Juho; Sundman, Ola; Hormi, Osmo; Niinimäki, Jouko

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the effectiveness of a novel, combined coagulation-flocculation treatment based on alum and soluble or nanoparticular anionic derivatives of dialdehyde cellulose, ADAC, was evaluated by studying the removal of colloidal material in a model suspension containing kaolin. Four different ADACs with varying degrees of substitution, size and water solubility were synthesized by periodate oxidation and sulfonation of cellulose. The effects of ADAC dosage, solution pH and temperature on flocculation were studied by measuring residual turbidity of the settled suspension. Moreover, the charge densities, sizes, ζ-potentials and stability of the ADACs in aqueous solutions were studied. The combined treatment was effective in the removal of colloidal particles, as demonstrated by reduced residual turbidity with remarkably lower total chemical consumption compared with coagulation with alum alone. Of the ADACs, samples with lower solubility that contained cellulose nanoparticles performed better than the fully water-soluble sample. Due to the restricted pH tolerance of alum, the combined treatment was effective only at acidic conditions (pH < 5), although the ADACs were found to be stable in a much broader pH range (pH of 3 to about 9). ADACs also retained strong activity at higher temperatures (30-60 °C) and after several days of storage in aqueous solution. PMID:22341833

  5. Prediction of the solubility in lipidic solvent mixture: Investigation of the modeling approach and thermodynamic analysis of solubility.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shruti V; Patel, Sarsvatkumar

    2015-09-18

    Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is one of the methods to improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug(s). The knowledge of the solubility of pharmaceuticals in pure lipidic solvents and solvent mixtures is crucial for designing the SMEDDS of poorly soluble drug substances. Since, experiments are very time consuming, a model, which allows for solubility predictions in solvent mixtures based on less experimental data is desirable for efficiency. Solvents employed were Labrafil® M1944CS and Labrasol® as lipidic solvents; Capryol-90®, Capryol-PGMC® and Tween®-80 as surfactants; Transcutol® and PEG-400 as co-solvents. Solubilities of both drugs were determined in single solvent systems at temperature (T) range of 283-333K. In present study, we investigated the applicability of the thermodynamic model to understand the solubility behavior of drugs in the lipiodic solvents. By using the Van't Hoff and general solubility theory, the thermodynamic functions like Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of solution, mixing and solvation for drug in single and mixed solvents were understood. The thermodynamic parameters were understood in the framework of drug-solvent interaction based on their chemical similarity and dissimilarity. Clotrimazole and Fluconazole were used as active ingredients whose solubility was measured in single solvent as a function of temperature and the data obtained were used to derive mathematical models which can predict solubility in multi-component solvent mixtures. Model dependent parameters for each drug were calculated at each temperature. The experimental solubility data of solute in mixed solvent system were measured experimentally and further correlated with the calculates values obtained from exponent model and log-linear model of Yalkowsky. The good correlation was observed between experimental solubility and predicted solubility. PMID:26092370

  6. Solubility of gases and liquids in glassy polymers.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria Grazia; Sarti, Giulio C

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses a macroscopic thermodynamic procedure to calculate the solubility of gases, vapors, and liquids in glassy polymers that is based on the general procedure provided by the nonequilibrium thermodynamics for glassy polymers (NET-GP) method. Several examples are presented using various nonequilibrium (NE) models including lattice fluid (NELF), statistical associating fluid theory (NE-SAFT), and perturbed hard sphere chain (NE-PHSC). Particular applications illustrate the calculation of infinite-dilution solubility coefficients in different glassy polymers and the prediction of solubility isotherms for different gases and vapors in pure polymers as well as in polymer blends. The determination of model parameters is discussed, and the predictive abilities of the models are illustrated. Attention is also given to the solubility of gas mixtures and solubility isotherms in nanocomposite mixed matrices. The fractional free volume determined from solubility data can be used to correlate solute diffusivities in mixed matrices. PMID:22432612

  7. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  8. Transport of soluble species in backfill and rock

    SciTech Connect

    Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Light, W.B.; Pigford, T.H.

    1992-03-01

    In this report we study the release and transport of soluble species from spent nuclear fuel. By soluble species we mean a fraction of certain fission product species. Our previously developed methods for calculating release rates of solubility-limited species need to be revised for these soluble species. Here we provide methods of calculating release rates of soluble species directly into rock and into backfill and then into rock. Section 2 gives a brief discussion of the physics of fission products dissolution from U0{sub 2} spent fuel. Section 3 presents the mathematics for calculating release rates of soluble species into backfill and then into rock. The calculation of release rates directly into rock is a special case. Section 4 presents numerical illustrations of the analytic results.

