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Sample records for ostrea chilensis philippi

  1. Ultrastructure of Bonamia sp. in Ostrea chilensis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, K B; Hine, P M; Campalans, M

    2009-07-23

    Oyster Ostrea chilensis samples were collected from Quihua Island, Chile, in December 2003 and February 2005, and examined in May 2004, and March, April and July 2005, for an ultrastructural comparison of the Chilean Bonamia sp. with other Bonamia spp. Only uni-nucleate stages were encountered, except in the July sample. The Chilean parasite differs from B. perspora in the apparent lack of a plasmodial stage and of sporulation. It resembles B. ostreae in size, the low number of mitochondrial profiles, and the prevalence and mean number of lipid droplets. It differs from B. ostreae in the greater prevalence of nuclear membrane-bound Golgi (NM-BG), associated haplosporogenesis, and smaller size of haplosporosomes. The Chilean Bonamia sp. resembles B. exitiosa in the number of haplosporosomes, prevalence of lipid droplets, anastomosing endoplasmic reticulum and NM-BG, presence of circles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), confronting cisternae (CC), and cylindrical CC (CCC). It also appears to have a similar developmental cycle to B. exitiosa with larger forms occurring in winter (August). The circles of sER, CC, and CCC have only been reported from B. exitiosa, and it appears that Chilean Bonamia sp. and B. exitiosa are more closely related than they are to B. perspora or B. ostreae. Similarities in ultrastructure and developmental stages between New Zealand and Chilean parasites suggest that the 2 species are related, and that the Chilean Bonamia sp. is either B. exitiosa, a sub-species of B. exitiosa, or a separate species closely related to B. exitiosa. PMID:19750808

  2. Bonamia ostreae in the New Zealand oyster Ostrea chilensis: a new host and geographic record for this haplosporidian parasite.

    PubMed

    Lane, Henry S; Webb, Stephen Charles; Duncan, John

    2016-02-11

    Previous reports of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae have been restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, and both eastern and western North America. This species is reported for the first time in New Zealand infecting the flat oyster Ostrea chilensis. Histological examination of 149 adult oysters identified 119 (79.9%) infected with Bonamia microcells. Bonamia generic PCR of several oysters followed by DNA sequencing of a 300 bp portion of the 18S rDNA gene produced a 100% match with that of B. ostreae. All DNA-sequenced products also produced a B. ostreae PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profile. Bonamia species-specific PCRs further detected single infections of B. exitiosa (2.7%), B. ostreae (40.3%), and concurrent infections (53.7%) with these 2 Bonamia species identifying overall a Bonamia prevalence of 96.6%. Detailed histological inspection revealed 2 microcell types. An infection identified by PCR as B. ostreae histologically presented small microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 1.28 ± 0.16 µm, range = 0.9-2 µm, n = 60) commonly with eccentric nuclei. A B. exitiosa infection exhibited larger microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 2.12 ± 0.27 µm, range = 1.5-4 µm, n = 60) with more concentric nuclei. Concurrent infections of both Bonamia species, as identified by PCR, exhibited both types of microcells. DNA barcoding of the B. ostreae-infected oyster host confirmed the identification as O. chilensis. A suite of other parasites that accompany O. chilensis are reported here for the first time in mixed infection with B. ostreae including apicomplexan X (76.5%), Microsporidium rapuae (0.7%) and Bucephalus longicornutus (30.2%). PMID:26865235

  3. Brooding in the Chilean Oyster Ostrea chilensis: Unexpected Complexity in the Movements of Brooded Offspring within the Mantle Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mardones-Toledo, Daniela A.; Montory, Jaime A.; Joyce, Alyssa; Thompson, Raymond J.; Diederich, Casey M.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Mardones, Maria L.; Chaparro, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother’s gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG) to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother’s palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and ´´fell´´ down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps) and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor energy

  4. Brooding in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis: unexpected complexity in the movements of brooded offspring within the mantle cavity.

    PubMed

    Mardones-Toledo, Daniela A; Montory, Jaime A; Joyce, Alyssa; Thompson, Raymond J; Diederich, Casey M; Pechenik, Jan A; Mardones, Maria L; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2015-01-01

    Brooding in invertebrates serves to protect embryos from stressful external conditions by retaining progeny inside the female body, effectively reducing the risk of pelagic stages being exposed to predation or other environmental stressors, but with accompanying changes in pallial fluid characteristics, including reduced oxygen availability. Brooded embryos are usually immobile and often encapsulated, but in some Ostrea species the embryos move freely inside the female pallial cavity in close association with the mother's gills for as long as eight weeks. We used endoscopic techniques to characterize the circulation pattern of embryos brooded by females of the oyster, Ostrea chilensis. Progeny at embryonic and veliger stages typically circulated in established patterns that included the use of dorsal and ventral food grooves (DFG, VFG) to move anteriorly on the gills. Both embryos and veligers accumulated around the mother's palps, and remained there until an active maternal countercurrent moved them to the gill inhalant area. Both food grooves were able to move embryos, veligers, and food-particle aggregates anteriorly, but the DFG was more important in progeny transport; early embryos were moved more rapidly than veligers in the DFG. A microcirculation pattern of embryos was apparent when they were moved by gill lamellae: when they were close to the VFG, most embryos lost gill contact and "fell" down to the DFG. Those that actually reached the DFG moved anteriorly, but others came into contact with the base of the lamellae and again moved towards the VFG. The circulation pattern of the progeny appears well-suited for both cleaning them and directing them posteriorly to an area where there is more oxygen and food than in the palp region. This process for actively circulating progeny involves the feeding structures (gill and palps) and appears to be energetically costly for the female. It also interferes with feeding, which could explain the poor energy balance

  5. The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, O. R.; Navarrete, L. R.; Thompson, R. J.

    2006-05-01

    In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 μm shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 μg at 450 μm shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 μm shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 μl h - 1 larva - 1 at 450 μm shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19 - 22 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for pre-veliger stages to 32 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for a veliger 450 μm long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in a pediveliger of shell length 450 μm. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development.

  6. Brooding strategy in fluctuating salinity environments: oxygen availability in the pallial cavity and metabolic stress in females and offspring in the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis.

    PubMed

    Segura, Cristian J; Montory, Jaime A; Cubillos, Victor M; Diederich, Casey M; Pechenik, Jan A; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2015-08-01

    Organisms that encounter stressful situations in nature often cope using behavioral (e.g., avoidance) or physiological tactics. In sessile mollusks, the only available behavioral option in dealing with salinity stress is to "clam up", isolating their tissues from the environment. Though effective in the short term, prolonged isolation can have detrimental physiological consequences, particularly for females brooding embryos in a mantle cavity that is isolated from the external environment. In the Quempillén estuary, the Chilean oyster, Ostrea chilensis, spent nearly one-third of its brooding season at salinities low enough to cause female isolation. When females thus isolated themselves, the dissolved oxygen in their mantle cavity fluid dropped to hypoxic levels within 10 min. In females that were brooding embryos, this depletion of oxygen was not uniform: oxygen was depleted more quickly in the palp region (where embryos accumulate) than in the inhalant region. Additionally, oxygen was reduced even more quickly in the palp region when females were brooding late-stage embryos, which consumed oxygen significantly more quickly than embryos in earlier developmental stages. Finally, O. chilensis used anaerobic metabolism to cope with the hypoxia induced by isolation, as lactate accumulated in the tissues of both females (brooding > non-brooding) and embryos (late stage > early stage). Our findings demonstrate the trade-off between an adaptive avoidance behavior (clamming up) and the potentially detrimental consequences brought on by such a behavior (hypoxia). Cycling of embryos throughout the mantle cavity by deliberate female pumping keeps them from accumulating in the area between the palps, forestalling the creation of hypoxic conditions there. In addition, the capacity for anaerobic metabolism by both females and their embryos should help them tolerate the low oxygen levels that do eventually arise when the pallial cavity is isolated from the surrounding

  7. Aristotelia chilensis, Maqui

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Maqui or Macqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a shrub or small tree native to Chile and Argentina in South America. The plant typically grows as an e...

  8. Heat shock protein 90 of Bonamia ostreae: characterization and possible correlation with infection of the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Chollet, Bruno; Couraleau, Yann; Morga, Benjamin; Arzul, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we described the cytosolic HSP90 of Bonamia ostreae, an intracellular parasite of Ostrea edulis hemocytes. The complete open reading frame was assembled by Rapid Amplification cDNA Ends reactions on cDNA of B. ostreae-infected hemocytes. HSP90 amplification was corroborated in infected oysters and B. ostreae purified cells. The functionality of the HSP90, studied by inhibitory assays with radicicol, suggests that this protein may play a role in hemocyte invasion. Our results inform the molecular basis that governs B. ostreae-O. edulis interactions. PMID:23489327

  9. Interlaboratory variability in screening for Bonamia ostreae, a protistan parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Grace; Lynch, Sharon A; Longshaw, Matt; Stone, David; Martin, Paul; Ramilo, Andrea; Villalba, Antonio; Culloty, Sarah C

    2014-07-24

    The spread of the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae is of major concern to the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis industry. Many studies have looked at the sensitivity of individual methods available to screen for B. ostreae, but in this study, 3 separate laboratories examined 4 methods of diagnosis currently used routinely in laboratories: heart imprints, histology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridisation (ISH). The results were compared to estimate interlaboratory variability. Heart imprints and histology had the highest reproducibility amongst the 3 laboratories, with greatest agreement between detection of infected and uninfected individuals. PCR had the highest detection level in every laboratory. These positives were related to the presence of confirmed infections but also in unconfirmed infections, possibly due to the presence of traces of B. ostreae DNA in oysters where clinical infections were not observed. PCR, in combination with histology or ISH, provided the most reliable detection levels in every laboratory. Variation in results for PCR and ISH observed between laboratories may be due to the different protocols used by each laboratory for both methods. Overall, the findings from the 3 laboratories indicated that at least 2 methods, with fixed protocols, should be used for the accurate detection and determination of infection prevalence within a sample. This combination of methods would allow for a clearer and more precise diagnosis of B. ostreae, preventing further spread of the disease and providing more accurate detection levels and epidemiological information. PMID:25060501

  10. Investigating the significance of the role of Ostrea edulis larvae in the transmission and transfer of Bonamia ostreae.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Grace; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of oyster larvae, brooded in the pallial cavity of the parent oyster, to become infected in the pallial fluid, which is influenced by the brooding oyster and surrounding environment, was investigated. Larvae were collected over three summers from three areas around Ireland. Samples were screened for the presence of Bonamia ostreae DNA using PCR analysis. Four samples of larvae were found to be positive for B. ostreae DNA, though the parent oysters were negative for infection. Larvae may be able to acquire the pathogen from the water column during filter feeding or elimination of pseudo-faeces by the brooding adult. PMID:26880159

  11. TRANSPORT OF NAPHTHALENE IN THE OYSTER 'OSTREA EDULIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    In small oysters (Ostrea edulis), transport of naphthalene between tissues is primarily by diffusion and not via the circulatory system. In intact oysters, accumulation in the adductor muscle and body followed accumulation in the gills after a large lag-time. In isolated tissues ...

  12. Factors preventing the recovery of a historically overexploited shellfish species, Ostrea conchaphila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native oyster in estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America, Ostrea conchaphila (prev. Ostrea lurida, Olympia oyster), experienced overexploitation throughout its range in the late 1800’s, resulting in commercial extinction before 1930. Significant harvest restrictions and marine reserv...

  13. Lignolytic Enzymes of a Mushroom Stereum ostrea Isolated from Wood Logs

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, K.; Viswanath, B.; Usha, K. Y.; Pallavi, H.; Venkata Subba Reddy, G.; Naveen, M.; Rajasekhar Reddy, B.

    2011-01-01

    Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. ostrea were comparable to those of P. chrysosporium, yields of laccase enzyme by S. ostrea were higher than laccase titres of P. chrysosporium by more than 2 folds on the peak production time interval (IVth day of incubation). S. ostrea yielded titres of 25 units of laccase/ml as against 8.9 units of laccase/ml on the IVth day of incubation. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. ostrea on the medium in the presence of Remazol orange 16 resulted in the decolourisation of dye, confirming the presence of lignolytic enzymes. S. ostrea appears to be a promising culture with complete lignolytic system. PMID:21941632

  14. Nineteen Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Olympia Oyster, Ostrea conchaphila/lurida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate evaluation of remnant Ostrea conchaphila/lurida population structure is critical for developing appropriate restoration efforts. We report 19 polymorphic microsatellites suitable for analyses of population differentiation, pedigree reconstruction and linkage map construction. We screened cl...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ostrea denselamellosa (Bivalvia, Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the flat oyster, Ostrea denselamellosa, was determined using Long-PCR and genome walking techniques in this study. The total length of the mt genome sequence of O. denselamellosa was 16,227 bp, which is the smallest reported Ostreidae mt genome to date. It contained 12 protein-coding genes (lacking of ATP8), 23 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. A bias towards a higher representation of nucleotides A and T (60.7%) was detected in the mt genome of O. denselamellosa. The rrnL was split into two fragments (3' half, 711 bp; 5' half, 509 bp), which seems to be the unique characteristics of Ostreidae mt genomes. PMID:24779597

  16. Enhanced Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by a Mushroom Stereum ostrea

    PubMed Central

    Usha, K. Y.; Praveen, K.; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The white rot fungi Stereum ostrea displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented inducers, surfactants, and copper sulphate in solid state fermentation. Among the inducers tested, 0.02% veratryl alcohol increased the ligninolytic enzyme production to a significant extent. The addition of copper sulphate at 300 μM concentration has a positive effect on laccase production increasing its activity by 2 times compared to control. Among the surfactants, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X 100, tested in the studies, Tween 80 stimulated the production of ligninolytic enzymes. Biosorption of dyes was carried out by using two lignocellulosic wastes, rice bran and wheat bran, in 50 ppm of remazol brilliant blue and remazol brilliant violet 5R dyes. These dye adsorbed lignocelluloses were then utilized for the production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid state mode. The two dye adsorbed lignocelluloses enhanced the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase. PMID:25610656

  17. Enhanced Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by a Mushroom Stereum ostrea.

    PubMed

    Usha, K Y; Praveen, K; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The white rot fungi Stereum ostrea displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented inducers, surfactants, and copper sulphate in solid state fermentation. Among the inducers tested, 0.02% veratryl alcohol increased the ligninolytic enzyme production to a significant extent. The addition of copper sulphate at 300 μM concentration has a positive effect on laccase production increasing its activity by 2 times compared to control. Among the surfactants, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X 100, tested in the studies, Tween 80 stimulated the production of ligninolytic enzymes. Biosorption of dyes was carried out by using two lignocellulosic wastes, rice bran and wheat bran, in 50 ppm of remazol brilliant blue and remazol brilliant violet 5R dyes. These dye adsorbed lignocelluloses were then utilized for the production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid state mode. The two dye adsorbed lignocelluloses enhanced the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase. PMID:25610656

  18. Detection of Marteilia refringens infecting the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis and the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina in southern Portugal and Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, Monserrat; Batista, Frederico M; del Carmen Marín, María; Garrido, Inmaculada; Quintero, David; Grade, Ana; Ruano, Francisco; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, Marteilia sp. was detected by histological examination and in situ hybridisation in Ostrea edulis and Ostrea stentina collected in southern Iberian Peninsula. Marteilia refringens DNA was detected by PCR in O. edulis (collected in southern Portugal) and O. stentina (collected in southern Spain and Portugal). Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of M. refringens type O in O. edulis, and type O and M in O. stentina. This is the first confirmed detection of M. refringens in Portugal and the first report on the occurrence of M. refringens infecting O. stentina in Europe. PMID:26149820

  19. Flat oyster follows the apoptosis pathway to defend against the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Ophélie; Chollet, Bruno; Renault, Tristan; Arzul, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    The in vitro model Ostrea edulis hemocyte - Bonamia ostreae is interesting to investigate host-parasite interactions at the cellular level. Indeed, this unicellular parasite infects the flat oyster Ostrea edulis and multiplies within hemocytes, the central effectors of oyster defenses. Apoptosis is a mechanism used by many organisms to eliminate infected cells. In order to study the potential involvement of this mechanism in the oyster response to B. ostreae, in vitro experiments were carried out by exposing hemocytes from the naturally susceptible oyster O. edulis and a resistant oyster species Crassostrea gigas to live and heat-inactivated parasites. Hemocyte apoptotic response was measured using a combination of flow cytometry and microscopy analyses. Whatever the host species was, the parasite was engulfed in hemocytes and induced an increase of apoptotic parameters including intracytoplasmic calcium concentration, mitochondrial membrane potential or phosphatidyl-serine externalization as well as ultrastructural modifications. However, the parasite appears more able to infect flat oyster than cupped oyster hemocytes and the apoptotic response was more important against live than dead parasites in the natural host than in C. gigas. Our results suggest that O. edulis specifically responds to B. ostreae by inducing apoptosis of hemocytes. PMID:27431587

  20. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  1. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  2. ALPHA METHYLGLUCOSIDE TRANSPORT BY THE GILL OF THE OYSTER 'OSTREA EDULIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study defines the mechanism of glucose transport in the isolated gill of oysters, using the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, as a representative species. The specific objectives were: (1) identify a non-metabolized transport analog, (2) determine the effects of kn...

  3. [Study on medication regularity of grand master of traditional Chinese medicine YAN Zheng-hua's Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, prescriptions were collected to establish a database based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). Such data-mining methods as software's statistical statement module, data analysis module and apriori algorithm were used to analyze the frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules and the core drug combinations of ostreae concha-containing prescriptions. The results showed that Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions were frequently used to treat insomnia, vertigo, stomach-ache and other syndromes. The frequently used drugs included Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. The frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha and Ossis Mastodi Fossilia", "Ostreae Concha and Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", and "Ostreae Concha and Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The drug association rules with the confidence coefficient of more than 0. 95 included "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-->Ostreae Concha", "Cocos Poria-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Ostreae Concha", "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia--Ostreae Concha". PMID:25272510

  4. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    PubMed

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  5. In situ photoacoustic spectroscopy of phycobiliproteins in Gracilaria chilensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, R.; Figueroa, M.; Wandersleben, T.; Pouchucq, L.; Morales, J. E.; Bunster, M.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2005-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins, the main polypeptidic components of the phycobilisomes (PBS), are biological macromolecules arranged in complex interaction systems to perform light harvesting and conduction. The optical properties of these systems can hardly be studied by conventional spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore this techniques also involve laborious chemical extraction methods. Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy was successfully applied to an in situ study of the phycobiliproteins expression in the eukaryotic red algae: Gracilaria chilensis.

  6. Phytophthora austrocedri Elicitates Changes in Diterpene Profile of Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Vélez, María Laura; Greslebin, Alina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The populations of the Andean Cupressaceae Austrocedrus chilensis have been severely affected by a disease caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora austrocedri. A study was undertaken to disclose changes in the resin composition of P. austrocedri-infected individuals, including naturally infected and artificially inoculated trees, compared with healthy A. chilensis trees. GC-MS and (1)H-NMR studies showed a clear differentiation among healthy and infected resins, with the diterpene isopimara-8(9),15-dien-19-ol as a relevant constituent in resins from infected trees. The effect of resin fractions from P. austrocedri infected trees on the pathogen was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth in agar plates. The most active fractions from resin obtained from infected trees inhibited fungal growth by nearly 50% at 1 mg/dish (35.37 µg/cm(2)). The main constituent in the active fractions were 18-hydroxymanool and the aldehyde torulosal. Both compounds are oxidation products of manool and can be a chemical response of the tree to the pathogen or be formed from the pathogen as a biotransformation product of manool by microbial oxidation. While the diterpene profiles from A. chilensis tree resins can easily differentiate healthy and P. austrocedri infected individuals, the possible conversion of manool to the antifungal derivatives 4 and 6 by the microorganism remains to be established. PMID:26295220

  7. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  8. Redescription of the adults and new descriptions of the previously unknown immature stages of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi, 1865 (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Christian R; Reyes, Carolina; Rada, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Male and female adults of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi are redescribed, and the 4th-instar larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time. Culex articularis is compared with other species of the subgenus Culex. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the female, male genitalia, 4th-instar larva, and pupa are also provided. PMID:25947865

  9. Ecological energetics of the tropical sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi in Barbados, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Christopher M.; Lewis, John B.

    1982-12-01

    The common tropical sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi is the dominant herbivore on fringing coral reefs in Barbados, West Indies. The biological importance of Diadema as an agent of energy transfer was evaluated from energy budgets constructed for the population and for individuals of 10 size groups. Monthly energy budgets for urchins of various size groups balance within 1 kcal except for urchins of the largest size group examined. Approximately 20% of the monthly net benthic primary production of the fringing coral reef is consumed by Diadema. This percentage is considerably larger than the 7% reported for the consumption of benthic algal production by a population of the temperate water sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, feeding in kelp beds but is lower than the 47% reported for the consumption of sea grass by the tropical urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Higher rates of secondary production of Diadema compared to that of Strongylocentrotus may be in part due to higher net and gross growth efficiencies exhibited by Diadema. It is apparent that Diadema is more efficient at converting its algal food resources into urchin biomass than is Strongylocentrotus of similar size. In comparison to Strongylocentrotus and Lytechinus, Diadema releases as much energy to the benthos in the form of fecal pellet detritus as do the other two species. The production of fecal pellet detritus is the most important pathway of energy transfer on the fringing coral reef. Fecal pellet detritus contributes approximately 26 kcal m -2 month -1 to the benthic community. This amount is equivalent to 7·4% of the monthly net primary production of the benthic algae or approximately 37% of the caloric intake of the urchin population. In addition fecal pellet detritus produced by Diadema contains about 10 times the caloric content of surface sediments found to the north and south of the fringing reef and approximately 1·7 times the caloric content of sediments within the reef. The

  10. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism. PMID:27468052

  11. Temporal Variation of Aristolochia chilensis Aristolochic Acids during Spring.

    PubMed

    Santander, Rocío; Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Ángel; Sánchez, María

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we report the springtime variation of the composition of aristolochic acids (AAs) in Aristolochia chilensis leaves and stems. The dominant AA in the leaves of all samples, which were collected between October and December, was AA-I (1), and its concentration varied between 212.6±3.8 and 145.6±1.2 mg/kg and decreased linearly. This decrease occurred in parallel with the increase in AA-Ia (5) concentration from 15.9±0.8 mg/kg at the beginning of October to 96.8±7.8 mg/kg in mid-December. Both acids are enzymatically related by methylation-demethylation reactions. Other AAs also showed important variations: AA-II (2) significantly increased in concentration, reaching a maximum in the first two weeks of November and subsequently decreasing in mid-December to approximately the October levels. The principal component in the AA mixture of the stems was also AA-I (1); similar to AA-II (2), its concentration increased beginning in October, peaked in the second week of November and subsequently decreased. The concentrations of AA-IIIa (6) and AA-IVa (7) in the leaves and stems varied throughout the study period, but no clear pattern was identified. Based on the variation of AAs in A. chilensis leaves and stems during the study period, the reduced contents of non-phenolic AAs and increased concentrations of phenolic AAs are likely associated with a decrease in this plant's toxicity during the spring. PMID:26580587

  12. Bacteriological analysis of the digestive tube of the mud snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and its rearing shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoliang, Wang; Tianlun, Zheng; Tongxia, Lu; Yinong, Wang; Hong, Yu; Shan, Jin

    2002-10-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tube of Bullacta exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated. A total of 157 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach intestine and other parts of the digestive tube, mainly belong to the genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas Vibrio and some genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. There are significantly more varieties of bacteria in crop than in stomach and intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacteria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera, such as Bacillus and Photobacterium, are the same as those in the digestive tube, but greatly differ in percentages. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio in rearing shoal change in line with the alteration of the temperature, and are significantly affected by the use of pesticides.

  13. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Stereum ostrea, an Inedible Wild Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of liquid culture filtrate, water and ethanol extract (solid culture) of Stereum ostrea were evaluated against 5 bacteria and 3 plant pathogenic fungi. To determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), we studied 5~300 mg/ml concentrations against bacteria and fungi separately. The MIC was 10 mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 40 mg/ml for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum miyabeanus. Liquid culture filtrate was more effective against Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most inhibited (20.3 mm) bacterium. Water and ethanol extracts were effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and water extract was better than ethanol extract. In water and ethanol extract, inhibition zones were 23.6 and 21.0 mm (S. aureus) and 26.3 and 22.3 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively. For plant pathogenic fungi, the highest and lowest percent inhibition of mycelial growth (PIMG) was found 82.8 and 14.4 against C. miyabeanus and Botrytis cinerea in liquid culture filtrate, respectively. In water extract, the PIMG was found to be the highest 85.2 and lowest 41.7 for C. miyabeanus and C. gloeosporioides, respectively. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was better against C. miyabeanus than C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. Among 3 samples, water extract was the best against tested pathogenic fungi. This study offers that the extracts isolated from S. ostrea contain potential compounds which inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi. PMID:24015099

  14. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers. PMID:24373665

  15. Hobartine: a tetracyclic indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Badilla Vidal, Natalia; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound hobartine {systematic name: (1R)-3-[(1S,5S)-(4,4,8-trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]non-7-en-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole}, C20H26N2, (I), is an indole alkaloid isolated from Aristotelia chilensis as part of a study of secondary metabolites from Chilean flora. The colourless compound has a tetracyclic structure closely related to the strongly coloured polymorphic structures discussed in Paz et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), C69, 1509-1512] and Watson et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324]. The main differences reside in the absence of a keto group in (I) compared with the previous structures, as well as an endo double bond in (I) contrasting with the exo double bond found in the previous structures. The supramolecular structure of (I) in strongly related to the twofold screw axis, around which isolated chains build up, internally linked by an N-H···N hydrogen bond which is the only significant intermolecular interaction present in the structure. PMID:25370110

  16. Effect of substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam (Mactra chinensis Philippi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Zhuang; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xingzhi

    2016-05-01

    Substrate is a critical environmental factor affecting the activity of bivalves. To examine the effect of the substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam (Mactra chinensis Philippi), a series of short-term experiments were conducted using a variety of substrates with different ratios of sand to mud. The experimental group cultured without substrate showed poor survival, with all juveniles died after day 20. The juveniles cultured in mud without sand showed a lower survival rate (25.54% ± 0.40% on day 45) than those in other groups. The juveniles cultured in sand without mud, or the mixtures of sand and mud with a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, exhibited modest survival at day 45. Maximal weight gain rate (WGR), shell length growth rate (LGR), and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed when the sand concentration was 61.97%, 77.69%, and 64.64%, respectively. As the fast growth and high survival were observed when the sand to mud ratio was 1:1 (50% sand) and 2:1 (67% sand), a sand concentration of more than 50% is optimal. The optimal concentration of sand in the substrate for rearing juvenile sunray surf clams was 67% which resulted in the fastest growth and highest survival. These results can be used to developing a nursery/farming technique of improving the yield of sunray surf clams.

  17. Effect of substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Zhuang; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xingzhi

    2016-08-01

    Substrate is a critical environmental factor affecting the activity of bivalves. To examine the effect of the substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi), a series of short-term experiments were conducted using a variety of substrates with different ratios of sand to mud. The experimental group cultured without substrate showed poor survival, with all juveniles died after day 20. The juveniles cultured in mud without sand showed a lower survival rate (25.54% ± 0.40% on day 45) than those in other groups. The juveniles cultured in sand without mud, or the mixtures of sand and mud with a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, exhibited modest survival at day 45. Maximal weight gain rate ( WGR), shell length growth rate ( LGR), and specific growth rate ( SGR) were observed when the sand concentration was 61.97%, 77.69%, and 64.64%, respectively. As the fast growth and high survival were observed when the sand to mud ratio was 1:1 (50% sand) and 2:1 (67% sand), a sand concentration of more than 50% is optimal. The optimal concentration of sand in the substrate for rearing juvenile sunray surf clams was 67% which resulted in the fastest growth and highest survival. These results can be used to developing a nursery/farming technique of improving the yield of sunray surf clams.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by UV in the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Ophélie; Renault, Tristan; Arzul, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Apoptosis is a fundamental feature in the development of many organisms and tissue systems. It is also a mechanism of host defense against environmental stress factors or pathogens by contributing to the elimination of infected cells. Hemocytes play a key role in defense mechanisms in invertebrates and previous studies have shown that physical or chemical stress can increase apoptosis in hemocytes in mollusks. However this phenomenon has rarely been investigated in bivalves especially in the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. The apoptotic response of hemocytes from flat oysters, O. edulis, was investigated after exposure to UV and dexamethasone, two agents known to induce apoptosis in vertebrates. Flow cytometry and microscopy were combined to demonstrate that apoptosis occurs in flat oyster hemocytes. Investigated parameters like intracytoplasmic calcium activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and phosphatidyl-serine externalization were significantly modulated in cells exposed to UV whereas dexamethasone only induced an increase of DNA fragmentation. Morphological changes were also observed on UV-treated cells using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Our results confirm the apoptotic effect of UV on hemocytes of O. edulis and suggest that apoptosis is an important mechanism developed by the flat oyster against stress factors. PMID:26057459

  19. Ligands binding cadmium, zinc, and copper in a species of New Zealand oyster (Ostrea lutaria)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.P.

    1983-04-01

    Analysis of Cd, Zn and Cu in the New Zealand oyster, Ostrea lutaria, showed that on an average it contained 5.8 ..mu..g Cd, 67 ..mu..g Zn and 14.1 ..mu..g Cu per g wet weight. Within the oyster tissue, the amount of Cd was equally distributed between the particulate and soluable (cytosol) fractions. The distribution of Zn and Cu was different, about 70% and 80% respectively being present in the cytosol. Separation of the Cd-binding ligands in the oyster cytosol on Sephadex G-75 column showed that about 60% of the cytosolic Cd was bound to high molecular weight (HMW) proteins eluted near the void volume. Similarly about 40% of Zn and Cu was also present in the HMW proteins.A significant proportion (32%) of the cytosolic Cd was present in low molecular weight (LMW) protein fractions. The protein was estimated to have a molecular weight in the range 6000 to 12,000 daltons and the protein fraction was defined as the metallothionein fraction. Only a very small amount (<1%) of Zn was associated with the MT fraction to the high concentration of Cu (2.23 ..mu..g Cu/g wet tissue). The LMW fraction of the oyster tissue cytosol had less than 1% of cytosolic Cd, but it contained a large proportion of Zn (about 60%) and Cu (about 32%).