  9. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  10. The solubility of antibiotic and corticosteroid combinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, B L; Matoba, A Y; Osato, M S; Robinson, N M

    1992-08-15

    The use of collagen shields soaked in various combinations of medications has been advocated to enhance drug delivery to the cornea. Recently, severe corneal toxicity associated with aggregate formation in mixtures of gentamicin and methylprednisolone prompted our study of the effect of drug concentration, pH, and temperature on the solubility of several antibiotic and corticosteroid formulations commonly used to treat ocular disease. Selected combinations of cefazolin, vancomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone were evaluated. Mixtures of tobramycin and vancomycin produced no precipitates, but many spheroid aggregates were seen when methylprednisolone and gentamicin were combined. Although the effects of precipitate formation on drug bioavailability and toxicity have not been fully determined, until such information is available, the use of combinations of drugs that remain in solution during administration is recommended. PMID:1642298

  11. Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Meili, Dimirela; Salathe, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was recently identified as a widely expressed intracellular source of cAMP in mammalian cells. sAC is evolutionary, structurally, and biochemically distinct from the G-protein-responsive transmembranous adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). The structure of the catalytic unit of sAC is similar to tmAC, but sAC does not contain transmembranous domains, allowing localizations independent of the membranous compartment. sAC activity is stimulated by HCO3-, Ca2+ and is sensitive to physiologically relevant ATP fluctuations. sAC functions as a physiological sensor for carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and therefore indirectly for pH. Here we review the physiological role of sAC in different human tissues with a major focus on the lung. PMID:25064591

  12. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  13. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

  14. Solubility of magnesium carbonate in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.

    1915-01-01

    (1) Under atmospheric conditions it appears possible to attain practically the same state in a solution saturated with MgCO33H2O, whether one starts with a solution containing an excess of magnesium bicarbonate or with the pure trihydrate and water, but the adjustment occurs very slowly. The solution finally contains 0.36 g. magnesium and 1.01 g. carbon dioxide per liter at 20??. (2) The solubility found for magnesite, however, is much smaller, viz., 0.02 g. magnesium and 0.07 g. carbon dioxide per liter. (3) Certain natural waters, freely exposed to the atmosphere, appear to be supersaturated with respect to magnesite but none approaches very closely to the point of saturation of the trihydrate MgCO3.3H2O.

  15. Communication: Epistructural thermodynamics of soluble proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    2012-03-01

    The epistructural tension of a soluble protein is defined as the reversible work per unit area required to span the interfacial solvent envelope of the protein structure. It includes an entropic penalty term to account for losses in hydrogen-bonding coordination of interfacial water and is determined by a scalar field that indicates the expected coordination of a test water molecule at any given spatial location. An exhaustive analysis of structure-reported monomeric proteins reveals that disulfide bridges required to maintain structural integrity provide the thermodynamic counterbalance to the epistructural tension, yielding a tight linear correlation. Accordingly, deviations from the balance law correlate with the thermal denaturation free energies of proteins under reducing conditions. The picomolar-affinity toxin HsTX1 has the highest epistructural tension, while the metastable cellular form of the human prion protein PrPC represents the least tension-balanced protein.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Per Redelius

    2006-03-01

    In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

  17. MgO Solubility in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Assis, Andre N.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    A predominantly liquid and MgO-saturated slag is preferred in EAF and BOF steelmaking. Fully liquid slag provides a better environment for faster mass transfer due to lower bulk viscosities and larger liquid slag volume and these help dephosphorization and desulfurization. Also, an MgO-saturated slag would be preferable in order to increase the lifetime of furnace refractory lining by reducing the extent of dissolution. This article will demonstrate the factors that would influence MgO saturation, which includes FeO, CaO, P2O5, and Al2O3 contents and temperature. In addition, this paper comments on the applicability and accuracy of FactSage prediction, which are compared to laboratory experiments. The results indicate that FactSage may underestimate MgO solubility by up to 2.5 wt pct at higher basicities while there is reasonable agreement with current measurements at lower basicities.

  18. Orally Bioavailable Potent Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of N,N′-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane α to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models. PMID:17616115

  19. Water soluble complexes of carotenoids with arabinogalactan.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V; Meteleva, Elizaveta S; Dushkin, Alexander V; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Kispert, Lowell D

    2009-01-01

    We present the first example of water soluble complexes of carotenoids. The stability and reactivity of carotenoids in the complexes with natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan were investigated by different physicochemical techniques: optical absorption, HPLC, and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. Compared to pure carotenoids, polysaccharide complexes of carotenoids showed enhanced photostability by a factor of 10 in water solutions. A significant decrease by a factor of 20 in the reactivity toward metal ions (Fe(3+)) and reactive oxygen species in solution was detected. On the other hand, the yield and stability of carotenoid radical cations photoproduced on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) were greatly increased. EPR measurements demonstrated efficient charge separation on complex-modified TiO(2) nanoparticles (7 nm). Canthaxanthin radical cations are stable for approximately 10 days at room temperature in this system. The results are important for a variety of carotenoid applications, in the design of artificial light-harvesting, photoredox, and catalytic devices. PMID:19061372

  20. Replacement of Soybean Meal in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Diets with Cottonseed Meal and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pond experiments were conducted to evaluate cottonseed meal (CSM), distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and supplemental lysine as replacements for soybean meal (SBM) in channel catfish diets. In Experiment 1, fish fed diets in which SBM was totally replaced with CSM gained similar wei...

  1. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated, 1) conductive boiling time, 2...

  2. Digestible energy content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-d experiment to determine the DE content of corn- vs sorghum-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet or exceed all NRC sugges...

  3. Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

  4. Effect of Host Plant on the Chemical Composition of Tetranychus urticae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae): Variability in Soluble Protein, Anions, and Carbohydrates.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analyses of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and 3 of their host plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Phaseolus lunatus L., and Vigna unguiculata L. show that the content of total soluble protein, carbohydrates, and anions in the mites varies independently from the concentrat...