  20. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. PMID:27239693

  1. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Vargas, Pedro; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2008-11-01

    Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (A. chilensis), also known as maqui, is a plant of the Elaeocarpaceae family that grows in central and southern Chile as well as southwestern Argentina. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in the traditional native herbal medicine to treat different ailments. Phytochemical studies of the plant's chemical composition of the plant indicate the presence of indolic alkaloids, flavonoids, cianidine glucosides, delfidine, malvidine, petunidine, cumarines and triterpenes. These compounds, particularly the flavonoids, have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of its toxicity and their antioxidant properties, the leaves' aqueous extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM), and molecular models of the human erythrocyte membrane. These consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of DMPC. The capacity of A. chilensis aqueous extracts to perturb the bilayer structure of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, DMPC LUV and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the present study indicate that aqueous extracts of A. chilensis induced an alteration of human erythrocyte morphology from the normal discoid shape to an echinocytic form, changes that are explained in terms of the extract interaction with the membrane's outer phospholipid monolayer. PMID:18687390

  2. Genome Sequence of Borrelia chilensis VA1, a South American Member of the Lyme Borreliosis Group

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Fallon, John T.; Travisany, Dante; Maass, Alejandro; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia chilensis strain VA1 is a recently described South American member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from Chile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis determined its linear chromosome and plasmids lp54 and cp26, confirmed its membership in the Lyme borreliosis group, and will open new research avenues regarding its pathogenic potential. PMID:25676758

  3. Revision of the ocellatus species-group of the genus Plumarius Philippi 1873 (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae), with description of three new species from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Diez, Patricia A; Fidalgo, Patricio; Roig-Alsina, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the study of species-group of Plumarius Philippi 1873, as the result of a survey of the morphological variation in males. The group is characterized by the large ocelli and transverse head. It consists of the following three new species: P. culminatus Diez, Fidalgo & Roig-Alsina, sp. nov., P. ocellatus Diez, Fidalgo & Roig-Alsina, sp. nov., and P. stangei Diez, Fidalgo & Roig-Alsina, sp. nov. A characterization of the group, descriptions, and illustrations are provided. PMID:26120661

  4. Cloning and characterization of neoplasia-related genes in flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-04-01

    Bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia (DN) are the most important diseases affecting cultured flat oysters Ostrea edulis in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous research using suppresive substraction hybridisation that had been performed addressing the molecular basis of DN as well as the induction and development of the disease in oysters, yielded the whole open reading frame of nine genes: XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, C1qTNF, RPA3, SAP18, p23, ubiquitin and ferritin. These nine genes were characterized in this study. The phylogenetic relationships for each gene were studied using minimum-evolution methods. Quantitative-PCR assays were also developed to analyse the modulation of the expression of these genes by bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia. Gene expression profiles were studied in haemolymph cells and in various organs (gill, gonad, mantle and digestive gland) of oysters affected by bonamiosis, disseminated neoplasia, both diseases and in non-affected oysters (control). The expression of XBP-1, NDPk, RPA3, SAP18 and ferritin increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with heavy bonamiosis. The expression of C1qTNF; SAP18 and p23 increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with DN. The expression of XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, RPA3 and p23 significantly increased in haemolymph cells of oysters affected by both diseases. There were changes in the expression of a number of genes in different organs depeding on disease stage: RACK expression increased in gills of oysters with bonamiosis, XBP-1 increased in mantle and digestive organs of oysters with light DN and RPA3 expression increased in gonads of oysters with heavy bonamiosis and heavy neoplasia. PMID:24560728

  5. Effects of cooling and freezing on the motility of Ostrea edulis (L., 1758) spermatozoa after thawing.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, V; Carlino, P A; Del Prete, F; Langellotti, A L; Sansone, G

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature, cryoprotectant agents and freezing curves on sperm motility of Ostrea edulis. All phases of cryopreservation were studied (evaluation of semen motility pattern, choice of cryoprotectants and freezing rates) to restore after thawing the motility characteristics distinctive of fresh semen. To assess the temperature effects on sperm motility, semen was activated using four different temperatures (25, 18, 10 and 3°C). Sperm aliquots were maintained inactive at these temperatures for 1 and 3h, then activated with FSW at same temperature of conservation. Sperm was activated and incubated to 3°C with dimethylsulfoxide (Me(2)SO), ethylene glycol (EG), 1-2 propylene glycol (PG) (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% final concentrations), glycerol (GlOH; 5%, 10% and 15% final concentrations) and methanol (MetOH; 4% and 10% final concentrations) for 10, 20 and 30min. A first evaluation of freezing rates was made by testing four freezing curves: -1, -3, -6 and -10°C/min. Then, an optimization was made by testing four freezing curves: -2.5, -3.0, -3.5 and -4°C/min. The selected temperature for short term conservation has been 3°C, because only this temperature has allowed good sperm motility conservation after 3h of dry-storage; this is a time sufficient to conduct cryopreservation procedures. The sperm showed a particular sensitivity to GlOH and PG to all tested concentrations and to 15% Me(2)SO. EG and MetOH to all concentrations and Me(2)SO to concentrations lower than 15% have not shown significant toxic effects. The freezing rate -3°C/min using 15% EG has shown an highest percentage of RVF (rapid, vigorous and forward) spermatozoa (class 3, about 75% of fresh semen) and an highest sperm motility duration. PMID:21856295

  6. Isolation with differentiation followed by expansion with admixture in the tunicate Pyura chilensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyura chilensis, a tunicate commercially exploited as food resource in Chile, is subject to management strategies, including restocking. The goal of this study was to examine the genetic structure of P. chilensis using information from a mitochondrial gene (Cytochrome Oxidase I, COI) and a nuclear gene (Elongation 1 alpha, EF1a), to characterize the geographic distribution of genetic diversity and differentiation, and to identify the main processes that have shaped it. We analyzed 268 and 208 sequences of COI and EF1a, respectively, from samples of eight local populations covering ca. 1800 km. Results For Pyura chilensis, partial sequences of the gene COI revealed three highly supported haplogroups that diverged 260000 to 470000 years ago. Two haplogroups currently are widely distributed and sympatric, while one is dominant only in Los Molinos (LM, 39°50′S). The two widespread COI haplogroups underwent a geographic expansion during an interglacial period of the Late Pleistocene ca. 100000 years ago. The nuclear gene was less divergent and did not resolve the COI haplogroups. Bayesian clustering of the nuclear gene’s SNPs revealed that individuals from the two widespread COI haplogroups were mostly assigned to two of the three detected clusters and had a marked degree of admixture. The third cluster predominated in LM and showed low admixture. Haplotypic diversity of both genes was very high, there was no isolation by distance, and most localities were genetically undifferentiated; only LM was consistently differentiated with both genes analyzed. Conclusions Pyura chilensis has less genetic structure than expected given its life history, which could be a consequence of dispersal on ship hulls. The only differentiated local population analyzed was LM. Coincidentally, it is the one furthest away from main maritime routes along the coast of Chile. The use of mitochondrial and nuclear markers allowed detection of divergent mitochondrial haplogroups in

  7. Vibrisseaceous fungi from the southern hemisphere, including Chlorovibrissea chilensis (Helotiales, incertaesedis) sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Leiva, P; Carmarán, C C; Park, D; Romero, A I; Johnston, P R

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Chlorovibrissea chilensis sp. nov.expands the distribution of Chlorovibrissea from Australasia to include South America. C. chilensis, phylogenetically distinct from other species in the genus, is also characterized morphologically by its ascoma with emerald green stalk and pale orange-brown head, budding paraphyses and 5-6-septate ascospores. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the Australasian species Vibrisseaalbofusca is recombined in Chlorovibrissea, despite the fact it lacks the distinctive green pigmentation of other species in this genus. In addition, the genus Vibrissea in a strict phylogenetic sense is confirmed from the southern hemisphere for the first time; Vibrissea truncorum is reported from Chile and V. flavovirens from New Zealand. PMID:25152002

  8. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot 1848) (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bustamante, Carlos; Bennett, Michael B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis is endemic to South America. The species is the target of a valuable commercial fishery in Chile, but is highly susceptible to over-exploitation. The complete mitochondrial genome was described from 694,593 sequences obtained using Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,909 bp, comprising 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. Comparison between the proposed mitogenome and one previously described from "raw fish fillets from a skate speciality restaurant in Seoul, Korea" resulted in 97.4% similarity, rather than approaching 100% similarity as might be expected. The 2.6% dissimilarity may indicate the presence of two separate stocks or two different species of, ostensibly, Z. chilensis in South America and highlights the need for caution when using genetic resources without a taxonomic reference or a voucher specimen. PMID:25090390

  9. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids. PMID:26462522

  10. Reproductive biology of Zearaja chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Oddone, M C; Concha, F; Flores, H; Lamilla, J; Bennett, M B

    2012-04-01

    Between 2000 and 2002, three artisanal landing sites were sampled in southern Chile, with data on population structure and reproductive development collected from 5477 yellownose skates Zearaja chilensis. Total length (L(T) ) ranged from 33 to 158 cm for females and 34 to 155 cm for males. No sexual dimorphism was evident in disc size (length or width) or in L(T)-mass relationships. The smallest mature female was 95 cm L(T) and the size at which 50% were mature (L(T50) ) was 109 cm. Males matured between 80 and 90 cm L(T) with a L(T50) of 88 cm. Although the largest Z. chilensis captured by the artisanal fishery was 155 cm L(T) , 89% of landings comprised relatively small, immature fish. This situation may compromise the stock integrity if intrinsic vulnerability and probable long-life span of Z. chilensis are considered. Consequences for the survival of the species and possible signs of a fishery collapse must be reviewed by management authorities by consideration of both artisanal and industrial landings in Chile. PMID:22497380

  11. Herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth in fragmented populations of Aristotelia chilensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez, P. A.; Grez, A. A.; Bustamante, R. O.; Simonetti, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation may modify ecological interactions such as herbivory, and these changes can impinge upon plant fitness. Through a natural experiment, we evaluated if herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth of the evergreen tree Aristotelia chilensis differ between a continuous forest (600 ha) and small fragments (˜3 ha) of the Maulino forest. From September 2002, we monthly recorded leaf emergence, area lost to herbivores and survival in four cohorts of leaves. Although herbivory of A. chilensis was low overall (foliar area loss <12%), herbivory was higher in the continuous forest than in small fragments. Nevertheless, differences in herbivory hold only for the first cohort of leaves, which were the largest ones. At the end of the growing season, herbivory rates in the continuous forest and fragments converge for all cohorts. Except for the first cohort of leaves, whose survival was higher in the fragments than in the continuous forest, foliar survival and shoot growth was similar in the continuous forest and fragments, and there was no correlation between herbivory and foliar survival or shoot growth. Although Maulino forest fragmentation negatively affects the intensity of herbivory, this effect is only transient, affecting only leaves that emerge early in the season, and might not affect the vegetative fitness of A. chilensis adults. The consequences of changes in ecological interactions triggered by forest fragmentation ought to be assessed rather than inferred from variations in patterns of resource use.

  12. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J E; Maldonado, J; Estrada, J M; Fuentes, E N; Silva, H; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2014-12-01

    The red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) is an endemic fish species distributed along the coasts of the Eastern South Pacific. Biological studies on this fish are scarce, and genomic information for G. chilensis is practically non-existent. Thus, transcriptome information for this species is an essential resource that will greatly enrich molecular information and benefit future studies of red cusk-eel biology. In this work, we obtained transcriptome information of G. chilensis using the Illumina platform. The RNA sequencing generated 66,307,362 and 59,925,554 paired-end reads from skeletal muscle and liver tissues, respectively. De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench version 7.0.3 produced 48,480 contigs and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 846bp and average read coverage of 28.3×. By sequence similarity search for known proteins, a total of 21,272 (43.9%) contigs were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated contigs, 33.5% GO annotation results for biological processes, 32.6% GO annotation results for cellular components and 34.5% GO annotation results for molecular functions. This dataset represents the first transcriptomic resource for the red cusk-eel and for a member of the Ophidiimorpharia taxon. PMID:25139027

  13. Chromosome Painting in Vanellus chilensis: Detection of a Fusion Common to Clade Charadrii (Charadriiformes).

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Gunski, Ricardo J; del Valle Garnero, Analía; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Ochotorena de Freitas, Thales R; Correa de Oliveira, Edivaldo H

    2015-01-01

    The Southern lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) is endemic to America and is well-known because of the vast expansion of its geographical distribution and its involvement in air accidents. Despite its popularity, there is no information concerning the genomic organization and karyotype of this species. Hence, because other species of the genus Vanellus have variable diploid numbers from 2n = 58 to 76, the aim of this report was to analyze the karyotype of V. chilensis by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics. We found that 2n = 78 and chromosome painting using probes of Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis revealed an organization similar to the avian putative ancestral karyotype, except for the fusion of GGA7 and GGA8, also found in Burhinus oedicnemus, the only Charadriiforme species analyzed by FISH so far. This rearrangement may represent a cytogenetic signature for this group and, in addition, must be responsible for the difference between the diploid number found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (2n = 80) and V. chilensis (2n = 78). PMID:26088018

  14. Micropropagation of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz from young and mature plants.

    PubMed

    Caro, L A; Polci, P A; Lindström, L I; Echenique, C V; Hernández, L F

    2002-04-01

    Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Algarrobo de Chile) is an important native tree species that can be grown in arid and semiarid regions for wood and forage production and environmental protection. Developing a simple and reliable in vitro protocol for cloning it would enable to improve it genetically. Explants of P. chilensis were taken from 4 months-old plants grown in the greenhouse or from adult trees grown in a natural environment. Nodal segments 1-2 cm long containing an axillary bud were selected from elongating shoots. These cuttings were aseptically cultured on two agar-solid basal media, MS or BTMm, and treated with 0.05 mg L-1 BA and 3 mg L-1 of either IAA, IBA or NAA. Sucrose (3% w/v) was used as carbon source. The percentage of sprouted cuttings and whole plant regeneration as well as its shoot and root length were recorded. Number, length and dry weight of shoots and roots were also measured. Rooting was successful with cuttings taken from young or adult plants, but explants from young plants showed a better response. Culturing in BTMm resulted in significantly greater shoot and root biomass than culturing in MS. Moreover, this response was higher in young explants when IBA was used as growth regulator. This paper reports a simple and effective method to micropropagate P. chilensis from young and adult plants. PMID:12058379

  15. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  16. Screening of repetitive motifs inside the genome of the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis): Transposable elements and short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Bello, Xabier; Álvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Pardo, Belen G; Sánchez, Laura; Carlsson, Jens; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Bartolomé, Carolina; Maside, Xulio; Martinez, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    The flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) is one of the most appreciated molluscs in Europe, but its production has been greatly reduced by the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Here, new generation genomic resources were used to analyse the repetitive fraction of the oyster genome, with the aim of developing molecular markers to face this main oyster production challenge. The resulting oyster database, consists of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique contigs (4.8 Mbp and 6.8 Mbp in total length) representing the oyster's genome (WG) and haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. A total of 1083 sequences were identified as TE-derived, which corresponded to 4.0% of WG and 1.1% of HT. They were clustered into 142 homology groups, most of which were assigned to the Penelope order of retrotransposons, and to the Helitron and TIR DNA-transposons. Simple repeats and rRNA pseudogenes, also made a significant contribution to the oyster's genome (0.5% and 0.3% of WG and HT, respectively).The most frequent short tandem repeats identified in WG were tetranucleotide motifs while trinucleotide motifs were in HT. Forty identified microsatellite loci, 20 from each database, were selected for technical validation. Success was much lower among WG than HT microsatellites (15% vs 55%), which could reflect higher variation in anonymous regions interfering with primer annealing. All microsatellites developed adjusted to Hardy-Weinberg proportions and represent a useful tool to support future breeding programmes and to manage genetic resources of natural flat oyster beds. PMID:26341181

  17. InGaP 670-nm laser therapy combined with a hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis Meyen in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Helen Reinhart Camargo; de Godoy, Natália Pereira; Scharlack, Nayara Kastem; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; de Gaspi, Fernanda Oliveira de Gaspari; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; do Amaral, Maria Esméria Corezola; Mendonça, Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio; dos Santos, Gláucia Maria Tech

    2015-04-01

    Therapies that accelerate the healing of burn injuries, improving the quality of life of the patient and reducing the cost of treatment are important. This study evaluated the effects of InGaP 670-nm laser therapy combined with a hydroalcoholic extract of Solidago chilensis leaves on burn wound healing in rats. Seventy-two rats were divided randomly into four groups: control untreated (C), treated with InGaP 670-nm laser with power density of 0.41 W/cm(2) and energy density of 4.93 J/cm(2) (L), treated with S. chilensis extract (S) and treated with S. chilensis extract and laser (LS). Second-degree burns were produced on the back of the animals with metal plate. Wound samples were collected on days 7, 14 and 21 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry and Western blotting to quantify the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The results showed that InGaP laser irradiation at 670 nm alone and combined with extract of S. chilensis promoted significant tissue repair responses in this experimental model, increasing the number of fibroblasts, collagen fibres and newly formed blood vessels throughout the experimental period and decreasing the number of granulocytes in burn wounds of second degree in all treated groups. Exclusive treatment of burn wounds with the hydroalcoholic extract of S. chilensis provided similar quantitative results to those seen in the untreated group throughout the experimental period. Therefore, it was observed in the L and LS groups different responses in the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. The application of 670-nm laser alone or combined with the extract of S. chilensis promoted favourable responses in tissue repair of second-degree burns in this experimental model. PMID:25600614

  18. Antioxidant activity of an unusual 3-hydroxyindole derivative isolated from fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2009-01-01

    3-Hydroxyindole was isolated from the EtOH extract of fruits of Aristotelia chilensis during analyses by HPLC/MS and GC/MS and identified by its mass fragmentation pattern and spectrophotometric data. Additionally, this extract showed an interesting antioxidant activity in DPPH, crocin and TBARS assays. The presence of this type of compound in this fruit species permits us to explain its strong antioxidant activity and its important part in the biosynthetic pathway of phenolic and alkaloid compounds in this plant. Therefore this compound could be useful for the development of future nutraceutical and antioxidant protective agents. PMID:19957448

  19. Latitudinal variation in the degree of crassulacean acid metabolism in Puya chilensis.

    PubMed

    Quezada, I M; Zotz, G; Gianoli, E

    2014-07-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a photosynthetic pathway found in many plant species from arid and semiarid environments. Few studies aiming to characterise plant species as CAM or C3 account for inter-population differences in photosynthetic pathway, often relying on samples taken from herbarium material and/or a single plant or population. This may be especially problematic for species growing under contrasting climate conditions, as is the case for species with a wide geographic range. We used Puya chilensis, a species previously reported as CAM and C3, to study among-population variation in expression of the CAM pathway within its distribution range, which spans a significant climate gradient. We carried out a wide sampling scheme, including five populations and a combination of analytical methods (quantification of nocturnal acidification and stable isotope measurements). The study populations of P. chilensis encompass the entire latitudinal distribution range, from semi-arid to temperate oceanic climates. Our results indicate that CAM decreased with latitude. However, even in the southern (wetter) populations, where δ13C values were indicative of C3 metabolism, we found some nocturnal acidification. We stress the value of using two methods along with the use of samples from different populations, as this allows more reliable conclusions on the photosynthetic pathway for 'probable' CAM species that face varying climate conditions within their distribution ranges. PMID:24739103

  20. Increasing the in vitro proliferation rate of Perkinsus mediterraneus, a parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Casas, Sandra M; Li, Yanli; La Peyre, Jerome F

    2011-07-01

    Perkinsus mediterraneus is an alveolate parasite first described in Ostrea edulis from the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea, Spain), and little is known about its biology or the disease it causes. Continuous in vitro cultures of P. mediterraneus have recently been established in the protein-deficient culture medium JL-ODRP-2F to facilitate its study. Parasite proliferation rate in vitro however was low, with densities increasing 2- to 6-fold between subcultures at 6-week intervals. To increase the proliferation rate of P. mediterraneus cultures to rates similar to other Perkinsus species, various culture conditions (temperature, osmolality, pH, O(2), and CO(2) concentrations), culture procedures (seeding density and frequency of medium changes), concentrations of medium components, and addition of medium supplements (oyster tissue lysate, oyster plasma, animal sera, growth factors, and hormones) were tested. All treatments were evaluated by measuring parasite densities after 2 weeks of culture. The greatest increase in parasite densities, a 35-fold increase over the cell seeding density and 18 times that of the control (cells without supplementation), occurred in medium supplemented with 1,000 μg/mL of O. edulis tissue lysate. P. mediterraneus proliferation was also significantly increased by oyster tissue lysate concentration as low as 125 μg/mL. PMID:21243504

  1. Phylogenetic relationships elucidate colonization patterns in the intertidal grazers Osilinus Philippi, 1847 and Phorcus Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda: Trochidae) in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Preston, Joanne; Williams, Suzanne T; Reid, David G; Winter, David; Alvarez, Raquel; Buge, Barbara; Hawkins, Stephen J; Templado, Jose; Spencer, Hamish G

    2012-01-01

    Snails in the closely related trochid genera Phorcus Risso, 1826 and Osilinus Philippi, 1847 are ecologically important algal grazers in the intertidal zone of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Here we present the first complete molecular phylogeny for these genera, based on the nuclear 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI genes, and show that the current classification is erroneous. We recognize nine species in a single genus, Phorcus: estimated by BEAST analysis, this arose 30 (± 10) Ma; it consists of two subgenera, Phorcus and Osilinus, which we estimate diverged 14 (± 4.5) Ma. Osilinus kotschyi, from the Arabian and Red Seas, is not closely related and is tentatively referred to Priotrochus Fischer, 1879. Our phylogeny allows us to address biogeographical questions concerning the origins of the Mediterranean and Macaronesian species of this group. The former appear to have evolved from Atlantic ancestors that invaded the Mediterranean on several occasions after the Zanclean Flood, which ended the Messinian Salinity Crisis 5.3 Ma; whereas the latter arose from several colonizations of mainland Atlantic ancestors within the last 3 (± 1.5) Ma. PMID:21945534

  2. Farmyard manures: the major agronomic sources of heavy metals in the Philippi Horticultural Area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malan, Marÿke; Müller, Francuois; Raitt, Lincoln; Aalbers, Johannes; Cyster, Lilburne; Brendonck, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal toxicity in agro-ecosystems is a global problem. Recently, it has been indicated that the soils used for agriculture and the fresh produce grown on these soils in the Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) contains heavy metals exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations thereof in South Africa. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils and vegetables produced in the PHA, as well as to determine the major agronomic sources of these metals in this area. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the soils exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 6.6, 6.6, and 46 mg/kg, respectively. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the vegetables also exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. The biggest agronomic contributors of these heavy metals to the soils in the PHA were found to be the farmyard manures. Knowing what the major sources of these heavy metals are, it is important to determine ways to mitigate the inputs thereof, as well as to remove existing concentrations from the soils without contaminating the groundwater resources in the area. PMID:26508018

  3. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species. PMID:25632659

  4. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema. PMID:25843472

  5. Combined effects of temperature and ocean acidification on the juvenile individuals of the mussel Mytilus chilensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C.; Navarro, J. M.; Acuña, K.; Torres, R.; Manríquez, P. H.; Lardies, M. A.; Vargas, C. A.; Lagos, N. A.; Aguilera, V.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions have led to increasing global mean temperatures (a process called global warming) and ocean acidification. Because both processes are occurring simultaneously, to better understand their consequences on marine species their combined effects must be experimentally evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and water temperature increase on the total calcification rate, growth rate and survival of juvenile individuals of the mytilid mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupe). Two temperature levels (12 and 16 °C) and three nominal CO2 concentrations (390, 700 and 1000 ppm of CO2) were used. We found that the net rate of calcium deposition and total weight were not significantly affected by temperature, but were negatively affected by the levels of CO2. The interactive effects of temperature and CO2 levels affected only the shell dissolution, but this process was not important for the animal's net calcification. These results suggest that individuals of M. chilensis are able to overcome increased temperatures, but not increments of CO2 levels. It is well known that mussels influence their physical and biological surroundings. Therefore, the negative effects of a CO2 increase could have significant ecological consequences, mainly in those habitats where this group is dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. Finally, taking into account that this species inhabit a wide geographic range, with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, salinity and, pH), further studies are needed to evaluate the intraspecific variability in the responses of this species to different environmental stressors.

  6. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Astuya, Allisson; Carrera, Crisleri; Ulloa, Viviana; Aballay, Ambbar; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Hégaret, Hélène; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1-100 nM) for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1-100 nM), there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1) and ion channels (K+, Ca2+). Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24-48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26154765

  7. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Astuya, Allisson; Carrera, Crisleri; Ulloa, Viviana; Aballay, Ambbar; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Hégaret, Hélène; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1–100 nM) for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1–100 nM), there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1) and ion channels (K+, Ca2+). Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24–48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26154765

  8. Redescription of Aposycorax chilensis (Tonnoir) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Sycoracinae) with the first identification of a blood meal host for the species.

    PubMed

    Curler, Gregory R; Moulton, John K; Madriz, R Isai

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Aposycorax chilensis were collected from several sites during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013. Specimens were swept or aspirated from roadside seeps and found in greatest numbers during the morning hours. DNA was extracted from a recently blood-fed female and was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction using vertebrate-specific 16S primers. An amplicon was obtained and the resulting sequence was found to have over 99% identity with two frogs in the genus Batrachyla, thus establishing this species' preference for amphibian hosts. The diagnosis and description of adult A. chilensis are revised, including the first description of the complete male genital tract. Habitat characteristics for this species and rotation of the male genitalia are discussed. PMID:26624740

  9. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  10. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  11. The Potential of Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75% germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50% germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30% germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97% at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils. PMID:25894272

  12. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation by phenolic extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Wang, Jinzhi; Yousef, Gad; Lila, Mary Ann; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2010-08-25

    Interest in berries from South America has increased due to their potential health benefits. The objective of this study was to characterize the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis , total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity and to evaluate, in vitro, the ability of their phenolic extracts to reduce adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The anti-inflammatory property of these extracts on RAW 264.7 macrophages was also investigated. Antioxidant capacity, measured as oxygen radical scavenging capacity and expressed as Trolox equivalents, was higher in the berries of A. chilensis. Phenolic extracts inhibited lipid accumulation by 4.0-10.8% when adipocytes were treated at maturity and by 5.9-37.9% when treated throughout differentiation. Furthermore, a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction from V. floribundum significantly increased Pref-1 expression in preadipocytes. Phenolic extracts decreased the production of nitric oxide (3.7-25.5%) and prostaglandin E2 (9.1-89.1%) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (9.8-61.8%) and cycloxygenase-2 (16.6-62.0%) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. V. floribundum and A. chilensis phytochemicals limit adipogenesis and inflammatory pathways in vitro, warranting further in vivo studies. PMID:23654232

  13. Trophic ecology of yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis, a top predator in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Belleggia, M; Andrada, N; Paglieri, S; Cortés, F; Massa, A M; Figueroa, D E; Bremec, C

    2016-03-01

    The diet and trophic level (TL ) of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis in the south-western Atlantic Ocean (35°-54° S), and how these varied in relation to body size, sex, maturity stage, depth and region were determined by analysis of stomach contents. From 776 specimens analysed, 671 (86·5%) ranging from 180 to 1190 mm total length (LT ) had prey in their stomachs. The diet was dominated by fishes, mainly the notothenioid Patagonotothen ramsayi and the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi. The consumption of fishes and crabs increased with increasing predator size, and these preys were more important in the north than in the south. Isopods and other crustaceans were consumed more in the south and their consumption decreased as the size of Z. chilensis increased. The TL of Z. chilensis increased with LT from 4·29 to 4·59 (mean 4·53), confirming their ecological role as a top predator. The small and large size classes exhibited a low diet overlap and the highest spatial segregation, whereas medium and large specimens had higher co-occurrence and dietary overlap indices. A clear distinction in tooth shape was noted between sexes in adult specimens, with males having longer cusps. This sexual heterodonty may be related to reproductive behaviour, increasing the grasping ability of males during courtship, because there were no differences in diet between the sexes. PMID:26762303

  14. Molecular evidence confirms that Proctoeces humboldti and Proctoeces chilensis (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) are the same species.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, I M; Cardenas, L; Gonzalez, K; Jofré, D; George-Nascimento, M; Guiñez, R; Oliva, M E

    2010-12-01

    Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40'S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50'S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus. PMID:20078901

  15. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Leonel E; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in hyperglycaemic obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. In H4IIE rat liver cells, ANC decreased glucose production and enhanced the insulin-stimulated down regulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase. In L6 myotubes ANC treatment increased both insulin and non-insulin mediated glucose uptake. As with the ACN, oral administration of pure D3S5G dose-dependently decreased fasting blood glucose levels in obese C57BL/6J mice, and decreased glucose production in rat liver cells. D3S5G also increased glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and is at least partially responsible for ANC’s anti-diabetic properties. PMID:26279603

  16. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Yellownose skate: Zearaja chilensis (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dageum; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a Yellownose skate, Zearaja chilensis was determined for the first time. It is 16,909 bp in length covering 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes with the identical gene order and structure as those of other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of low G (14.3%), and slightly high A + T (58.9%) nucleotides. The strong codon usage bias against the use of G (6.0%) is found at the third codon positions. Twelve of the 13 protein coding genes use ATG as the start codon while COX1 starts with GTG. As for the stop codon, only ND4 shows an incomplete stop codon TA. This is the first report of the mitogenome for a species in the genus Zearaja, providing a valuable source of genetic information on the evolution of the family Rajidae and the genus Zearaja as well as for establishment of a sustainble fishery management plan of the species. PMID:24617458

  18. Purification and characterization of saxitoxin from Mytilus chilensis of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Rubio, D P; Roa, L G; Soto, D A; Velasquez, F J; Gregorcic, N A; Soto, J A; Martinez, M C; Kalergis, A M; Vasquez, A E

    2015-12-15

    In the current communication we describe an innovative method to purify saxitoxin (STX), a toxin presents in contaminated muscle of Mylitus chilensis extracted in the southern part of Chile, using a liquid chromatographic methodology based on ionic pairs. The STX was extracted using HCl and treated with ammonium sulfate following a treatment with trichloroacetic acid and hexane/diethyl ether (97/3). The samples were analyzed by a semi-preparative HPLC in order to collect pure fractions of STX and these fractions were eluted in solid-phase cationic interchange SCX extraction columns. The purified STX was stable and homogeneous and its identity was confirmed by LC-MS-MS, which demonstrated a high quality purification of STX, without presence of analogs such as neosaxitoxin (Neo) and decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX). The STX biological activity was analyzed in a bioassay in mice model and compared to the standard STX produced by the FDA and no significant differences were observed. PMID:26435338

  19. Seasonal variation and resin composition in the Andean tree Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Soto, Alex; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November). Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9) and 12-oxo-labda-8(17),13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10) for male trees and 8(17),12,14-labdatriene (7) for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6) was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8) and Z-communic acid (9) were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1) with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9),15-diene (2), sandaracopimaric acid (4), compound (7) and ferruginol (11). PMID:24853713

  20. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates. PMID:24334117

  1. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  2. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  3. Constructing satellite-derived hyperspectral indices sensitive to canopy structure variables of a Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Marco A.; Brenning, Alexander; Sagredo, Ariel

    2012-11-01

    Satellite hyperspectral data were used to construct empirical spectral indices related to the canopy structure of a Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) forest located in the Andes of central Chile. Measurements of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (TH) were performed for a set of plots located within a pure and unevenly aged stand of A. chilensis with moderate cover. Normalized difference vegetation indices (NDIs) related to DBH and TH were constructed from the corresponding hyperspectral data in Hyperion imagery. NDIs construction utilized the original spectral reflectance curve, its first derivative, and the continuum-removed reflectance in a two-step procedure that ranks NDIs based on their Spearman correlation with the response variable while controlling the false discovery rate. Several reflectance-based NDIs as well as a larger group of derivative-based NDIs were significantly related to DBH or TH (ρ > 0.70). The NDIs most strongly related to the field variables were based on derivative bands located within the same spectral regions used by the broadband greenness index known as green normalized difference vegetation index. Most other significant NDIs used NIR bands, which are well-known for their sensitivity to foliage amount changes. The results obtained in this exploratory study mostly agreed with the spectral regions expected to be most sensitive to changes in the canopy structure of vegetation. Further research in other A. chilensis forests subject to different site and environmental conditions is needed in order to assess the applicability of the NDIs over a wider range of this endemic species.

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:27026105

  5. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  6. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of the white-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps chilensis (Aves, Tyrannidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Danny; Reyes, Jaime; Sepúlveda, María Soledad; Kinsella, Mike; Mironov, Sergey; Cicchino, Armando; Moreno, Lucila; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Troncoso, Ignacio; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the ectoparasites and helminths of the white-crested elaenia, Elaenia albiceps chilensis. Feather mites Anisophyllodes elaeniae, Trouessartia elaeniae, and Analges sp. were detected in 51% of birds (n=106), whereas 24% were infected with lice (Tyranniphilopterus delicatulus, Menacanthus cfr. distinctus, and Ricinus cfr. invadens). Helminths Viguiera sp. and Capillaria sp. were found in five of the birds that were necropsied (n=20). With the exception of A. elaeniae, T. elaeniae, and T. delicatulus, all parasites represented new records found for the white-crested elaenia, and therefore for the Chilean repertoire of biodiversity. PMID:26444059

  7. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization. PMID:24967561

  8. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. PMID:24003035

  9. High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.

    2014-06-01

    The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 μM. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

  10. The effect of Anonchocephalus chilensis Riggenbach (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) on infracommunity patterns in Genypterus maculatus Tschudi (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S A; George-Nascimento, M

    2008-09-01

    The use of parasite body size (i.e. body mass) is a promising proxy to improve the study of patterns in parasite infracommunities, which are usually analysed using only numerical descriptors. This study deals with the importance and effect of the presence of a large endoparasite species, the cestode Anonchocephalus chilensis in a marine fish species, Genypterus maculatus, on the structure of the parasite infracommunities. Numerical and volumetric measures of aggregated properties of parasite infracommunities were compared and their correlation examined. The highly dominant presence of A. chilensis by volume causes a dramatic change in the patterns observed, including a smaller total volume of the remaining species when this volumetrically dominant species is present. However, C-scores and V-ratios, both indices based on null models of species occurrence, do not support the idea of communities structured by interspecific competition. Analyses reveal that numerical and volumetric community descriptors are complementary ways to search for patterns and to reveal processes within these systems. PMID:18394212

  11. Microcystin accumulation and antioxidant responses in the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus upon subchronic exposure to toxic Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Sebastián E; Brena, Beatríz M; Luquet, Carlos M; San Julián, Magdalena; Pirez, Macarena; Carmen Ríos de Molina, María Del

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the accumulation and toxicity of microcystin-LR (MCLR) in the digestive gland of the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus. Treated clams were fed with a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (NPJB1) during 6 weeks and control clams received the non-toxic strain NPDC1. Filtration rate was estimated for both groups. Toxic effects were evaluated through the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and different oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation (content of thiobarbituric reactive substances-TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The extractable MCLR measured by ELISA in digestive gland extracts showed little or no change during the first 3 weeks and increased significantly at weeks 5 and 6. HSI was reduced by 30% in treated clams at weeks 5 and 6. No significant oxidative damage to lipids or proteins was. All the antioxidant defense parameters analyzed were significantly increased at week 5 or 6. GSH increased in treated clams at week 5, reaching 62% increase at week 6. SOD, CAT and GST activities were significantly increased in treated clams by 50%, 66% and 60%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. D. chilensis patagonicus can be exposed to prolonged cyanobacterial blooms accumulating significant quantities of MCLR, which could be a risk for mammals and birds, which feed on this species and, in a lesser extent, to humans. PMID:21477863

  12. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  13. Transcriptome characterization of the ascidian Pyura chilensis using 454-pyrosequencing data from two distant localities on the southeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Haye, Pilar A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the results from transcriptomes sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing from two populations separated by 10° of latitude of the endemic tunicate Pyura chilensis. Most transcripts were assembled in 43,972 contigs with an average length of 842 nucleotides. De novo assembly revealed that less than 30% of the contigs were annotated to Gene Ontology terms. A total of 71,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in 14,712 contigs. In silico differential expression of contigs annotated for SNPs revealed several genes differentially expressed in individuals collected from both populations. The present genomic resource will provide the basis to perform functional genomics on the species via the localization of genomic markers that can aid in determining levels of local adaptation, overall genetic structure and the genetic assessment of restocking programs for this species. PMID:25526667

  14. Tracing the trans-pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile. PMID:25501717

  15. Tracing the Trans-Pacific Evolutionary History of a Domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with Archaeological and Genetic Data

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile. PMID:25501717

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  17. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the oyster Ostrea equestris on the northern coast of Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A G; Machado, A L S; Zalmon, I R

    2005-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were determined by ICP-AES in Ostrea equestris from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena, and Ponta do Retiro) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The average concentration was 0.8 +/- 0.18, 0.4 +/- 0.21, 58 +/- 25.6, 249 +/- 52.3, 11 +/- 1.31, 0.55 +/- 0.16, 0.13 +/- 0.11, and 1131 +/- 321 microg x g(-1) dry weight for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. Significant spatial variation (p < 0.05) between the samples areas occurred for Cr, Pb, and Zn with higher values in Barra do Furado; and for Cu in Ponta do Retiro. Significant temporal variations (p < 0.05) were observed for all metals except Cu. Temporal variability may be related to changes in the inputs of metals associated with suspended particles. Concentrations were similar to those found in areas under low pollution impact, except for Zn, the high concentrations of which probably reflect the physiological characteristics of these organisms. PMID:16025905

  18. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates. PMID:16044293

  19. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Leynaud, Gerardo C

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model's uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species. PMID:26557430

  20. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  1. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E.; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic–Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  2. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions

    PubMed Central

    Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model’s uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species. PMID:26557430

  3. Detection of domoic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ostrea edulis linked to the presence of Nitzschia bizertensis in Bizerte Lagoon (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchouicha-Smida, Donia; Lundholm, Nina; Sahraoui, Inès; Lambert, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal variation of DA in bivalves was monitored from August 2008 to March 2009 at a shellfish station in Bizerte Lagoon, one of the most important shellfish areas in Tunisia. At the same time, dynamics of potentially toxic diatoms was studied at six stations in the lagoon. Several diatom strains were isolated, maintained in culture and their identification as well as the toxicity was examined. During the study period, domoic acid (DA) was detected in Tunisia, in both mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis: 0.13-0.86 μg DA g-1 tissue) and oysters (Ostrea edulis: 0.42-1.04 μg DA g-1 tissue). The amount of DA in the two species was below the EU guideline limits for shellfish (20 μg DA g-1). Within the phytoplankton community, potentially toxic diatoms were observed in high densities (104-106 cells l-1). Among the 9 established cultured strains, seven were identified as the recently described species Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov, which is apparently a commonly occurring species in the Bizerte Lagoon. Among tested five strains of N. bizertensis, four were confirmed to be toxin producers, containing 2-7 × 10-3 pg DA cell-1 during stationary growth phase. Our results indicate for the first time a Nitzschia species, here Nitzschia bizertensis, could be in relation to accumulation of DA in shellfish. Monitoring of DA in phytoplankton and shellfish should be considered for Bizerte Lagoon in order to gain knowledge about the ecology and toxin-production of N. bizertensis and to explore the risk of DA accumulation in the local shellfish industry caused by this species.

  4. Using particle dispersal models to assist in the conservation and recovery of the overexploited native oyster (Ostrea edulis) in an enclosed sea lough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, David; Kregting, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Kennedy, Richard; Roberts, Dai

    2016-02-01

    Oyster populations around the world have seen catastrophic decline which has been largely attributed to overexploitation, disease and pollution. While considerable effort and resources have been implemented into restoring these important environmental engineers, the success of oyster populations is often limited by poor understanding of site-specific dispersal patterns of propagules. Water-borne transport is a key factor controlling or regulating the dispersal of the larval stage of benthic marine invertebrates which have limited mobility. The distribution of the native oyster Ostrea edulis in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, together with their densities and population structure at subtidal and intertidal sites has been documented at irregular intervals between 1997 and 2013. This paper revisits this historical data and considers whether different prevailing environmental conditions can be used to explain the distribution, densities and population structure of O. edulis in Strangford Lough. The approach adopted involved comparing predictive 2D hydrodynamic models coupled with particle tracking to simulate the dispersal of oyster larvae with historical and recent field records of the distribution of both subtidal and intertidal, populations since 1995. Results from the models support the hypothesis that commercial stocks of O. edulis introduced into Strangford Lough in the 1990s resulted in the re-establishment of wild populations of oysters in the Northern Basin which in turn provided a potential source of propagules for subtidal populations. These results highlight that strategic site selection (while inadvertent in the case of the introduced population in 1995) for the re-introduction of important shellfish species can significantly accelerate their recovery and restoration.

  5. Distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in southern Chilean clams (Venus antiqua) and blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos P; Yévenes, Marco; Rodriguez-Benito, Cristina; Godoy, Félix A; Ruiz, Magdalena; Cachicas, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the inland sea of southern Chile, where the world's largest foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak by the pandemic strain O3:K6 occurred in 2005. Intertidal samples of Mytilus chilensis and Venus antiqua were collected around port towns between 41°28'S and 43°07'S, during April to May 2011 and January to March 2012. We used most probable number real-time polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) for enumeration of the tlh, tdh, and trh genes in freshly harvested bivalves and after a controlled postharvest temperature abuse. Pathogenic markers (tdh+ or trh+) were not detected. Total V. parahaemolyticus (tlh+) in freshly harvested samples reached up to 0.38 and 3.66 log MPN/g in 2011 and 2012, respectively, with values close to or above 3 log MPN/g only near Puerto Montt (41°28'S, 72°55'W). Enrichments by temperature abuse (>2 log MPN/g) occurred mainly in the same zone, regardless of the year, suggesting that both natural or anthropogenic exposure to high temperatures were more critical. Lower salinity and higher sea surface temperature in Reloncaví Sound and Reloncaví Estuary were consistent with our observations and allowed confirmation of the existence of a high-risk zone near Puerto Montt. Based on the results, a strategy focused on risk management inside this defined hazard zone is recommended. PMID:25383987

  6. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junji; Kadekaru, Takashi; Ogawa, Kenjirou; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-08-15

    The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. PMID:23561088

  7. Identification of immune-related SNPs in the transcriptome of Mytilus chilensis through high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in coding regions represent a useful tool for understanding the immune response against pathogens and stressful environmental conditions. In this study, a SNPs database was generated from transcripts involved in the innate immune response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis. The SNPs were identified through hemocytes transcriptome sequencing from 18 individuals, and SNPs mining was performed in 225,336 contigs, yielding 20,306 polymorphisms associated to immune-related genes. Classification of identified SNPs was based on different pathways of the immune response for Mytilus sp. A total of 28 SNPs were identified in the Toll-like receptor pathway and included 5 non-synonymous polymorphisms; 19 SNPs were identified in the apoptosis pathway and included 3 non-synonymous polymorphisms; 35 SNPs were identified in the Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway and included 4 non-synonymous variants; and 54 SNPs involved in other molecular functions related to the immune response, such as molecular chaperones, antimicrobial peptides, and genes that interacts with marine toxins were also identified. The molecular markers identified in this work could be useful for novel studies, such as those related to associations between high-resolution molecular markers and functional response to pathogen agents. PMID:24080470

  8. A field test of temperature effects on ecophysiological responses of copepodid Calanus chilensis during coastal upwelling in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Alan; Escribano, Ruben; Marín, Victor

    2006-08-01

    We assessed responses of late copepodid stages of Calanus chilensis, as subject to spatial heterogeneity in oceanographic conditions, during coastal upwelling off Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile. An oceanographic survey conducted during 26 h prior to zooplankton sampling mapped upwelling conditions. Over the next 2 d, four zooplankton stations, two inside and two outside the cold upwelling plume, were sampled twice in the day and twice at night. We then tested the effects of upwelling/non-upwelling habitat (i.e. inside/outside the upwelling plume) on body length, body weight, oil-sac volume (OSV) and a condition index (CI) of stages copepodid C5 and adult female. We also compared ovary development of females and stage distribution from both habitats. C5 and females from inside the upwelling plume were heavier, larger, had a greater CI, and females had more developed ovaries, than those located outside the plume, although there were no significant differences in the OSV. Differences in stage distribution suggested that individuals outside the plume had developed faster under a higher temperature ( 17C) than those inside the cold ( 14C) plume. Chlorophyll- a concentration was uniformly high ( >4mgm-3), both outside and inside the plume. We concluded that distinct temperature regimes, persisting longer than 1 week, had caused different sized copepodids. We thus suggest that temperature alone may substantially explain variances in growth and development rates of Calanus in highly productive upwelling systems, with no need to invoke food and body size effects.

  9. Isolation and identification of Vibrio toranzoniae associated with diseased red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) farmed in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Estrada, Juan M; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-09-30

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Vibrio toranzoniae from cultured red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis). During the summer season of 2011, mortalities were observed in young red conger eel at one aquaculture experimental rearing system in Quintay, Valparaiso, Chile. The microbiological analysis of the diseased fish resulted in the isolation of three dominant and representative isolates, designated as R.17, R.18 and R.19, which were obtained from gill, fin and external lesions from three different fish, respectively. All isolates were identified as V. toranzoniae by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including phenotypic characterization, sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Inoculation of a representative strain (R18) in turbot as model fish species demonstrated the pathogenic potential for fish of the Chilean isolates. Results obtained indicate that the geographical and host distribution of V. toranzoniae is wider than expected, and that this species may have negative incidence in the culture of marine organisms. PMID:26072371

  10. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory. PMID:26781380

  11. A new species of Dendromonocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Argentine Sea.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Chisholm, Leslie A; Timi, Juan T

    2016-05-01

    Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. is described from the dorsal surface of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes) caught on the Argentine shelf. Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. can be distinguished from the other 17 species in the genus by the morphology of the distal portion of the male copulatory organ and by the unique morphology of the sclerotised proximal portion of the vagina. This is the first species of Dendromonocotyle to be described from a host in the Rajiformes and also the first record of this genus in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27095665

  12. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis.  PMID:25284403

  13. Synaptic silencing and plasma membrane dyshomeostasis induced by amyloid-β peptide are prevented by Aristotelia chilensis enriched extract.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Jorge; Dibarrart, Andrea; Saez-Orellana, Francisco; Fuentes-Fuentes, María Cecilia; Oyanedel, Carlos N; Guzmán, José; Perez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Aguayo, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of different types of extracellular and neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ). Recently, bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources showing neuroprotective properties have become of interest in brain neurodegeneration. We have purified, characterized, and evaluated the protective potential of one extract enriched in polyphenols obtained from Aristotelia chilensis (MQ), a Chilean berry fruit, in neuronal models of AD induced by soluble oligomers of Aβ1-40. For example, using primary hippocampal cultures from rats (E18), we observed neuroprotection when the neurons were co-incubated with Aβ (0.5 μM) plus MQ for 24 h (Aβ = 23 ± 2%; Aβ + MQ = 3 ± 1%; n = 3). In parallel, co-incubation of Aβ with MQ recovered the frequency of Ca2+ transient oscillations when compared to neurons treated with Aβ alone (Aβ = 72 ± 3%; Aβ + MQ = 86 ± 2%; n = 5), correlating with the changes observed in spontaneous synaptic activity. Additionally, MAP-2 immunostaining showed a preservation of the dendritic tree, suggesting that the toxic effect of Aβ is prevented in the presence of MQ. A new complex mechanism is proposed by which MQ induces neuroprotective effects including antioxidant properties, modulation of cell survival pathways, and/or direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates. Our results suggest that MQ induces changes in the aggregation kinetics of Aβ producing variations in the nucleation phase (Aβ: k1 = 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10-3 s-1 MQ: k1 = 8.3 ± 0.6 × 10-3 s-1) and altering Thioflavin T insertion in β-sheets. In conclusion, MQ induces a potent neuroprotection by direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates, generating far less toxic species and in this way protecting the neuronal network. PMID:22728896

  14. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  15. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  16. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  17. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  18. Aerobic secondary utilization of a non-growth and inhibitory substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and sphingopyxis-like strain S32.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos; Godoy, Félix; Becerra, José; Barra, Ricardo; Martínez, Miguel

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) degradation by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Sphingopyxis chilensis-like strain S32, which were unable to use 246TCP as the sole carbon and energy source. In R2A broth, the strains degraded 246TCP up to 0.5 mM. Results with mixtures of different 246TCP and glucose concentrations in mineral salt media demonstrated dependence on glucose to allow bacterial growth and degradation of 246TCP. Strain S32 degraded halophenol up to 0.2 mM when 5.33 mM glucose was simultaneously added, while strain S37 degraded the compound up to 0.1 mM when 1.33 mM glucose was added. These 246TCP concentrations were lethal for inocula in absence of glucose. Stoichiometric releases of chloride and analysis by HPLC, GC-ECD and GC-MS indicated 246TCP mineralisation by both strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteria able to mineralize a chlorophenol as a non-growth and inhibitory substrate. The concept of secondary utilization instead of cometabolism is proposed for this activity. PMID:12948056

  19. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. PMID:25760389

  20. Toxicity of Porella chilensis sesqui- and diterpenoids against larvae of the corn pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidotera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Corzo, F L; Gilabert, M; Alcaide, M F; Bardón, A

    2012-10-01

    Porella, the largest genus of the family Porellaceae (Hepaticae) is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Most Porella species are rich sources of sesqui- and diterpenoids, many of which show interesting biological activities. Secondary metabolites produced by plants can interact with insects and act as antifeedants and growth regulators affecting hormone and nervous systems as well as stomach and muscle tissues. A previous chemical investigation of a Patagonian collection of Porella chilensis yielded sesqui- and diterpenoids that were now evaluated for their effects against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest affecting corn crops mainly in the Americas. Four pinguisanes (1-4), three fusicoccanes (5-7), and one aromadendrane (8) from P. chilensis displayed larvicidal activity against S. frugiperda when incorporated to the larval diet at 100 and 200 μg/g of diet with a significant decrease in the larval growing rate. The observed effects were in part produced by severe alterations of the epithelial cells of the midgut as indicated by our histological studies. PMID:23950093

  1. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

  2. Identification of nematicidal fatty acids and triglycerides from seeds of Jubaea chilensis by GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation methods.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Qiao; Eppler, C Mark; Montenegro, Gloria; Timmins, Scott D; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2005-01-01

    Nematicidal bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract of the seeds of Jubaea chilensis led to the identification of eight known fatty acids and a mixture of triglycerides, reported for the first time for this species. In addition, their corresponding methyl esters were identified to be artifacts generated during the extraction and isolation procedures by using GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation methods. The fatty acid composition of the triglycerides was analyzed by GC-EI-MS and chemical transformation techniques. Among the 17 compounds, only lauric acid and myristic acid exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the movement of Caenorhabditis elegans with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 75 microg/ml. PMID:16163824

  3. Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Aspillaga, Augusto A; Pérez, Druso D; Vasquez, Luis; Martinez, Alvaro L F; Leighton, Federico

    2002-12-18

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL induces oxidative stress and modifies gene expression in endothelial cells. Berries constitute a rich dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. We found that the endemic Chilean berry Aristotelia chilensis (ach) has higher phenol content and scores better for total radical-trapping potential and total antioxidant reactivity in in vitro antioxidant capacity tests, when compared to different commercial berries. The juice of ach is also effective in inhibiting copper-induced LDL oxidation. In human endothelial cell cultures, the addition of ach juice significantly protects from hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress and is dose-dependent. The aqueous, anthocyanin-rich fraction of ach juice accounts for most of ach's antioxidant properties. These results show that ach is a rich source of phenolics with high antioxidant capacity and suggest that it may have antiatherogenic properties. PMID:12475268

  4. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  5. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins. PMID:19505493

  6. Impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels on the physiological energetics of the mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jorge M; Torres, Rodrigo; Acuña, Karin; Duarte, Cristian; Manriquez, Patricio H; Lardies, Marco; Lagos, Nelson A; Vargas, Cristian; Aguilera, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels (750-1200 ppm) on the physiological processes of juvenile Mytilus chilensis mussels over a period of 70 d in a mesocosm system. Three equilibration tanks filled with filtered seawater were adjusted to three pCO(2) levels: ~380 (control), ~750 and ~1200 ppm by bubbling air or an air-CO(2) mixture through the water. For the control, atmospheric air (with aprox. 380 ppm CO(2)) was bubbled into the tank; for the 750 and 1200 ppm treatments, dry air and pure CO(2) were blended to each target concentration using mass flow controllers for air and CO(2). No impact on feeding activity was observed at the beginning of the experiment, but a significant reduction in clearance rate was observed after 35 d of exposure to highly acidified seawater. Absorption rate and absorption efficiency were reduced at high pCO(2) levels. In addition, oxygen uptake fell significantly under these conditions, indicating a metabolic depression. These physiological responses of the mussels resulted in a significant reduction of energy available for growth (scope for growth) with important consequences for the aquaculture of this species during medium-term exposure to acid conditions. The results of this study clearly indicate that high pCO(2) levels in the seawater have a negative effect on the health of M. chilensis. Therefore, the predicted acidification of seawater associated with global climate change could be harmful to this ecologically and commercially important mussel. PMID:23079160

  7. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  8. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  9. Extracts of Maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and Murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.): sources of antioxidant compounds and α-Glucosidase/α-Amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Mónica; Jara, Claudio; Poo, Yohany; Acevedo, Francisca; Gutierrez, Cristian; Sineiro, Jorge; Shene, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of crude, aqueous, and organic-aqueous extracts of maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.), together with their inhibiting effect on enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a micellar system, antihemolytic activity, and inhibition of α-amylases and α-glucosidases were analyzed. Crude extracts of maqui leaves and fruits were found to be important sources of polyphenolic compounds, showing 69.0 ± 0.9 and 45.7 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g dm, respectively. Polyphenols from maqui leaves were active as antioxidants and antihemolytic compounds (p < 0.05), showing a noncompetitive inhibiting effect on α-glucosidase. Flavan-3-ol polymers and glycosylated flavonols, such as quercetin glucoside and kaempferol glucoside, were tentatively identified in extracts. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further examination of the suitability of polyphenol-enriched extracts from maqui and murta as nutritional or medicinal supplements with potential human health benefits. PMID:21294510

  10. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  11. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene. PMID:26079667

  12. Purification and inflammatory edema induced by two PLA2 (Anch TX-I and Anch TX-II) from sea anemone Anthothoe chilensis (Actiniaria: Sagartiidae).

    PubMed

    Landucci, Elen Cristina Teizem; Dias, Queila Cristina; Marangoni, Fábio André; Vilca-Quispe, Augusto; Valeriano-Zapana, José Antonio; Torres-Huaco, Frank Denis; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Marangoni, Sergio; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto

    2012-02-01

    The Anch TX-I and II PLA(2) were purified from Anthothoe chilensis (Lesson, 1830) from the extract of the anemone after only two chromatographic step using molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and reverse phase HPLC on μ-Bondapak C18 column. Both PLA(2) showed a molecular mass of ~14kDa determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and showed a high catalytic activity (data not showed). Although homologous with mammalian or snake venom group I PLA(2)s, Anch TX-I and II is sufficiently structurally different for the question of its placement into the existing PLA(2) classification scheme to arise. In addition, Anch TX-I and II, despite possessing many common structural features, also differ in some important structural properties. The amino acid sequence of both PLA(2) (Anch TX-I and III) showed high amino acid sequence identity with PLA(2)Rhopilema nomadica and Bunodosoma caissarum Cnidaria and PLA(2) of group III protein isolated from the Mexican lizard Heloderma horridum horridum and Heloderma suspectum. In addition, Anch TX-I and Anch TX-II showed high amino acid sequence identity with PLA(2) from group III also showed significant overall homology to bee Apis dorsata, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pennsylvanicus and PLA(2). We also investigated the in vivo edematogenic activity of Anch TX-I and Anch TX-II in a model of paw and skin edema in rats and observed that both are able to induce dose-dependent edema. PMID:22100907

  13. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  14. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  15. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  16. A polymorphic form of 4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl 3-indolyl ketone, an indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-12-15

    The title compound [systematic name: (4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl)(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone], C20H22N2O, (II), was obtained from mother liquors extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (commonly known as maqui), a native Chilean tree. The compound is a polymorphic form of that obtained from the same source and reported by Watson, Nagl, Silva, Cespedes & Jakupovic [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324], (Ia). The molecule consists of an indolyl ketone fragment and a nested three-ring system, with both groups linked by a C-C bridge. Comparison of both forms shows that they do not differ in their gross features but in the relative orientation of the two ring systems, due to different rotations around the bridge, as measured by the O=C-C=N torsion angle [130.0 (7)° in (Ia) and 161.6 (2)° in (II)]. The resulting slight conformational differences are reflected in a number of intramolecular contacts being observed in (II) but not in (Ia). Regarding intermolecular interactions, both forms share a similar N-H···O synthon but with differing hydrogen-bonding strength, leading in both cases to C(6) catemers with different chain motifs. There are marked differences between the two forms regarding colour and the (de)localization of a double bond, which allows speculation about the possible existence of different variants of this type of molecule. PMID:24311501

  17. Examining Relationships Among Several Oyster Pathogens in the Genus Bonamia Using Molecular Data, in Phylogenetic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Burreson, E.

    2006-12-01

    Bonamiasis is a disease that affects oyster stocks around the world and is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Bonamia species can rapidly spread through oyster stocks and cause clinical disease in the host. The type species in the genus, Bonamia ostreae, was described from the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Since that time, several bonamia-like species have been observed in the following oyster hosts: Crassostrea ariakensis deployed in North Carolina, USA, Ostrea pulchana from Argentina, Ostrea chilensis from Chile, and in Ostrea angasi from Australia. There is, however, much debate over the species identity of these undescribed Bonamia parasites. An hypothesis that I will test is whether the species of Bonamia that occurs in the aforementioned oysters are representative of one species of Bonamia, Bonamia exitiosa, or are representative of different, currently undescribed, species of Bonamia. To test this hypothesis, molecular techniques to include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and simultaneous bi-directional sequencing (SBS) reactions were utilized to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene complex for each of the undescribed Bonamia species and for Bonamia exitiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced data in addition to pertinent morphological data, geographic distribution information, and possible host dispersals are included in this study to provide additional information for testing hypotheses developed based on molecular data.

  18. Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristina M; Stokes, Nancy A; Webb, Stephen C; Hine, P Mike; Kroeck, Marina A; Moore, James D; Morley, Margaret S; Reece, Kimberly S; Burreson, Eugene M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2014-07-24

    The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. The discovery of B. exitiosa-like parasites in new locations and the observation of a novel species, B. perspora, in non-commercial O. stentina altered this perception and prompted our wider evaluation of the global diversity of Bonamia parasites. Samples of 13 oyster species from 21 locations were screened for Bonamia spp. by PCR, and small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of Bonamia sp. ribosomal DNA were sequenced from PCR-positive individuals. Infections were confirmed histologically. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian methods revealed one species, B. exitiosa, to be widely distributed, infecting 7 oyster species from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, eastern and western USA, and Tunisia. More limited host and geographic distributions of B. ostreae and B. perspora were confirmed, but nothing genetically identifiable as B. roughleyi was found in Australia or elsewhere. Newly discovered diversity included a Bonamia sp. in Dendostrea sandvicensis from Hawaii, USA, that is basal to the other Bonamia species and a Bonamia sp. in O. edulis from Tomales Bay, California, USA, that is closely related to both B. exitiosa and the previously observed Bonamia sp. from O. chilensis in Chile. PMID:25060496

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  20. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  1. OSMOTIC PROPERTIES OF THE EGG CELLS OF THE OYSTER (OSTREA VIRGINICA).

    PubMed

    Lucké, B; Ricca, R A

    1941-11-20

    INVESTIGATIONS OF THE OSMOTIC PROPERTIES OF OYSTER EGGS BY A DIFFRACTION METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLUMES HAVE LED TO THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS: 1. The product of cell volume and osmotic pressure is approximately constant, if allowance is made for osmotically inactive cell contents (law of Boyle-van't Hoff). The space occupied by osmotically inactive averages 44 per cent of cell volume. 2. Volume changes over a wide range of pressures are reversible, indicating that the semipermeability of the cell during such changes remains intact. 3. The kinetics of endosmosis and of exosmosis are described by the equation, See PDF for Equation, where dV is rate of volume change; S, surface area of cell, (P-P(e)), the difference in osmotic pressure between cell interior and medium, and K, the permeability of the cell to water. 4. Permeability to water during endosmosis is 0.6micro(3) of water per minute, per square micron of cell surface, per atmosphere of pressure. The value of permeability for exosmosis is closely the same; in this respect the egg cell of the oyster appears to be a more perfect osmometer than the other marine cells which have been studied. Permeability to water computed by the equation given above is in good agreement with computations by the entirely different method devised by Jacobs. 5. Permeability to diethylene glycol averages 27.2, and to glycerol 20.7. These values express the number of mols x 10(-15) which enter per minute through each square micron of cell surface at a concentration difference of 1 mol per liter and a temperature of 22.5 degrees C. 6. Values for permeability to water and to the solutes tested are considerably higher for the oyster egg than for other forms of marine eggs previously examined. 7. The oyster egg because of its high degree of permeability is a natural osmometer particularly suitable for the study of the less readily penetrating solutes. PMID:19873267

  2. Southern hemisphere mollusc diseases and an overview of associated risk assessment problems.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M

    1996-06-01

    In Australia and New Zealand, Bonamia sp. causes epizootics in flat oysters (Tiostrea chilensis, Ostrea angasi); Marteilia sydneyi and Mikrocytos roughleyi cause mortality in farmed rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis); and Perkinsus olseni is pathogenic in abalone (Haliotis spp.). Marteilia lengehi, Marteilioides branchialis, other Marteilioides spp. and two species of Haplosporidium are regarded as potential pathogens. A review of the pathogens causing diseases listed in the Office International des Epizooties 'notifiable diseases' of molluscs shows major gaps in the information available. The life cycles and transmission of Haplosporidium nelsoni and Marteilia refringens are unknown, Bonamia spp. and Mikrocytos spp. cannot be diagnosed with certainty, monoclonal antibodies and molecular probes are not generally available, and little is known of survival parameters or treatment of the pathogens. The author concludes that stringent guidelines and protocols are needed to minimise the high risks involved in translocation of molluscs. PMID:8890381

  3. Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Antioxidant Mannoglucan from a Marine Bubble Snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghong; Liao, Ningbo; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Wu, Dan; Guo, Xin; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Shiguo

    2013-01-01

    Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata. PMID:24284423

  4. Community-University Engagement: The Philippi CityLab in Cape Town and the Challenge of Collaboration across Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Luthango, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    Debates about the role of the university in society have been going on for many decades. There have been several calls for a more "engaged" form of scholarship which applies itself consciously to the pursuit of applied knowledge which can contribute towards solving some of the most pressing societal challenges. Closer collaboration between…

  5. Revision of Plumarius Philippi 1873 (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae) from Argentina north of Patagonia, with description of eighteen new species.

    PubMed

    Diez, Patricia A; Roig-Alsina, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Twenty six species of Plumarius from Argentina north of Patagonia are revised. Eighteen new species: Plumarius politus sp. nov., P. sarophorus sp. nov., P. globulosus sp. nov., P. angulatus sp. nov., P. noa sp. nov., P. divergens sp. nov., P. malaris sp. nov., P. gracilior sp. nov., P. riojanus sp. nov., P. exophthalmus sp. nov., P. planatus sp. nov., P. albinervis sp. nov., P. truncatus sp. nov., P. mikrommatus sp. nov., P. obscurus sp. nov., P. gracilis sp. nov., P. fidalgoi sp. nov., and P. ocellulatus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A new record for known species as well as a key to 26 known species in the region is given. A redescription of P. tumidulus Papp, 2000, which is the first record of the family Plumariidae from Uruguay, is done. PMID:27394595

  6. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of genetic heterogeneity among recruitment cohorts of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine species with high fecundity and high early mortality may also have high variance in reproductive success among individuals due to stochastic factors, making successful reproduction a “sweepstakes.” In some cases, the impact is sufficient to reduce the effective number of breeders in wild popu...

  7. Chemical profiles and identification of key compound caffeine in marine-derived traditional Chinese medicine Ostreae concha.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Zhou, Shi-Lu; Ma, Ai-Cui; Xu, Hai-Tao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-05-01

    To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. PMID:22822365

  8. Chemical Profiles and Identification of Key Compound Caffeine in Marine-Derived Traditional Chinese Medicine Ostreae concha

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Zhou, Shi-Lu; Ma, Ai-Cui; Xu, Hai-Tao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine (1) based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. PMID:22822365

  9. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. PMID:20186725

  10. Giant Virus Megavirus chilensis Encodes the Biosynthetic Pathway for Uncommon Acetamido Sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2014-01-01

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  11. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability. PMID:11048587

  12. Giant virus Megavirus chilensis encodes the biosynthetic pathway for uncommon acetamido sugars.

    PubMed

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G

    2014-08-29

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  13. A new species of Diadema (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Diadematidae) from the eastern Atlantic Ocean and a neotype designation of Diadema antillarum (Philippi, 1845).

    PubMed

    Rodoríguez, Adriana; Hernández, José Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Coppard, Simon Edward

    2013-01-01

    Diadenia africanum sp. nov. Rodríguez et al. 2013 occurs in the eastern Atlantic Ocean at depths of 1-80 meters off Ma- deira Islands, Salvage Islands, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, Sâo Tome Islands and at the continental coast off Sen- egal and Ghana. This species was previously considered an eastern Atlantic population of D. antillarum. Genetic distances between the holotype of D. africanum and the neotype of D. antillarun herein designated, measured 3.34% in Cytochrome oxidase I, 3.80% in ATPase-8 and 2.31% in ATPase-6. Such divergence is similar to that already highlighted between other accepted species of Diadena. Morphometric analysis of test, spine and pedicellarial characters also separated D. africanum from D. antillartn and reveals that this new species is morphologically similar to D. antillarum ascensionis from the mid Atlantic. The tridentate pedicellariae, which have been shown to have diagnostic characters which discriminate among species of Diadema, occur as both broad and narrow valved forms in D. antillarumn from the western Atlantic. In D. africanum the tridentate pedicellariae occur only as a single form which is characterized by moderately broad and curved valves, with an expanded distal gripping region. This form of tridentate pedicellaria is very similar to that of D. antillarum ascensionis from the central Atlantic, with only slight variations in valve serration and valve curvature differ- entiating the two forms. PMID:26042287

  14. The potential role of an unregulated coastal anthropogenic activity in facilitating the spread of a non-indigenous biofoulant.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Eilir Hedd; Richardson, Christopher Alan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an exponential rise in anthropogenically-mediated transfers of non-indigenous species during the last 150 years, several coastal anthropogenic activities remain unregulated under current legislation frameworks. This study investigates the potential role of commercial periwinkle (Littorina littorea) harvesting as an unregulated facilitator of both small- and large-scale geographic range expansion of an invasive oyster epibiont (Ostrea chilensis) within the Menai Strait (North Wales, UK) and beyond. The frequency of oyster-fouled periwinkles was greatest in areas of high adult oyster abundance and restricted to large, market-sized periwinkles (>20 mm) inhabiting the low shore. Active efforts by commercial collectors to reject oyster-fouled periwinkles were found to be inadequate, with oysters of all sizes observed within collected hauls. Whilst the survival of fouled and unfouled periwinkles was comparable under post-collection refrigerated conditions, a significant decrease in both mobility and flesh content was associated with the presence of oyster epibionts. Survival of all but the smallest oyster epibionts under post-collection refrigerated conditions enhances the possibility of accidental non-indigenous oyster transfers. Better interventions during both initial visual inspection and post-griddling stages are recommended, as well as the development of techniques that kill off all non-indigenous epibionts, whilst leaving the freshness and marketability of the periwinkles uncompromised. PMID:22794077

  15. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    SciTech Connect

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  16. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance. PMID:19719017

  17. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment. PMID:25216990

  18. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  19. Experimental infection of European flat oyster Ostrea edulis with ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvar (OsHV-1μvar): Mortality, viral load and detection of viral transcripts by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    López Sanmartín, Monserrat; Power, Deborah M; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I; Batista, Frederico M

    2016-06-01

    Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections have been reported in several bivalve species. Mortality of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat has increased considerably in Europe since 2008 linked to the spread of a variant of OsHV-1 called μvar. In the present study we demonstrated that O. edulis juveniles can be infected by OsHV-1μvar when administered as an intramuscular injection. Mortality in the oysters injected with OsHV-1μvar was first detected 4 days after injection and reached 25% mortality at day 10. Moreover, the high viral load observed and the detection of viral transcripts by in situ hybridization in several tissues of dying oysters suggested that OsHV-1μvar was the cause of mortality in the O. edulis juveniles. This is therefore the first study to provide evidence about the pathogenicity of OsHV-1μvar in a species that does not belong to the Crassostrea genus. Additionally, we present a novel method to detect OsHV-1 transcripts in infected individuals' using in situ hybridization. PMID:26945849

  20. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia). PMID:27470774

  1. Studies into the Stability of 3-O-Glycosylated and 3,5-O-Diglycosylated Anthocyanins in Differently Purified Liquid and Dried Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Preparations during Storage and Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Johanna E; Kroner, Mareike; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Anthocyanin stabilities in diluted and differently purified maqui preparations were assessed during storage and thermal treatment at different pH values. By sequentially depleting the matrix, the influence of polar low-molecular-weight matrix constituents and non-anthocyanin phenolics was shown to be negligible. In contrast, pH substantially affected thermal stabilities of differently glycosylated cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. At pH 3.6, half-lives of 3-O-glycosides were substantially shorter than those of respective 3,5-O-diglycosides. However, at pH 2.2, an inverse stability behavior was observed. Findings were corroborated using isolated pigments. Upon heating, cyanidin derivatives were more stable than their respective delphinidins, but their stability was similar during storage. Anthocyanins in liquid samples were more stable when stored at 4 °C as compared to 20 °C, whereas those in dried powders revealed maximum stability throughout storage. The study contains a detailed discussion and mechanistic hypothesis for the above-mentioned findings, providing insights relevant for food applications of maqui anthocyanins. PMID:26338479

  2. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily. PMID:24260673

  3. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily. PMID:24260673

  4. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically. PMID:15936215

  5. Defining Workplace Literacy Education in Massachusetts. A Survey of Workplace Literacy Education Programs in Massachusetts, Conducted in September and October 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.; Kale, Cerci

    A survey of 42 Massachusetts workplace literacy programs was conducted in fall 1989 to determine whether the programs generally fit a standard definition of workplace literacy derived from "A Guide to Developing Instruction for Workforce Literacy Programs" by Jorie W. Philippi. The study's seven-item questionnaire included the definition to which…

  6. Study of Upper Miocene Oysters(Plecypoda) From the Mishan Formation in south west of Firuzabad, Fars, Iran(Zagros mountain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbozorgi, Mehdi; Sabouhi, Mostafa; Nabavi, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    The out crapes of Mishan Formation located in Aghar area(Firuzabad city) south west of Fars and 70km south west of Firuzabad. this Formation mostly consist of limestone, marly limestone and marlstone with 800m thickness. 6key beds distinctive from limestone beds are recognized in this area. this key beds are useful for local and regional correlation in Zagros mountains. the key beds from base to top are: Red algae, Bryozoa, Gastropoda and Plecypoda, Crabs and Oysters. Mishan Formation in this area is between Gachsaran F.M(Under Formation), Conformable and Aghajari F.M(Upper Formation), Conformable. With due attention to rang and distribution of the Macrofossils, 5 local assmblage biozone were recognized, that is confirming time limit from Early- Upper Miocene. this research cheked and controled a biostrom Plecypoda(Oysters) level by thickness 3- 4m. this biostrom located around 550m the base of section. Ofcurse more of this Plecypoda be assinged to order pterriodia and Genus Oyster. Along with Oysters, Pecten and Venus can be see. This biostrom made up a bioclastic shoal shallow deep in the margin of sea Miocene. This Oysters report from Mishan Formation of Firuzabad, Fars, Zagros, Iran: Ostrea virleti var. crassicostat, Ostrea virleti Desh var. persica, Ostrea digitatai Echiwald var. rohlfsi, Ostrea lamellose. Ostrea cf. biowwondeli. Master of science in Geology (Paleontology), University of Isfahan, Iran.

  7. Genomic resource development for shellfish of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma B; Friedman, Carolyn S; Metzger, Dave C; White, Samuel J; Roberts, Steven B

    2013-03-01

    Effective conservation of threatened species depends on the ability to assess organism physiology and population demography. To develop genomic resources to better understand the dynamics of two ecologically vulnerable species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, larval transcriptomes were sequenced for the pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, and the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida. Based on comparative species analysis the Ostrea lurida transcriptome (41 136 contigs) is relatively complete. These transcriptomes represent the first significant contribution to genomic resources for both species. Genes are described based on biological function with particular attention to those associated with temperature change, oxidative stress and immune function. In addition, transcriptome-derived genetic markers are provided. Together, these resources provide valuable tools for future studies aimed at conservation of Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, Ostrea lurida and related species. PMID:23280275

  8. Revision of the South American window fly genus Heteromphrale Kröber, 1937 (Diptera, Scenopinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Gaimari, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical window fly genus Heteromphrale Kröber, 1937 is revised. Two previously described species (Heteromphrale chilensis (Kröber, 1937) and Heteromphrale cyanops (Edwards, 1932)) are redescribed while a new species (Heteromphrale blanca sp. n.) is described from Argentina. The male of Heteromphrale chilensis and female of Heteromphrale cyanops are described and figured for the first time, and a key to species is presented. PMID:21594165

  9. CADMIUM IN BLOOD AND URINE AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS WITH HIGH CADMIUM INTAKE VIA FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...

  10. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.136 Olympia oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea...

  11. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  12. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  13. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  14. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  15. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. PMID:25850286

  16. [Study on professor Yan Zhenghua's medication regularity in treating heart diseases based on association rules and entropy cluster].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Yue

    2015-04-01

    In this study, Professor Yan Zhenghua's recipes for treating heart diseases were collected to determine the frequency and association rules among drugs by such data mining methods as apriori algorithm and complex system entropy cluster and summarize Pro- fessor Yan Zhenghua's medication experience in treating heart diseases. The results indicated that frequently used drugs included Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Ostreae Concha, Poria; frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha, Draconis Os", "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen" , and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen". The drug combinations with the confidence of 1 included "Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum-->Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma", "Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus-->Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Draconis Os-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizac Radix et Rhizoma, Draconis Os-->Ostreae Concha". The core drug combinations included" Chrysanthemi Flos-Gastrodiae Rhizoma-Tribuli Fructus", "Dipsaci Radix-Taxillus sutchuenensis-Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix", and "Margaritifera Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Platycladi Semen-Draconis Os". PMID:26281606

  17. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  18. Species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 (Coleoptera: Melyridae)
    distributed to the East of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 distributed in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay have been revised. The morphological study of specimens and the review of the type material have resulted in a new combination: Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) n. comb. (from Astylus Laporte, 1836), and four new synonymies: Arthrobrachus rufitarsis Philippi & Philippi, 1864 = A. obscuripes Pic, 1927 n. syn.; Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) = A. xanthurus (Blanchard, 1843) n. syn. = A. boucardi Pic, 1919 n. syn. = A. lajoyei Pic, 1919 n. syn. Three species described by Steinheil (1874), Arthrobrachus depressus, Arthrobrachus testaceolimbatus and Arthrobrachus testaceus are considered as incertae sedis and Arthrobrachus quadrilineatus Steinheil, 1874 is transferred to Astylus Laporte, 1836 as A. steinheili nomen novum. Four new species of Arthrobrachus have been described: A. antonioi n. sp., A. eloisae n. sp., A. solervicensi n. sp. and A. armandoi n. sp. Distributional data and a key to the species are provided. PMID:27394460

  19. Solar Heater in a West Virginia College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar space-heating and hot water system installed at Alderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, is described in 87-page document. Report contains description of building and its solar-energy system; specifications for solar-energy system, including collectors, coolant, storage tanks, circulation equipment, piping, controls, and insulation; acceptance test data; and discussion of problems with installation, their solution, and recommendations for dealing with excess solar energy.