  5. A water-soluble luminescence oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Castellano, F N; Lakowicz, J R

    1998-02-01

    We developed a water-soluble luminescent probe for dissolved oxygen. This probe is based on (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3) cl2, which is a sulfonated analogue of the well-known oxygen probe (Ru[dpp]3)cl2. The compound dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and dpp(SO3Na)2 is a disulfonated derivative of the same ligand. In aqueous solution in the absence of oxygen (Ru[dpp(SO3Na)2]3)cl2 displays a lifetime of 3.7 microseconds that decreases to 930 ns on equilibrium with air and 227 ns on equilibrium with 100% oxygen. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant is 11,330 M-1. This high oxygen-quenching constant means that the photoluminescence of Ru(dpp[SO3Na]2)3cl2 is 10% quenched at an oxygen concentration of 8.8 x 10(-6) M, or equilibration with 5.4 torr of oxygen. The oxygen probe dissolved in water displays minimal interactions with lipid vesicles composed of dipalmityl-L-alpha-phosphatidyl glycerol but does appear to interact with human serum albumin. The absorption maximum near 480 nm, long lifetime and large Stokes' shift allow this probe to be used with simple instrumentation based on a light-emitting diode light source, allowing low-cost oxygen sensing in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first practical water-soluble oxygen sensor. PMID:9487796

  6. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption

  7. Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Budke, C.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Niedermeier, D.; Felgitsch, L.; Kampf, C. J.; Huber, R. G.; Liedl, K. R.; Loerting, T.; Moschen, T.; Schauperl, M.; Tollinger, M.; Morris, C. E.; Wex, H.; Grothe, H.; Pöschl, U.; Koop, T.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud glaciation is critically important for the global radiation budget (albedo) and for initiation of precipitation. But the freezing of pure water droplets requires cooling to temperatures as low as 235 K. Freezing at higher temperatures requires the presence of an ice nucleator, which serves as a template for arranging water molecules in an ice-like manner. It is often assumed that these ice nucleators have to be insoluble particles. We point out that also free macromolecules which are dissolved in water can efficiently induce ice nucleation: the size of such ice nucleating macromolecules (INMs) is in the range of nanometers, corresponding to the size of the critical ice embryo. As the latter is temperature-dependent, we see a correlation between the size of INMs and the ice nucleation temperature as predicted by classical nucleation theory. Different types of INMs have been found in a wide range of biological species and comprise a variety of chemical structures including proteins, saccharides, and lipids. Our investigation of the fungal species Acremonium implicatum, Isaria farinosa, and Mortierella alpina shows that their ice nucleation activity is caused by proteinaceous water-soluble INMs. We combine these new results and literature data on INMs from fungi, bacteria, and pollen with theoretical calculations to develop a chemical interpretation of ice nucleation and water-soluble INMs. This has atmospheric implications since many of these INMs can be released by fragmentation of the carrier cell and subsequently may be distributed independently. Up to now, this process has not been accounted for in atmospheric models.

  8. Aqueous solubilities of phenol derivatives by conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Achard, C.; Jaoui, M.; Schwing, M.; Rogalski, M.

    1996-05-01

    The aqueous solubilities of five chlorophenols and three nitrophenols were measured by conductimetry at temperatures between 15 and 48C. The solubilities of 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol were studied. Automatic conductivity measurements allow the determination of the solute concentration and, hence, the determination of the solubility. Emulsion formation can also be followed. Results obtained are in good agreement with literature values.

  9. The Comparison of Sorption and Solubility Behavior of Four Different Resin Luting Cements in Different Storage Media

    PubMed Central

    Giti, Rashin; Vojdani, Mahroo; Abduo, Jaafar; Bagheri, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Structural integrity and dimensional stability are the key factors that determine the clinical success and durability of luting cements in the oral cavity. Sorption and solubility of self-adhesive resin luting cements in food-simulating solutions has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose This study aimed to compare the sorption and solubility of 2 conventional and 2 self-adhesive resin-based luting cements immersed in four different storage media. Materials and Method A total of 32 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray), and Choice 2 (Bisco). Eight specimens of each material were immersed in all tested solutions including n-heptane 97%, distilled water, apple juice, or Listerine mouth wash. Sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test with p≤ 0.05 set as the level of significance. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the materials and solutions. The effect of media on the sorption and solubility was material-dependent. While seT showed the highest values of the sorption in almost all solutions, Choice 2 showed the least values of sorption and solubility. Immersion in apple juice caused more sorption than other solutions (p≤ 0.05). Conclusion The sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were significantly affected by their composition and the storage media. The more hydrophobic materials with higher filler content like Choice 2 resin cement showed the least sorption and solubility. Due to their lower sorption and solubility, these types of resin-based luting cements are recommended to be used clinically. PMID:27284553

  10. Hafnium hydroxide complexation and solubility: The impact of hydrolysis reactions on the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Cerefice, G.; Draye, M.; Noyes, K.; Czerwinski, K.