  20. Amino-acid racemizarion in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; Clifton, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Extents of racemization ( d l ratios) of amino acids in fossil Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) and Ostrea lurida Carpenter were measured on shell deposits exposed at 21 sites on the east side of Willapa Bay, Washington. Amino acids from Saxidomus show less variability in d Spl ratios and, therefore, are of greater use in correlation and age estimation than are amino acids from Ostrea. Shells of two different ages, about 120,000 ?? 40,000 yr old and about 190,000 ?? 40,000 yr old, are present. These ages correspond to Stages 5 and 7 of the marine isotope record defined by Shackleton and Opdyke in 1973 and hence the shell deposits likely formed during two different high stands of sea level. The stratigraphic record at Willapa Bay is consistent with this interpretation. ?? 1979.

  1. Some hepatic neoplasms in non-domesticated birds.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P F; Majeed, S K; Brancker, W M; Jones, D M

    1978-10-01

    A metastasising hepatocellular carcinoma in a Lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), a metastasising bile duct carcinoma in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) and a liver cell adenoma in a Luzon hornbill (Buceros hydrocerox hydrocerox) are described. Hepatic neoplasia in birds is discussed. PMID:18770409

  2. Interannual variability in the skate assemblage on the South Patagonian shelf and slope.

    PubMed

    Winter, A; Pompert, J; Arkhipkin, A; Brewin, P E

    2015-12-01

    Observer data from the commercial fishery on the Patagonian shelf and slope around the Falkland Islands (home to an assemblage of >16 skate species (Rajiformes), for which commercial catches have been recorded since 1987), as well as survey data from an area closed to skate target fishing after exploitation, were summarized by species to examine changes in the population status of individual skate species. Total skate catch per unit effort increased significantly in the target fishery since 1994, and four species have made up >85% of all skate catch. Bathyraja brachyurops and Zearaja chilensis increased significantly in catch proportions and abundance from 1994 to 2013. Bathyraja albomaculata and Bathyraja griseocauda decreased significantly before rebounding with trends of increasing abundance. Concurrently, B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis showed decreasing trends in size at 50% maturity in areas where skates continue to be targeted commercially. The increasing abundances and concomitant reductions in size at maturity of B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis suggest either plasticity in life-history traits or a density-dependent growth response to fishing pressure. Bathyraja griseocauda decreased in size at 50% maturity in the area that was closed to skate target fishing, where it was initially larger, but only decreased to the same average size as in the commercially targeted areas. Bathyraja albomaculata and Z. chilensis are IUCN-listed as vulnerable and B. griseocauda is listed as endangered, but their abundance trends since 1994 indicate that these populations are not declining in Falkland waters. PMID:26709216

  3. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  4. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  5. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  6. First record of the sicklefin devilray Mobula tarapacana (Myliobatiformes: Mobulidae) from Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Clinton A J; Vogiatzis, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The sicklefin devilray Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1892) is one of the largest and least known mobulids (Compagno & Last 1999; Couturier et al. 2012). Collections, fisheries bycatch data and visual records suggest it is primarily oceanic, with a circumglobal tropical and warm temperate distribution (Notarbartolo-di-Sciara 1987; Compagno & Last 1999; Gadig & Sampaio 2002; White et al. 2006a, b; Weir et al. 2012; Sobral 2013; Tomita et al. 2013). In the Pacific Ocean it has been recorded from Chile, Gulf of California, Japan, Taiwan, South China Sea and Indonesia (Compagno & Last 1999; White et al. 2006b; Couturier et al. 2012; Tomita et al. 2013). PMID:27395579

  7. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  8. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae.

    PubMed

    Breure, Abraham S H; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented. All species are illustrated by photographs of the type material or, if this could not be located, by a reproduction of the original figure. The following new taxon is introduced: Thaumastus (Thaumastus) sumaqwayqu sp. n. Junior subjective synonyms are established for: Plekocheilus (Sparnotion) Pilsbry, 1944 = Plekocheilus (Eudolichotis) Pilsbry, 1896; Scholvienia (Thomsenia) Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia Strebel, 1910; Sultana (Trachyorthalicus) Strebel, 1909 = Sultana (Metorthalicus) Pilsbry, 1899; Plekocheilus (Eurytus) conspicuus Pilsbry, 1932 = Thaumastus (Thaumastus) hartwegi (Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1846); Zebra gruneri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus maracaibensis (Pfeiffer, 1856); Scholvienia jaspidea minor Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia alutacea (Reeve, 1850); Bulimus bifasciatus unicolor Philippi, 1869 = Scholvienia brephoides (d'Orbigny, 1835). A new status is given to Plekocheilus mcgintyi 'Pilsbry' H.B. Baker, 1963 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Strophocheilus superstriatus var. prodeflexus Pilsbry, 1895 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Thaumastus (Quechua) salteri maximus Weyrauch, 1967 (subspecies of Thaumastus (Quechua) olmosensis Zilch, 1954); Pseudoglandina agitata Weyrauch, 1967 (nomen inquirendum). New combinations are: Clathrorthalicus corydon (Crosse, 1869), and Cyclodontina chuquisacana (Marshall, 1930). Lectotypes are now designated for Bulimus incisus Hupé, 1857 and Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837

  9. A revision of the chigger mite genus Paratrombicula Goff & Whitaker, 1984 (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The monotypic chigger mite genus Paratrombicula Goff & Whitaker, 1984 is expanded to include five species. Two new species of chiggers, parasitising iguanid lizards in Chile, Paratrombicula chilensis n. sp. and P. goffi n. sp., are described, and two species, P. neuquenensis (Goff & Gettinger, 1995) n. comb. and Paratrombicula plaumanni (Brennan & Jones, 1964) n. comb., are transferred to this genus from Parasecia Loomis, 1966 and Neotrombicula Hirst, 1925, respectively. A key to the species of Paratrombicula is presented. PMID:22983798

  10. Description of a New Temnocephala Species (Platyhelminthes) from the Southern Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile

    2015-08-01

    The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus. PMID:25871978

  11. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of prosopis chilenses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abodola, MA; Lutfi, MF; Bakhiet, AO; Mohamed, AH

    2015-01-01

    Background Prosopis chilensis is used locally in Sudan for inflammatory conditions of joints; however, literature lacks scientific evidence for anti-inflammatory effect of this plant. Aims To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of prosopis chilenses. Material and Methods Edema inhibition percent (EI %) and hot plate method were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Prosopis chilenses in Wistar albino rats. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Prosopis chilenses were compared to indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid respectively. Results Ethanolic extract of prosopis chilensis at a dose of 200 and 100mg/kg body weight achieved peak EI% (EI% = 96.1%) and (EI% = 94.4%) three and four hours after oral dosing respectively. The maximum EI% for indomethacin was 97.0% and was recorded after 4 hours following oral administration of the drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. Prosopis chilensis extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the rats’ response time to hot plate compared to acetylsalicylic acid at a dose rate of 100mg/kg body weight (P<0.05). Conclusion The current results suggest potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of prosopis chilenses. Relevance of these effects to prosopis chilenses phy-to-constituents was discussed. PMID:26609291

  12. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  13. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Mesas, Andres; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  14. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus

  15. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. PMID:25553580

  16. [Comparative analysis of trace elements in five marine-derived shell TCM using multivariate statistical analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Zhen; Fu, Yu-qiang; Gong, Hui-li; Guan, Hua-shi; Liu, Hong-bing

    2015-11-01

    A comparable study were carried out by determination of trace elements on five marine-derived shell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (Ostreae Concha, Haliotidis Concha, Margaritifera Concha, Meretricis Concha, and Arcae Concha), which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version). Seven trace elements in 51 batches of this type of shell TCM were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) methods. The content of element Se, which exhibited significant differences among different drugs, could be used as a key element to distinguish this type of drugs. Meanwhile, the contents of elements Co, Cu, Mo, and Ba in Haliotidis Concha, Co and As in Margaritifera Concha, Mo and As in Meretricis Concha, Mo, As, and Ba in Arcae Concha, and Zn in Meretricis Concha were relatively stable. In the PCA plot, Arcae Concha and Meretricis Concha could be efficiently distinguished from Ostreae Concha together with Haliotidis Concha, and Margaritifera Concha. The results also showed a correlation with their medicinal function. In conclusion, trace elements in marine-derived shell TCM could not be neglected for their quality control. PMID:27071261

  17. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  18. The families Carditidae and Condylocardiidae in the Magellan and Perú-Chile provinces (Bivalvia: Carditoidea).

    PubMed

    Güller, Marina; Zelaya, Diego G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of available types and extant collections, this paper provides a systematic revision of the living species of Carditoidea occurring in the Magellan and Perú-Chile Provinces. Out of the 19 nominal species reported for the area, eight species are recognized as valid: Cyclocardia compressa, C. spurca, C. thouarsii, C. velutina, Carditella naviformis, C. semen, C. tegulata and Carditopsis flabellum. Other eight nominal species are regarded as synonyms: Cardita magellanica of Cyclocardia velutina; Carditella pallida of C. tegulata; Cardita australis and Actinobolus philippi of Carditella naviformis; Cardium pygmaeum of Carditella semen; Cardita paeteliana of Cyclocardia spurca; Carditella pallida duodecimcostata of Carditopsis flabellum; and Cardita congelascens of Cyclocardia thouarsii. Furthermore, Cardita malvinae and Cardium parvulum are nomina dubia, and the occurrence of Carditella exulata in Magellanic waters is doubtful. PMID:25243284

  19. Trichocytes in Lithophyllum kotschyanum and Lithophyllum spp. (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the NW Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniela; Caragnano, Annalisa; Rodondi, Graziella

    2014-08-01

    The current diagnosis of the genus Lithophyllum includes absent or rare trichocyte occurrence. After examining holotype material, single trichocytes have been revealed to occur abundantly in Lithophyllum kotschyanum Unger, and in freshly collected specimens of Lithophyllum spp. from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Socotra Island (Yemen). Trichocyte occurrence is not considered a diagnostic character at specific or supraspecific levels in the Lithophylloideae, and the ecological significance of trichocyte formation is discussed. The generitype species, L. incrustans Philippi, does not show trichocytes nor do many other Lithophyllum species from diverse geographic localities, but the presence of abundant trichocytes in other congeneric taxa requires emendation of the genus diagnosis. Therefore, the diagnosis of Lithophyllum is here emended by eliminating the adjective "rare" in the sentence concerning trichocyte occurrence, as follows: "Trichocytes present or absent, if present occurring singly." PMID:26988454

  20. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  1. Brachiopods from off the San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean), with comments on specific synonymies in Tichosina Cooper, 1977.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alexis; Gracia, Adriana; Patarroyo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Colombian brachiopod faunas have not been studied extensively. Only three brachiopod species have been reported from the Colombian Caribbean Sea so far, namely Argyrotheca barrettiana (Davidson, 1866), Terebratulina latifrons Dall, 1920, and the cosmopolitan Platidia anomioides (Scacchi & Philippi, 1844). In this work, brachiopods collected from deep-water environments (90-250 m) off the San Bernardo Archipelago, collected during the MARCORAL cruise, are examined. The studied material consists of four species, two of which are new records for Colombia: Terebratulina cailleti Crosse, 1865 and Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. The genus Tichosina belongs to the family Terebratulidae and comprises twenty extant species occurring across the Caribbean. Based on a revision of published descriptions and illustrations, we synonymize Tichosina bullisi Cooper, 1977 and Tichosina dubia Cooper, 1977 with Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. Remarkably, apart from reports from southern Guiana, T. plicata is restricted to the margins of the Caribbean plate.  PMID:25661925

  2. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented. All species are illustrated by photographs of the type material or, if this could not be located, by a reproduction of the original figure. The following new taxon is introduced: Thaumastus (Thaumastus) sumaqwayqu sp. n. Junior subjective synonyms are established for: Plekocheilus (Sparnotion) Pilsbry, 1944 = Plekocheilus (Eudolichotis) Pilsbry, 1896; Scholvienia (Thomsenia) Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia Strebel, 1910; Sultana (Trachyorthalicus) Strebel, 1909 = Sultana (Metorthalicus) Pilsbry, 1899; Plekocheilus (Eurytus) conspicuus Pilsbry, 1932 = Thaumastus (Thaumastus) hartwegi (Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1846); Zebra gruneri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus maracaibensis (Pfeiffer, 1856); Scholvienia jaspidea minor Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia alutacea (Reeve, 1850); Bulimus bifasciatus unicolor Philippi, 1869 = Scholvienia brephoides (d’Orbigny, 1835). A new status is given to Plekocheilus mcgintyi ‘Pilsbry’ H.B. Baker, 1963 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Strophocheilus superstriatus var. prodeflexus Pilsbry, 1895 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Thaumastus (Quechua) salteri maximus Weyrauch, 1967 (subspecies of Thaumastus (Quechua) olmosensis Zilch, 1954); Pseudoglandina agitata Weyrauch, 1967 (nomen inquirendum). New combinations are: Clathrorthalicus corydon (Crosse, 1869), and Cyclodontina chuquisacana (Marshall, 1930). Lectotypes are now designated for Bulimus incisus Hupé, 1857 and Bulinus piperitus

  3. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  4. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  5. Dendocarbin A: a sesquiterpene lactone from Drimys winteri.

    PubMed

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound dendocarbin A, C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated for the first time from Drimys winteri for var chilensis. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁ and its X-ray crystal structure confirmed the S/R character of the chiral centres at C-5/C-10 and C-9/C-11, respectively. The α-OH group at C-11 was found to be involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding, defining chains along the <100> 2₁ screw axis. PMID:25370095

  6. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism. PMID:25836288

  7. Sequence conservation of an avian centromeric repeated DNA component.

    PubMed

    Madsen, C S; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    1994-06-01

    The approximately 190-bp centromeric repeat monomers of the spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus, Charadriidae), the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopteridae), the sarus crane (Grus antigone, Gruidae), parrots (Psittacidae), waterfowl (Anatidae), and the merlin (Falco columbarius, Falconidae) contain elements that are interspecifically highly variable, as well as elements (trinucleotides and higher order oligonucleotides) that are highly conserved in sequence and relative location within the repeat. Such conservation suggests that the centromeric repeats of these avian species have evolved from a common ancestral sequence that may date from very early stages of avian radiation. PMID:8034177

  8. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit. PMID:23409438

  9. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  10. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a polyadenylate synthase from Megavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Jeudy, Sandra; Bertaux, Lionel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is also the most complex virus sequenced to date, with a 1.26 Mb double-stranded DNA genome encoding 1120 genes. The two viruses share common regulatory elements such as a peculiar palindrome governing the termination/polyadenylation of viral transcripts. They also share a predicted polyadenylate synthase that presents a higher than average percentage of residue conservation. The Megavirus enzyme Mg561 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A 2.24 Å resolution MAD data set was recorded from a single crystal on the ID29 beamline at the ESRF. PMID:23295487

  11. Paragonimosis in the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, W; Huiza, A; Espinoza, Y; Alva, P; Sevilla, C; Centurion, W

    2000-01-01

    Stool samples from 409 pre-school and school students, living in six villages of the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Perú, were examined using wet preparations and Lumbreras' method, looking for Paragonimus eggs. Fecal and sputum samples from two children (0. 5%) of 6 and 8 year-old showed eggs of Paragonimus. One hundred and twenty freshwater crabs, Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni, were collected from the Condebamba valley and 21 (17.5%) of them were infected with P. mexicanus (syn. P. peruvianus) metacercariae. Our results show the persistence of Paragonimus in human beings and in the main source of infection, the crabs. PMID:11058933

  12. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    PubMed

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  13. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules. PMID:11007180

  14. The caudinid sea cucumbers of New Zealand (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Molpadida: Caudinidae).

    PubMed

    Davey, Nicola; O'Loughlin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Five species of Caudinidae occur in New Zealandwaters. Two new species are described: Paracaudina alta sp. nov.; Paracaudina reductia sp. nov. Two species reported previously are discussed: Paracaudina chilensis (Müller) and Paracaudina coriacea (Hutton). A lectotype has been established for P. coriacea (Hutton). Hedingia albicans var. glabra (Théel) is raised out of synonymy with Hedingia albicans (Théel), and the variety elevated to species status as Hedingia glabra (Théel). A key is provided for the New Zealand species of Caudinidae. PMID:24698923

  15. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a polyadenylate synthase from Megavirus.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Audrey; Jeudy, Sandra; Bertaux, Lionel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is also the most complex virus sequenced to date, with a 1.26 Mb double-stranded DNA genome encoding 1120 genes. The two viruses share common regulatory elements such as a peculiar palindrome governing the termination/polyadenylation of viral transcripts. They also share a predicted polyadenylate synthase that presents a higher than average percentage of residue conservation. The Megavirus enzyme Mg561 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A 2.24 Å resolution MAD data set was recorded from a single crystal on the ID29 beamline at the ESRF. PMID:23295487

  16. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Natalia V.; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Rakitov, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied. PMID:25610543

  17. New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Eight species are recognized among New World species of Asymphyloptera Collin, including seven new species (A. cajanuma sp. nov. (Ecuador), A. chilensis sp. nov. (Chile), A. chiricahua sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. dominica sp. nov. (Dominica), A. havasu sp. nov. (USA: Arizona), A. lutea sp. nov. (Costa Rica) and A. mexicana sp. nov. (Mexico)). The new species are described, male terminalia illustrated, distributions mapped and a key to species is presented. Two additional undescribed species based on single females, are known from Ecuador and Venezuela. PMID:26624767

  18. New species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland (Acari: Uropodina: Dinychidae).

    PubMed

    Kontschán, Jenő; Ripka, Géza

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland supercontinent. Dinychus indica sp. nov. from India belongs to the Dinychus woelkei-group It differs from the previously known Dinychus species on the basis of the sculptural pattern of the sternal and genital shields of female. The female of Dinychus chilensis sp. nov. from Chile has a quadrangular genital shield, which is a unique character state in the genus Dinychus. New keys to the Central and South American Dinychus and to Dinychus woelkei-group are presented. PMID:27470769

  19. Whole-genome amplification: a useful approach to characterize new genes in unculturable protozoan parasites such as Bonamia exitiosa.

    PubMed

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Couraleau, Yann; Chollet, Bruno; Tourbiez, Delphine; Arzul, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Bonamia exitiosa is an intracellular parasite (Haplosporidia) that has been associated with mass mortalities in oyster populations in the Southern hemisphere. This parasite was recently detected in the Northern hemisphere including Europe. Some representatives of the Bonamia genus have not been well categorized yet due to the lack of genomic information. In the present work, we have applied Whole-Genome Amplification (WGA) technique in order to characterize the actin gene in the unculturable protozoan B. exitiosa. This is the first protein coding gene described in this species. Molecular analysis revealed that B. exitiosa actin is more similar to Bonamia ostreae actin gene-1. Actin phylogeny placed the Bonamia sp. infected oysters in the same clade where the herein described B. exitiosa actin resolved, offering novel information about the classification of the genus. Our results showed that WGA methodology is a promising and valuable technique to be applied to unculturable protozoans whose genomic material is limited. PMID:26282916

  20. Contribution to the study of the physico-chemical structure of Clais

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebert, Remy; Britt, S. E., (translator)

    1954-01-01

    The Cormeilles-en-Parisis hill shows one of the best geologic sections of the Paris region. The 80 meter high working face of the quarry exposes the complete section of the "Ludian" [the youngest beds of the Eocene] with its alternations of the marl and gypsum. Above is the sequence of supra-gypseous marls of the [lower oligocene] Sannosian stage, overlain by a very complex series of alternation brackish water and lacustrine layers, from blue marls to Brie limestone, up through the white Pantin marls, brown marls containing the pelecypod genus Cyrena and green marls. These strata overlain by the [Middle Oligocene] Stampian beds represented by the Fontainebleau sands and Ostrea-bearing marls. 

  1. US Mussel Watch Program: Transuranic element data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1976-1983. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, J.; Livingston, H.; Farrington, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus californianus, Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea equestris) were collected once per year during 1976, 1977, and 1978 along the United States coast and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am and (137)Cs as part of the U.S. Mussel Watch program. Monthly samples were collected during 1976-1980 from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Bodega Head, California and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am, and (137)Cs. There is no evidence in the data for systematic regional or local elevated concentrations of radionuclides as a result of releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Monthly fluctuations in radionuclide concentrations in the Narragansett Bay mussels appear to be primarily influenced by spawning.

  2. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs. PMID:26988224

  3. Interspecific variation in patterns of adhesion of marine fouling to silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Holm, Eric R; Kavanagh, Christopher J; Meyer, Anne E; Wiebe, Deborah; Nedved, Brian T; Wendt, Dean; Smith, Celia M; Hadfield, Michael G; Swain, Geoff; Wood, Christina Darkangelo; Truby, Kathryn; Stein, Judith; Montemarano, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The adhesion of six fouling organisms: the barnacle Balanus eburneus, the gastropod mollusc Crepidulafornicata, the bivalve molluscs Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea/Dendrostrea spp., and the serpulid tubeworms Hydroides dianthus and H. elegans, to 12 silicone fouling-release surfaces was examined. Removal stress (adhesion strength) varied among the fouling species and among the surfaces. Principal component analysis of the removal stress data revealed that the fouling species fell into two distinct groups, one comprising the bivalve molluscs and tubeworms, and the other the barnacle and the gastropod mollusc. None of the silicone materials generated a minimum in removal stress for all the organisms tested, although several surfaces produced low adhesion strengths for both groups of species. These results suggest that fouling-release materials do not rank (in terms of adhesion strength) identically for all fouling organisms, and thus development of a globally-effective hull coating will continue to require testing against a diversity of encrusting species. PMID:17290867

  4. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union. PMID:22946164

  5. Leaf morphological and genetic divergence in populations of Drimys (Winteraceae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Jara-Arancio, P; Carmona, M R; Correa, C; Squeo, F A; Arancio, G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Drimys is distributed in Chile from semi-arid zones to sub-Antarctic forests; there are three species of this tree, D. andina, D. confertifolia and D. winteri, the latter with varieties chilensis and winteri. Northern populations are found in small disjunct natural refuges, specifically mountain cloud forests and the bottom of ravines. The size and continuity of populations are greater in the south, where wetter conditions prevail. Morphological differences between populations have been observed, particularly between the northern populations of Fray Jorge and Talinay. This observation, led to the following questions: a) what is the level of morphological and genetic divergence among the populations of Drimys in Chile? and b) do the populations from Fray Jorge/Talinay, currently classified as D. winteri var. chilensis, differ genetically from the other populations of this variety? To answer these questions, we collected leaf samples from 37 populations of all Chilean Drimys, performed leaf morphology analysis and estimated genetic divergence using RAPD markers. We found a high degree of leaf morphological and genetic divergence between the populations of Fray Jorge/Talinay and the other Chilean species of Drimys. The morphological and genetic divergence among varieties of D. winteri was greater than that among the species of Drimys, which may indicate problems with their taxonomic classification. PMID:22370890

  6. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g. PMID:19137996

  7. Mytilid mussels: global habitat engineers in coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Dittmann, Sabine; Hong, Jae-Sang; Hwang, In-Seo; Strasser, Matthias; Thiel, Martin; Valdivia, Nelson; Yoon, San-Pil; Reise, Karsten

    2009-03-01

    Dense beds of mussels of the family Mytilidae occur worldwide on soft-bottoms in cold and warm temperate coastal waters and have usually been considered hot spots of biodiversity. We examined intertidal mussel beds at four distant locations around the globe with the same sampling method, to find out whether this “hot spot” designation holds universally. We studied species assemblages within the matrices of byssally interconnected mussels engineered by Mytilus edulis in the North Sea, by mixed Perumytilus purpuratus and Mytilus chilensis at the southern Chilean coast, by Musculista senhousia in the Yellow Sea and by Xenostrobus inconstans at the coast of southern Australia. In all cases, species assemblages inside mussel beds were significantly different from those outside with many species being restricted to one habitat type. However, species richness and diversity were not generally higher in mussel beds than in ambient sediments without mussels. In the North Sea ( M. edulis) and at the Chilean coast ( P. purpuratus, M. chilensis), mussel beds have markedly higher species numbers and diversities than surrounding sediments, but this was not the case for mussel beds in Australia ( X. inconstans) and the Yellow Sea ( M. senhousia) where numbers of associated species were only slightly higher and somewhat lower than in adjacent sediments, respectively. In conclusion, although soft bottom mytilid mussels generally enhance habitat heterogeneity and species diversity at the ecosystem level, mussel beds themselves are not universal centres of biodiversity, but the effects on associated species are site specific.

  8. Morphology, nectar characteristics and avian pollinators in five Andean Puya species (Bromeliaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung-Leoni, C. T.; González-Gómez, P. L.; Troncoso, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Five Andean Puya species (Puya alpestris, Puya chilensis, Puya coerulea, Puya raimondii and Puya venusta) were studied to determine the relationship between their avian visitors, and plant morphology and nectar characteristics. Our results showed a significant relationship between nectar concentration, presence of sterile apex and avian pollinators's species. In contrast, nectar composition was not related to the frequency of avian visits. We found that Puya species were mainly visited by specialist nectarivorous birds such as hummingbirds (i.e., P. coerulea and P. venusta), lacked a sterile apex and produced high nectar concentration in low volumes. In contrast, species mainly visited by generalist passerines (i.e., P. chilensis and P. alpestris) were characterized by the presence of a sterile apex and production of highly diluted nectar in large volumes. In a mono-specific group we found that P. raimondii produces highly concentrated nectar in large volumes, and its flowers were visited by hummingbirds and passerine birds. We found no effect of nectar composition on bird's visits. Our study highlights the interplay between morphological traits, nectar characteristics and the ecological framework to explain specialized and generalized birds pollination systems.

  9. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  10. Revision of Cervonema Wieser, 1954 and Laimella Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) with descriptions of two species from East Sea, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Ho; Tchesunov, Alexei V; Lee, Wonchoel

    2016-01-01

    One new and one known species of the family Comesomatidae Filiepjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments in the East Sea, Korea. Cervonema donghaensis sp. nov. is related to C. proximamphidum Tchesunov, 2000 and C. chilensis Chen & Vincx, 2000 but differs from them by the presence of the gubernaculum and by having outer labial setae and cephalic setae of unequal length. It differs from C. proximamphidum by having a rather shorter tail and the shape of the posterior widening of the pharynx, which has distinct muscular striation. Cervonema donghaensis sp. nov. differs from C. chilensis in body length, higher de Man's ratio c, and having a shorter cylindrical portion of the tail. Cervonema deltensis Hope & Zhang 1995 is considered as a junior synonym of C. tenuicauda (Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1950) Wieser, 1954. Specimens of Laimella filipjevi Jensen, 1979 from East Sea, Korea largely agree with the original description of Jensen (1979) of nematodes from the Western Baltic Sea, except for slight differences in length of cephalic setae and spicules. It also coincides well with the redescription of L. filipjevi by Tchesunov (2000) based on specimens from the White Sea. Pictorial keys for the identification of valid species in the genera Cervonema Wieser, 1954 and Laimella Cobb, 1920 are given. PMID:27394589

  11. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  12. Inquiring into the causes of depressed folivory in a fragmented temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Claudia A.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2009-05-01

    Folivory is lower in forest fragments of the Maulino forest than in continuous stands. We experimentally assessed whether depressed folivory is related to a reduction in foliar palatability caused by the more xeric microclimate of forest fragments. We compared leaf anatomy at fragments and continuous forest for four tree species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba, Nothofagus glauca and Gevuina avellana), and evaluated consumption of leaves of the two different habitats by insect species ( Sericoides viridis and Ormiscodes rufosignata). Anatomy of leaves of fragments differs from that from continuous forest in at least one of the traits, for all the plant species. However, not all species exhibit more sclerophyllous traits in forest fragments. A. chilensis exhibits the greatest number of changes, being more sclerophyllous in fragments. In palatability trials, there were no differences in the consumption of leaves of fragments versus leaves of continuous forest. Therefore, depressed folivory levels in forest remnants of the Maulino forest do not seem to be attributable to reduced foliar palatability, suggesting that changes in the insect assemblage, and not palatability, account for reduced herbivory in fragmented forests.

  13. Pterygosomatid mites of a new species group ligare (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) parasitizing tree iguanas (Squamata: Liolaemidae: Liolaemus).

    PubMed

    Fajfer, Monika; González Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A new species group, ligare, is established within the subgenus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) based on an analysis of female morphology. This group includes 6 newly described species--all from Liolaemus spp. (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Chile: P. ligare sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. ovata sp. nov., and P. levissima sp. nov. from Liolaemuspictus; P chilensis sp. nov. from L. chilensis, and P. cyanogasteri sp. nov. from L. cyanogaster. The ligare species group differs from other mites of the subgenus Pterygosoma by the presence of the movable cheliceral digit without a basal spur, solenidion Ω of the palp tarsus, anterior mid-dorsal setae, large number of setae (about 200-300 pairs) on the lateral and the posterior parts of the idiosomal dorsum and the lateral parts of the idiosomal venter, by the idiosomal hypertrichy of ventro-median setae vm, setae 3a located outside of coxal fields II, the absence of setae 4b, the presence of paired setae tc and vs on tarsi III-IV, 5 setae on tibiae II-IV, 4 or 5 setae on genua I, II, 3 setae on genua III-IV, 5 setae on femur I, 5 or 4 setae on femur II and 3 setae on femur III. A key to females of the new species group is provided. Pterygosoma patagonica Dittmar de la Cruz, Morando and Avila, 2004 insufficiently described but showing most characterisitcs of ligare group is considered as nomen dubium. PMID:26185849

  14. Fleas associated with non-flying small mammal communities from northern and central Chile: with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Bazán-León, E A; Lareschi, M; Sanchez, J; Soto-Nilo, G; Lazzoni, I; Venegas, C I; Poblete, Y; Vásquez, R A

    2013-12-01

    Fleas associated with small mammals from seven localities from northern and central Chile were assessed. We captured 352 small mammals belonging to 12 species from which we obtained 675 fleas belonging to 15 different species. The most frequently captured flea species were Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina (n = 198) and N. chilensis (n = 175). High values of flea species richness and diversity were found in Fray Jorge National Park (NP), a north-central Chilean site, whereas the highest values of mean abundance (MA) and prevalence were found in three diverse sites that include Los Molles River, a high altitude site located in north-central Chile, Fray Jorge NP and Dichato, in south-central Chile. On the other hand, high values of flea richness and diversity were found on two rodent species, Abrothrix olivacea and A. longipilis, whereas the highest values of MA and prevalence were found on Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, A. longipilis and Phyllotis xanthopygus. A total of three new host recordings, nine new localities and nine new host species and locality recordings are reported. Also, this study represents the first known record of Tetrapsyllus (Tetrapsyllus) comis in Chile and the first ecological analysis of Neotyphloceras chilensis. PMID:23496338

  15. Baseline trace metals in bivalve molluscs from the Beagle Channel, Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2011-08-01

    In order to test the aptitude of individuals of Mytilus chilensis as biomonitors of heavy metals pollution in seawater, several samples of this mollusk together with surrounding seawater samples were collected along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in 2005 and 2007. The study, performed in seven locations strategically selected, involved the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seawaters and mollusks by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the calculation of the respective concentration factors (CFs). Obtained data were standardized and analyzed by multivariate techniques in order to establish differences between sampling sites and periods. Obtained results will be shown and the bioaccumulation ability of M. chilensis will be evaluated by comparison with results obtained for Mytilus species in different geographical marine areas. A fully discussion on the possibility of employing the results as background levels for comparative purposes in other marine waters of the world will be provided. The possible harm derived from human consumption of these mollusks will be also assessed. PMID:21544557

  16. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  17. The use of exopolysaccharide - producing cyanobacteria as biosorbents to remove copper from industrial waste - waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Federico; El Badaoui, Hajar; De Philippis, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in water bodies represent a widespread cause of pollution, and poses the need to develop novel technologies to remove metals at the source, abating the costs of the commonly used chemical and physio-chemical methods. The use of cyanobacteria as biosorbents has been acknowledged as a promising alternative, due to their charged polysaccharidic envelopes which have affinity for metal ions. Nonetheless, the reseach must move towards: i) assessing the effectiveness of the process towards complex wastewater solutions which contain chemical species that can interfere with the sorption process, also considering the characteristics of the used strains, and ii) developing novel devices that support biomass growth and use, in order to achieve a scaling up of the process. We compared the specific removal of three cyanobacteria, Cyanothece 16 Som 2, Cyanothece ET5 and Cyanospira capsulata, towards Cu2+ contained, with various other metals, in two industrial effluents (one at pH 1.26 and one at pH 10.26). The strains were selected due to their previously assayed affinity toward Cu2+ in pure solutions (De Philippis et al. 2011). Acid or basic pretreatments (respectively for the acid and the basic effluent) were performed in the tentative to increase the specific removal. Metal concentration in solution, before and after the contact with the biomasses, was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Specific removals resulted different to those obtained towards pure metal solutions, likely due to the presence of other competing ions. Cyanothece 16 Som 2 showed the highest Cu2+ specific removal towards both the effluents. The pretreatment was effective only in the case of the basic effluent. Results proved the capacity of Cyanothece 16 Som 2 to act as a selective Cu2+ sorbent even in the presence of complex solutions. A novel prototype device is being projected in order to support the growth and the immobilization of the cyanobacterial biomass for

  18. The role of microbial-produced extracellular polymeric matrix in the formation and survival of biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are complex communities commonly constituting organo-mineral layers in arid and semiarid environment having a major influence on these ecosystems (Belnap and Lange, 2001). They have high tolerance towards a-biotic stresses and fluctuations in moisture, illumination, salinity and nutrients. The plasticity exhibited by BSCs is hugely contributed by the presence of the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) that is synthesized by crustal organisms, notably cyanobacteria and microalgae. This polysaccharidic net plays key roles in biofilm relations with the surrounding constrained environment. Notably, EPM concurs in coping with water scarcity, freezing and salt stress; increases biolayers stability against erosion, and is involved in nutrient provision (Rossi and De Philippis, 2015). We conducted several investigations in a research area located in the Inner Mongolian desert (Inner Mongolia, China) where BSCs were induced over different sites through inoculation-based techniques performed in different years. Our studies were aimed at determining the role of EPM in BSC development and survival in such a hyper-arid system. This presentation will report the results concerning the role of EPM in water capture from non-rainfall sources, water maintenance at the topsoil, and in water infiltrability, the latter being a factor with important ecological implications. In additions we investigated the role of the matrix as a source of carbon for the crustal heterotrophs. Furthermore, EPM was extracted with methods optimized in our lab, aiming at removing tightly bound fractions and loosely bound fractions from BSCs having different ages. The fractions were analyzed in terms of monosaccharidic composition, and molecular weight (MW) distribution. We show how the relative amounts of uronic acids increase in the EPM with the age of the crusts, implying advantages for the community-water relations. In addition, we observed significant differences in MW

  19. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    PubMed

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  20. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundles to allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and Gl. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  1. Chilenopeptins A and B, Peptaibols from the Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori KSH 883.