    1999-07-01

    The stability constants for the complexation of hafnium by hydroxide ions is investigated by potentiometric titration over a range of ionic strengths (I{sub m} = 0.1 to 6.6 molal). The stability constants are determined from the titration data using the HYPERQUAD suite of programs. The stability constants at infinite dilution are determined using the Specific Ion Interaction Theory from the stability constants determined by titration. The solubility product of Hf(OH){sub 4} (s) is determined in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} by measuring the total hafnium in solution that is in equilibrium with an excess of hafnium hydroxide solid under an argon atmosphere. The total Hf concentration is determined by ICP-AES. The solubility product is determined using the stability constants measured for the Hf hydrolysis products in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4}. The precipitate examined is confirmed to be a hydroxide by IR spectroscopy. For Hf(OH){sub 4} (s) in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4}, the solubility product is log K{sub sp} (Hf(OH){sub 4} (s)) = {minus}51.8 {+-} 0.5. The solubility and stability constants determined are used, along with literature values for plutonium solubility and complexation constants, to examine the behavior of hafnium and plutonium under the conditions expected at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Are soluble and membrane-bound rat brain acetylcholinesterase different

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, C.; el Mourabit, M.; Stutz, C.; Mark, J.; Waksman, A. )

    1990-11-01

    Salt-soluble and detergent-soluble acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from adult rat brain were purified to homogeneity and studied with the aim to establish the differences existing between these two forms. It was found that the enzymatic activities of the purified salt-soluble AChE as well as the detergent-soluble AChE were dependent on the Triton X-100 concentration. Moreover, the interaction of salt-soluble AChE with liposomes suggests amphiphilic behaviour of this enzyme. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) did not bind to liposomes but its activity was also detergent-dependent. Detergent-soluble AChE remained in solution below critical micellar concentrations of Triton X-100. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified, Biobeads-treated and iodinated detergent-soluble 11 S AChE showed, under non reducing conditions, bands of 69 kD, 130 kD and greater than 250 kD corresponding, respectively, to monomers, dimers and probably tetramers of the same polypeptide chain. Under reducing conditions, only a 69 kD band was detected. It is proposed that an amphiphilic environment stabilizes the salt-soluble forms of AChE in the brain in vivo and that detergent-soluble Biobeads-treated 11 S AChE possess hydrophobic domain(s) different from the 20 kD peptide already described.

  12. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  13. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  14. Partial solubility parameters of lactose, mannitol and saccharose using the modified extended Hansen method and evaporation light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Daali, Y; Barra, J; Bustamante, P

    2000-02-01

    The modified extended Hansen method was tested for the first time to determine partial solubility parameters of non-polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. The method was formerly tested with drug molecules, and is based upon a regression analysis of the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility of the solute against the partial solubility parameters of a series of solvents of different chemical classes. Two monosaccharides and one disaccharide (lactose monohydrate, saccharose and mannitol) were chosen. The solubility of these compounds was determined in a series of solvents ranging from nonpolar to polar and covering a wide range of the solubility parameter scale. Sugars do not absorb at the UV-vis region, and the saturated solutions were assayed with a recent chromatographic technique coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector. This technique was suitable to determine the concentration dissolved in most solvents. The modified extended Hansen method provided better results than the original approach. The best model was the four parameter equation, which includes the dispersion delta d, dipolar delta p, acidic delta a and basic delta b partial solubility parameters. The partial solubility parameters obtained, expressed as MPa1/2, were delta d = 17.6, delta p = 28.7, delta h = 19, delta a = 14.5, delta b = 12.4, delta T = 32.8 for lactose, delta d = 16.2, delta p = 24.5, delta h = 14.6, delta a = 8.7, delta b = 12.2, delta T = 32.8 for mannitol and delta d = 17.1, delta p = 18.5, delta h = 13, delta a = 11.3, delta b = 7.6, delta T = 28.4 for saccharose. The high total solubility parameters delta T obtained agree with the polar nature of the sugars. The dispersion parameters delta d are quite similar for the three sugars indicating that the polar delta p and hydrogen bonding parameters (delta h, delta a, delta b) are responsible for the variation in the total solubility parameters delta T obtained, as also found for drugs. The results suggest that the method

  15. The Effects of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartledge, B. T.; Marcotte, A.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.; Majestic, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current study focuses on studying how iron (Fe) solubility is affected by particle size, relative humidity, and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fe, the most abundant transition metal in atmospheric particulate matter, plays a critical role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle and is a micronutrient for phytoplankton in remote regions of the ocean. To mimic oceanic particles, iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, goethite, and illite) were resuspended with sodium chloride and size-segregated on Teflon filters into five different size fractions: 10-2.5 μm, 2.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-0.5 μm, 0.5-0.25 μm, and <0.25 μm. Mineral phases were then exposed to 5 ppm SO2 in air at marine environment humidity (>80%) and arid environment humidity (24%). Trials with no SO2 ­were also performed as comparisons. Total Fe was determined by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and soluble Fe was determined by extracting the samples in a simulated cloud water buffer (pH 4.25, 0.5 mM acetate, 0.5 mM formate, and 0.2 mM ammonium nitrate). Both total and soluble Fe concentrations were determined via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that, as particle size decreased, Fe percent solubility increased for hematite, magnetite, and goethite. The percent solubility of Fe in these mineral phases steadily increased from 0.5-10% as particle size decreased. In contrast, the Fe percent solubility in illite was relatively constant for the largest four size fractions but increased dramatically in the smallest size fraction. The percent solubility of Fe in illite ranged from 5-20% as the particle size decreased. Additionally, increased Fe solubility was linked to increased relative humidity with higher percent solubility generally observed in all mineral phases for the samples exposed at the higher humidity. No correlation was observed for the effects of the SO2 on Fe percent solubility. The likely lack of Fe-SO2 interactions were also supported by synchrotron

  16. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  17. Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gyula; Varga, BáLint; Galambos, IstváN.; Ganszky, Ildikó

    2002-11-01

    Atmospheric fine aerosol (dp < 1.5 μm) was collected at a rural site in Hungary from January to September 2000. The total carbon concentration ranged from 5 to 13 μg m-3 and from 3 to 6 μg m-3 in the first three months and the rest of the sampling period, respectively. On average, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) accounted for 66% of the total carbon concentration independent of the season. A variable fraction of the water-soluble organic constituents (38-72% of WSOC depending on the sample) was separated from inorganic ions and isolated in pure organic form by using solid phase extraction on a copolymer sorbent. This fraction was experimentally characterized by an organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio of 1.9, and this value did not change with the seasons. Furthermore, the average elemental composition (molar ratio) of C:H:N:O ≈ 24:34:1:14 of the isolated fraction indicated the predominance of oxygenated functional groups, and the low hydrogen to carbon ratio implied the presence of unsaturated or polyconjugated structures. These conclusions were confirmed by UV, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. On the basis of theoretical considerations, the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio was estimated to be 2.3 for the nonisolated water-soluble organic fraction, resulting in an overall ratio of 2.1 for the WSOC. In order to extend the scope of this estimation to the total organic carbon, which is usually required in mass closure calculations, the aqueous extraction was followed by sequential extraction with acetone and 0.01 M NaOH solution. As a result, a total organic matter to total organic carbon mass ratio of 1.9-2.0 was estimated, but largely on the basis of experimental data.

  18. Effect of ultrasound on the solubility limit of a sparingly soluble solid.

    PubMed

    Sandilya, D Krishna; Kannan, A

    2010-02-01

    The influence of power ultrasound (20kHz) on the rate of attainment of saturation of sparingly soluble benzoic acid in distilled water and in 24% (w/w) aqueous glycerol was experimentally investigated at 30 degrees C. The importance of proper temperature control of process vessel contents when it was irradiated with high ultrasonic power level settings was demonstrated. A method was proposed to calculate the volumetric mass transfer coefficient under non-isothermal conditions. PMID:19896884

  19. Interlaboratory Validation of Small-Scale Solubility and Dissolution Measurements of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sara B E; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan; Bonneau, Damien; da Costa Mathews, Claudia; Dattani, Rikesh; Edueng, Khadijah; He, Yan; Holm, René; Madsen, Cecilie; Müller, Thomas; Muenster, Uwe; Müllertz, Anette; Ojala, Krista; Rades, Thomas; Sieger, Peter; Bergström, Christel A S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured at multiple laboratories using the same experimental protocol. Dissolution was studied in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5). An additional 6 compounds were used for the development of an IDR measurement guide, which was then validated with 5 compounds. The results clearly showed a need for a standardized protocol including both the experimental assay and the data analysis. Standardization at both these levels decreased the interlaboratory variability. The results also illustrated the difficulties in performing disc IDR on poorly water-soluble drugs because the concentrations reached are typically below the limit of detection. The following guidelines were established: for compounds with Sapp >1 mg/mL, the disc method is recommended. For compounds with Sapp <100 μg/mL, IDR is recommended to be performed using powder dissolution. Compounds in the interval 100 μg/mL to 1 mg/mL can be analyzed with either of these methods. PMID:27112289

  20. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water. PMID:25362971

  1. The Speciation and Solubility of Aerosol Iron and Aluminum in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Results From the 2002 NSF/IOC Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. S.; Landing, W. M.; Resing, J.; Lebon, G. T.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the 2002 NSF/IOC cruise in the northwest Pacific, we collected separate 10-hour aerosol samples during both the day and night aboard the R/V Melville leaving Osaka, Japan on May 1, 2002 and arriving in Honolulu, HI on June 5, 2002. The goal of this research was to measure the solubility and speciation of Fe and Al in Asian continental dust. Four replicate samples were collected using an automatic sector-controlled aerosol sampling system that collected only when the wind was \\pm90o off the bow of the ship and exceeded 0.5 m/sec. The aerosols were collected on 47 mm PCTE and polypropylene filters for roughly 10-hour periods, filtering as much as 35 m3 of air through each filter. The filters were changed twice each day for a total of 60 samples. The filters were quickly leached with 100 mL of either freshly collected 0.2μm filtered surface seawater at natural pH or 100 mL of unacidified ultrapure water. Seawater filtrates were analyzed for soluble Fe(II) using the FeLume chemiluminescent system. These samples were also analyzed for total soluble Fe using the ICP-MS isotope dilution method upon returning to FSU. The ultrapure water filtrate samples were frozen until they could be analyzed at FSU for major anions using ion chromotography. A replicate PCTE filter was analyzed for total Fe (and other elements) using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence at the NOAA/PMEL laboratory. Soluble total aerosol Fe concentrations ranged from 8-130 pmol/m3 of filtered air. The concentrations of soluble Fe(II) ranged from 0.35-95 pmol/m3 and total soluble Al ranged from 20-600 pmol/m3. We will also compare total Fe and Al solubilities in seawater and ultrapure water.

  2. The uptake and solubility of water in quartz at elevated pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerretsen, J.; Paterson, M. S.; McLaren, A. C.