    PubMed

    Otto, Alexander; Laub, Annegret; Wendt, Lucile; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Palfner, Götz; Becerra, José; Krüger, Dirk; Stadler, Marc; Wessjohann, Ludger; Westermann, Bernhard; Arnold, Norbert

    2016-04-22

    The Chilean Sepedonium aff. chalcipori strain KSH 883, isolated from the endemic Boletus loyo Philippi, was studied in a polythetic approach based on chemical, molecular, and biological data. A taxonomic study of the strain using molecular data of the ITS, EF1-α, and RPB2 barcoding genes confirmed the position of the isolated strain within the S. chalcipori clade, but also suggested the separation of this clade into three different species. Two new linear 15-residue peptaibols, named chilenopeptins A (1) and B (2), together with the known peptaibols tylopeptins A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the semisolid culture of strain KSH 883. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS(n) experiments in conjunction with comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis. Thus, the sequence of chilenopeptin A (1) was identified as Ac-Aib(1)-Ser(2)-Trp(3)-Aib(4)-Pro(5)-Leu(6)-Aib(7)-Aib(8)-Gln(9)-Aib(10)-Aib(11)-Gln(12)-Aib(13)-Leu(14)-Pheol(15), while chilenopeptin B (2) differs from 1 by the replacement of Trp(3) by Phe(3). Additionally, the total synthesis of 1 and 2 was accomplished by a solid-phase approach, confirming the absolute configuration of all chiral amino acids as l. Both the chilenopeptins (1 and 2) and tylopeptins (3 and 4) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic organisms. PMID:26953507

  2. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea. PMID:24827106

  3. Revision of the brachiopod genus Amphithyris (Rhynchonelliformea: Platidiidae) with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Nauendorf, Alice; Wörheide, Gert; Lüter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent brachiopod genus Amphithyris Thomson belongs to the family Platidiidae and to date comprises five species, A. seminula (Philippi, 1836), A. buckmani Thomson, 1918, A. hallettensis Foster, 1974, A. richardsonae Campbell & Fleming, 1981 and A. parva MacKinnon, Hiller, Long & Marshall, 2008. Like other platidiid genera, Amphithyris has a worldwide distribution, but is mainly found in the southern hemisphere, with the exception of A. seminula which occurs in the Mediterranean Sea. This study is the first revision of the genus Amphithyris. We describe two new species, A. cavernicola n. sp. from the Queensland Plateau, Coral Sea, Australia and A. comitodentis n. sp. from deep waters east of the South Island, New Zealand. A. cavernicola n. sp. represents the first record of the genus from Australian waters, whereas A. comitodentis n. sp. is the first species in the genus recorded from the deep sea. Additionally, we identified the type material of A. seminula in the brachiopod collection of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin and designated a lectotype for this species. Despite their simple shell morphology and few diagnostic features, we were able to clearly discriminate the (now) seven species by morphological (shell) characters such as absence/presence of a median septum, absence/presence of capillae, shell convexity and/or combinations of these. On the basis of all known records, the present distribution of Amphithyris spp. and a Cretaceous origin of the genus is discussed.  PMID:25112335

  4. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  5. The strong diachronous Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift in the Central European Basin: implications from the type-section of the Erfurt Formation (Lower Keuper, Triassic) and basin-wide correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Matthias; Henniger, Matthias; Barnasch, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the shallow marine Upper Muschelkalk Sea to the Lower Keuper fluvial plain represents the most diachronous facies shift of the entire Germanic Triassic. The type-section of the fluvial Lower Keuper (Erfurt Formation) is described in detail for the first time including biostratigraphic dating of the Muschelkalk/Keuper boundary. The type-section is integrated into a NNE-SSW cross section through the Central European Basin, and the Muschelkalk/Keuper facies shift is constrained by high-resolution conodont and ceratite biostratigraphy. Thus, the fundamental changes in palaeogeography, shifts of facies belts and stratal pattern architecture are visualised. Forced by a rapid transgression from Tethyan waters, the shallow marine Upper Muschelkalk Sea attained its maximum flooding in the lower conodont zone 2 ( sequens/pulcher to philippi/robustus zones). Subsequent slow continuous regression to the South was accompanied by step-by-step progradation of coastal to fluvial plain environments of the Lower Keuper, culminating in a fluvial plain extending to South Germany. Based on stratal patterns, an improved sequence-stratigraphic interpretation for the Upper Muschelkalk/Lower Keuper interval is suggested. In combination with biostratigraphic arguments, the new sequence-stratigraphy points to a revised correlation of this interval within the Tethyan Triassic, incorporating the positions of the Anisian/Ladinian and Fassanian/Longobardian boundaries.

  6. Nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fagbuaro, O.; Oso, J.A.; Edward, J.B.; Ogunleye, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Four species of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer, Archachatina marginata (saturalis) Philippi, Achatina achatina and Limicolaria spp.) were assessed for their proximate and mineral compositions aimed at establishing their nutritive values on wet weight basis. Analysis of muscle revealed that composition of crude protein varied from 18.66%±0.57% in Limicolaria spp. and 20.56%±0.05% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer; moisture content was 76.56%±0.04% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer and 78.68%±0.68% in Limicolaria spp. and ash was 1.34%±0.02% in Achatina achatina and 1.44%±0.01% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer. These values were statistically different from each other (P<0.05). Carbohydrate and fat content were generally low. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species. The concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium and sodium in the flesh of the snails were determined. Values of iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were consistently high while cobalt, copper and lead were not detected. Snails complement the required trace and minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human being, so it is recommended for regular consumption. PMID:16909467

  7. Nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fagbuaro, O; Oso, J A; Edward, J B; Ogunleye, R F

    2006-09-01

    Four species of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer, Archachatina marginata (saturalis) Philippi, Achatina achatina and Limicolaria spp.) were assessed for their proximate and mineral compositions aimed at establishing their nutritive values on wet weight basis. Analysis of muscle revealed that composition of crude protein varied from 18.66%+/-0.57% in Limicolaria spp. and 20.56%+/-0.05% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer; moisture content was 76.56%+/-0.04% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer and 78.68%+/-0.68% in Limicolaria spp. and ash was 1.34%+/-0.02% in Achatina achatina and 1.44%+/-0.01% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer. These values were statistically different from each other (P<0.05). Carbohydrate and fat content were generally low. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species. The concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium and sodium in the flesh of the snails were determined. Values of iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were consistently high while cobalt, copper and lead were not detected. Snails complement the required trace and minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human being, so it is recommended for regular consumption. PMID:16909467

  8. Comparison of the essential oils of leaves and stem bark from two different populations of Drimys winteri a Chilean herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Orlando; Christen, Phlippe; Cretton, Silvian; Barrero, Alejandro F; Lara, Armando; Herrador, M Mar

    2011-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of stem bark and leaves of Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Foster var. chilensis /DC A. Gray (Winteraceae) from Chiloe Island (ID) and Continental Chile (Santiago) (CD) were studied by GC and GC/MS. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted the main chemical groups in the stem bark oils, with alpha-santalene, trans-beta-bergamotene and curcumenes as the major components. Monoterpenes constituted the main chemical groups in the leaves of Island plants with alpha-pinene (23.1%) beta-pinene (43.6%) and linalool (10.5%) as the main components whereas sesquiterpenes (germacrene D 17.6%) and phenylpropanoids (safrole 20.8%) are the most abundant in the leaves of Continental plants. PMID:21815431

  9. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. PMID:10600742

  10. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages. PMID:23815554

  11. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  12. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  13. A new titanosaur sauropod from the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rubilar-Rogers, David; Vargas, Alexander; Suárez, Mario

    2011-03-01

    Partial remains of a titanosaur sauropod collected in the Tolar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) at the Atacama Desert (Antofagasta Region), northern Chile, is described, and a new species, Atacamatitan chilensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected. The material consists mainly of dorsal and caudal vertebrae, part of a humerus and a femur. The presence of a titanosaur confirms the Cretaceous age for the outcrops of red sandstone of the Tolar Formation whose age was previously uncertain, ranging from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleocene. The new specimen represents the most complete dinosaur reported for this region and one of the most complete titanosaur known from Chile and the pacific margin of South America so far. PMID:21437382

  14. A new species of sea anemone ( Saccactis coliumensis n. sp.) living under hypoxic conditions on the central Chilean shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann-Zürneck, Karin; Gallardo, Victor A.

    1990-09-01

    The new species Saccactis coliumensis is described with an emendation of genus Saccactis lager, 1911 (family Actiniidae). The taxonomic relations of the genus are discussed giving additional information on Isoulactis chilensis Carlgren, 1959 and Isocradactis magna sensu Carlgren, 1924. The terms “verrucae”, “vesicles” and “acrorhagi” are discussed and taxonomically valuated. The anemone S. coliumensis lives in eutrophicated sediments on the central Chilean shelf that is at least temporarily under the impact of deoxygenated waters from the Peru-Chile-Subsurface-Current. The most conspicuous features of the new species (the ruff of delicate, gill-like vesicles beneath the tentacles and its thick pedal disc ectoderm with small, fragile spirocysts and cilia-like structures) may be considered adaptive in this peculiar habitat.

  15. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  16. mRNA maturation in giant viruses: variation on a theme.

    PubMed

    Priet, Stéphane; Lartigue, Audrey; Debart, Françoise; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2015-04-20

    Giant viruses from the Mimiviridae family replicate entirely in their host cytoplasm where their genes are transcribed by a viral transcription apparatus. mRNA polyadenylation uniquely occurs at hairpin-forming palindromic sequences terminating viral transcripts. Here we show that a conserved gene cluster both encode the enzyme responsible for the hairpin cleavage and the viral polyA polymerases (vPAP). Unexpectedly, the vPAPs are homodimeric and uniquely self-processive. The vPAP backbone structures exhibit a symmetrical architecture with two subdomains sharing a nucleotidyltransferase topology, suggesting that vPAPs originate from an ancestral duplication. A Poxvirus processivity factor homologue encoded by Megavirus chilensis displays a conserved 5'-GpppA 2'O methyltransferase activity but is also able to internally methylate the mRNAs' polyA tails. These findings elucidate how the arm wrestling between hosts and their viruses to access the translation machinery is taking place in Mimiviridae. PMID:25779049

  17. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Megavirus superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Lartigue, Audrey; Philippe, Nadège; Jeudy, Sandra; Abergel, Chantal

    2012-12-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii. The first step of viral infection involves the internalization of the virions in host vacuoles. It has been experimentally demonstrated that Mimivirus particles contain many proteins capable of resisting oxidative stress, as encountered in the phagocytic process. These proteins are conserved in Megavirus, which has an additional gene (Mg277) encoding a putative superoxide dismutase. The Mg277 ORF product was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A SAD data set was collected to 2.24 Å resolution at the selenium peak wavelength on the BM30 beamline at the ESRF from a single crystal of selenomethionine-substituted recombinant superoxide dismutase protein. PMID:23192047

  18. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A.; McKamey, Stuart H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  19. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A; McKamey, Stuart H

    2013-01-01

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  20. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations. PMID:21550069

  1. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  2. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  3. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan. PMID:26624414

  4. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  5. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  6. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  7. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Megavirus superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Philippe, Nadège; Jeudy, Sandra; Abergel, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii. The first step of viral infection involves the internalization of the virions in host vacuoles. It has been experimentally demonstrated that Mimivirus particles contain many proteins capable of resisting oxidative stress, as encountered in the phagocytic process. These proteins are conserved in Megavirus, which has an additional gene (Mg277) encoding a putative superoxide dismutase. The Mg277 ORF product was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A SAD data set was collected to 2.24 Å resolution at the selenium peak wavelength on the BM30 beamline at the ESRF from a single crystal of selenomethionine-substituted recombinant superoxide dismutase protein. PMID:23192047

  8. Effects of macroalgal mats and hypoxia on burrowing depth of the New Zealand cockle ( Austrovenus stutchburyi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Bressington, Melanie J.

    2009-02-01

    Macroalgal mats commonly occur in estuaries and sheltered embayments where they are thought to affect the oxygen conditions in the sediment, influence the geochemical process and influence the burrowing activity of bivalves. Laboratory experiments evaluated the effects of sediment hypoxia and algal mats on the burrowing ability and survival of the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi at 15 °C. Both dissolved oxygen concentration and time affected the burial depth of the cockles over the 12 days of the experiment. In hypoxic conditions (<2 mg L -1), cockles migrated to the sediment surface after 3.5 days and mortality occurred after 11 days. Bivalves exposed to oxygen concentrations of 2-3 mg L -1 buried closer to the sediment surface than those in the other treatments. Using a simulated tidal regime, in a mesocosm, burrowing behaviour of the cockle and pore-water oxygen conditions in the sediment were measured on exposure to experimental mats of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva spp. for over 6 days. Algal mats on the surface of the sediment significantly lowered the dissolved oxygen concentration of the sediment pore-water and this effect was greater for the Ulva spp. treatment than the G. chilensis treatment. Cockles were buried more deeply in the control treatment without algae than in either of the two algal treatments. It is concluded that reduced oxygen conditions (<3.5 mg L -1) develop under macroalgal mats and that this reduces the burial depth of cockles. The potential harmful effects of the mats can depend on the species forming the mat and these effects are likely to be greater in the field than they are in controlled laboratory conditions.

  9. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  10. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  11. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises

    PubMed Central

    Caccone, Adalgisa; Gibbs, James P.; Ketmaier, Valerio; Suatoni, Elizabeth; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most enduring debate in reptile systematics has involved the giant Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra), whose origins and systematic relationships captivated Charles Darwin and remain unresolved to this day. Here we report a phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from Galápagos tortoises and Geochelone from mainland South America and Africa. The closest living relative to the Galápagos tortoise is not among the larger-bodied tortoises of South America but is the relatively small-bodied Geochelone chilensis, or Chaco tortoise. The split between G. chilensis and the Galápagos lineage probably occurred 6 to 12 million years ago, before the origin of the oldest extant Galápagos island. Our data suggest that the four named southern subspecies on the largest island, Isabela, are not distinct genetic units, whereas a genetically distinct northernmost Isabela subspecies is probably the result of a separate colonization. Most unexpectedly, the lone survivor of the abingdoni subspecies from Pinta Island (“Lonesome George”) is very closely related to tortoises from San Cristóbal and Española, the islands farthest from the island of Pinta. To rule out a possible recent transplant of Lonesome George, we sequenced DNA from three tortoises collected on Pinta in 1906. They have sequences identical to Lonesome George, consistent with his being the last survivor of his subspecies. This finding may provide guidance in finding a mate for Lonesome George, who so far has failed to reproduce. PMID:10557302

  12. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa. PMID:26334864

  13. Contrasting definitive hosts as determinants of the genetic structure in a parasite with complex life cycle along the south-eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    López, Z; Cárdenas, L; Runil, F; González, M T

    2015-03-01

    The spatial genetic structure (and gene flow) of parasites with complex life cycles, such as digeneans, has been attributed mainly to the dispersion ability of the most mobile host, which most often corresponds to the definitive host (DH). In this study, we compared the genetic structure and diversity of adult Neolebouria georgenascimentoi in two fish species (DHs) that are extensively distributed along the south-eastern Pacific (SEP). The analysis was based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences of parasites collected between 23°S and 45°S. In total, 202 sequences of N. georgenascimentoi in Pinguipes chilensis isolated from nine sites and 136 sequences of Prolatilus jugularis from five sites were analysed. Our results showed that N. georgenascimentoi is a species complex that includes three different parasite species; however, in this study, only lineage 1 and 2 found in P. chilensis and P. jugularis, respectively, were studied because they are widely distributed along the coastline. Lineage 1 parasites had two common haplotypes with wide distribution and unique haplotypes in northern sites. Lineage 2 had only one common haplotype with wide distribution and a large number of unique haplotypes with greater genetic diversity. Both lineages have experienced recent population expansion. Only lineage 1 exhibited a genetic structure that was mainly associated with a biogeographical break at approximately 30°S along the SEP. Our finding suggests that host access to different prey (=intermediate hosts) could affect the genetic structure of the parasite complex discovered here. Consequently, difference between these patterns suggests that factors other than DH dispersal are involved in the genetic structure of autogenic parasites. PMID:25602037

  14. The effects of a parasitic copepod on the recent larval growth of a fish inhabiting rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Muñoz, Gabriela; Plaza, Guido; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2012-10-01

    Parasites can infect larval, juvenile or adult marine fishes; however, the effects of parasites on the growth and condition of fish larvae have seldom been investigated. This study analysed the effects of a parasitic copepod on the larval growth of the Chilean triplefin Helcogrammoides chilensis (Tripterygiidae) based on the microstructure of the sagittal otoliths. Fish larvae were collected during the austral spring of 2010 off central Chile. Their body length ranged from 5.1 to 16.6 mm (2 to 57 days old). They were parasitised by a penellid larval copepod that was always externally attached to the ventral side of the fish's gut. The prevalence of the copepod ranged from 2.7% to 20.8%, with one to four parasites per fish larva. Relationships between otolith size (radius, perimeter) and larval size were equal for parasitised and unparasitised fish larvae (P > 0.05). Larval growth was also similar for unparasitised (0.21 mm/day) and parasitised fish larvae (0.19 mm/day) (P > 0.05). However, a comparison of same-aged larvae showed that the larvae with copepods were smaller in both length and estimated body volume than the larvae without copepods. The Recent Otolith Growth Index, indicated that larval H. chilensis with copepods showed a reduction in recent growth and condition compared with those without evidence of copepods (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, a higher parasite load (two vs. one pennellids) did not decrease the condition of the larval fish. The infestation of pennellids on coastal fish larvae may therefore induce an increase in the pelagic larval duration and potentially affect the settlement rates of this intertidal fish. PMID:22752746

  15. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported. PMID:14551828

  16. Degradation of Three Aromatic Dyes by White Rot Fungi and the Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  17. Bioaccumulation Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Environmental Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Bivalve Shellfish from France

    PubMed Central

    Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

  18. Morphological and microscopic characterization of five commonly-used testacean traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Song, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Testacean traditional Chinese medicine (TTCM), derived from the outer shell of sea or freshwater mollusks, is a special and important category of Chinese medicinal materials. To ensure the effective use of TTCM, a comparative identification study was performed on five commonly-used testacean drugs, including Haliotidis Concha, Arcae Concha, Meretricis Concha, Ostreae Concha and Margaritifera Concha (Shijueming, Walengzi, Geqiao, Muli and Zhenzhumu in Chinese, respectively). Typical morphological photographs of the crude drugs were acquired, and the key microscopic characteristics of the derived powders under normal light microscope and polarized light microscope were summarized. The major results can be concluded as follows: (1) the original species involved in the five TTCMs could be distinguished by their respective interspecies morphological characteristics; (2) the key identification characteristics of the five powdered crude drugs were mainly crystal fragments, with the fragment features under both normal light and polarized light microscope providing powerful points for differentiating the five commonly-used testacean drugs. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to provide authentication for these five kinds of TTCMs by the combination of morphology with microscopy. PMID:26579467

  19. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2002-10-01

    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  20. Assessing the role of benthic filter feeders on phytoplankton production in a shellfish farming site: Mont Saint Michel Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugier, Philippe; Struski, Caroline; Blanchard, Michel; Mazurié, Joseph; Pouvreau, Stéphane; Olivier, Frédéric; Trigui, Jihane R.; Thiébaut, Eric

    2010-07-01

    The macrobenthic community of Mont Saint Michel Bay (English Channel, France) is mainly dominated by filter feeders, including cultivated species (oysters and mussels). An ecological model of the bay was developed, coupling a 2D hydro-sedimentary model and two biological models for primary production and filter-feeder filtration. The filter-feeder model includes three cultivated species ( Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis), one invasive species ( Crepidula fornicata) and eight wild native species ( Abra alba, Cerastoderma edule, Glycymeris glycymeris, Lanice conchilega, Macoma balthica, Paphia rhomboides, Sabellaria alveolata, andSpisula ovalis). For cultivated and invasive species, the production of biodeposits was computed to assess their role in restimulating primary production. Chlorophyll a concentrations appeared to be strongly controlled by the filter feeders. When the pressure of each benthic compartment on phytoplankton was estimated separately wild species and the invasive slipper limpet C.fornicata were shown to be key elements in the control of primary production. Conversely, the role of cultivated species, particularly oysters, was weaker. Feedback due to the mineralization of biodeposits also appears to be crucial to fully evaluate the role of filter feeders in primary production.

  1. New perspective on the haplosporidian parasites of molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2015-10-01

    The protist phylum Haplosporidia comprises over 40 described species with representatives infecting a range of mollusc hosts, including several ecologically and economically significant pathogens. Continuing exploration of haplosporidian diversity has added ten new species in recent years and brought the phylogenetics of the group into somewhat clearer focus, with monophyletic Bonamia and Minchinia lineages continuing to be supported. However, the addition of new sequences to phylogenetic analyses has left the paraphyletic genus Haplosporidium's picture less resolved. It is not clear that even two genera will be enough to accommodate the species presently drawn to the Haplosporidium regions of the haplosporidian tree. In this review, we summarize recent findings in haplosporidian diversity and phylogenetics, and provide a synthesis of our understanding of the life cycles and environmental influences on haplosporidians, with particular emphasis on the important pathogens Haplosporidium nelsoni and Bonamia ostreae. Additionally, we consider the evolution of the "microcell haplosporidian" lifestyle of Bonamia parasites, and suggest that colonization of high-density oyster host populations in relatively stable euhaline marine environments may have been an important development favoring the evolution of the microcell haplosporidian life strategy. PMID:26264670

  2. Identification of Marteilia refringens infecting the razor clam Solen marginatus by PCR and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    López-Flores, Inmaculada; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A; de la Herran, Roberto; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Ruiz-Rejón, Manuel; Navas, José I

    2008-06-01

    Marteilia refringens is a protozoan parasite recognized as a significant pathogen of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. It is believed to have a complex life-cycle involving several hosts. In this study, we applied molecular approaches to identify this parasite in samples of the razor clam Solen marginatus from the south west coast of Spain. We used a PCR assay to amplify a fragment of the IGS rDNA region. PCR products were sequenced and the phylogenetic affinity of the sequences was determined. In situ hybridization analysis showed tissue distribution and presence of different developmental stages of the parasite in the digestive diverticula epithelium, which suggested a true parasitism in these individuals. This is the first report of the occurrence of M. refringens in the razor clam S. marginatus in the south Atlantic. The methodology described herein may be useful for accurate identification of the parasite strain in different hosts and thus provide valuable information for marteiliosis control programmes. PMID:18378424

  3. Conservation of Gbx genes from EHG homeobox in bivalve molluscs.

    PubMed

    Mesías-Gansbiller, Crimgilt; Sánchez, José L; Pazos, Antonio J; Lozano, Vanessa; Martínez-Escauriaza, Roi; Luz Pérez-Parallé, M

    2012-04-01

    Homeobox-containing genes encode a set of transcription factors that have been shown to control spatial patterning mechanisms in bilaterian organism development. The homeobox gene Gbx, included in the EHGbox cluster, is implicated in the development of the nervous system. In this study, we surveyed five different families of Bivalvia for the presence of Gbx genes by means of PCR with degenerate primers. We were able to recover seven Gbx gene fragments from five bivalve species: Solen marginatus, Mimachlamys varia, Venerupis pullastra, Ostrea edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (the derived amino acid sequence were designated Sma-Gbx, Cva-Gbx, Vpu-Gbx, Oed-Gbx and Mga-Gbx, respectively). These genes are orthologous to various Gbx genes present in bilaterian genomes. The Gbx genes in four Bivalvia families, namely Solenidae, Veneridae, Ostreidae and Mytilidae, are newly reported here and we also showed additional information of the Gbx genes of Pectinidae. The phylogenetic analyses by neighbour-joining, UPGMA, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis clearly indicated that the Gbx sequences formed a well supported clade and assigned these Gbx genes to the Gbx family. These data permit to confirm that the homeodomain of the Gbx family is highly conserved among these five distinct families of bivalve molluscs. PMID:22245384

  4. Distribution and relationships of selected trace metals in molluscs and associated sediments from the Gulf of Aden, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Szefer, P; Ali, A A; Ba-Haroon, A A; Rajeh, A A; Gełdon, J; Nabrzyski, M

    1999-09-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Fe in the soft tissue of Turbo coronatus, Acanthopleura haddoni, Ostrea cucullata and Pitar sp., as well as in associated surface sediments (bulk and bioavailable metal concentrations) from the Gulf of Aden, Yemen, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Large differences between size-classes of molluscs in metal concentrations were recorded. Significant spatial differences in metal concentrations in both the soft tissue of the molluscs and associated sediments studied were mostly identified. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) between concentrations of selected metals were observed. A slope of the linear regression is significantly higher than unity for Fe (9.91) and Cd (3.45) in A. haddoni and for Ni (4.15) in T. coronatus, suggesting that the bioavailability of these metals is disproportionally increased with a degree of enrichment of the sediments in Fe, Cd and Ni, respectively. A slope constant approximating to unity (1.14) for Cu in A. haddoni relative to its concentration in sediment extract implies that bioavailability of this metal proportionally increased with growing concentrations of its labile forms in the associated sediment. The degree of contamination of Gulf of Aden waters by the metals studied is discussed and the potential ability of molluscs, especially A. haddoni and T. coronatus, as biomonitors of metallic pollutants is postulated. PMID:15093026

  5. New occurrence of Lower Eocene (Capay Stage) strata, lower Piru Creek, Topatopa Mountains, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, R.L.; Yamashiro, D.A.

    1986-04-01

    A 900-m thick siltstone unit between Canton Canyon and Piru Creek, 16 km north of the town of Piru, California, previously was unnamed and considered as undifferentiated Eocene or middle Eocene in age. The Siltstone unconformably overlies the Whitaker Peak granodiorite basement complex. At the base of the siltstone is a veneer of gruss (weathered granodiorite). The gruss is usually overlain by about a few meters of shoreface carbonaceous sandstone that grades vertically upward into transition-zone siltstone (500 m) with storm-deposit accumulations of macrofossils. Collections made at 53 localities from these lower 500 m of strata yielded numerous shallow marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as specimens of discocyclinid foraminifers, colonial corals, calcareous worm tubes, and spataganoid echinoids. This fauna is indicative of the West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (lower Eocene). Common age-diagnostic species are Turritella uvasana infera, T. Andersoni, and Ostrea haleyi. Overlying and gradational with the transition-zone siltstone is 400 m of muddy siltstone with rare storm-deposit accumulations of macrofossils. This muddy siltstone thickens westward and passes into deep-sea slope and inner-fan turbidite deposits. Collections made at three localities in the muddy siltstone yielded many shallow marine gastropods and bivalves indicative of the Domengine stage (upper lower through lower middle Eocene). Common age-diagnostic species are Turritella uvasana applinae and Pitar (Lamelliconcha) joaquinensis.

  6. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, A.; Sanford, E.; Hill, T. M.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Russell, A. D.; Gaylord, B.

    2013-10-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2) enters seawater and alters ocean pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on larval growth, total dry weight, and metamorphic success, but high food availability partially offset these influences. The combination of elevated pCO2 and low food availability led to the greatest reduction in larval performance. However, the effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  7. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, A.; Sanford, E.; Hill, T. M.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Russell, A. D.; Gaylord, B.

    2013-03-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2) enters seawater and alters its pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. High food availability offset the negative consequences of elevated pCO2 on larval shell growth and total dry weight. Low food availability, in contrast, exacerbated these impacts. In both cases, effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  8. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp. (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Carnegie, R B; Kroeck, M A; Villalba, A; Engelsma, M Y; Burreson, E M

    2014-07-24

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the other forms recognized as B. exitiosa. Two groups of ultrastructural features were identified; those associated with metabolism (mitochondrial profiles, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum), and those associated with haplosporogenesis (Golgi, indentations in the nuclear surface, the putative trans-Golgi network, perinuclear granular material and haplosporosome-like bodies). Metabolic features were regarded as having little taxonomic value, and as the process of haplosporogenesis is not understood, only haplosporosome shape and size may be of taxonomic value. However, the uni-nucleate stages of spore-forming haplosporidians are poorly known and may be confused with Bonamia spp. uni-nucleate stages. The many forms of NZ B. exitiosa have not been observed in other hosts, which may indicate that it has a plastic life cycle. Although there are similarities between NZ B. exitiosa and Chilean Bonamia in the development of a larger uni-nucleate stage and the occurrence of cylindrical confronting cisternae, the clarification of the identity of Chilean Bonamia must await molecular studies. PMID:25060497

  9. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-01

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected. PMID:27503919

  10. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    PubMed

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems. PMID:25588455

  11. A Marteilia-like parasite in blue mussels Mytilus edulis in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongwei; Lu, Xin; Liang, Yubo; Zheng, Zheng

    2012-09-01

    Species of the genus Marteilia (Phylum Paramyxea) are protozoan parasites of marine mollusks. Marteilia spp. have been detected in mollusks from different parts of the world, but the presence of these parasites in China has not been previously reported. Therefore, a survey was conducted to look for the presence of Marteilia spp. in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and Asian green mussels Perna viridis collected along China's coasts. Histological and PCR analyses revealed that 5 of 180 M. edulis (prevalence = 2.8%) were positive for infection with a Marteilia-like organism, whereas the parasite was not detected in any of the 80 P. viridis individuals tested. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the infected tissue sections for PCR amplification. The PCR amplification with Marteilia primers SS1 and SAS1 yielded the expected 641-bp product. Sequencing results showed that the 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragment from the protozoans found in M. edulis from China was 88% similar to that of Marteilia refringens, a species that was reported from M. edulis and European flat oysters Ostrea edulis collected in France. This is the first report of a Marteilia-like organism infecting M. edulis in China. PMID:22897134

  12. Preference Alters Consumptive Effects of Predators: Top-Down Effects of a Native Crab on a System of Native and Introduced Prey

    PubMed Central

    Grason, Emily W.; Miner, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    Top-down effects of predators in systems depend on the rate at which predators consume prey, and on predator preferences among available prey. In invaded communities, these parameters might be difficult to predict because ecological relationships are typically evolutionarily novel. We examined feeding rates and preferences of a crab native to the Pacific Northwest, Cancer productus, among four prey items: two invasive species of oyster drill (the marine whelks Urosalpinx cinerea and Ocenebra inornata) and two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea lurida) that are also consumed by U. cinerea and O. inornata. This system is also characterized by intraguild predation because crabs are predators of drills and compete with them for prey (oysters). When only the oysters were offered, crabs did not express a preference and consumed approximately 9 juvenile oysters crab−1 day−1. We then tested whether crabs preferred adult drills of either U. cinerea or O. inornata, or juvenile oysters (C. gigas). While crabs consumed drills and oysters at approximately the same rate when only one type of prey was offered, they expressed a strong preference for juvenile oysters over drills when they were allowed to choose among the three prey items. This preference for oysters might negate the positive indirect effects that crabs have on oysters by crabs consuming drills (trophic cascade) because crabs have a large negative direct effect on oysters when crabs, oysters, and drills co-occur. PMID:23236472

  13. Domoic acid--a new toxin in the Croatian Adriatic shellfish toxin profile.

    PubMed

    Ujević, Ivana; Ninčević-Gladan, Zivana; Roje, Romana; Skejić, Sanda; Arapov, Jasna; Marasović, Ivona

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus). Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g⁻¹ in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g⁻¹), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health. PMID:20938398

  14. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. PMID:25102639

  15. Contribution to the understanding of the cycle of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Boyer, S; Bonnet, D; Gaillard, J; Baldi, Y; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Garcia, C; Bouchoucha, M

    2014-02-01

    The paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens infects several bivalve species including European flat oysters Ostrea edulis and Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sequence polymorphism allowed definition of three parasite types 'M', 'O' and 'C' preferably detected in oysters, mussels and cockles respectively. Transmission of the infection from infected bivalves to copepods Paracartia grani could be experimentally achieved but assays from copepods to bivalves failed. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the M. refringens life cycle, the dynamics of the infection was investigated in O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and zooplankton over one year in Diana lagoon, Corsica (France). Flat oysters appeared non-infected while mussels were infected part of the year, showing highest prevalence in summertime. The parasite was detected by PCR in zooplankton particularly after the peak of prevalence in mussels. Several zooplanktonic groups including copepods, Cladocera, Appendicularia, Chaetognatha and Polychaeta appeared PCR positive. However, only the copepod species Paracartia latisetosa showed positive signal by in situ hybridization. Small parasite cells were observed in gonadal tissues of female copepods demonstrating for the first time that a copepod species other than P. grani can be infected with M. refringens. Molecular characterization of the parasite infecting mussels and zooplankton allowed the distinguishing of three Marteilia types in the lagoon. PMID:24128728

  16. Summer mortalities and detection of ostreid herpesvirus microvariant in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stein; Strand, Åsa; Bodvin, Torjan; Alfjorden, Anders; Skår, Cecilie K; Jelmert, Anders; Aspán, Anna; Sælemyr, Lisbeth; Naustvoll, Lars-Johan; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-01-13

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has recently expanded its range in Scandinavia. The expansion is presumably a result of northwards larval drift. Massive settlements were recorded in many areas along the Swedish west coast and southern Norway in 2013 and 2014. After the spawning season in 2014, the temperature of the surface water peaked at 24-26°C. After this period, high and sudden mortalities occurred in a Swedish hatchery and in wild populations along the Swedish west coast and south coast of Norway. Surveys and collected data showed that mortalities mainly occurred during 3 wk in September. All size classes were affected, and affected populations displayed a patchy distribution with heavily affected and unaffected populations in close proximity. Flat oysters Ostrea edulis and blue mussels Mytilus edulis were unaffected. Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) was detected in moribund Pacific oyster spat as well as in surviving adults. The virus was identified as OsHV-1 μvar. This is the first detection of this variant in Scandinavia, showing that OsHV-1 μvar is present in areas with recent establishments of Pacific oysters, and where there is no aquaculture of this species. PMID:26758650

  17. Bioaccumulation efficiency, tissue distribution, and environmental occurrence of hepatitis E virus in bivalve shellfish from France.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Chevé, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid bioaccumulation in less than 1 h compared to species of oysters. For oysters, concentrations increased during the 24-h bioaccumulation period. Additionally, to evaluate environmental occurrence of HEV in shellfish, an environmental investigation was undertaken at sites potentially impacted by pigs, wild boars, and human waste. Of the 286 samples collected, none were contaminated with hepatitis E virus, despite evidence that this virus is circulating in some French areas. It is possible that the number of hepatitis E viral particles discharged into the environment is too low to detect or that the virus may have a very short period of persistence in pig manure and human waste. PMID:24795382

  18. Irradiated bivalve mollusks: Use of EPR spectroscopy for identification and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Angelo; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Fuochi, Piergiorgio; Macciantelli, Dante; Mangiacotti, Michele; Marchesani, Giuliana; Plescia, Elena

    2011-12-01

    High energy radiation treatment of foodstuff for microbial control and shelf-life extension is being used in many countries. However, for consumer protection and information, the European Union has adopted the Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC to harmonize the rules concerning the treatment and trade of irradiated foods in EU countries. Among the validated methods to detect irradiated foods the EU directives also include Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR/ESR) spectroscopy.We describe herein the use of EPR for identification of four species of bivalve mollusks, i.e. brown Venus shells (Callista chione), clams (Tapes semidecussatus), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. EPR could definitely identify irradiated seashells due to the presence of long-lived free radicals, primarily CO2-, CO33-, SO2- and SO3- radical anions. The presence of other organic free radicals, believed to originate from conchiolin, a scleroprotein present in the shells, was also ascertained. The use of one of these radicals as a marker for irradiation of brown Venus shells and clams can be envisaged. We also propose a dosimetric protocol for the reconstruction of the administered dose in irradiated oysters.

  19. [Estimation and experiment of carbon sequestration by oysters attached to the enhancement artificial reefs in Laizhou Bay, Shandong, China].

    PubMed

    Gong, Pi-Hai; Li, Jiao; Guan, Chang-Tao; Li, Meng-Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Through sampling investigation of fouling organisms on the enhancement artificial reefs set up in Laizhou Bay, it was proved that oyster (Ostrea plicatula) was the dominant fouling species. Therefore the dry mass of shell (Ms), total fresh mass (Mt) and thickness (T) of oyster attached on the reefs were analyzed. The results showed that the Mt and Ms presented seasonal variation (P < 0.01), that is, the values were the lowest in April and the highest in December. The reef age and the length of the time the enhancement reefs placed in the sea had significant effect on Mt, Ms and T. With the increment of reef ages, all indices increased obviously. The carbon sinks of oysters attaching to the tube enhancement reefs constructed in 2009, 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou Bay were 17.61, 16.33 and 10.45 kg · m(-3), respectively. The oysters on the enhancement reefs of Jincheng marine ranch with an area of 64.25 hm2 had fixed carbon of 297.5 t C (equivalent to 1071 t of CO2) from 2009 to 2013 in Laizhou Bay. To capture and store the same amount of CO2 would cost about 1.6 x 10(5)-6.4 x 10(5) US dollars. Therefore, oysters attaching to the enhancement reefs bring about remarkable ecological benefits. PMID:25796916

  20. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Saccostrea mordax and Saccostrea cucullata: genome organization and phylogeny analysis.

    PubMed

    Volatiana, Josie Ancella; Fang, Shasha; Kinaro, Zachary Omambia; Liu, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Classified in the phylum mollusks, oysters are bivalves which are found in estuaries and coastal zones. Because of their plastic shell, mitochondrial DNA analysis of this species becomes an interesting field, necessary to investigate their phylogenetic and evolution of relations. In our study, two oyster species: Saccostrea mordax and Saccostrea cucullata from Indian Ocean (Madagascar) were investigated. The complete sequence of Saccostrea mordax (16 512 bp) and Saccostrea cucullata (16 396 bp) were described and determined, with their mitogenomes deposited in the GenBank with accession number KP769562 and KP967577 respectively. Both mitochondrial genome sequences contained 12 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNAs, and two rRNAs, all encoded in the same heavy strand. High levels of similarity in the gene arrangement of the two Saccostrea species were evident. The phylogenetic analysis shows a closer relationship between the two Saccostrea species and confirms the strong relationship within Saccostrea, Crassostrea and Ostrea genus in taxonomy of Ostreidae family. PMID:26226596

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  2. Paleocene sequence stratigraphy of southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H.

    1988-09-01

    In southwestern Alabama, the Paleocene consists of about 1300 ft (396 m) of marginal marine and marine terrigenous and carbonate sediments. Based on regional stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic data, up to seven unconformity-bounded depositional sequences resulting from relative changes in coastal onlap during the Paleocene are recognized in these strata. These sequences are, in ascending order, the TP1.1a, comprised of the Pine Barren Member of the Clayton Formation; the TP1.1b, comprised of the Turritella rock beds of the Pine Barren and the McBryde Limestone Member of the Clayton Formation, and the clays and marls of the lower member of the Porters Creek Formation; the TP1.2, comprised of the cross-bedded sands of the lower member and the Matthews Landing Marl Member of the Porters Creek Formation, and Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation; the TP1.3, comprised of the Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation; the TP2.1, comprised of the Gravel Creek Sand, Ostrea thirsae beds, and Grampian Hills Members of the Nanafalia Formation, and the lower beds of the Tuscahoma Sand; the TP2.2, comprised of the Greggs Landing Marl Member and the middle beds of the Tuscahoma Sand; and the TP2.3, comprised of the Bells Landing Marl Member and the upper beds of the Tuscahoma Sand.

  3. Geochronology of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL )

    1994-03-01

    Four samples of glauconitic sand from upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain were analyzed for conventional potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determination. Results from these analyses are as follows: Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group (58.2 [+-] 1.5 MA), Ostrea thirsae beds of the Nanafalia Formation of the Wilcox Group (56.3 [+-] 1.5 MA), upper Tuscahoma Sand of the Wilcox Group (54.5 [+-] 1.4 MA), and Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group (53.4 [+-] 1.4 MA). The Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group) disconformably overlies the Naheola Formation (Midway Group), and based on the data presented here, the age of this unconformity is bracketed between 59.7 and 54.8 MA. The Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary occurs in the Wilcox Group and coincides with the lithostratigraphic contact of the upper Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand with the lower eocene Hatchetigbee Formation. The age of this boundary, which is also an unconformity, can be placed between 55.9 and 52.0 MA. The K-Ar age dates for this boundary in the Gulf Coastal Plain compare favorably with the numerical limits placed on the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the published literature. Generally, the Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary is reported as approximately 54 to 55 MA.

  4. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, M; Nuottaniemi, I; Cherian, M G; Nordberg, G F; Kjellström, T; Garvey, J S

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters--Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG)--contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. OL oysters had 5.3 micrograms Cd/g, 3.4 micrograms Cu/g, 100 micrograms Zn/g; CG oysters had 1.4 micrograms Cd/g and 936 micrograms Zn/g. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein (corresponding to the size of albumin or larger) which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. Further purification by gel filtration (G-50) was performed to obtain a purer protein fraction. Isoelectric focusing of the protein obtained by G-50 filtration showed one main fraction of protein with a pI approximately 5.9 at approximately 13 degrees C. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins. PMID:3709467

  5. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of Haplosporidium and Perkinsus species in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Fan, Qing; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhi Qin; Liu, Jiabo; Khan, Mazhar I

    2013-04-01

    A duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (dq-PCR) assay was optimized to simultaneously detect Haplosporidium spp. and Perkinsus spp. of shellfish in one reaction. Two sets of specific oligonucleotide primers for Haplosporidium spp. and Perkinsus spp., along with two hydrolysis probes specific for each parasite group, were used in the assay. The dq-PCR results were detected and analyzed using the Light Cycler 2.0 software system. The dq-PCR identified and differentiated the two protozoan parasite groups. The sensitivity of the dq-PCR assay was 200 template copies for both Haplosporidium spp. and Perkinsus spp. No DNA product was amplified when known DNA from Marteilia refringens, Toxoplasma gondii, Bonamia ostreae, Escherichia coli, Cymndinium spp., Mykrocytos mackini, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and shellfish tissue were used as templates. A total of 840 oyster samples from commercial cultivated shellfish farms from two coastal areas in China were randomly collected and tested by dq-PCR. The detection rate of Haplosporidium spp. was 8.6% in the Qindao, Shandong coastal area, whereas Perkinsus spp. was 8.3% coastal oysters cultivated from shellfish farms of Beihai, Guangxi. The dqPCR results suggested that Haplosporidium spp. was prevalent in oysters from Qindao, Shandong, while Perkinsus spp. was prevalent in oysters from the coastal areas of Beihai, Guangxi. This dq-PCR could be used as a diagnostic tool to detect Haplosporidium spp. and Perkinsus spp. in cultivated shellfish. PMID:23371501

  6. Age, growth and mortality in four populations of the boring bivalve Lithophaga patagonica from Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagur, María; Richardson, Christopher A.; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Arribas, Lorena P.; Doldan, M. Socorro; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2013-08-01

    The boring bivalve Lithophaga patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1842) is a locally abundant inhabitant of hard substrata in the coastal waters of the Southwestern Atlantic. In this paper, we describe the growth, age and mortality of three intertidal rock-boring populations of L. patagonica and one subtidal oyster shell (Ostrea puelchana) boring population. An analysis of acetate peel replicas of shell sections showed that L. patagonica slows down its growth during autumn-winter, which leads to changes in the direction and rate of shell deposition and the formation of conspicuous annual (low temperature induced) clefts in the shell margin. Cleft counts and Von Bertalanffy growth analyses indicated that maximum age varies from 4 years in the oyster-boring population to 13 years in a rock-boring one (longevity estimates varied between 6.5 and 15 years, respectively). Maximum asymptotic length (L∞) and Von Bertalanffy growth constant (K) were also variable between populations (L∞ between 14.76 and 36.95 mm and K from 0.20 to 0.90 yr- 1 respectively). Mortality rates were higher at the two southernmost populations. Type (rock vs. oyster), composition and hardness of the substrata are likely the main factors controlling the observed differences between populations.

  7. Neoplastic diseases of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Carballal, María J; Barber, Bruce J; Iglesias, David; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Two types of prevalent neoplastic diseases have been described in marine bivalves of commercial interest: disseminated neoplasia (DN) and gonadal neoplasia. The first involves the excessive proliferation of abnormal cells with unknown origin (probably of hemic source in some cases/species), disseminating through the circulatory system and infiltrating the connective tissue of various organs; the second consists of an abnormal proliferation of undifferentiated germinal cells of the gonad. These two types of bivalve neoplasia fit the criteria of malignant tumors: pleomorphic and undifferentiated cells, rapid and invasive growth, abundance of mitotic figures, metastasis and progressive development often resulting in the death of the affected individual. Different causes have been suggested regarding etiology: genetic alterations, virus, retrotranspons, and contaminants, although it could depend on the mollusk species; evidence of horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells as the cause of DN spreading in clam Mya arenaria populations has been recently reported. In some species and populations, the neoplastic disorders affect only a few individuals, but in others reach high prevalence. Among the diagnostic methods, DN has been detected by histology and cytologic examination of hemolymph, and with developed specific antibodies. Recently, flow cytometry has also been applied, allowing detecting DNA quantity alteration. Several studies reported many genes and pathways critically involved in neoplastic transformation in Mya arenaria, Mytilus spp. and Ostrea edulis. These genetic studies will allow the development of diagnosis by PCR which can be used in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26146225

  8. Metal levels in economically important bivalve species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Colakoglu, S; Ulukoy, G; Ormanci, H B; Colakoglu, F A

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in economically important bivalve species: oyster (Ostrea edulis), wedge clam (Donax trunculus), manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarium) and warty clam (Venus verrucosa) from the Marmara and Aegean seas. Samples were collected seasonally between 2008 and 2009. Metal levels of bivalves were found in the following ranges: As 0.02-3.40, Cd 0.02-2.80, Cr 0.19-0.82, Cu 0.82-25.06, Hg < LOD-0.12, Ni 0.09-0.73, Pb 0.05-4.16 and Zn 6.85-899 mg kg(-1). The most abundant elements were Zn > Cu > As. In addition, the results showed that oysters had the highest concentrations of Zn in all seasons. The next abundant heavy metal detected was Cu in oyster and other clam species. It was concluded that in the future, these metals should be monitored regularly. PMID:24786409

  9. Spermatozeugmata structure and dissociation of the Australian flat oyster Ostera angasi: Implications for reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Md Mahbubul; Qin, Jian G; Li, Xiaoxu

    2016-06-01

    Variation in reproductive strategy is one of the key factors contributing to recruitment success of molluscs in different habitats. Spermcasting is a unique mode in mollusc reproduction where males produce spermatozeugmata, a radially arrayed sperm cluster wrapped by gelatinous membrane. In this study, spermatozeugmata structure and their dissociation in the Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi were investigated to elucidate the reproductive strategy in spermcasting molluscs. The histological observation indicated that spermatogonia gradually aggregated in the gonad follicle at the early gonad development stages and developed into spermatozeugmata and became tightly packed at the advanced stages. Even though mature male and female gametes could be found in a hermaphroditic individual, the animal may prevent self-fertilization by shedding different sex gametes at different time. The O. angasi sperm are similar in size and shape to broadcasting oysters, but have one additional mitochondrion. Variations in maintaining spermatozeugmata integrity and sperm motility between individuals depended on the level of masculinity or femineity. The durations of spermatozeugmata dissociation and sperm viability were longer in males than in hermaphrodites. The unique structure and capability for spermatozeugmata to maintain the functional integrity after spawning have adaptive significance for fertilization and gamete dispersal in this species. PMID:27063425

  10. Phaeobacter inhibens as biocontrol agent against Vibrio vulnificus in oyster models.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Gram, Lone

    2016-08-01

    Molluscan shellfish can cause food borne diseases and here we investigated if addition of Vibrio-antagonising bacteria could reduce Vibrio vulnificus in model oyster systems and prevent its establishment in live animals. Phaeobacter inhibens, which produces an antibacterial compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 10(6) cfu/ml) eradicated 10(5) cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 10(7) cfu/ml when co-cultured with a TDA negative Phaeobacter mutant. P. inhibens grew well in oyster juice to 10(8) CFU/ml and sterile filtered samples from these cultures were inhibitory to Vibrio spp. P. inhibens established itself in live European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and remained at 10(5) cfu/g for five days. However, the presence of P. inhibens could not prevent subsequently added V. vulnificus from entering the live animals, likely because of too low levels of the biocontrol strain. Whilst the oyster model studies provided indication that P. inhibens DSM 17395 could be a good candidate as biocontrol agent against V. vulnificus further optimization is need in the actual animal rearing situation. PMID:27052703

  11. Cristispira from oyster styles: complex morphology of large symbiotic spirochetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Nault, L.; Sieburth, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Crystalline styles (digestive organs) of bivalve mollusks provide the habitat for highly motile bacteria. Styles from freshly-collected oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were studied by electron microscopy; Cristispira spirochetes were abundant in these organs. Detailed study reveals these spirochetes to be among the most complex prokaryotic cells known. More than 600 periplasmic flagella and an adhering outer lipoprotein membrane (e.g., a 270 degrees sillon) form the ultrastructural basis for the "crista," first described by light microscopy. Unique rosette structures corresponding to the "chambers" or "ovoid inclusions" of light microscopy were detected at the periphery of all protoplasmic cylinders. Polar organelles and linearly aligned flagellar insertions are conspicuous. In size and complexity, Cristispira more resembles Pillotina, Diplocalyx, Clevelandina and Hollandina (large spirochetes symbiotic in termites) than it does Treponema. Cristispira pectinis (Gross, 1910), the type species; Spirillum ostrea (Noguchi, 1921); and another, less frequent bacterial symbiont are the predominant inhabitants of the dense style matrix. The ultrastructure of the spirillum and an electron micrograph of the third bacterium are shown.

  12. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston

  13. Photosynthetic responses of trees in high-elevation forests: comparing evergreen species along an elevation gradient in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José I; Rojas, Roke; Christie, Duncan A; Coopman, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at extremely high elevations is constrained by high daily thermal amplitude, strong solar radiation and water scarcity. These conditions are particularly harsh in the tropics, where the highest elevation treelines occur. In this environment, the maintenance of a positive carbon balance involves protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and taking advantage of any climatically favourable periods. To characterize photoprotective mechanisms at such high elevations, and particularly to address the question of whether these mechanisms are the same as those previously described in woody plants along extratropical treelines, we have studied photosynthetic responses in Polylepis tarapacana Philippi in the central Andes (18°S) along an elevational gradient from 4300 to 4900 m. For comparative purposes, this gradient has been complemented with a lower elevation site (3700 m) where another Polylepis species (P. rugulosa Bitter) occurs. During the daily cycle, two periods of photosynthetic activity were observed: one during the morning when, despite low temperatures, assimilation was high; and the second starting at noon when the stomata closed because of a rise in the vapour pressure deficit and thermal dissipation is prevalent over photosynthesis. From dawn to noon there was a decrease in the content of antenna pigments (chlorophyll b and neoxanthin), together with an increase in the content of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. These results could be caused by a reduction in the antenna size along with an increase in photoprotection. Additionally, photoprotection was enhanced by a partial overnight retention of de-epoxized xanthophylls. The unique combination of all of these mechanisms made possible the efficient use of the favourable conditions during the morning while still providing enough protection for the rest of the day. This strategy differs completely from that of extratropical mountain trees, which uncouple light-harvesting and energy-use during long

  14. Bronze age cosmology and rock art images. Solar ships, deer and charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    Bronze Age societies were technologically complex. The impressive production of metal artefacts embodies clearly their astronomical culture and cosmological viewpoint. Same ascertainment is valid also for rock art. In fact, around the European landscape were discovered several cliffs engraved with solar ships, deer and charts. How one could be interpret them? Which is the hidden mentality? From the end of 3rd millennium-early 2nd millennium B. C. deep technological transformations are made by metals. New inventions such metal extraction for weapon production, horse pulling chariot used for war and the bull pulling one used for trade may shorten the culture and material distances between Central Europe and South Mediterranean area. Indeed, taphonomic studies indicate a specific modification of the human body mortuary traditional disposition (orientated to significant astronomical targets) below a substantial transformation of mortuary apparatus with spot evidence of weapons (halberds, swords, knifes) and ornaments (double spiral, lunar shape pectorals). The famous Trundhold Solar chart, the 2nd millennium terracotta chart form Dupljaja, the solar boats petroglyph in Bohusland and the horse rider carved on Philippi's cliffs were conceived by the same mentality: communion with the divinity. Culture expressions as communicate manifestation attested in rock art were produced by the same mentality presented in Bronze Age art-crafts such as, 1. Culture epidemiologic patterns dispersion took place through out iconographic motives, and, 2. Animals can play a double face function inside an analogical-mythological system: a. animal-reflex; b. animal-agent. The question is: Could such petroglyphs help us to "read" archaeoastronomical properly in an archaeological site?

  15. Photosynthetic responses of trees in high-elevation forests: comparing evergreen species along an elevation gradient in the Central Andes

    PubMed Central

    García-Plazaola, José I.; Rojas, Roke; Christie, Duncan A.; Coopman, Rafael E.

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at extremely high elevations is constrained by high daily thermal amplitude, strong solar radiation and water scarcity. These conditions are particularly harsh in the tropics, where the highest elevation treelines occur. In this environment, the maintenance of a positive carbon balance involves protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and taking advantage of any climatically favourable periods. To characterize photoprotective mechanisms at such high elevations, and particularly to address the question of whether these mechanisms are the same as those previously described in woody plants along extratropical treelines, we have studied photosynthetic responses in Polylepis tarapacana Philippi in the central Andes (18°S) along an elevational gradient from 4300 to 4900 m. For comparative purposes, this gradient has been complemented with a lower elevation site (3700 m) where another Polylepis species (P. rugulosa Bitter) occurs. During the daily cycle, two periods of photosynthetic activity were observed: one during the morning when, despite low temperatures, assimilation was high; and the second starting at noon when the stomata closed because of a rise in the vapour pressure deficit and thermal dissipation is prevalent over photosynthesis. From dawn to noon there was a decrease in the content of antenna pigments (chlorophyll b and neoxanthin), together with an increase in the content of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. These results could be caused by a reduction in the antenna size along with an increase in photoprotection. Additionally, photoprotection was enhanced by a partial overnight retention of de-epoxized xanthophylls. The unique combination of all of these mechanisms made possible the efficient use of the favourable conditions during the morning while still providing enough protection for the rest of the day. This strategy differs completely from that of extratropical mountain trees, which uncouple light-harvesting and energy-use during long

  16. Size-dependent concentrations of trace metals in four Mediterranean gastropods.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, F; Conti, M E; Campanella, L

    2001-11-01

    In order to gain more information on the possible use of four gastropod species as metal biomonitors for the Mediterranean area, the influence of body weight upon Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations was studied in specimens collected at locations with different degrees of environmental pollution. The selected species were the marine snails Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi, and the limpets Patella caerulea L. and Patella lusitanica Gmelin. Significant differences between metal concentrations in individuals from different stations were tested by ANCOVA on log-transformed data with log body weight as covariate. For all species a positive correlation between metal concentrations and body weight was observed, which means that the largest individuals contained the highest levels of metals. The inclusion of body weight as covariate in the statistical analysis explained from 81% to 99% of the metal variability within the organisms and enabled the achievement of improvements in the detection of differences among sites. The four selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. Except for Cd, the metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations were found to lie in the range of the lowest values reported in the literature and can be employed as useful background levels which can be referred to for intraspecific comparison within the Mediterranean area. It is concluded that in view of its distribution, unambiguous identification, resistance to pollution and accumulation patterns M. turbinata has considerable potential as a biomonitor of trace metals over the Mediterranean. PMID:11680752

  17. The genus Pirenella Gray, 1847 (= Cerithideopsilla Thiele, 1929) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region and Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Ozawa, Tomowo

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Pirenella are abundant inhabitants of intertidal sedimentary shores, often found in association with mangroves, on the continental margins of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, four morphological species were recognised in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region and classified in the genus Cerithideopsilla, while another species occupying the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean was classified as Pirenella conica. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that all these species are congeneric and here it is shown that the valid name for the genus is Pirenella. A recently published molecular study recognised a total of 16 species and the present work is a systematic account of these species. Of the 16, nine are described as new. Other significant nomenclatural acts are: fixation of type species of Pirenella as Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847; designation of neotypes for Cerithium alatum Philippi, 1849, Cerithium microptera Kiener, 1841, Cerithium conicum Blainville, 1829, Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847 and Murex cingulatus Gmelin, 1791; designation of lectotype for Cerithium retiferum G.B. Sowerby II, 1855. The species accounts include full synonymies, detailed descriptions of shells (based on 831 museum samples), distribution records and maps, reviews of life history, of habitat and of ecology, and some images of radulae. Details of shell sculpture are adequate for the diagnosis of most species. Distorted shells are common in some populations and are suggested to represent parasitised individuals. Some species are pests of fishponds in Southeast Asia and P. conica is the intermediate host of a trematode responsible for the human disease heterophyiasis, while others are threatened by habitat destruction. PMID:27395955

  18. Fabiana imbricata shurblands: natural firebreaks in the northwestern Patagonia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghermandi, L.; Dudinszky, N.; Oddi, F. J.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is a natural disturbance that affects different ecosystems like the Northwestern Patagonian woodland/steppe ecotone. Here, the fire impact on the vegetation depends on the heterogeneity of the plant communities and the environment. This includes different responses and adaptations to fire of the species present in this community. Fabiana imbricata is a shrub characteristic of Patagonian grasslands and although its response to fire is not well known, it generate a special landscape pattern. Direct field observation coupled with aerial photography interpretation and remote sensing data were used to identify the vegetation pattern. From the lower to upper zones of the hillside topographic gradient, the vegetation changes from grasslands to F. imbricata shrublands, followed by open Austrocedrus chilensis woodland and ending in rock outcrop. We hypothesized that F. imbricata acts as a firebreak that creates an Austocedrus chilensis refuge in the upper part of the topographic gradient. This fire line could relate to horizontal fuel discontinuity that derives from the presence of bare soil that occurs within the F. imbricata shrubs. If fires are not very intense, the fuel discontinuity would stop the spread of fire coming from the grassland. In this survey we worked in one of the post-fire sites of San Ramón ranch (41° 03´19´´S and 71°01´50´´W), 30 km east of Bariloche, Patagonia, Argentina, where we observed the above described pattern. For this site, we know of two fire events, and the oldest occurred 36 years ago, and the second occurred 10 years ago. We also have data regarding the F. imbricata shrubland dynamics. Dendrochronology techniques were used to determine the age of the shrubland. We match this data with Landsat TM images coupled with aerial photography interpretation to determine the pre and post- fire vegetation. Future studies analysing other sites where this pattern is present will be needed to corroborate the relationship between the

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  20. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  1. New geological and tectonic findings on the Ganos Fault and surroundings, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćinar, Seray; Zeki Tutkun, Salih; Özden, Süha; Kapan Yeşilyurt, Sevinç; Ateş, Özkan

    2010-05-01

    grained, incohesive conglomerate, sandstone and has rich in Ostrea edulis (Linne) content. At the southern part of the succession, Ostrea edulis content is decreasing despite Chlayms variabilis, Cerastoderma (Cerastoderma) edule Lamarck, Glcymeris (G.) glcymeris Lamarck and Acanthocardia sp. progressively increasing in the unit. According to these fossil faunas, Late Pleistocene age is dated to this formation. We understood as the vertical movement together with strike-slip movement efficient since Late Pleistocene. In this study, active fault mapped around Gaziköy and also measured fault-slip vectors on this fault is presented by kinematic analysis and contour-rose diagrams of joint-bedding measurements. According to joint-bedding measuments taken from Gaziköy Formation, regional compressional direction determined as WNW-ESE at the north of Gelibolu Peninsula. In addition, metric fault planes, Gaziköy Formation sandstones and their planes, has kinematic indicators as the striae. Kinematic analysis results (inversion) of these fault-slip data shows an active transtensional tectonic regime and presented as the maximum horizontal stress (σ1) axis a NW-SE (N117±34°E) and minimum horizontal stress (σ3) axis a NE-SW (N30±5°E). Rm value is the 0,30. According fault plane measurements and some earthquakes focal mechanism solutions, Ganos Fault has an active and right lateral strike-slip fault with the normal component since Late Miocene. This result related with the continental collision in eastern Anatolia, slab-pull forces on African plate in SW Turkey combined effect of the Anatolian extrusion to west since Late Miocene time.

  2. Keeping Pace with Climate Change: Habitat Protection in the Face of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flitcroft, R. L.; Burnett, K.; Giannico, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries provide critical habitat for many economically and culturally important species. In the Pacific Northwest, intertidal and subtidal areas provide critical habitat for production of native and commercial oysters (Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, respectively) that in turn provide refuge and rearing habitat for Dungeness Crab, Metacarcinus magister. Environments ranging from subtidal through freshwater zones provide nursery areas for juvenile salmonids at different development stages in their life history. Most Oregon estuaries have been significantly altered by humans over the past century, reducing the quantity and diversity of available habitats. Management agencies have responded with projects to restore and enhance estuarine habitats. Unfortunately, future climate change and sea-level rise could render many current restoration projects ineffective over time. Planning for habitat restoration that keeps pace with climate change will be critical to the sustainable production of seafood and maintenance of ecosystem function. However, land managers and citizens lack the spatially-explicit data needed to incorporate the potential effects of climate change and sea-level rise into planning for habitat improvement projects in estuarine areas. To meet this need, we developed simple models using LiDAR to characterize the geomorphologies of multiple Oregon estuaries. We were able to map the margin of current mean high tide, and contour intervals associated with different potential increases in mean high tide. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting changes in estuary shape. For each estuary, we assessed changes in the amount and complexity of edge habitats. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of contaminants within estuarine sediments and native Olympia oysters: A contrast between a developed and an undeveloped estuary.

    PubMed

    Granek, Elise F; Conn, Kathleen E; Nilsen, Elena B; Pillsbury, Lori; Strecker, Angela L; Rumrill, Steve S; Fish, William

    2016-07-01

    Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known. We investigated these patterns for a suite of persistent legacy contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chemicals of emerging concern including pharmaceuticals within two Oregon coastal estuaries (Coos and Netarts Bays). In the more urbanized Coos Bay, native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) tissue had approximately twice the number of PCB congeners at over seven times the total concentration, yet fewer PBDEs at one-tenth the concentration as compared to the more rural Netarts Bay. Different pharmaceutical suites were detected during each sampling season. Variability in contaminant types and concentrations across seasons and between species and media (organisms versus sediment) indicates the limitation of using indicator species and/or sampling annually to determine contaminant loads at a site or for specific species. The results indicate the prevalence of legacy contaminants and CECs in relatively undeveloped coastal environments highlighting the need to improve policy and management actions to reduce contaminant releases into estuarine and marine waters and to deal with legacy compounds that remain long after prohibition of use. Our results point to the need for better understanding of the ecological and

  4. Using Mg/Ca on oyster shells as paleoclimatic proxy, example from the Paleogene of Central Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Due to their large occurrence in sedimentary records from Triassic to Quaternary, their strong resistance to post-mortem alteration, and the incremental nature of their shell growth, oysters are recognized to be a highly powerful tool to infer infra-annual paleoclimate variations. However, the common use of δ18O in biomineralisation to infer paleotemperatures is hindered by the difficulties in valuating δ18O of sea water (δ18Osw). If the δ18Osw values can be fairly well estimated when orking at the million-year time scale, the estimation of the infra-annual variation of the δ18Osw constitutes a considerable barrier for high-resolution paleo-reconstitutions. This issue can be resolved using the Mg/Ca ratio as a suitable and valuable independent high-resolution paleothermometer in oyster shells. However, if numerous studies provided new paleothermometer using Mg/Ca ratio in calcitic bivalve shells, their application to paleo-studies remains to be established. In this study, we combine incremental δ18O analyses with Mg/Ca ratio on Paleogene oyster shells from the Proto-Paratethys (Central Asia) that is characterized by high seasonal variability. We analysed various species growing in different depositional environments throughout late Paleocene to late Eocene times. Results from both proxies show consistent values from oysters of the same age and of the same species, attesting for the consistent Mg incorporation into shells. However, the Mg/Ca-T calibrations tested in this study reveals the importance of specie-specific effect for the incorporation of Mg, as well as the environment. This enables discarding results inappropriate for existing Mg/Ca calibrations and identifying those yielding meaningful paleo-temperatures. In particular, the consistency of the Mg/Ca temperature proxies yielded by the species Ostrea (T.) strictiplicata and Sokolowia buhsii shows that, with careful data selection, Mg/Ca provides a reliable infra-annual paleotemperature proxy.

  5. A High Load of Non-neutral Amino-Acid Polymorphisms Explains High Protein Diversity Despite Moderate Effective Population Size in a Marine Bivalve With Sweepstakes Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Harrang, Estelle; Lapègue, Sylvie; Morga, Benjamin; Bierne, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Marine bivalves show among the greatest allozyme diversity ever reported in Eukaryotes, putting them historically at the heart of the neutralist−selectionist controversy on the maintenance of genetic variation. Although it is now acknowledged that this high diversity is most probably a simple consequence of a large population size, convincing support for this explanation would require a rigorous assessment of the silent nucleotide diversity in natural populations of marine bivalves, which has not yet been done. This study investigated DNA sequence polymorphism in a set of 37 nuclear loci in wild samples of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Silent diversity was found to be only moderate (0.7%), and there was no departure from demographic equilibrium under the Wright-Fisher model, suggesting that the effective population size might not be as large as might have been expected. In accordance with allozyme heterozygosity, nonsynonymous diversity was comparatively very high (0.3%), so that the nonsynonymous to silent diversity ratio reached a value rarely observed in any other organism. We estimated that one-quarter of amino acid-changing mutations behave as neutral in O. edulis, and as many as one-third are sufficiently weakly selected to segregate at low frequency in the polymorphism. Finally, we inferred that one oyster is expected to carry more than 4800 non-neutral alleles (or 4.2 cM−1). We conclude that a high load of segregating non-neutral amino-acid polymorphisms contributes to high protein diversity in O. edulis. The high fecundity of marine bivalves together with an unpredictable and highly variable success of reproduction and recruitment (sweepstakes reproduction) might produce a greater decoupling between Ne and N than in other organisms with lower fecundities, and we suggest this could explain why a higher segregating load could be maintained for a given silent mutation effective size. PMID:23390609

  6. Detection of the oyster herpesvirus in commercial bivalve in northern California, USA: conventional and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Strenge, Robyn E; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2011-04-01

    The ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) and related oyster herpesviruses (OsHV) are associated with world-wide mortalities of larval and juvenile bivalves. To quantify OsHV viral loads in mollusc tissues, we developed a SYBR Green quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the A-region of the OsHV-1 genome. Reaction efficiency and precision were demonstrated using a plasmid standard curve. The analytical sensitivity is 1 copy per reaction. We collected Crassostrea gigas, C. sikamea, C. virginica, Ostrea edulis, O. lurida, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Venerupis phillipinarum from Tomales Bay (TB), and C. gigas from Drakes Estero (DE), California, U.S.A., and initially used conventional PCR (cPCR) to test for presence of OsHV DNA. Subsequently, viral loads were quantified in selected samples of all tested bivalves except O. lurida. Copy numbers were low in each species tested but were significantly greater in C. gigas (p < 0.0001) compared to all other species, suggesting a higher level of infection. OsHV DNA was detected with cPCR and/or qPCR and confirmed by sequencing in C. gigas, C. sikamea, C. virginica, O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and V phillipinarum from TB and C. gigas from DE. These data indicate that multiple bivalve species may act as reservoirs for OsHV in TB. A lack of histological abnormalities in potential reservoirs requires alternative methods for their identification. Further investigation is needed to determine the host-parasite relationship for each potential reservoir, including characterization of viral loads and their relationship with infection (via in situ hybridization), assessments of mortality, and host responses. PMID:21648239

  7. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  8. Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics of the Bivalve Family Ostreidae Based on rRNA Sequence-Structure Models and Multilocus Species Tree

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassotreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics. PMID:25250663

  9. Spatial and temporal trends of PCDDs and PCDFs in bivalve mollusc coming from Galicia (2000-2005). Possible relationship between biometric parameters and PCDDs and PCDFs levels.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2008-08-01

    Levels and specific profiles of PCDD/F congeners were determined in bivalve mollusc coming from several Rías (estuarine bays) in Galicia (Spanish northwest Atlantic coast). Three species of bivalve mollusc, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Cerstoderma edulis and Ostrea edulis, from several points of littoral collected in the period from 2000 to 2005 were analysed. WHO-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 1.62 pg g(-1) wet weight, values below the maximum concentration established by the EU. The PCDD/PCDF congeners profile in the studied samples was dominated by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. The possible influence between biometric parameters (fat and condition index) and the culture type of mussel (wild or raft) on PCDDs and PCDFs levels were studied using statistical analysis. The coefficients of Pearson product-moment correlation indicated the existence of positive significant relationship between 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF levels and fat content. There was not correlation between condition index and PCDD/Fs content. ANOVA also revealed there were significant differences between SigmaPCDD/Fs, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF levels in raft and wild mussels. Spatial and temporal trends were supported by patterns in ANOVA, using a general linear model (GLM) showing a clear separation in the composition of these compounds in more and less contaminated Rías and a decrease of PCDD/FS levels along the years. PMID:18602662

  10. Paleoecology of unusually well-preserved west coast Upper Cretaceous fossil deposit: Point Loma Formation, Carlsbad, California

    SciTech Connect

    Loch, J.D.; Bottjer, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Macroinvertebrate fossils are best preserved in southern California Upper Cretaceous strata in the Point Loma Formation at Carlsbad, California. Large bulk-rock samples were removed from a construction site (now covered) that exposed the upper Point Loma at the Carlsbad Research Center. Collections made from a nearby roadcut of the Point Loma along El Camino Real were also studied. The dominant macroinvertebrate (31% of 978 individuals) is an undescribed aporrhaoid gastropod. Although aporrhaoids are present in most Upper Cretaceous deposits in North America, the abundance of these herbivorous mollusks within the Point Loma is unusual. Suspension feeders, including the bivalves Limopsis (28%), Indogrammatodon (5%), Corbula (5%), and Ostrea (4%), form the major trophic group present within this sample (total 57%). Deposit feeders and a diverse suite of predators form the remainder of the paleocommunity (total 4% and 8%, respectively). The two dominant taxa comprise the trophic nucleus of an aporrhaoid-Limopsis paleocommunity. Two taxonomically similar subpopulations can be distinguished within the studied Point Loma. At the El Camino Real site, sandy mudstones supported a subpopulation that attained full adult size. However, at the Carlsbad Research Center, homogeneous mudstones lacking sand yield diminutive fossils of the aporrhaoid-Limopsis paleocommunity. Ichnological evidence of a thixotropic mud bottom indicates that the size reduction was a result of sinking into the unstable substrate rather than other causes (e.g., low oxygenation or salinity). The thixotropic nature of the mudstone contributed to the exceptionally well-preserved fauna. Molluscan hard parts were rapidly buried. Bivalve ligaments, residual color banding, nacreous aragonite, and larval gastropods are preserved. After burial, the low-permeability mudstone insulated skeletons from carbonate dissolution.

  11. Introductions and developments of oysters in the North Sea area: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwaard, A. C.