    1989-02-01

    The uptake of water in quartz at 1.5 GPa total pressure, 1173 K and high water fugacity, over times up to 24 h, has been investigated using a newly developed assembly to prevent microcracking. It is found that the uptake is small, and below the detectability of the presently used technique of infrared spectroscopy and serial sectioning. This observation reflects either a low value for the diffusivity or the solubility or a combination of both, and is in agreement with the observations of Kronenberg et al. (1986) and Rovetta et al. (1986). It brings into question the interpretation of the early experiments on water weakening by Griggs and Blacic (1964) and the recent estimates of the solubility and diffusivity by Mackwell and Paterson (1985). Rults of a combined T.E.M., light-scattering and infrared-spectroscopy investigation of ‘wet’ synthetic quartz before and after heating at 0.1, 300 and 1500 MPa total pressure and 1173 K, strongly suggest that the water in ‘wet’ quartz is mainly in the form of H2O in inclusions, consistent with the solubility being low, possibly less than 100 H/106Si. From these observations, water-containing inclusions appear to play a major role in the plasticity of quartz, while any role of water in solid solution remains to be clarified.

  3. Soluble dust as source of nutrients to the oceans and the role of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Kanakidou, M.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Nikolaou, P.; Daskalakis, N.; Theodosi, C.; Nenes, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. The link between the soluble iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity, as well as anthropogenic sources, is investigated. The global atmospheric Fe, P and N cycle are parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL. Both primary emissions of total and soluble Fe and P associated with dust and combustion processes are taken into account, as well as inorganic and organic N emissions. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility is parameterised based on experimental findings. The model results are evaluated by comparison with available observations. The impact of air-quality changes on soluble nutrient deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial, present and future emission scenarios. The response of the chemical composition of nutrient-containing aerosols to environmental changes is demonstrated and quantified. This work has been supported by ARISTEIA - PANOPLY grant co-financed by European Union (ESF) and Greek national funds NSRF.

  4. Neptunium Solubility in the Near-Field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Sassani

    2004-05-14

    For representing the source-term of a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, total system performance assessment models evaluate the disequilibrium degradation of the waste forms to capture a bounding rate for radionuclide source-term availability and use solubility constraints that are more representative of longer-term, equilibrium processes to limit radionuclide mass transport from the source-term. These solubility limits capture precipitation processes occurring either as the waste forms alter, or in the near-field environment as chemical conditions evolve. A number of alternative models for solubility controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations have been evaluated. These include idealized models based on precipitation of neptunium as separate oxide minerals and more complex considerations of trace amounts of neptunium being incorporated into the secondary uranyl phases from waste form alteration. Thermodynamic models for neptunium under oxidizing conditions indicate that tetravalent neptunium (NpO{sub 2}) solids are more stable relative to pentavalent (Np{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phases, and thereby set lower dissolved concentrations of neptunyl species. Data on solids and solutions from slow flow through (dripping) tests on spent fuel grains indicate that neptunium is tetravalent in the spent fuel and that over {approx}9 years the neptunium concentrations are near to or below calculated NpO{sub 2} solubility. The possibility of kinetic rate limitations to NpO{sub 2} precipitation has led to temperature-dependent studies of NpO{sub 2} precipitation kinetics and solubility to reduce uncertainties and confirm application of the model.

  5. Soluble dust as source of nutrients to the global ocean and the role of humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Daskalakis, Nikos; Theodosi, Christina; Nenes, Athanassios; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. The link between the soluble iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity, as well as anthropogenic sources, is investigated. The global atmospheric Fe, P and N cycle are parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL. Both primary emissions of total and soluble Fe and P associated with dust and combustion processes are taken into account, as well as inorganic and organic N emissions. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility is parameterised based on experimental findings. The model results are evaluated by comparison with available observations. The impact of air-quality changes on soluble nutrient deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial, present and future emission scenarios. The response of the chemical composition of nutrient-containing aerosols to environmental changes is demonstrated and quantified. This work has been supported by ARISTEIA - PANOPLY grant co-financed by European Union (ESF) and Greek national funds NSRF.

  6. Mining the soluble chloroplast proteome by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Roman G; Stael, Simon; Csaszar, Edina; Teige, Markus

    2011-04-01

    Chloroplasts are fundamental organelles enabling plant photoautotrophy. Besides their outstanding physiological role in fixation of atmospheric CO(2), they harbor many important metabolic processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids, vitamins or hormones. Technical advances in MS allowed the recent identification of most chloroplast proteins. However, for a deeper understanding of chloroplast function it is important to obtain a complete list of constituents, which is so far limited by the detection of low-abundant proteins. Therefore, we developed a two-step strategy for the enrichment of low-abundant soluble chloroplast proteins from Pisum sativum and their subsequent identification by MS. First, chloroplast protein extracts were depleted from the most abundant protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by SEC or heating. Further purification was carried out by affinity chromatography, using ligands specific for ATP- or metal-binding proteins. By these means, we were able to identify a total of 448 proteins including 43 putative novel chloroplast proteins. Additionally, the chloroplast localization of 13 selected proteins was confirmed using yellow fluorescent protein fusion analyses. The selected proteins included a phosphoglycerate mutase, a cysteine protease, a putative protein kinase and an EF-hand containing substrate carrier protein, which are expected to exhibit important metabolic or regulatory functions. PMID:21365755