    1998-09-01

    To replenish the exploited native stocks of Ostrea edulis, imports from almost all European coasts have arrived in the North Sea, particularly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica and the Portuguese oyster C. angulata have also been imported into the North Sea several times. However, only the introductions of various genetic strains of the Pacific oyster C. gigas have been of lasting success. Spat from British Columbia (Canada) was first imported to the Oosterschelde in 1964. First spatfalls in this area took place in the warm summers of 1975 and 1976. Further larval outbursts occurred in 1982 and 1989, and good settlements took place on culture plots as well as along the dikes of the Oosterschelde. Since 1977 no more cupped oysters have been imported from overseas. The population maintained itself and was able to spread in a northern direction along the Dutch North Sea coast. In Britain, hatchery-produced C. gigas were transferred to several sites, in the 1970s including the British North Sea coast. Here, occurrence in the wild seems to be rather limited up to now. Into the German Wadden Sea, C. gigas larvae and spat from a Scottish hatchery have been introduced since 1971, as were medium-sized oysters from a variety of European sources in the 1980s. Strong spatfalls on intertidal mussel beds in the northern German Wadden Sea occured in 1991 and 1994. For the introductions of C. gigas along the west European coasts, precautionary measures to minimize unintentional transfers of associated organisms, as recommended by the ICES Code of Practice in 1994, came too late.

  12. Mesonia sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a sea cucumber culture pond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qing; Xie, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Jin-Xin; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain negative and facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated MF326(T), was isolated from a sample of sediment collected from a sea cucumber culture pond in Rongcheng, China (122°14'34″E 36°54'36″N). Cells of strain MF326(T) were found to be catalase negative and oxidase positive. Optimal growth was found to occur at 30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5 in the presence of 2.0-3.0% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MF326(T) is a member of the genus Mesonia and exhibits the high sequence similarity (94.3%) with the type strain of Mesonia ostreae, followed by Mesonia algae (93.9%). The dominant fatty acids of strain MF326(T) were identified as iso-C(15:0), an unidentified fatty acid with an equivalent chain-length of 13.565 and anteiso-C(15:0). The major polar lipids were found to be two unidentified lipids and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major respiratory quinone was found to be MK-6 and the genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.7 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and differential phenotypic characteristics, it is concluded that strain MF326(T) (=KCTC 42255(T) =MCCC 1H00125(T)) should be assigned to the genus Mesonia as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Mesonia sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26330057

  13. New data on Perkinsus mediterraneus in the Balearic Archipelago: locations and affected species.

    PubMed

    Valencia, J M; Bassitta, M; Picornell, A; Ramon, C; Castro, J A

    2014-11-13

    Perkinsus mediterraneus, a protozoan parasite that can cause perkinsosis (marine mollusc disease), was first detected in oysters Ostrea edulis from Mahon (Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) in 2004. Several years later it was also found in Andratx Harbour (Majorca, Balearic Islands) and in the Gulf of Manfredonia (Adriatic coast of Italy) in oyster populations. Since 2007, Perkinsus surveys have been conducted in different localities and shellfish species in the Balearic Archipelago. In the present work, we found P. mediterraneus in the Balearic Islands infecting oyster and other shellfish species. We describe infection with P. mediterraneus for the first time in Arca noae and Mimachlamys varia. The detection was carried out using Ray's fluid thioglycolate medium (RFTM), histology and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodologies. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of P. mediterraneus ribosomal DNA was sequenced from infected bivalve gills (or from the body in Chamelea gallina) from Balearic Archipelago localities. Twelve haplotypes with a strong genetic similarity between them (97-100%) were observed in our samples. These data were completed with 12 more haplotypes from GenBank sequences. The phylogenetic relationship between Balearic P. mediterraneus haplotypes found in this study, those previously obtained in Mahon Harbour, and the Perkinsus spp. sequences available in GenBank clearly grouped the different Perkinsus spp. in distinct clades supported by strong bootstrap values. Moreover, these analyses detected different P. mediterraneus groups in O. edulis from Minorca Island. No abnormal mortalities or decline in populations were detected during the survey, except for C. gallina, which is also affected by Marteilia refringens. PMID:25392044

  14. (+)-Podocarpic Acid as Chiral Template in the Synthesis of Aphidicolane, Stemodane and Stemarane Diterpenoids †.

    PubMed

    La Bella, Angela; Leonelli, Francesca; Migneco, Luisa Maria; Marini Bettolo, Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    In this review the synthetic work in the field of aphidicolane, stemodane and stemarane diterpenoids, in which readily available (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was used as chiral template for the construction of their polycyclic structures, is described as it developed along the years. In the frame of this work (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was a very useful tool in a model study leading to the syntheses of tetracyclic ketones 7 and 8, models of key intermediates 5a and 6 in the syntheses of (+)-aphidicolin (1) and (+)-stemodin (2a), respectively. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was also converted into (+)-2-deoxystemodinone (2d), allowing confirmation of the stemodane diterpenoids absolute configuration, into (+)-aphidicol-15-ene (36) and into Stemodia chilensis tetracyclic diterpenoid (+)-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (2f), allowing confirmation of its structure. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was then extensively used in the work which led to the synthesis of (+)-stemar-13-ene (57) and (+)-18-deoxystemarin (3b). Finally, (+)-4 was converted into (+)-2-deoxyoryzalexin S (66), which made it possible to demonstrate that the structure of (+)-66 could not be attributed to a Chilean Calceolaria isolated diterpenoid to which this structure had been assigned. PMID:27617995

  15. Highly repeated DNA sequences in birds: the structure and evolution of an abundant, tandemly repeated 190-bp DNA fragment in parrots.

    PubMed

    Madsen, C S; de Kloet, D H; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, S R

    1992-10-01

    Up to 6.8% of the parrot (Psittaciformes) genome consists of a tandemly repeated, 190-bp sequence (P1) located in the centromere of many if not all chromosomes. Monomer repeats from 10 different psittacine species representing four subfamilies were isolated and cloned. The intraspecific sequence variation ranged from 1.5 to 7%. The interspecific sequence variation ranged from less than 3% between two species of cockatoos to approximately 45% between cockatoos and other parrots. The monomer sequences of all 10 parrot species contained several conserved (> 90%) sequence elements at identical locations within the repeat. A comparison with tandemly repeated DNA sequences in other avian species showed that several of these conserved elements were also present at similar locations within the 184-bp repeat of the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), suggesting a great antiquity of the repeat. One of the elements was also found in the tandemly repeated sequences of the crane (Gruidae) and falcon (Falconidae) families. The data were used for the construction of a partial most parsimonious relationship that supports a regional subdivision of the Psittaciformes. PMID:1339392

  16. Correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Tawnia J; Backues, Kay A; Burgos-Rodriguez, Armando G

    2005-12-01

    Three hand-raised American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. All flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. Positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. Various banding techniques were used in each flamingo to create tension. Three of the four flamingos responded in 7-14 days with correction or slight overcorrection of the valgus limb deformity. The fourth flamingo's leg deformity did not improve for reasons thought to be related to improper implant placement. Growth plate retardation by transphyseal bridging proved successful in correcting valgus limb deformity of the proximal tarsometatarsus. This technique may be considered as an option for correction of angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsus in flamingos less than 90-120 days of age. PMID:17312728

  17. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  18. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  19. Herbivores modify selection on plant functional traits in a temperate rainforest understory.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting light environments and also evaluated whether herbivores can modify selection on these traits in each light environment. In a temperate rainforest, we examined phenotypic selection on functional traits in seedlings of the pioneer tree Aristotelia chilensis growing in sun (canopy gap) and shade (forest understory) and subjected to either natural herbivory or herbivore exclusion. We found differential selection on functional traits depending on light environment. In sun, there was positive directional selection on photosynthetic rate and relative growth rate (RGR), indicating that selection favors competitive ability in a high-resource environment. Seedlings with high specific leaf area (SLA) and intermediate RGR were selected in shade, suggesting that light capture and conservative resource use are favored in the understory. Herbivores reduced the strength of positive directional selection acting on SLA in shade. We provide the first demonstration that natural herbivory rates can change the strength of selection on plant ecophysiological traits, that is, attributes whose main function is resource uptake. Research addressing the evolution of shade tolerance should incorporate the selective role of herbivores. PMID:22766937

  20. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

  1. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  2. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  3. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  4. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of flash floods in the Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteller, Alejandro; Stoffel, Markus; Crespo, Sebastián; Villalba, Ricardo; Corona, Christophe; Bianchi, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Flash floods represent a significant natural hazard in small mountainous catchments of the Patagonian Andes and have repeatedly caused loss to life and infrastructure. At the same time, however, documentary records of past events remain fairly scarce and highly fragmentary in most cases. In this study, we therefore reconstruct the spatiotemporal patterns of past flash flood activity along the Los Cipreses torrent (Neuquén, Argentina) using dendrogeomorphic methods. Based on samples from Austrocedrus chilensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Nothofagus dombeyi, we document 21 flash flood events covering the period A.D. 1890-2009 and reconstruct mean recurrence intervals of events at the level of individual trees being impacted, which varies from 4 to 93 years. Results show that trees tend to be older (younger) in sectors of the torrent with gentler (steeper) slope gradients. Potential triggers of flash floods were analyzed using daily temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Weather conditions leading to flash floods are abundant precipitations during one to three consecutive days, combined with temperatures above the rain/snow threshold (2 °C) in the whole watershed.

  5. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  6. Vertical distribution of rocky subtidal assemblages along the exposed coast of north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Wolfgang B.; Aburto, Jaime; Caillaux, Luis M.; González, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic study of a stretch of coast in north central Chile, the variety and vertical zonation patterns of the rocky subtidal communities are described, thereby revising apparent uniformity and lack of vertical zonation of the rocky subtidal of southeastern Pacific shores previously reported in the literature. Over the 600 km of coast studied, the following pattern of depth-zonation is described: an upper fringe (lower part of the sublittoral fringe) characterized by barren grounds dominated by calcareous encrusting algae and the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger; an intermediate fringe (upper Infralittoral sub-zone) characterized either by deep barren grounds similar to the former, or kelp beds of Lessonia trabeculata, or an assemblage of suspension feeding organisms, as the big barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus and/or the tunicate Pyura chilensis; and a deep fringe (Circalittoral sub-zone) dominated by small encrusting or mobile invertebrates. This basic vertical zonation pattern of the shallow rocky subtidal communities seems to be common to most of the temperate coasts of the world. The analysis, first of the occurrence of the general zonation pattern and second of the species composition within the assemblages corresponding to each sub-zone, offers a useful framework for the assessment of the eventual impacts and changes within the shallow rocky subtidal habitat, for example within environmental monitoring programs.

  7. Sphingopyxis fribergensis sp. nov., a soil bacterium with the ability to degrade styrene and phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Schmidt, Gert; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Strain Kp5.2(T) is an aerobic, Gram-negative soil bacterium that was isolated in Freiberg, Saxony, Germany. The cells were motile and rod-shaped. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 °C. The fatty acids of strain Kp5.2(T) comprised mainly C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major polar lipids of strain Kp5.2(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.7%. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of strain Kp5.2(T) allowed its classification into the family Sphingomonadaceae, and the sequence showed the highest similarity to those of members of the genus Sphingopyxis, with Sphingopyxis italica SC13E-S71(T) (99.15% similarity), Sphingopyxis panaciterrae Gsoil 124(T) (98.96%), Sphingopyxis chilensis S37(T) (98.90%) and Sphingopyxis bauzanensis BZ30(T) (98.51%) as the nearest neighbours. DNA-DNA hybridization and further characterization revealed that strain Kp5.2(T) can be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingopyxis. Hence, the name Sphingopyxis fribergensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Kp5.2(T) ( = DSM 28731(T) = LMG 28478(T)). PMID:26040579

  8. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides. PMID:21753746

  9. Ecological Relationships Between the Valviferan Isopod Edotia doellojuradoiGiambiagi, 1925, and its Host Mytilus edulis chilensisin the Falkland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. P.; Richardson, C. A.; Seed, R.

    1997-02-01

    A hitherto undescribed association between the valviferan isopod, Edotia doellojuradoi, and the mussel, Mytilus edulis chilensis, in the Falkland Islands (South-west Atlantic) is reported. Isopods were recorded within the mantle cavity of mussels from an estuarine location, Camilla Creek, and from two coastal sites, Goose Green and Darwin. All the mussel populations sampled along the estuary harboured isopods, whereas only those from the low and low-mid shore sites at Darwin and Goose Green were infested. Overall infestation increased between October 1994 and December 1995 from 47, 9 and 2 to 51, 21 and 24% at Camilla Creek, Goose Green and Darwin, respectively. Infestation also increased with decreasing tidal elevation but declined with mussel size. There was no apparent correlation between the occurrence of the isopod and salinity along the estuary at Camilla Creek. Isopod abundance increased with mussel size at all sites and tidal levels, and the largest broods were generally present in mussels from the low shore. Length-frequency distributions of the isopod populations were distinctly bimodal and comprised a prominent mode of males and juvenile individuals, up to 9 mm in size, and a smaller mode containing the adult females, ranging from 5 to 14 mm. Never more than one female was found within any given mussel, and this was always the largest isopod present. No significant differences in condition were observed between mussels that were infested and those that were not.

  10. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  11. Anti-phytopathogenic activities of macro-algae extracts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  12. In silico model of an antenna of a phycobilisome and energy transfer rates determination by theoretical Förster approach.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maximiliano; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Matamala, Adelio R; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Mella, Claudia; Fritz, Rubén; Sepúlveda-Ugarte, José; Bunster, Marta

    2012-12-01

    Energy transfer (ET) in phycobilisomes, a macrocomplex of phycobiliproteins and linker proteins, is a process that is difficult to understand completely. A model for a rod composed of two hexamers of Phycocyanin and two hexamers of Phycoerythrin was built using an in silico approach and the three-dimensional structures of both phycobiliproteins from Gracilaria chilensis. The model was characterized and showed 125 Å wide and 230 Å high, which agree with the dimensions of a piling of four hexamers as observed in the images of subcomplexes of phycobilisomes obtained by transmission electron microscopy. ET rates between every pair of chromophores in the model were calculated using the Förster approach, and the fastest rates were selected to draw preferential ET pathways along the rod. Every path indicates that the ET is funneled toward the chromophores located at Cysteines 82 in Phycoerythrin and 84 in Phycocyanin. The chromophores that face the exterior of the rod are phycoerythrobilins, and they also show a preferential ET toward the chromophores located at the center of the rod. The values calculated, in general, agree with the experimental data reported previously, which validates the use of this experimental approach. PMID:23047609

  13. The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Valdivia, I; López, Z

    2015-09-01

    We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several developmental stages of the digeneans in various host species. Experimental infections of fish were made from infected mytilids to determine which fish species were suitable for the metacercarial stage of Prosorhynchoides. We also determined the abundance and prevalence of metacercariae in natural infections in fish and found that they were lower than in the experimental infections. A molecular analysis showed that sporocysts from S. algosus were identical to metacercariae from five fish species and P. carvajali adults. Sporocysts isolated from P. purpuratus were similar to metacercaria found in one fish species only (G. laevifrons) but were different from P. carvajali, with 1.9-2.0% genetic divergence. Therefore, the complete life cycle of P. carvajali consists of the mytilid species S. algosus as the first intermediate host, at least five intertidal fish species as second intermediate hosts (Scartichthys viridis, Auchenionchus microcirrhis, Hypsoblennius sordidus, Helcogrammoides chilensis and Gobiesox marmoratus), two carnivorous fish as definitive hosts (Auchenionchus microcirrhis and A. variolosus) and one occasional definitive host (Syciases sanguineus). This is the second description of a life cycle of a marine digenean from Chile. PMID:25033223

  14. Merizocotyle euzeti sp. n. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the nasal tissue of three deep sea skates (Rajidae) in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Cantatore, Delfina M P; Delpiani, Gabriela E; Incorvaia, Inés S; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-06-01

    A new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, 1894 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the nasal tissues of three deep sea rajid skates: the southern thorny skate, Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi), broadnose skate, Bathyraja brachyurops (Fowler), and yellownose skate, Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot), collected off Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, southwest Atlantic Ocean. Two additional species of sympatric rajid, the white-dotted skate, Bathyraja albomaculata (Norman), and the Patagonian skate, Bathyraja macloviana (Norman), were also examined but no merizocotylines were found. The taxonomy of the Merizocotylinae is not widely accepted and, as a result, the status of Thaumatocotyle and Mycteronastes, and their proposed synonymy with Merizocotyle are currently under discussion. The new species differs from its congeners by having a unique haptoral structure, 6 peripheral loculi that are asymmetrically arranged (one much smaller, indistinctly located in the left or right side of the haptor). The presence of the new species in three sympatric species of Rajidae belonging to distinct genera and subfamilies, as well as its absence in sympatric congenerics indicates the lack of phylogenetic host specificity. Host ecology and geographical distribution appear to be more important than host phylogeny in determining the distribution of this parasite across potential hosts in the region. This constitutes the first record of Merizocotyle in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. PMID:25065126

  15. Predation-risk effects of predator identity on the foraging behaviors of frugivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Breviglieri, C P B; Piccoli, G C O; Uieda, W; Romero, G Q

    2013-11-01

    Predators directly and indirectly affect the density and the behavior of prey. These effects may potentially cascade down to lower trophic levels. In this study, we tested the effects of predator calls (playbacks of bird vocalizations: Tyto alba, Speotyto cunicularia, and Vanellus chilensis), predator visual stimuli (stuffed birds) and interactions of visual and auditory cues, on the behavior of frugivore phyllostomid bats in the field. In addition, we tested if the effects of predation risk cascade down to other trophic levels by measuring rates of seed dispersal of the tree Muntingia calabura. Using video recording, we found that bats significantly decreased the foraging frequency on trees when a visual cue of T. alba was present. However, no stimuli of potential predatory birds, including vocalization of T. alba, affected bat foraging frequency. There was a change in bat behavior during 7 min, but then their frequency of activity gradually increased. Consequently, the presence of T. alba decreased by up to ten times the rate of seed removal. These results indicate that risk sensitivity of frugivorous phyllostomid bats depends on predator identity and presence. Among the predators used in this study, only T. alba is an effective bat predator in the Neotropics. Sound stimuli of T. alba seem not to be a cue of predation risk, possibly because their vocalizations are used only for intraspecific communication. This study emphasizes the importance of evaluating different predator stimuli on the behavior of vertebrates, as well as the effects of these stimuli on trait-mediated trophic cascades. PMID:23657559

  16. Use of cellulolytic marine bacteria for enzymatic pretreatment in microalgal biogas production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos; Rivas, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with "whole-cell" cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a "whole-cell" cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  18. Trace metal content in sediments and autochthonous intertidal organisms from two adjacent bays near Ushuaia, Beagle Channel (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia Alejandra; Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) and limpets (Nacella magellanica) from the Industrial zone (IZ); fuel dock (FD) and Ushuaia Peninsula (UP) on the Beagle Channel. In sediments, seasonal variations showed high values of Cu and Pb in spring and Zn in autumn. Comparing among sites, Cd concentration was superior in UP (2.07 μg/g); while Pb was maximum in FD (41.00 μg/g). In mussels, a higher bioaccumulation in winter was found. Mussels from UP showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu (5.95 μg/g) and those from FD presented the highest of Zn (170.15 μg/g). A seasonal trend was not found for limpets, while differences among sites were observed for Cd being the highest at IZ (3.02 μg/g). Although pollution level found was low, anthropic activities at the studied sites could result in deterioration, further monitoring is recommended. PMID:22681905

  19. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment. PMID:21128271

  20. Heavy metals monitoring in the southernmost mussel farm of the world (Beagle Channel, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-09-01

    Water quality surrounding the mussel farm of Mytilus edulis chilensis at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) was evaluated. The levels of five heavy metals in sediment and in gill and digestive gland of mussels were examined to consider potential risks to human health. Cd showed the highest enrichment factor in relation to its level in Earth crust (3.85-21.58), which could be related to an upwelling phenomenon. A seasonal trend was found regarding metal bioaccumulation, being higher in winter than in summer. The bioaccumulation pattern in gill was Zn>Fe>Cu>Cd, meanwhile in digestive gland was Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd. Despite Pb was measured in sediment (15.59-23.91 microg/g dw), it was not available for being incorporated by mussels. In all cases it was below the detection limit (2.37 microg/g dw). With regard to human consumption of mussels from Brown Bay, none of the elements analyzed should cause concern for consumers. Values measured in tissue mussels were below the limit of 10 microg/g dw for Cd and Pb established by SENASA for molluscs. Considering that studied mussels are for human consumption and the relatively high levels of metals in sediment may vary their availability if physical parameters changes, periodical monitoring must be carried out to avoid human risks and to produce food in a responsible manner that complies with the food safety standards. PMID:20638724

  1. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  2. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  3. Cytotaxonomy of the Ciconiiformes (Aves), with karyotypes of eight species new to cytology.

    PubMed

    de Boer, L E; van Brink, J M

    1982-01-01

    Somatic karyotypes of 13 species of ciconiiform birds, Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, Phoeniconaias minor, Cochlearius cochlearius, Geronticus eremita, Threskiornis molucca, T. spinicollis, Balaeniceps rex, Ciconia ciconia, C. nigra, Euxenura maguari, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, and Leptoptilos crumeniferus are presented. The chromosomes of eight of these species are described in detail for the first time. Of special interest are a case of structural heterozygosity in a male B. rex and remarkably low diploid numbers in C. nigra (2n = ca 52) and L. crumeniferus (2n = ca 52). The karyological relationships of the ciconiiform families are discussed. The karyotypes of the Phoenicopteridae are identical to karyotypes found in various other bird orders. All members of the Ardeidae hitherto studied are characterized by a submetacentric third pair of macrochromosomes (subtelocentric in all other Ciconiiformes). All Threskiornithidae share a pair of acrocentric chromosomes resulting from a reciprocal translocation between a pair of microchromosomes and pair No. 1. Both the Ciconiidae and the Balaenicipitidae show the original structure of Nos. 1, 2 and 3, also found in the Phoenicopteridae and many other birds. In contrast to the Phoenicopteridae, however, both families share a relatively high number of medium-sized to small biarmed chromosomes with the Ardeidae and the Threskiornithidae. Several characteristics in this group of chromosomes separate Balaenicipitidae from Ciconiidae. PMID:7151490

  4. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species. PMID:27515658

  5. Neoselachians and Chimaeriformes (Chondrichthyes) from the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene of Sierra Baguales, southernmost Chile. Chronostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Rodrigo A.; Oyarzún, José Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Gutierrez, Nestor M.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Torres, Teresa; Hervé, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses a well-represented fossil record of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from southern South America. The recovered samples allow the recognition of three assemblages with chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic value: i) typical Maastrichtian sharks and rays with affinities to eastern Pacific fauna, including the taxa Ischyrhiza chilensis, Serratolamna serrata, Centrophoroides sp. associated to Carcharias sp., and Dasyatidae indet.; ii) a scarce reworked assemblage of Paleocene-Early Eocene age including the taxa Otodus obliquus and Megascyliorhinus cooperi; iii) a rich assemblage with reworked taxa of Early to Middle Eocene age, together with autochthonous deposited Middle to Late Eocene taxa with close affinities to paleoichthyofaunas recovered from the North Atlantic, represented by Carcharias 'hopei', Odontaspis winkleri, Carcharoides catticus, Macrorhizodus praecursor, Carcharocles auriculatus, Striatolamia sp., Striatolamia macrota, Hexanchus agassizi, Notorhynchus sp., Myliobatis sp., Abdounia sp., Pristiophorus sp., Squatina sp., cf. Rhizoprionodon sp., Ischyodus sp., and one new species, Jaekelotodus bagualensis sp. nov. The studied samples include for the first time taxa with well established chronostratigraphic resolutions as well as taphonomic information that help clarifying the age of the fossil-bearing units. In addition, they provide relevant information about the evolution of the Magallanes (=Austral) Basin from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleogene, suggesting a probable connection with the Quiriquina Basin of south-central Chile during the latest Cretaceous. Finally, the studied assemblages indicate a latitudinal pattern of distribution that provides valuable data on the environmental evolution and temperature of southern South America during the Paleogene.

  6. Use of Cellulolytic Marine Bacteria for Enzymatic Pretreatment in Microalgal Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with “whole-cell” cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a “whole-cell” cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  7. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    PubMed

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown. PMID:27372197

  9. mRNA maturation in giant viruses: variation on a theme

    PubMed Central

    Priet, Stéphane; Lartigue, Audrey; Debart, Françoise; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Giant viruses from the Mimiviridae family replicate entirely in their host cytoplasm where their genes are transcribed by a viral transcription apparatus. mRNA polyadenylation uniquely occurs at hairpin-forming palindromic sequences terminating viral transcripts. Here we show that a conserved gene cluster both encode the enzyme responsible for the hairpin cleavage and the viral polyA polymerases (vPAP). Unexpectedly, the vPAPs are homodimeric and uniquely self-processive. The vPAP backbone structures exhibit a symmetrical architecture with two subdomains sharing a nucleotidyltransferase topology, suggesting that vPAPs originate from an ancestral duplication. A Poxvirus processivity factor homologue encoded by Megavirus chilensis displays a conserved 5′-GpppA 2′O methyltransferase activity but is also able to internally methylate the mRNAs’ polyA tails. These findings elucidate how the arm wrestling between hosts and their viruses to access the translation machinery is taking place in Mimiviridae. PMID:25779049

  10. Postglacial history of the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Markgraf, Vera; Bianchi, María Martha

    2014-06-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 23,000 years. Although the vegetation history has been inferred from individual pollen records, the regional patterns and drivers of vegetation development are poorly understood. High resolution pollen and charcoal data from eleven sites located along the eastern flanks of the Patagonian Andes (41-43°S) were examined to reconstruct the Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of steppe/forest ecotone and separate the relative influence of climatic versus non-climatic factors in shaping the patterns of ecological change. Pollen data indicate that, as the Lateglacial climate became progressively wetter, the initial steppe vegetation was replaced by open forest of Nothofagus in the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods, and by closed forest in the late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the Lateglacial/early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Prior to ca 5000 cal yr BP, the conifer Austrocedrus chilensis possibly persisted in isolated populations along the eastern boundary of its modern distribution. Cooler/more humid conditions after ca 5000 cal yr BP allowed the development of the modern mixed Nothofagus-Austrocedrus forest. The paleoenvironmental record points to the sensitivity of the forest/steppe ecotone in the past, not only to climate but also to complex environmental feedbacks that amplified the effects of climate change.

  11. Phylogeography and demographic inference in Nacella ( Patinigera) concinna (Strebel, 1908) in the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; David, Bruno; Poulin, Elie

    2011-03-01

    population sizes, especially in Antarctic species with narrow bathymetric ranges. Genetic similarities between South Georgia and Antarctic samples, as well as between Nacella delesserti (Philippi, 1849) and N. concinna (Strebel, 1908) fell within the range of intraspecific variation. The genetic proximity between sub-Antarctic N. delesserti and the Antarctic limpet could be explained through north-eastward long-distance dispersion events during the late Pleistocene.

  12. Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, A; Birkemeyer, T; Ghetti, P F

    2001-10-01

    Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass

  13. Temporal and spatial distributions of dominant shrimp stocks and their relationship with the hydrological environment in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Huaqing; Song, Haitang; Bayly, Chris

    2007-10-01

    To provide a scientific and technological base for fishery administration, holding a moratorium on fishing, and combating habitat degradation, a shrimp stock survey was carried out in May, August, and November 1998 and in February 1999. The study was conducted in the area between 26°00' N and 33°00' N and to the west of 127°00' E in the East China Sea using a multi-sac trawl-net, with 115 stations being sampled. Up to 2001, we had found 121 species, which belong to 63 genera under 22 families, and 41 species are of high economic value and in great abundance. Nine shrimp species were of great economic importance, whose stock accounted for 76.8% of the demersal total. They were Parapenaeus fissuroides, Metapenaeopsis philippi, Palaemon gravieri, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Solenocera koelbeli, Solenocera crassicornis, Trachypenaeus curvirostris, Solenocera melantho and Parapenaeopsis hardwickii (listed in stock order). The nine species belong to the curythermal and eurysaline community and high thermal and high saline community, had different migration patterns and stocks, and their distribution patterns could be generally classified into three types: (1) dominating in the north or the south; (2) dominating to the north of and in the coast to the south of 30°00' N; and (3) dominating to the east of 60 m isobath, which were related to six water masses in the ECS near two lines, i.e., the 60 m isobath and 30°00'N latitudinal lines. Densely habited shrimps were found in all four seasons due to temperature and salinity frontiers and upwelling. The general stock density index was relatively higher in spring, summer, and autumn, when it surpassed 10 kg/h, while in winter, it was only 6.8 kg/h which might be caused by overfishing. According to the spawning areas of the nine species and their distribution patterns, to attain sustainable development of the shrimp fishery in the ECS, it is imperative to protect fishing areas and to hold a moratorium on catching to the west of

  14. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a

  15. Nanostructure and composition of bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Soldati, A. L.; Wirth, R.; Huth, J.; Wehrmeister, U.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    Shells and pearls of unionid mussels (Hyriopsis cumingii, Margaritifera margaritifera, Diplodon chilensis patagonicus) were studied by high resolution microbeam methods and -computer tomography to gather insight into the nanostructure and chemical composition of nacre and prism layers. Natural and cultured pearls are formed by many mollusc species and their generation is very similar to that of shells resulting in identical prismatic and nacreous structures of shells and pearls. Basic difference is, however that pearl culturing methods induce biomineralisation of CaCO3 around a crystalline bead which results in a reverse structural organisation compared to bivalve shells. Bivalve shell growth starts from a thick organic matrix (the periostracum; Eyster and Morse, 1984) which is followed towards the inside by two variously thick layers consisting of prismatic CaCO3 aggregations and layers of CaCO3 platelets, respectively. Platelets and prisms are individually covered by a chitinous organic matrix which lends structural support and is thought to exert control over the mineralization process. The minerals within the organic sheaths are highly-aligned poly-twinned crystals with a slightly distorted lattice due to inclusions of organic molecules (Pokroy et al., 2006). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Microscopy analyses of the shells and pearls show that both structures, prisms and platelets, consist of nanometre-sized organic membrane-coated granules of CaCO3 (Jacob et al., 2008). In the vicinity of the periostracum, the granules consist of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), but the crystallinity increases with increasing distance from the periostracum. The transition from disordered (amorphous) to crystalline CaCO3 is gradual within a few micrometers and coincides with a decrease in porosity. Concentrations of sulphur and phosphorus are higher in ACC than in aragonite indicating a

  16. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

    2012-04-01

    In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903-2009), in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  17. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

    2011-10-01

    In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America exist for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data for several centuries or millennia. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows, 1903-2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed through a nested principal components regression approach using a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies grouped in composite series. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the past millennium, but longer and more severe events can also be observed in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and Singular Spectral Analyses identified various multi-decadal quasiperiodic oscillations with a dominant 6.8-year cycle explaining ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. We also found that the Neuquén River discharges are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies which indicate a strong connection between rainfall patterns in northern Patagonia and SAM activity.

  18. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: a review.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Schönlau, F

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins represent water-soluble flavonoid species, commonly found in higher plants, the richest plant source representing berries. While all anthocyanins present with antioxidant activity, the delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin species owed to largest number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring. The richest known natural source of delphinidins is the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) from which an extract Delphinol®, standardized to 25% delphinidin, is commercially available. Delphinol® significantly reduces oxidative stress (oxidized LDL and F2-isoprostane) and blood glucose in controlled clinical trials. In human umbilical vein endothelium delphinidins concentration-dependently decrease intracellular oxygen radicals. Furthermore, delphinidins increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and decreases expression of vaso-constrictory endothelin-1. Delphinidins inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, thus counteracting vascular inflammatory situations. Furthermore, delphinidins decrease platelet activity and may contribute to thrombosis prevention. Research on delphinidins showed improved endothelial function with elevated endothelial NO generation, lowered platelet aggregability and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. Delphinidins dose-dependently inhibit NF-κB-, activator protein-1- as well as COX-2 expression in UV-exposed epidermis. Delphinidins are found to be internalized into keratinocytes and pre-clinical investigations show significant UV-photo-protective 1effects with topical application of 40 nM delphinidin, both when applied prior to UV exposure as well as after exposure. Delphinidins may counteract skin-aging due to inhibition of UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase in fibroblasts. In a rodent osteoporosis model delphinidin was found to inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts, resulting in an inhibited bone demineralization, while other anthocyanins were ineffective. Future

  19. THE RELATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FLORA TO THAT OF SOUTH AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Bray, W L

    1900-11-01

    Reviewing the floral relations of North and South America as illustrated in the foregoing instances, we may say that the phenomena of distribution agree fairly with the record of physical conditions which have succeeded each other and those which still exist, and upon which we might almost a priori have predicted an analogous set of distribution phenomena. In this relationship we may distinguish three categories of distribution: (1) Those due to the conditions of human civilization, commerce, etc. This has resulted in placing the same species in similar regions of both continents, as, for example, Fagonia cretica in Lower California and Chile; Munroa squarrosa, western plains of North America, plains of Argentine and high plateaus of Chile and Bolivia; Frankenia grandiflora, Southern California and Arizona, coast lands of Chile; Oxytheca dendroidea, Lastarricea chilensis, and Chorizanthe comrnmissuralis, all in Southern California and Western Chile. (2) Those due to the operation of natural causes acting unde present conditions of climate, geology, etc. Under this head may be cited such species as sida leprosa, hastata, anomala, Cienfugosia sulphurea, Spergulariaplattensis and, in general, elements of Gulf zone distribution; also certain elements which still find a pathway along the continental axis, including some alpine and mountain xerophilous genera. (3) The third category of distribution would include those phenomena due to geological and climatic changes acting through long periods. Under this head are included the elements of greatest significance in the relationsip of the North and South America floras. The endemic boreal flora of the Andes, the equally endemic boreal flora of the Mexican Cordilleras, and genera with sharply distinct species or sub-genera in the arid extra-tropical regions of both continents, which may be called remnant elements. PMID:17832120

  20. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (−12.2%, −45.6%, and −14.7%, respectively) and calafate (−27.6%, −43.9%, and −11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  1. Lipophilic toxin profiles detected in farmed and benthic mussels populations from the most relevant production zones in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos; Rodriguez-Unda, Nelson; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor

    2012-01-01

    Lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhoeic toxins were found in Mytilus chilensis (Blue mussels) and Aulacomya ater (Ribbed mussels). These shellfish samples were collected from Chiloe Island, Southern Chile. The samples were tested by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After the analysis, four toxins were found: DTX-1, DTX-3, YTX and PTX. All toxins were identified by comparing their HPLC retention times with those of analytical standards and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3) toxins were the major components within the mussel extracts. Nevertheless, the percentages of these toxins differed depending on the area they were collected from and/or the sampling date. The levels detected in Butacheuques Island for okadaic acid (OA) was 267 ± 3.5 µg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and for DTX-3 was 183.4 ± 7.5 µg kg(-1) in ribbed mussels. Pectenotoxin (PTX) and yessotoxin (YTX) were the toxins detected in minor proportions in the toxic profile of the bivalves. The maximum concentration of YTX detected in ribbed mussels was 85.2 ± 2.8 µg kg(-1) in Mechuque Island, whereas the PTX-2 level in ribbed mussels was 82.0 ± 2.4 µg kg(-1) in Cailin Island. Analogues of YTX and PTX-2 were not detected in any of the analysed mussels, which did not support the supposed presence of isomers of toxins as a result of the enzymatic metabolism of bivalves. This study found evidence proving co-occurrence of lipophilic toxins - like PTX and YTX - with diarrhoeic toxin in samples collected in Southern Chile, which is, to date, the more complex mix of lipophilic toxins ever found in mussels samples from Southern Chile. PMID:22424031

  2. Succession of ground-dwelling beetle assemblages after fire in three habitat types in the Andean forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  3. Sphingopyxis italica sp. nov., isolated from Roman catacombs.