  7. Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 and Echocardiography in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Hur, Mina; Kim, Hanah; Magrini, Laura; Marino, Rossella; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-11-01

    Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) has emerged as a biomarker of cardiac stretch or remodeling, and has demonstrated a role in acutely decompensated heart failure. However, its role in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is still unknown. We explored whether sST2 serum concentration reflects either systolic or diastolic dysfunction as measured by Doppler echocardiography. In a total of 127 patients with sepsis, correlations between sST2 and blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV diastolic filling (ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity), and resting pulmonary arterial pressure were evaluated. Correlations between sST2 and other sepsis biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and procalcitonin) were also examined. sST2 showed a moderate correlation with mean arterial pressure (r=-0.3499) but no correlation with LV ejection fraction, diastolic filling, or resting pulmonary hypertension. It showed moderate correlations with hs-CRP and procalcitonin (r=0.2608 and r=0.3829, respectively). sST2 might have a role as a biomarker of shock or inflammation, but it cannot reflect echocardiographic findings of LV ejection fraction or diastolic filling in sepsis. PMID:27578513

  8. Short communication: characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species. PMID:26188581

  9. Polyacetylene fibril growth in soluble Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.; Schue, F.

    1984-01-01

    Free-standing polyacetylene films prepared by using the soluble Ziegler-Natta catalyst Ti(OBu)/sub 4//AlEt/sub 3/ are of great interest for they exhibit an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime, 10/sup 3/ (Omega cm)/sup -1/, when doped with various donors or acceptors. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the as-formed films consist of randomly oriented fibrils with a diameter and an interfibrillar distance depending upon the polymerization conditions. A detailed mechanistic study of the polymerization at -78/sup 0/C showed that the number of active centers for polymerization of acetylene, which consists of Ti/sup III/ species, is only one part per thousand of the total amount of catalyst. The morphology of the films and the fibril dimensions have a great effect on the properties of the polymer when it is doped with electron donors or acceptors, chemically or electrochemically. The doping process consists of the diffusion of the doping ion into the film and its fibrils with known diffusion rates under well-defined conditions. The homogeneity of the material is consequently affected by the diffusion factor, and therefore it is important to study the nature of the host polymer.

  10. Mining the soluble chloroplast proteome by affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Roman G; Stael, Simon; Csaszar, Edina; Teige, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are fundamental organelles enabling plant photoautotrophy. Besides their outstanding physiological role in fixation of atmospheric CO2, they harbor many important metabolic processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids, vitamins or hormones. Technical advances in MS allowed the recent identification of most chloroplast proteins. However, for a deeper understanding of chloroplast function it is important to obtain a complete list of constituents, which is so far limited by the detection of low-abundant proteins. Therefore, we developed a two-step strategy for the enrichment of low-abundant soluble chloroplast proteins from Pisum sativum and their subsequent identification by MS. First, chloroplast protein extracts were depleted from the most abundant protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by SEC or heating. Further purification was carried out by affinity chromatography, using ligands specific for ATP- or metal-binding proteins. By these means, we were able to identify a total of 448 proteins including 43 putative novel chloroplast proteins. Additionally, the chloroplast localization of 13 selected proteins was confirmed using yellow fluorescent protein fusion analyses. The selected proteins included a phosphoglycerate mutase, a cysteine protease, a putative protein kinase and an EF-hand containing substrate carrier protein, which are expected to exhibit important metabolic or regulatory functions. PMID:21365755

  11. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.; Minond, Dmitriy; Smith, A. Ian

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC{sub 50} values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17.

  12. Temperature-dependent solubility of wax compounds in ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of ethanol to dissolve wax compounds was investigated as an alternative to traditional lipid solvents. The solubility of fatty esters with carbon chain lengths between 46 and 54 was measured in ethanol at elevated temperatures. The greatest increase in solubility was observed between 40°...

  13. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  14. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  15. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Pharmaceuticals Production Pt. 63, Subpt. GGG, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Soluble HAP Compound 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine. 1,4-Dioxane. Acetonitrile. Acetophenone. Diethyl sulfate. Dimethyl... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Soluble HAP 3 Table 3 to Subpart GGG...

  17. 21 CFR 520.28 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.28 Section 520.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.28 Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d... trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 115.4... veal calves. (3) Limitations. Administer by drench or by mixing in milk. Treatment should be...

  19. Using MD Simulations To Calculate How Solvents Modulate Solubility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Cao, Shannon; Hoang, Kevin; Young, Kayla L; Paluch, Andrew S; Mobley, David L

    2016-04-12

    Here, our interest is in predicting solubility in general, and we focus particularly on predicting how the solubility of particular solutes is modulated by the solvent environment. Solubility in general is extremely important, both for theoretical reasons - it provides an important probe of the balance between solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions - and for more practical reasons, such as how to control the solubility of a given solute via modulation of its environment, as in process chemistry and separations. Here, we study how the change of solvent affects the solubility of a given compound. That is, we calculate relative solubilities. We use MD simulations to calculate relative solubility and compare our calculated values with experiment as well as with results from several other methods, SMD and UNIFAC, the latter of which is commonly used in chemical engineering design. We find that straightforward solubility calculations based on molecular simulations using a general small-molecule force field outperform SMD and UNIFAC both in terms of accuracy and coverage of the relevant chemical space. PMID:26878198

  20. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  1. Peptidyl-urea based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We prepared a series of amino acid derived cyclohexyl and adamantyl ureas and tested them as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase, and obtained very potent compounds (K(I)=15nM) that are >10-fold more soluble than previously described sEH inhibitors. While our lead compound 2 showed low...

  2. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section 520.154c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams...

  3. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section 520.154c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1580c - Nitrofurazone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrofurazone soluble powder. 524.1580c Section 524.1580c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 524.1580c Nitrofurazone soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.2...

  5. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.90e Section 520.90e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains ampicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1580c - Nitrofurazone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrofurazone soluble powder. 524.1580c Section 524.1580c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 524.1580c Nitrofurazone soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.2...

  7. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.90e Section 520.90e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains ampicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2087 - Roxarsone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roxarsone soluble powder. 520.2087 Section 520.2087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce (avoirdupois) of soluble powder contains 21.7 grams of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...

  10. 21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.44 Section 520.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing...

  11. 21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.44 Section 520.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2087 - Roxarsone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roxarsone soluble powder. 520.2087 Section 520.2087 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce (avoirdupois) of soluble powder contains 21.7 grams of...

  13. Facilitating protein solubility by use of peptide extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Freimuth, Paul I; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Howitt, Jason

    2013-09-17

    Expression vectors for expression of a protein or polypeptide of interest as a fusion product composed of the protein or polypeptide of interest fused at one terminus to a solubility enhancing peptide extension are provided. Sequences encoding the peptide extensions are provided. The invention further comprises antibodies which bind specifically to one or more of the solubility enhancing peptide extensions.

  14. Assessing Junior High Students' Understanding of Density and Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennaro, Eugene D.

    1981-01-01

    Three density questions were administered to 290 ninth-grade students to assess their understanding of this concept. Found two-thirds of students understand displacement and/or density concepts. Three solubility questions were administered to 385 ninth-graders to assess understandings of solubility. Found students have difficulty with some aspects…

  15. Solubility of non-polar gases in electrolyte solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. L., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Solubility theory describes the effects of both concentration and temperature on solute activity coefficients. It predicts the salting-out effect and the decrease in solubility of non-polar gases with increased electrolyte concentration, and can be used to calculate heats of solution, entropies, and partial molal volumes of dissolved gases

  16. Poisoning effect on solubility of hydrogen isotopes in getter materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Hidenori; Shirasu, Yoshirou; Miyake, Masanobu

    1991-03-01

    Hydrogen and deuterium solubilities in Ti-C and Zr-N alloys with various compositions have been measured at pressures below 100 Pa. All of the solubility data were found to follow Sieverts' law. The presence of carbon in Ti increased the solubilities of hydrogen isotopes and reduced the enthalpies of solution. The solubility increased and the enthalpy of solution decreased with addition of nitrogen into Zr. The hydrogen solubility in Ti-C and Zr-N alloys was larger than the deuterium solubility. Partial thermodynamic functions of hydrogen and deuterium in Ti-C and Zr-N alloys were obtained by a dilute solution model and compared with those in Ti-(O, N) and Zr-O alloys. The isotope effect of hydrogen and deuterium solubilities in the Ti-(O, N, C) and Zr-(O, N) alloys was discussed, and the tritium solubility in Ti-C and Zr-N alloys was evaluated from hydrogen and deuterium data.

  17. A Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonsecaa, I. M. A.; Almeida, J. P. B.; Fachada, H. C.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of a volumetric apparatus for gas/liquid solubility measurements is proposed. The procedure familiarizes undergraduate students with the experimental study of the solubility of a gas in a liquid and contributes to the understanding of this important phase equilibrium concept. The experimental results report the determination…

  18. Solubility enhancement of rosiglitazone by using melt sonocrystallization technique.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Vaibhavkumar A; Vidyasagar, G; Dvivedi, S C

    2014-03-01

    The poor solubility and low dissolution rate in gastro-intestinal fluid, especially for class-II drugs according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) the bioavailability enhanced by increasing the solubility and dissolution rate. A novel melt sonocrystallization technique of particle engineering to enhance solubility as well as dissolution of hydrophobic drug and to study its effect on crystal properties of drug. The present study leads to use investigate solubility of melt sonocrystallization technique to modify the undesirable properties of Rosiglitazone is antidiabetic drug in thiozolidione category with (BCS II) to forms agglomerates with number of shallow circular pits on the surface leads to increase solubility. Melt sonocrystallization process was developed for Rosiglitazone in which Rosiglitazone melt was poured in deionized water and simultaneously subjected to ultrasonic energy for 20 min at amplitude 80 %. The product obtained was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry (XPRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solubility and dissolution rate. The irregular agglomerates with porous surface were obtained having different crystal habit which increases solubility and dissolution rate. FTIR shows thermal behavior of untreated Rosiglitazone and treated Rosiglitazone have no significant difference low intensity peaks in XPRD of treated Rosiglitazone were noticed crystals habit changes and lattice defects during processing have causes favorable changes in the physicochemical properties of Rosiglitazone. The use of melt sonocrystallization technique is promising technique that may affords powder with improved flow as well as improved solubility and dissolution. PMID:24616749

  19. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  20. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....