    PubMed

    Alias-Villegas, Cynthia; Jurado, Valme; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SC13E-S71(T), was isolated from tuff, volcanic rock, where the Roman catacombs of Saint Callixtus in Rome, Italy, was excavated. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SC13E-S71(T) belongs to the genus Sphingopyxis, and that it shows the greatest sequence similarity with Sphingopyxis chilensis DSM 14889(T) (98.72 %), Sphingopyxis taejonensis DSM 15583(T) (98.65 %), Sphingopyxis ginsengisoli LMG 23390(T) (98.16 %), Sphingopyxis panaciterrae KCTC 12580(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis alaskensis DSM 13593(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis witflariensis DSM 14551(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis bauzanensis DSM 22271(T) (98.02 %), Sphingopyxis granuli KCTC 12209(T) (97.73 %), Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida KACC 10927(T) (97.49 %), Sphingopyxis ummariensis DSM 24316(T) (97.37 %) and Sphingopyxis panaciterrulae KCTC 22112(T) (97.09 %). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C14 : 0 2-OH and C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. These chemotaxonomic data are common to members of the genus Sphingopyxis. However, a polyphasic approach using physiological tests, DNA base ratios, DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolate SC13E-S71(T) belongs to a novel species within the genus Sphingopyxis, for which the name Sphingopyxis italica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC13E-S71(T) ( = DSM 25229(T) = CECT 8016(T)). PMID:23264504

  4. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Alvarez, Anne M

    2015-03-01

    The genus Clavibacter contains one recognized species, Clavibacter michiganensis. Clavibacter michiganensis is subdivided into subspecies based on host specificity and bacteriological characteristics, with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis causing bacterial canker of tomato. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is often spread through contaminated seed leading to outbreaks of bacterial canker in tomato production areas worldwide. The frequent occurrence of non-pathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-like bacteria (CMB) is a concern for seed producers because Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a quarantine organism and detection of a non-pathogenic variant may result in destruction of an otherwise healthy seed lot. A thorough biological and genetic characterization of these seed-associated CMB strains was performed using standard biochemical tests, cell wall analyses, metabolic profiling using Biolog, and single-gene and multilocus sequence analyses. Combined, these tests revealed two distinct populations of seed-associated members of the genus Clavibacter that differed from each other, as well as from all other described subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis. DNA-DNA hybridization values are 70 % or higher, justifying placement into the single recognized species, C. michiganensis, but other analyses justify separate subspecies designations. Additionally, strains belonging to the genus Clavibacter isolated from pepper also represent a distinct population and warrant separate subspecies designation. On the basis of these data we propose subspecies designations for separate non-pathogenic subpopulations of Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis subsp. nov. for seed-associated strains represented by C55(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2691(T) = CFBP 8216(T)) and ZUM3936(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2690(T) = CFBP 8217(T

  5. A drop in the bucket of the megadiverse chewing louse genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae): ten new species from Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Weckstein, Jason D

    2013-11-01

    Ten new species of Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 parasitic on members of the avian families Formicariidae, Thraupidae, Tyrannidae, Troglodytidae and Icteridae are described herein. They and their type hosts are M. isacantha sp. n. ex Chamaeza nobilis Gould, M. circumsternata sp. n. ex Formicarius colma Boddaert (Formicariidae); M. cacioppoi sp. n. ex Lanio fulvus (Boddaert), M. brasiliensis sp. n. ex Tangara chilensis (Vigors), M. saviti sp. n. ex Tangara schrankii (Spix) (Thraupidae), M. rodriguesae sp. n. ex Cnipodectes subbrunneus (Sclater), M. cnemotriccola sp. n. ex Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied-Neuwied), M. lathrotriccola sp. n. ex Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis) (Tyrannidae), M. faccioae sp. n. ex Cyphorhinus arada transfluvialis (Todd) (Troglodytidae), and M. lampropsaricola sp. n. ex Lampropsar tanagrinus (Spix) (Icteridae). Among these are two new Myrsidea species described from the avian family Formicariidae, which previously had only a single described Myrsidea species, and a new host record for M. cinnamomei Dalgleish et Price, 2005 ex Attila citriniventris Sclater. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences for these and other neotropical Myrsidea species provides an assessment of their phylogenetic relationships and indicates that all of these newly described species are genetically distinct. We also put these descriptions into context by estimating the potential number of unnamed Myrsidea species in Brazil, given the known diversity of potential hosts and typical levels of host specificity for Myrsidea species. Our estimate indicates that Brazilian Myrsidea species diversity is likely more than an order of magnitude greater than the number of described Myrsidea species known from Brazil, highlighting the need for future work on this megadiverse ectoparasite genus. PMID:24471279

  6. Non-limiting food conditions for growth and production of the copepod community in a highly productive upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Rubén; Bustos-Ríos, Evelyn; Hidalgo, Pamela; Morales, Carmen E.

    2016-09-01

    Zooplankton production is critical for understanding marine ecosystem dynamics. This work estimates copepod growth and production in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (~35 to 37°S) during a 3-year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006) at a fixed shelf station, and from spring-summer spatial surveys during the same period. To estimate copepod production (CP), we used species-biomasses and associated C-specific growth rates from temperature dependent equations (food-saturated) for the dominant species, which we assumed were maximal growth rates (gmax). Using chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for food conditions, we determined a size-dependent half-saturation constant with the Michaelis-Menten equation to derive growth rates (g) under the effect of food limitation. These food-dependent C-specific growth rates were much lower (<0.1 d-1) than those observed in the field for the dominant species, while gmax for same species, in the range of 0.19-0.23 d-1 better represented the necessary growth to attain observed adult sizes of at least two copepods, Paracalanus cf. indicus and Calanus chilensis. Copepod biomass (CB) and rates of maximal copepod production (CPmax) obtained with gmax were higher in the coastal upwelling zone (<50 km from shore), and correlated significantly to oceanographic variables associated with upwelling conditions. Both CPmax and gmax exhibited negative trends at the fixed station from 2004 to 2006 in association with increased duration of upwelling in the latter year. Annual CPmax ranged between 24 and 52 g C m-2 y-1 with a mean annual P/B ratio of 7.3. We concluded that interannual variation in copepod production resulted from factors and processes regulating copepod abundance and biomass in the absence of bottom-up control, allowing copepods to grow without limitation due to food resources.

  7. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  8. The phylogenetic position of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rajchenberg, Mario; Pildain, María Belén; Bianchinotti, María V; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Six poroid Hymenochaetaceae from Patagonia, Argentina, were studied phylogenetically with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S rDNA sequences, together with morphological data. Two new genera and a new species are introduced as well as two new combinations proposed. Arambarria destruens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for a taxon fruiting on fallen or standing, dead Diostea juncea and Lomatia hirsuta and previously recorded erroneously as Inocutis jamaicensis; it is distinguished by annual, effused to effused-reflexed basidiomes forming pilei, a monomitic hyphal system, thick-walled and yellowish basidiospores (brownish chestnut in potassium hydroxide solution), lack of a granular core in the context and lack of setoid elements. Nothophellinus gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Phellinus andinopatagonicus, the main white wood-rotting polypore of standing Nothofagus pumilio and also an important wood-decayer of other Nothofagus species from southern Argentina and Chile. It is morphologically similar to Phellopilus (type species P. nigrolimitatus) but differs by lacking setae. The new combinations Pseudoinonotus crustosus and Phellinopsis andina are proposed for Inonotus crustosus and Phellinus andinus, respectively. Phellinus livescens, which decays the sapwood of several standing Nothofagus species, is closely related to Phellinus uncisetus, a Neotropical species related to Fomitiporia; for the time being P. livescens is retained in Phellinus sensu lato. An unidentified taxon responsible for a white heart-rot in living Austrocedrus chilensis grouped with Phellinus caryophyllii and Fulvifomes inermis, but its generic affinities remain ambiguous. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm this unidentified taxon has an imperforate parenthesome, which is typical of the Hymenochaetaceae. PMID:25911700

  9. Three Phylogenetic Groups of nodA and nifH Genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium Isolates from Leguminous Trees Growing in Africa and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Haukka, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Young, J. Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels. PMID:9464375

  10. Understanding litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: linking leaf traits, UV exposure and rainfall variability

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola, Aurora; Armesto, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in litter quality, microbial activity or abiotic conditions cannot fully account for the variability in decomposition rates observed in semiarid ecosystems. Here we tested the role of variation in litter quality, water supply, and UV radiation as drivers of litter decomposition in arid lands. And show that carry-over effects of litter photodegradation during dry periods can regulate decomposition during subsequent wet periods. We present data from a two-phase experiment, where we first exposed litter from a drought-deciduous and an evergreen shrub to natural UV levels during five, rainless summer months and, subsequently, in the laboratory, we assessed the carry-over effects of photodegradation on biomass loss under different irrigation treatments representing the observed range of local rainfall variation among years (15–240 mm). Photodegradation of litter in the field produced average carbon losses of 12%, but deciduous Proustia pungens lost >25%, while evergreen Porlieria chilensis less than 5%. Natural exposure to UV significantly reduced carbon-to-nitrogen and lignin:N ratios in Proustia litter but not in Porlieria. During the subsequent wet phase, remaining litter biomass was lower in Proustia than in Porlieria. Indeed UV exposure increased litter decomposition of Proustia under low and medium rainfall treatments, whereas no carry-over effects were detected under high rainfall treatment. Consequently, for deciduous Proustia carry-over effects of UV exposure were negligible under high irrigation. Litter decomposition of the evergreen Porlieria depended solely on levels of rainfall that promote microbial decomposers. Our two-phase experiment revealed that both the carry-over effects of photodegradation and litter quality, modulated by inter-annual variability in rainfall, can explain the marked differences in decomposition rates and the frequent decoupling between rainfall and litter decomposition observed in semiarid ecosystems. PMID:25852705

  11. Revision of Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Americas south of the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Marinoni, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genera and species of the tribe Ephydrini are revised and include nine genera and 33 species. Of the nine genera, Setacera Cresson, Cirrula Cresson, Dimecoenia Cresson, Paracoenia Cresson and Ephydra Fallén are mostly temperate in distribution, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The other four genera, which are exclusively Neotropical, include two, Austrocoenia and Notiocoenia, that were treated previously in the tribe Scatellini, and two recently described genera: Paraephydra (type species: Paraephydra freitasi (Oliveira)) and Neoephydra (type species: Neoephydra araucaria Mathis). New species described herein are: Neoephydra neotropica (Chile), N. dasycephala (Argentina and Peru), N. mallonota (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. shewelli (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. inca (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru), N. penai (Chile) and N. trichina (Argentina and Chile). New synonyms are (cited in their original combinations): Ephydra densepilosa Hendel = E. ciligena Rondani, Dimecoenia grumanni Oliveira = E. ciligena Rondani, D. coltaensis Cresson = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. carrerai Oliveira = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. lopesi = E. ciligena Rondani, D. travassosi Mello and Oliveira = E. prionoptera Thomson. A neotype is designated for E. caesia Wulp, and the following lectotype designations have also been made to better stabilize nomenclature (here cited in their original combination): Ephydra chilensis Macquart, Ephydra densepilosa Hendel, Ephydra pravoneura Hendel, Ephydra prionoptera Thomson, and Dimecoenia zurcheri Hendel. Dimecoenia venteli Oliveira is listed as a species inquirenda, as the type series includes only female specimens that we cannot presently recognize. Although the genera and subgenera are fairly easily distinguished, the included species are frequently difficult to separate, and we have generally relied on characters of the male terminalia to determine a species identity. Illustrations of male terminalia and distribution maps are

  12. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bennett, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera) were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots) coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean. PMID:24918036

  13. The amoeba-to-flagellate transformation test is not reliable for the diagnosis of the genus Naegleria. Description of three new Naegleria spp.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, J F; Brown, S; Dobson, P J; Robinson, B S; Pernin, P

    2001-07-01

    Trophozoites of several isolates from one location in Australia have failed consistently to transform into flagellates, although they display all other characteristics of the genus Naegleria. When changing the standard transformation test, flagellates were produced. In phylogenetic trees derived from partial small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSUrDNA) sequences, one of these strains branches close to a cluster comprising N. clarki, N. australiensis, N. italica and N. jadini. It is proposed that these Australian isolates represent a new species, named N. fultoni (strain NG885). Failing to form flagellates since their isolation, even when different transformation procedures are used, are two Naegleria strains from Chile and Indonesia. In SSUrDNA-based phylogenetic trees the Chilean strain clusters with N. pussardi and the Indonesian strain clusters with N. galeacystis, but the degree of sequence difference from these described species (3.5% and 2.2%, respectively) is sufficient to propose that both of the strains represent new species, named N. chilensis (strain NG946) and N. indonesiensis (strain NG945), respectively. The close relationships between each of the new species and the Naegleria species with which they cluster in SSUrDNA-based trees were confirmed by ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence comparisons. In France, several non-flagellating N. fowleri strains were isolated from one location. ITS rDNA sequence comparisons indicated that they correspond to a 'type' of N. fowleri found in both Europe and the USA. A redefinition of the genus Naegleria is proposed as a consequence of these and previous findings. PMID:11545434

  14. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  15. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  16. Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Veronica; Botana, Ana M.; Alvarez, Mercedes; Antelo, Alvaro; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Firstly we describe the separation of 13 PST that belong to different groups, taking into account the side-chains of substituents, in one single run of less than 30 min with good reproducibility. The method was assayed in four shellfish matrices: mussel (Mytillus galloprovincialis), clam (Pecten maximus), scallop (Ruditapes decussatus) and oyster (Ostrea edulis). The results for all of the parameters studied are provided, and the detection limits for the majority of toxins were improved with regard to previous liquid chromatography methods: the lowest values were those for decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin 2 (dcGTX2) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) in mussel (0.0001 mg saxitoxin (STX)·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin), decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dcSTX) in clam (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1), N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in scallop (0.0001 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin) and dcSTX (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 ) in oyster; gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) showed the highest limit of detection in oyster (0.0366 mg STX·diHCl kg−1). Secondly, we propose a modification of the method for the simultaneous analysis of PST and TTX, with some minor changes in the solvent gradient, although the detection limit for TTX does not allow its use nowadays for regulatory purposes. PMID:27367728

  17. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  18. The Nature and Subsurface Geometry of Late Holocene Coquina Rocks, Karaburun-Istanbul, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Y. L.; Demirci, A.; Erginal, A. E.; Kaya, H.; Ekinci, R.

    2012-04-01

    The so-called coquina defines moderately to hardly amalgamated shell debris by calcium carbonate cement. Even though its some depositional features are similar to intertidal beachrocks and carbonate-cemented dune rocks or eolianites, coquina occurs in shoal environments and is, in some cases, representative of tectonically uplifted coasts when it exposes remarkably above sea-level. In this study (supported financially by the Research Foundation of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University under project number COMUBAP: 2011/41), we discuss diagenetic features, radiocarbon age and subsurface geometry of coquina on Black Sea coast of Istanbul, NW Turkey, where such a Late Holocene occurrence has not been recorded so far. Having a visible thickness of 1 m, the coquina beds crop out on a slightly inclined wide beach formed mostly of shell fragments less than 5 cm in size. It contains calcite and aragonite as connective cement and broken or unbroken shells of Donacilla sp., Pecten glaucum and Ostrea edulis together with various foraminifera such as Elphidium macellum Ammonia compacta and coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Radiocarbon ages from four bulk samples yielded calibrated ages ranging between 3.7 and 2.8 ka BP. Electrical resistivity tomography survey along three distinct transects perpendicular to the coastline were carried out in order to understand the thickness of coquina and its subsurface extensions along the beach. The apparent resistivity data were acquired along the survey lines of 21 electrodes with electrode spacing of 2 m, to give a total length of the line of 40 m. Dipole-dipole electrode configuration was used for 9 data levels. Topographic changes at the locations of each electrode points were determined by means of optical leveling technique for a more accurate calculation and interpretation. Apparent resistivity data were inverted by using 2D smoothness-constrained least squares algorithm. Similar electrical resistivity tomograms were obtained for three

  19. Investigating the use of oil platform marine fouling invertebrates as monitors of oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Heyes, Andrew; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of 51 parent and alkylated PAHs was examined in oysters, Ostrea equestris, and corals, Tubastrea coccinea, collected from oil-rig structures off the coast of Louisiana during April and May 2011 to investigate their potential use as monitors for offshore contamination events. Corals and oysters collected from both sampling trips had lower PAH accumulation than most bivalves collected in previous studies near the shoreline of Louisiana and elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In April, total PAH (TPAH) concentrations ranged from 8.73 to 15.17 ng g(-1) in corals and 2.52 to 22.04 ng g(-1) in oysters. In May, corals and oysters had elevated concentrations of TPAH ranging from 24.28 to 79.23 ng g(-1) and 7.18 to 95.55 ng g(-1), respectively. This increase could be a result of Mississippi River flooding that occurred during that time, as evidenced by the high perylene concentrations (3.92-41.49 ng g(-1)) measured in May oysters. Oysters and corals collected in May from MC21B, the closest rig to the Mississippi River Delta, had the highest TPAH concentrations observed among all locations and the only rig to have predominantly petrogenic source inputs. Overall, given the low baseline of PAHs demonstrated in this study and the rapid accumulation of diagnostic chemicals in response to a possible contamination event (i.e. sediment plume from May flooding), oil-rig invertebrates could make excellent monitoring tools to examine the exposure to and recovery from oil (and oil-spill response options) in the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pre-spill baseline data of chemical and biological biomarkers of contamination is key to better estimating the impacts and recovery of oil exposure. Therefore, this screen of PAH accumulation represents a crucial first step in determining baseline contaminant levels in order to utilize these unique resources as monitors for offshore oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25434470

  20. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    , Aurelia, Crepidula, Eunicella, Hediste, Hemimysis, Litoditis, Lophelia, Mesopodopsis, Mya, Ophiocten, Ophioderma, Ostrea, Pelagia, Platynereis, Rhizostoma, Rimicaris), two of them, belonging to the family Vesicomydae and Eunicidae, could not be determined at the genus level. PMID:24184205

  1. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  2. Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column.

    PubMed

    Rey, Veronica; Botana, Ana M; Alvarez, Mercedes; Antelo, Alvaro; Botana, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Firstly we describe the separation of 13 PST that belong to different groups, taking into account the side-chains of substituents, in one single run of less than 30 min with good reproducibility. The method was assayed in four shellfish matrices: mussel (Mytillus galloprovincialis), clam (Pecten maximus), scallop (Ruditapes decussatus) and oyster (Ostrea edulis). The results for all of the parameters studied are provided, and the detection limits for the majority of toxins were improved with regard to previous liquid chromatography methods: the lowest values were those for decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin 2 (dcGTX2) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) in mussel (0.0001 mg saxitoxin (STX)·diHCl kg(-1) for each toxin), decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dcSTX) in clam (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg(-1)), N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in scallop (0.0001 mg STX·diHCl kg(-1) for each toxin) and dcSTX (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg(-1) ) in oyster; gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) showed the highest limit of detection in oyster (0.0366 mg STX·diHCl kg(-1)). Secondly, we propose a modification of the method for the simultaneous analysis of PST and TTX, with some minor changes in the solvent gradient, although the detection limit for TTX does not allow its use nowadays for regulatory purposes. PMID:27367728

  3. Molecular and chemical features of the excreted extracellular polysaccharides in Induced Biological Soil Crusts of different ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Federico; Lanzhou, Chen; Liu, Yongding; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    , assessing the activity of two key enzymes for sugar degradation: dehydrogenase and sucrase. The results obtained demonstrated a high complexity in terms of monosaccharidic composition and molecular weight, the latter resulting differently distributed between the two fractions. Enzymatic activity resulted mainly directed to the more soluble, low - molecular weight carbohydrates. The data presented represent a first study of the biochemical processes involving carbon from EPS released by IBSCs on bare substrates after the colonization of soils by the inoculated cyanobacteria. Bowker MA (2007) Biological soil crusts rehabilitation in theory and practice: an underexploited opportunity. Restoration Ecology 15(1): 13 - 23. Mager DM, Thomas AD (2011) Extracellular polysaccharides from cyanobacterial soil crusts: A review of their role in dryland soil processes. Journal of Arid Environments 75: 91 - 97. Rossi F, Diels L, Olguin E, De Philippis R (2013) Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification. New Biotechnology. DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2013.12.002.

  4. The effects of extracellular sugar extraction on the 3D-structure of biological soil crusts from different ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felde, Vincent; Rossi, Federico; Colesie, Claudia; Uteau-Puschmann, Daniel; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Peth, Stephan; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    tortuosity or the relationship of tortuosity vs. length of the pores. Although most of the variables we investigated showed a high variation, some of which likely due to slight changes in orientation of the scanned crust piece between the two scans (or the loss of large grains or micro-aggregates), our method was able to detect differences between the four different crusts, proving that it is suited for the investigation of the structure. Also the visual comparison of the crust before and after the treatment revealed no distinct patterns of change in the structure of the crusts. This leads us to conclude that the change in sorptivity is related more to a change of the physico-chemical properties (namely the hydrophobicity) of the very surface of the crust, rather than a change of the inner structure. References: Rossi, F., Potrafka, R.M., Garcia-Pichel, F., Philippis, R. de, 2012. The role of the exopolysaccharides in enhancing hydraulic conductivity of biological soil crusts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 46, 33-40.

  5. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    , Poecilantrops crocidosternum, Poecilantrops dominicus, Poecilantrops flavifemur, Poecilantrops marensis, Poecilantrops plaumanni, Poecilantrops psilosternum, Poecilantrops stellans, Poecilantrops vittifrons, all sp. nov.). Six additional species of Antrops and two of Poecilantrops known from females only are diagnosed but not described. The genus Boreantrops is described for two species (Boreantrops mexicanus (Steyskal) comb. nov., and Boreantrops calceatus (Duda) comb. nov.). Boreantrops includes a number of new species but is not fully revised here. New synonyms at the species level are: Antrops femoralis (Blanchard 1852) = Archiborborus argentinensis Papp 1977, and Archiborborus submaculatus Duda 1921, both syn. nov.; Antrops hirtus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus edwardsi Richards 1931, syn. nov.; Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus albicans Richards 1931, Archiborborus chilensis Richards 1931, Archiborbo-rus koenigi Duda 1932, all syn. nov.; Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart 1844) = Copromyza alternata Rondani 1868, syn. nov. PMID:26146681

  6. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    The nearshore region of central Chile is important for spawning of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyii) and the importance of fisheries for these species has led to an interest in factors controlling the area's productivity. We studied daily variations in productivity at a nearshore station (25m depth) off Dichato, Chile (36°30‧S) during January 1986 to understand how wind-driven variability in the hydrography is translated into pulses of primary and secondary production of the plankton. During the study period, we observed three complete cycles of upwelling favourable/unfavourable winds. Water column destratification, as indicated by the surface-to-bottom gradient of sigma-t, lagged the wind by about one day. During active upwelling, cold water (<11.5°C) of high nitrate and low oxygen concentration (20-25μM and 1-2ml 1 -1 respectively) was found near the surface. During subsequent relaxation of upwelling, the water column became stratified as temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll increased. The size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton varied from one event to the next. Over the course of the study, from 15-100% of the chlorophyll could pass a 20μm mesh screen. Chain-forming diatoms, microflagellates, and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum dominated the first, second and third events, respectively. In rank order of abundance, Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus, Oithona spp., Acartia tonsa, Oncaea spp., Calanoides patagoniensis and Calanus chilensis dominated the copepod community. Changes in abundance of most species did not closely follow the upwelling cycle. Possibly, vertical movements or other behavioural responses caused zooplankton distributions to be uncorrelated with movements of the surface Ekman layer. Fecundity of several of the important copepod species was measured using the egg ratio and bottle incubation techniques. Compared to values reported in the literature

  7. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) species for biofuel production on semi-arid lands. Final report, April 1, 1978-March 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P; Cannell, G H; Clark, P R; Osborn, J F; Nash, P

    1985-01-01

    Arid adapted nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs of the genus Prosopis (mesquite) have been examined for woody biomass production on semi-arid lands of southwestern United States. A germ-plasm collection of 900 accessions from North and South America and Africa was assembled. Field studies screening for biomass production, frost tolerance, response to irrigation, pod production and heat/drought tolerance involved a total of 80 accessions. Selections made from survivors of coal/frost screening trial had more frost tolerance and biomass productivity than prostrate selections from the ranges of Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas. Thirteen Prosopis species were found to nodulate, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and grow on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. The salinity tolerance of six Prosopis species was examined on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. No reduction in growth occurred for any species tested at a salinity of 6000 mg NaC1/L which is considered too saline for normal agricultural crops. Individual trees have grown 5 to 7 cm in basal diameter, and 2.0 to 3.7 meters in height per year and have achieved 50 kg oven dry weight per tree in 2 years with 600 mm water application per year. Vegetative propagation techniques have been developed and clones of these highly productive trees have been made. Small pilots on 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in the California Imperial Valley had a first and second season dry matter production of 11.7 and 16.9 T/ha for P. chilensis (0009), 7.1 and 6.9 T/ha for P. glandulosa var. torreyana (0001), 9.8 and 19.2 T/ha for P. alba (0039) and 7.9 and 14.5 T/ha for progency of a California ornamental (0163). The projected harvested costs of $25.00 per oven dry ton or $1.50 per million Btu's compare favorable with coal and other alternative fuel sources in South Texas.

  8. Effects of water stress and high temperature on photosynthetic rates of two species of Prosopis.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Jose; Pinto, Manuel; Cardemil, Liliana

    2008-08-21

    The main aim of this research was to compare the photosynthetic responses of two species of Prosopis, Prosopis chilensis (algarrobo) and Prosopis tamarugo (tamarugo) subjected to heat and water stress, to determine how heat shock or water deficit, either individually or combined, affect the photosynthesis of these two species. The photosynthetic rates expressed as a function of photon flow density (PFD) were determined by the O(2) liberated, in seedlings of tamarugo and algarrobo subjected to two water potentials: -0.3 MPa and -2.5 MPa and to three temperatures: 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Light response curves were constructed to obtain light compensation and light saturation points, maximum photosynthetic rates, quantum yields and dark respiration rates. The photochemical efficiency as the F(v)/F(m) ratio and the amount of RUBISCO were also determined under heat shock, water deficit, and under the combined action of both stress. Photosynthetic rates at a light intensity higher than 500 micromole photons m(-2)s(-1) were not significantly different (P>0.05) between species when measured at 25 degrees C under the same water potential. The maximum photosynthetic rates decreased with temperature in both species and with water deficit in algarrobo. At 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa, the photosynthetic rate of algarrobo fell to 72% of that of tamarugo. The quantum yield decreased in algarrobo with temperature and water deficit and it was reduced by 50% when the conditions were 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa. Dark respiration increased by 62% respect to the control at 40 degrees C in tamarugo while remained unchanged in algarrobo. The photochemical efficiency decreased with both, high temperature and water deficit, without differences between species. RUBISCO content increased in algarrobo 35 degrees C. Water deficit reduced the amount of RUBISCO in both species. The results of this work support the conclusion that in both Prosopis species, the interaction between

  9. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of

  10. Revision of Pherusa Oken, 1807(Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae).

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2014-01-01

    Pherusa Oken, 1807 was the first genus of flabelligerids to be described and was regarded as having over 40 species. Following revision of all available material two morphological patterns are recognized: Pherusa is restricted to those species with eight branchial filaments of similar width, and anchylosed falcate neurohooks, shorter than body width. Species with the same number of branchial filaments but with neurochaetae mostly straight, distally foliose and often as long as body width are transferred to a new genus: Lamispina n. gen. Pherusa contains 14 species, including six newly described: P. plumosa (Müller, 1776), type-species, restricted, from Greenland, P. affinis (Leidy, 1855) from the NW Atlantic, P. andersonorum n. sp. from the NE Pacific (California), P. aspera (Stimpson, 1854) from the NW Atlantic, P. hobsonae n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. incrustata Quatrefages, 1866, reinstated from the Mediterranean Sea, P. mikacae n. sp. from the Adriatic Sea, P. moorei n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. neopapillata Hartman, 1961 from the NE Pacific (California), P. nipponica n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. obscura Quatrefages, 1866 reinstated from the NE Atlantic (France), P. papillata (Johnson, 1901) from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. rullieri n. sp. from the Eastern tropical Atlantic (Benin), and Pherusa sibogae (Caullery, 1944) n. comb. from Western Timor, Indonesia. Lamispina n. gen. has 10 species with five newly described: L. schmidtii (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1924) n. comb., type-species from the Japan Sea (incl. P. negligens (Berkeley & Berkeley, 1950)), L. amoureuxi n. sp. from the NE Atlantic (off SW Ireland), L. carrerai n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Mexico), L. chilensis n. sp. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. falcata (Støp-Bowitz, 1948) n. comb. from the Norwegian Sea, L. gymnopapillata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1965) n. comb. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. horsti (Haswell, 1892) n. comb. from Southern Australia, L. keeli n. sp

  11. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis

  12. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Morphological examination of novel specimens of paruterinid cestodes from passerine birds from Brazil and Chile and of museum specimens from Paraguay revealed two new species: Anonchotaenia prolixa sp. n. from Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr from Chile, and Anonchotaenia vaslata sp. n. from Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot) (type host) and Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller) from Paraguay. The generic diagnosis of Anonchotaenia Conn, 1900 is amended, prompted by the presence of the armed cirrus and the elongated cirrus sac of A. prolixa. Two species were redescribed: Anonchotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) and Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) (new host records) from Brazil, and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus) and Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus) from Paraguay (new host and geographic records); and Anonchotaenia macrocephala Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot) (new host record) from Brazil, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis) from Chile (new host and geographic record) and Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot) from Paraguay (new host and geographic record). Scanning electron microscopy of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala revealed less microthrix variation than has been reported for other cyclophyllidean taxa. Sequence data were generated for nuclear ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial rrnL and cox1 for A. prolixa, A. brasiliensis, and A. macrocephala. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses supported each species as distinct, but revealed cryptic diversity among A. brasiliensis specimens from different host families. New host records of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala prompted a formal assessment of host specificity. Anonchotaenia prolixa was found to be oioxenous (HS(S) = 0), A. vaslata and A. macrocephala were found to be metastenoxenous (HS(S) = 3.000 and 3.302, respectively), whereas A. brasiliensis was found to be euryxenous (HS(S) = 5.876). Anonchotaenia brasiliensis has been found parasitising

  13. Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin

  14. Silver contamination on abiotic and biotic compartments of Nahuel Huapi National Park lakes, Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribére, María; Bubach, Débora; Vigliano, Pablo; Rizzo, Andrea; Alonso, Marcelo; Sánchez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The Ag contents of abiotic and biotic compartments of different lakes of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina were analyzed. The water bodies studied were lakes Nahuel Huapi, Moreno, Escondido, Espejo Chico and Traful, the latter chosen as a reference lake. The Ag concentration profiles of short sediment cores, dated by (210)Pb and (137)Cs techniques, were analyzed, as well as suspended load collected from three sites of lake Nahuel Huapi. The biota studied were the native mussel Diplodon chilensis (digestive gland and total soft tissues pooled samples) and five species of fish, two native and three introduced (liver and muscle pooled samples). Ag contents were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The upper layers of the sediment cores sampled in lake Nahuel Huapi were enriched in Ag contents compared to deep layers in accumulation periods corresponding to the second half of the 20th century, but this enrichment was neither observed in the reference lake Traful, nor in lakes Espejo Chico and Escondido. Ag was enriched over background level (0.1 microg g(-1)) also in suspended load collected in lake Nahuel Huapi. Ag fluxes to sediments were computed for suspended load and enriched sediment core layers. Highest Ag fluxes, from 350 to 470 microg m(-2) year(-1), were measured in Nahuel Huapi near the site where the liquid effluents of the Bariloche city sewage treatment plant are released to the lake. The spatial distribution of the other Ag fluxes suggests that this is the main source of Ag to lake Nahuel Huapi and lateral transport occurs within the water body. Ag concentrations on biota samples were consistent with these conclusions. Mussels collected in lake Nahuel Huapi showed higher Ag concentrations than in the other lakes, especially when compared to lake Traful. Ag contents in mussels were strongly associated with sediment intake, but enriched probably due to sediment grain size sorting during the intake processes

  15. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  16. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  17. Monitoring tectonic uplift and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for marine terraces near Maǧaracik and Samandaǧ, Hatay Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Florentin, Jonathan A; Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Tüysüz, Okan; Tarı, Ufuk; Can Genç, Ş; İmren, Caner; Mo, Shirley; Huang, Yiwen E W; Blickstein, Joel I B; Skinner, Anne R; Kim, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Near Hatay, the Antakya-Samandağ-Cyprus Fault (ASCF), East Anatolian and Dead Sea Fault Zones, the large faults that form the edges of the African, Anatolian, Cyprus and Arabian Plates, all produce large earthquakes, which have decimated Hatay repeatedly. Near Samandağ, Hatay, differential vertical displacement on the ASCF has uplifted the southeastern side relative to northwestern side, producing large fault scarps that parallel the Asi (Orontes) River. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sealevel fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces stranded above current sealevel. This study dated 24 mollusc samples from 10 outcrops on six marine terraces near Samandağ electron spin resonance (ESR). Ages were calculated using time-averaged and volumetrically averaged external dose rates, modelled by assuming typical water depths for the individual species and sediment thicknesses estimated from geological criteria. Uplift rates were then calculated for each fault block. At all the Mağaracık terraces, the dates suggest that many shells were likely reworked. On the 30 m terrace at Mağaracık IV (UTM 766588-3999880), Lithophagus burrows with in situ shells cross the unconformity. One such shell dated to 62 ± 6 ka, setting the minimum possible age for the terrace. For all the Mağaracık terraces at ∼30 m above mean sealevel (amsl), the youngest ages for the reworked shells, which averaged 60 ± 3 ka for six separate analyses, sets the maximum possible age for this unit. Thus, the terrace must date to 60-62 ± 3 ka, at the MIS 3/4 boundary when temperatures and sealevels were fluctuating rapidly. Older units dating to MIS 7, 6, and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. At Mağaracık Dump (UTM 765391-4001048), ∼103 m amsl, Ostrea and other shells were found cemented in growth position to the limestone boulders outcropping there <2.0 m above a wave-eroded notch. If the oysters grew at the same time as the wave

  18. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    Bivalve shells are used as important palaeoclimate proxy archives and monitor regional climate variations. The shells mostly exist of two crystalline polymorphic phases of calcium carbonate calcite (rombohedric) and aragonite (orthorhombic). Calcite is the most stable polymorph at standard conditions, whereas vaterite (hexagonal) is the least stable and only rarely found in these structures. Shells are characterized by organized structures and several micro architectures of mollusc shell structures have been identified: Nacre shows different types: columnar and bricked forms and consists of composite inorganic- organic at the nano-scale. They are well known to display a "brick and mortar" structure. By AFM and FIB/TEM methods it could be shown, that its nanostructure consists of the structures in the range of 50 - 100 nm [1, 2]. These structures are vesicles, consisting of CaCO3 and are individually coated by a membrane. Most probably, the mantle epithelian cells of the bivalve extrude CaCO3 vesicles. By Raman spectroscopic investigations the crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, as well as ACC were determined. For some species (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, Hyriopsis cumingii) pure ACC (i.e. not intermingled with a crystalline phase) could be identified. The presence of an amorphous phase is generally deduced from the lack of definite lattice modes, whereas a broad Raman band in this region is to observe. In most of the cultured pearls (Pinctada maxima and genus Hyriopsis) the ν1-Raman band of ACC clearly displays an asymmetric shape and splits into two different bands according to a nanocrystalline and an amorphous fraction. The FWHMs of most of the crystalline fractions are too high for well crystallized materials and support the assumption of nanocrystalline calcium carbonate polymorph clusters in ACC. They are primarily composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) which is later transformed into a crystalline modification [3

  19. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    PubMed

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  20. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm