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Sample records for ostrich chicks reflect

  1. Bacterial enteritis in ostrich (Struthio Camelus) chicks in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Keokilwe, L; Olivier, A; Burger, W P; Joubert, H; Venter, E H; Morar-Leather, D

    2015-06-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks less than 3 mo age are observed to experience a high mortality rate that is often associated with enteritis. This study was undertaken to investigate the infectious bacteria implicated in ostrich chick enteritis. Postmortems were performed on 122 ostrich chicks aged from 1 d to 3 mo and intestinal samples were subjected to bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were typed by PCR and serotyping. Escherichia coli (E. coli; 49%) was the most frequently isolated from the samples followed by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens; 20%), Enterococcus spp. (16%), and Salmonella spp. (7%). Of the E. coli, 39% were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli, 4% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and no enterohaemorrhagic E. coli were found. The majority (93%) of C. perfringens was Type A and only 7% was Type E. C. perfringens Types B through D were not present. The netB gene that encodes NetB toxin was identified from 16% of the C. perfringens isolated. All the C. perfringens Type E harbored the netB gene and just 10% of the C. perfringens Type A had this gene. Three Salmonella serotypes were identified: Salmonella Muenchen (S. Muenchen; 80%), S. Hayindongo (13%), and S. Othmarschen (7%). The indication is that the cause of enteritis in ostrich chicks is bacterial-involving: enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli; C. perfringens Types A and E (with the possible influence of netB gene); and S. Muenchen, S. Hayindongo, and S. Othmarschen. PMID:25840967

  2. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  3. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei

    2014-11-19

    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3ω3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality. PMID:25363572

  4. Effect of vegetable wastage and energy in ostrich chick diet on performance and hematology.

    PubMed

    Tasirnafas, Mohammadebrahim; Seidavi, Alireza; Rasouli, Behrouz; Kawka, Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of dietary vegetable wastage and energy on ostrich chick performance and hematology. Twenty-four ostrich chicks (blue and black African breed) were allocated to eight treatments. The diet in treatments T1 to T4 had 2,500 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, while treatments T5 to T8 had 2,700 kcal/kg. Each treatment had 0, 10, 20, and 30% of vegetable wastage. Vegetable wastage included parsley (Petroselinum crispum, 51.3 %), cress (Lepidium sativum, 15.0%), spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 15.0%), wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum, 14.0%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, 2.5%), and basil (Ocimum basilicum, 2.2 %). The body weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly. Blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, LDL/HDL, ratio and alkaline phosphatase. The highest level of weight was seen in the second treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 10% dietary wastage). The hematological parameters were different depending on the treatment used. The lowest level of total cholesterol was observed in eighth treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30% dietary wastage), while the lowest level of triglycerides was in fourth treatment (2,500 kcal/kg dietary energy and 30 % of wastage). The level of alkaline phosphatise was the lowest in seventh treatment (2,700 kcal/kg dietary energy and 20% wastages). The energy level had no effect (P < 0.05) on feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency for each week and for all experimental period. The level of vegetable wastage showed effect (P = 0.033) on feed intake, but the increase of this level showed depressive effect on the feed intake. This is the first report on the performance and blood parameters of commercial ostrich chicks fed diets differing in vegetable wastage. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25877259

  5. Ostrich diseases.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, D J

    2000-08-01

    Scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. Salmonella Typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern Africa. Campylobacter jejuni and Chlamydia psittaci are occasionally reported, mainly in young ostriches, but both remain a diagnostic challenge. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is transmitted to domestic animals including ostriches, principally by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. In the ostrich, the disease causes no clinical symptoms during a viraemia of approximately four days. Spongiform encephalopathy has not been reliably reported in ostriches, while anthrax has occurred rarely in modern times but was reportedly an important cause of death approximately 100 years ago in South Africa. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Pullorum are unknown in ostriches. Pasteurella multocida occurs but is easily contained with antibiotics. Mycoplasma spp. are regularly found in an upper respiratory disease syndrome complicated by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Ostriches of all ages are susceptible to challenge by velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but standard inactivated La Sota poultry vaccines can stimulate protective immunity lasting over six months. The viraemic period in vaccinated slaughter ostriches is between nine and eleven days and there are no indications of a carrier state or presence of the virus in the meat or any other tissues after this period, with peak immunoglobulin G response reached on day fourteen post infection. Haemagglutination inhibition tests are significantly less sensitive and less specific than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cloacal and choanal swabs used for direct virological screening in clinically

  6. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  7. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Mahrose, Kh.M.; Attia, A.I.; Ismail, I.E.; Abou-Kassem, D.E.; El-Hack, M.E. Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  8. The effect of dietary energy concentrations on production variables of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brand, T S; Carstens, P D; Hoffman, L C

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different dietary energy concentrations on ostrich production variables were examined in two separate trials. The first trial tracked changes in production variables from the pre-starter phase through the starter phase and grower phase. The second trial was based on the finisher phase per se. In both trials, the influence of dietary energy on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and growth variables was investigated. Additionally, basic abattoir weights were recorded, and measurements of the feathers and skin were performed. In both trials, three diets with different concentrations of dietary energy were given during each phase where the low-, medium- and high-energy concentrations for each phase were as follows: 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 MJ ME/kg feed pre-starter; 12.5, 13.5 and 14.5 MJ ME/kg feed starter; 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 MJ ME/kg feed grower and 9.5, 10.5 and 11.5 MJ ME/kg feed finisher. Feed and water were available ad libitum in both trials. Overall, it was found that the best performance for growth, FCR, skin size and grade, live weight, carcass weight and thigh weight were obtained on the medium-energy diet during the pre-starter, starter and grower phases. During the finisher phase, improved growth rate and tanned skin size was found in birds given the diet with the highest energy concentration (11.5 MJ ME/kg feed). Carcass weight, growth rate and certain feather variables were also significantly influenced by gender. PMID:25266635

  9. The growth response of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) chicks fed on diets with three different dietary protein and amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carstens, P D; Sharifi, A R; Brand, T S; Hoffman, L C

    2014-01-01

    1. Feeding costs are the largest expense in an ostrich production system, and protein is one of the more expensive components of the diet. This study evaluated the growth response of ostrich chicks on diets containing different concentrations of protein (amino acids). The diets were formulated to contain three concentrations of protein (one diet with 20% less protein than the conventional concentration, L; one diet with the conventional concentration of protein, M and one diet with 20% more protein than the conventional concentration, H) for each of the phase diets. The phase diets were pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher. 2. This study includes the analysis of ostrich body weight (BW) by modelling growth with linear polynomial and non-linear functions for all the data not separated for treatments. In total, 3378 BW recordings of 90 animals were collected weekly from hatch (d 0) to 287 d (41 weeks) of age. 3. Seven non-linear growth models and three linear polynomial models were fitted to the data. The growth functions were compared by using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). For the non-linear models, the Bridges and Janoschek models had the lowest AIC values for the H treatment, while the Richards curve had the lowest value for M and the von Bertalanffy for the L treatment. 4. For the linear polynomial models, the linear polynomial of the third degree had the lowest AIC values for all three treatments, thus making it the most suitable model for the data; therefore, the predictions of this model were used to interpret the growth data. Significant differences were found between treatments for growth data. 5. The results from this study can aid in describing the growth of ostriches subjected to optimum feeding conditions. This information can also be used in research when modelling the nutrient requirements of growing birds. PMID:25132424

  10. Microsporidiosis in a young ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Gray, M L; Puette, M; Latimer, K S

    1998-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, protozoan parasites of a wide variety of vertebrates and invertebrates. Confirmed reports of microsporidial infection of avian species are few (lovebirds, a parrot, and a group of budgerigar chicks). At slaughter, a 14-mo-old ostrich was found to have small intestinal serosal hemorrhages during postmortem inspection. Histologic examination of the small intestine revealed a chronic lymphoplasmacytic to purulent enteritis with mucosal hyperplasia, muscular hypertrophy, and numerous microsporidia that were located within the superficial enterocytes and the lamina propria. Microsporidia have a ubiquitous distribution in nature and are suspected as possible zoonotic agents. PMID:9876859

  11. Effect of cottonseed oilcake as a protein source on production of breeding ostriches.

    PubMed

    Brand, T S; Tesselaar, G A; Hoffman, L C; Brand, Z

    2015-01-01

    1. South Africa currently produces 70% of the world's ostrich products. The profit margin of South African producers from the sale of ostrich meat, leather and feathers currently stands at 20%, 65% and 15%, respectively. 2. Local producers want to increase the production of ostrich products but keep production costs as low as possible. Maintaining optimal nutrition of breeding stock is necessary to increase the production of ostrich chicks, thereby decreasing the fixed costs per chick. 3. This research examined the impact on ostrich reproduction of replacing soya oilcake (SOC) as a protein supplement with cheaper cottonseed oilcake (CSOC). Although there are no data available on the impact of CSOC feed on ostrich reproduction, it is well known that gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin in cotton plants, negatively affects male reproduction in other monogastric species and that it may also reduce appetite. 4. Ninety-six breeding ostrich pairs were divided into two groups to compare the effects of diet (CSOC and SOC) during the breeding season on ostrich-breeding parameters. The replacement of SOC with CSOC had no significant effect on the number of total eggs produced (47.8 ± 5.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.1 per breeding pair, respectively) or infertile eggs (31.5 ± 3.9 versus 38.0 ± 5.2, respectively). Also, the number of dead-in-shell chicks did not differ significantly between groups (20.2 ± 3.3 versus 26.8 ± 3.8, respectively). 5. Even though none of these breeding parameters differed, the replacement of SOC with CSOC in the diets of breeding birds led to significantly more chicks hatching per hen from breeding birds fed on the SOC (36.1 ± 4.8) than the CSOC diet (17.2 ± 3.8). 6. Although it would thus seem that feeding breeding ostriches CSOC instead of SOC as a protein supplement will have a detrimental effect on chick production, more data are required to deliver a definitive answer. PMID:25735889

  12. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    PubMed

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  13. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  14. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  15. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klenova, Anna V.

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick’s nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick’s state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs. PMID:26536362

  16. The reproductive response of female ostriches to dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Brand, T S; Olivier, T R; Gous, R M

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted with breeding ostriches over two consecutive breeding seasons to determine their response to different concentrations of a well-balanced dietary protein. Five concentrations of protein were fed to both females and males at an intake of 2.5 kg/bird d. The respective diets contained 75, 91, 108, 123 and 140 g protein/kg feed with energy held constant at 9.2 MJ metabolisable energy/kg feed. Egg production (mean ± SE, 39.1 ± 3.6 eggs/female/season) was unaffected by dietary protein concentration. Similarly, no significant trends were found for the number of unfertilised eggs (9.1 ± 1.8), dead-in-shell chicks (8.2 ± 1.3), the number of chicks hatched (19.5 ± 2.5) and change in the mass of females (-16.3 ± 10.2 kg). Egg weight decreased linearly as dietary protein content increased. Age of the ostrich female had a highly significant effect on the number of eggs laid, the number of chicks hatched, the number of dead-in-shell and infertile eggs produced per hen, as well as the mass change of female breeding birds, but did not affect the response of any of these variables to dietary protein content. It was concluded that ostriches do not benefit from dietary protein contents greater than about 75 g/kg when this is fed at a daily total feed intake rate of 2.5 kg/bird during the breeding season. PMID:25677946

  17. Large scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers

    PubMed Central

    Malagó, Wilson; Franco, Heitor M; Matheucci, Euclides; Medaglia, Adriana; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    Background Ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeds have been gaining increasing significance around the world. The large-scale sex determination of chicks is an important task in the development of these breeds. To date, two PCR-based methods have been established for ostrich sex typing, neither of them intended for large-scale analyses. Here, we report on a protocol adapted to carry out large-scale gender scoring using DNA obtained from chick feathers. Results The DNA was extracted using a fast and simple alkaline extraction protocol that provided sufficient template for an early diagnosis. Tests with several primer sets enabled us to determine the best internal control primers associated with the sex-specific primers, avoiding spurious bands. Using DNA extracted from a single bulb and the best set of primers, we applied this protocol to simultaneously sex-type 96 individuals accurately. Conclusion We have established a fast, safe, accurate and inexpensive procedure for large-scale sex typing of ostriches using DNA extracted from feathers. This procedure is useful for the gender identification of chicks in the first days of nestling life. PMID:12359044

  18. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  19. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  20. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:25446146

  1. A global range military transport: The ostrich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, John; Booker, Cecilia; Hoffman, Eric; Kramar, James; Manahan, Orlando; Serranzana, Ray; Taylor, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is an increasing need for a global range transport capable of carrying large numbers of troops and equipment to potential trouble spots throughout the world. The Ostrich is a solution to this problem. The Ostrich is capable of carrying 800,000 pounds 6,500 n.m. and returning with 15 percent payload, without refueling. With a technology availability date in 2010 and an initial operating capability of 2015, the aircraft incorporates many advanced technologies including laminar flow control, composite primary structures, and a unique multibody design. By utilizing current technology, such as using McDonnell Douglas C-17 fuselage for the outer fuselages on the Ostrich, the cost for the aircraft was reduced. The cost of the Ostrich per aircraft is $1.2 billion with a direct operating cost of $56,000 per flight hour. The Ostrich will provide a valuable service as a logistical transport capable of rapidly projecting a significant military force or humanitarian aid anywhere in the world.

  2. Classification of ostrich sperm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M J; Bonato, M; Dzama, K; Malecki, I A; Cloete, S W P

    2016-05-01

    The success of assisted reproduction techniques is dependent on a sound foundation of understanding sperm characteristics to evaluate so as to improve semen processing. This study offers a descriptive basis for ostrich semen quality in terms of sperm function characteristics (SFC) that include motility, measured by computer assisted sperm analysis CASA (SCA(®)), viability (SYBR14/PI) and membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test). Relationships among these SFC's were explored and described by correlations and regressions. Certain fixed effects including the dilution of semen, season, year and male associated with semen collection were interpreted for future applications. The seasonal effect on sperm samples collected throughout the year suggested that it is prudent to restrict collections to spring and summer when SFC's and sperm concentration are maximized, compared to winter when these aspects of sperm quality are suppressed. Dilution of ejaculates helped to maintain important SFC's associated with fertilization success. The SFC's and sperm concentration varied among males, with specific males, having greater values for the percentage of motile (MOT) and progressively motile (PMOT) sperm, as well as sperm velocity (VCL, VSL, VAP) and linearity (LIN) variables. Males may thus be screened on these variables for inclusion in an artificial insemination (AI) programme to optimize fertility success rates. PMID:27039985

  3. Postmortem calpain changes in ostrich skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Shiou; Hsu, Dun-Hui; Stromer, Mavin H; Chou, Rong-Ghi R

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to study the postmortem calpain change in ostrich muscle. Iliotibialis cranialis and Obturatorius medialis muscles were removed from the both sides of carcasses (n=8). The muscles from the left side were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7days of storage at 5°C, while the right-side muscles were taken at 1-, 3-, and 7-day postmortem for shear force measurements. The results showed that the calpain-1 activity was not detected in ostrich muscle during the entire 7-day postmortem storage period, while the calpain-11 was. The unautolyzed calpain-11 activity decreased and the autolyzed calpain-11 activity increased with time postmortem. Desmin content and shear force did not change during postmortem storage although a minor degradation of desmin was observed. Therefore, our results suggest that limited postmortem proteolysis (as suggested by the limited degradation of desmin) and tenderization might be due to the lack of calpain-1 and/or insufficient calpain-11 activity present in ostrich muscle. PMID:26971307

  4. Surgical repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich.

    PubMed

    McClure, S R; Taylor, T S; Johnson, J H; Heisterkamp, K B; Sanders, E A

    1995-08-15

    A region of tracheal collapse was identified by endoscopy after surgical repair of a traumatic injury to the neck in an ostrich. During periods of excitation, the ostrich would become dyspneic and collapse. A tracheal split-ring prosthesis was placed surgically to support the collapsing trachea. This technique, which is frequently used in dogs, is applicable for use in birds with collapsing trachea. PMID:7591952

  5. Parsley-induced photosensitivity in ostriches and ducks.

    PubMed

    Perelman, B; Kuttin, E S

    1988-01-01

    Clinical and pathological changes suggesting an acute case of photo-sensitivity were observed in a flock of ostriches. A preliminary diagnosis of parsley (Petroselinum sativum)-induced photosensitisation was confirmed by experimental reproduction of the typical lesions in ducks. This seems to be the first report on natural and experimental induction of photosensitivity in ostriches and ducks caused by the ingestion of parsley. PMID:18766676

  6. Natural infection of Cryptosporidium muris in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Huang, Lei; Wang, Rongjun; Xiao, Lihua; Xu, Lina; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-10-15

    A total of 303 fecal samples were collected from ostriches (Struthio camelus) and 31 samples (10.2%) were Cryptosporidium-positive upon microscopic analysis. The infection rate was 27.6% in ostriches aged 16-60 days, 1.2% in those aged 61-180 days, and 20.4% in those aged >10 years. The Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The 22 isolates from ostriches aged >10 years were identified as Cryptosporidium muris, whereas the nine isolates from ostriches <180 days were Cryptosporidium baileyi. Ten of the 22 C. muris isolates were analyzed based on the actin and HSP70 genes, and the results were identical to those observed for the SSU rRNA gene. Cross-transmission studies demonstrated that the C. muris isolate infected BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils, but did not infect chickens. C. muris isolated in this study appears to be host-adapted, consistent with a previous multilocus sequence typing analysis. Further studies are required to understand the prevalence and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in ostriches in different geographic areas. PMID:25178556

  7. Respiratory Pores on Ostrich Struthio camelus (Aves: Struthionidae) Eggshells.

    PubMed

    Koyama, T; Tennyson, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory pores are essential for the survival of the embryo within the eggshell. Distribution patterns of such pores on ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshells show remarkable variations in bird group. Eggshells preserved in the museum of New Zealand have long, superficial, winding grooves and ridges, with pores distributed densely in the bottom of grooves. Both the grooves and ridges that separate them are twisted. By contrast, the surfaces of eggs from farmed ostriches are mostly smooth, with only occasional, short grooves, and respiratory pores distributed more evenly. The cause of ridging and grooving of the surface of eggs from wild birds is unclear but may be due to the need for stronger shells and effects of environmental stresses. It appears that the arrangement of respiratory pores on ostrich eggshells seems to be changeable by surrounding stresses. PMID:27526124

  8. Molecular identification of encephalitozoon hellem in an ostrich.

    PubMed

    Snowden, K; Logan, K

    1999-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, eukaryotic parasites found in a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Scientific literature contains a small number of reports of these parasites in psittacine hosts, and recently microsporidiosis was reported in the first nonpsittacine host, an ostrich. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ostrich tissues, and a portion of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced to identify the microsporidian species. The organisms were identified as Encephalitozoon hellem, a parasite species that was first described in immunocompromised humans and recently reported in three psittacine species. PMID:10611995

  9. Susceptibility and Status of Avian Influenza in Ostriches.

    PubMed

    Abolnik, Celia; Olivier, Adriaan; Reynolds, Chevonne; Henry, Dominic; Cumming, Graeme; Rauff, Dionne; Romito, Marco; Petty, Deryn; Falch, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The extensive nature of ostrich farming production systems bears the continual risk of point introductions of avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild birds, but immune status, management, population density, and other causes of stress in ostriches are the ultimate determinants of the severity of the disease in this species. From January 2012 to December 2014, more than 70 incidents of AIV in ostriches were reported in South Africa. These included H5N2 and H7N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in 2012, H7N7 LPAI in 2013, and H5N2 LPAI in 2014. To resolve the molecular epidemiology in South Africa, the entire South African viral repository from ostriches and wild birds from 1991 to 2013 (n = 42) was resequenced by next-generation sequencing technology to obtain complete genomes for comparison. The phylogenetic results were supplemented with serological data for ostriches from 2012 to 2014, and AIV-detection data from surveillance of 17 762 wild birds sampled over the same period. Phylogenetic evidence pointed to wild birds, e.g., African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), in the dissemination of H7N1 LPAI to ostriches in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces during 2012, in separate incidents that could not be epidemiologically linked. In contrast, the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 2013 that were restricted to the Western Cape Province appear to have originated from a single-point introduction from wild birds. Two H5N2 viruses detected in ostriches in 2012 were determined to be LPAI strains that were new introductions, epidemiologically unrelated to the 2011 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks. Seventeen of 27 (63%) ostrich viruses contained the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) E627K marker, and 2 of the ostrich isolates that lacked E627K contained the compensatory Q591K mutation, whereas a third virus had a D701N mutation. Ostriches maintain a low upper- to midtracheal temperature as part of their adaptive physiology for desert survival, which may

  10. Enterococci isolated from farm ostriches and their relation to enterocins.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Kandričáková, Anna; Ščerbová, Jana; Strompfová, Viola

    2016-07-01

    The present study focuses on the detection of enterococci in ostrich faeces. Forty-six bacterial colonies from 140 ostriches were identified at the species level using the MALDI-TOF MS identification system. According to the score value evaluation, they were allotted to the species Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus mundtii confirmed also by phenotypic testing. Dominated species E. hirae (34 strains) were submitted to more detailed testing. Those strains E. hirae produced either no or only slight amount of the enzymes related to disorders (N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, β-glucuronidase, α-chymotrypsin, trypsin). Most of the strains were not hemolytic. They did not harbour the hiracin-producing gene. Five E. hirae strains harboured virulence factor gene gelE; however, they were phenotypically gelatinase negative. They also harboured other virulence factor genes such as esp, efaAfm and ccf. E. hirae strains were mostly sensitive to antibiotics and those resistant at least to one antibiotic were sensitive to enterocins (200-25,600 AU/mL). This study represents original and novel results concerning the enterococcal microflora in ostriches; enterococci in ostriches have not been described in detail up to now; sensitivity to enterocins of E. hirae strains harbouring virulence factor genes to enterocins is also new. PMID:26603748

  11. Lipolysis, proteolysis, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of different types of Spanish ostrich salchichon.

    PubMed

    Soriano, A; Garcı A Ruiz, A; Gómez, E; Pardo, R; Galán, F A; González Viñas, M A

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three different types of salchichon: made of ostrich meat, made of ostrich meat and lean pork, and made of ostrich meat and pork belly, from physicochemical and sensory viewpoints. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis and proteolysis produced during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids, the degree of rancidity, the non-protein, water-soluble and aminoacidic nitrogen content were determined. In addition, the composition of the fermented sausages (pH, a(w), moisture, fat, protein, ash, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite content) was analysed. From a sensory viewpoint, the organoleptic characteristics of the different types of salchichon were studied using free choice profiling. The fermented sausages had varying characteristics depending on their formulation (ostrich meat or ostrich meat plus pork) and all of them were well accepted by the panelists. This study helps characterise the different types of ostrich salchichon made in Spain. PMID:22064031

  12. Lipid synthesis in chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lavker, R M

    1975-07-01

    Lipid synthesis in newborn chick epidermis was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography after injection of tritiated palmitate. The labeled lipid product in the tissue was identified as mostly triglyceride. At the earliest time after injection (6 hr), the radioactive precursor was taken up by all viable cells of the epidermis. Grain density was heaviest over basal cells, moderate over spinous cells, and slight over granular cells; thus lipid incorporation is highest in the basal and spinous regions of the chick epidermis. As time after injection progressed, the increasing amounts of grains over the granular and horny cells and decreasing amounts over the basal and spinous cells reflected the continuous upward displacement of cells from one layer into the next. From the distribution of silver grains within the epidermal cells, it has been concluded that, with the passage of time, triglycerides synthesized by the epidermal cells were mainly located in lipid droplets. The numerous grains associated with the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum indicated that this organelle is involved in aggregating triglyceride molecules into lipid droplets. The fact that grains were seen within the horny cells indicated that part of the horny cell consists of lipid probably derived from the lipid droplets retained by the cells during keratinization. PMID:1151110

  13. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  14. Database independent proteomics analysis of the ostrich and human proteome.

    PubMed

    Altelaar, A F Maarten; Navarro, Danny; Boekhorst, Jos; van Breukelen, Bas; Snel, Berend; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R

    2012-01-10

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis relies heavily on the presence of complete protein databases. Such a strategy is extremely powerful, albeit not adequate in the analysis of unpredicted postgenome events, such as posttranslational modifications, which exponentially increase the search space. Therefore, it is of interest to explore "database-free" approaches. Here, we sampled the ostrich and human proteomes with a method facilitating de novo sequencing, utilizing the protease Lys-N in combination with electron transfer dissociation. By implementing several validation steps, including the combined use of collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation data and a cross-validation with conventional database search strategies, we identified approximately 2,500 unique de novo peptide sequences from the ostrich sample with over 900 peptides generating full backbone sequence coverage. This dataset allowed the appropriate positioning of ostrich in the evolutionary tree. The described database-free sequencing approach is generically applicable and has great potential in important proteomics applications such as in the analysis of variable parts of endogenous antibodies or proteins modified by a plethora of complex posttranslational modifications. PMID:22198768

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Marín-García, Liliana; Stojanoff, Vivian; Moreno, Abel

    2007-11-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the protein struthiocalcin 1 isolated from ostrich eggshell are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.

  16. Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension during anesthesia in an ostrich.

    PubMed

    Matthews, N S; Burba, D J; Cornick, J L

    1991-06-01

    Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension were seen in an adult ostrich anesthetized with isoflurane. The ostrich had septic joints and was anesthetized to allow joint lavage. The premature ventricular contractions occurred at a rate of 1 to 2/min, with a brief period of 12 to 15/min, and were not treated with any antiarrhythmic drugs. Normal blood pressures for awake or anesthetized adult ostriches are not readily available, but blood pressures in this bird were higher than in other ostriches measured with the same technique. Systolic pressures ranged from 199 to 249 mm of Hg, diastolic pressures from 107 to 177 mm of Hg, and mean pressures were from 165 to 220 mm of Hg during isoflurane anesthesia of approximately 45 minutes' duration. Recovery from anesthesia was complicated, although the ostrich died 12 days later from mycotic pneumonia. PMID:1714891

  17. Ultrastructure of ostrich (Struthio camelus) spermatozoa: I. Transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Soley, J T

    1993-06-01

    The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3.0 microns) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of electron-dense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the ratites and tinamous constitute a

  18. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  19. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  20. Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Weibking, T S; Rottinghaus, G E

    1992-07-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young broiler chicks. The experimental design consisted of 5 treatments each with 9 randomly allotted male broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0 (feed control), 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Response variables measured were chick performance, organ weights, serum biochemistry, and histologic parameters. Body weights and average daily gain dramatically decreased with increasing dietary fumonisin B1, and liver, proventriculus, and gizzard weights increased. Diarrhea, thymic cortical atrophy, multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and rickets were present in chicks fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Serum calcium, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels all increased at higher fumonisin dietary levels. Results indicate that fumonisin, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young chicks. PMID:1515495

  1. Purification and partial characterization of a myofibril-bound serine protease from ostrich skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tshidino, Shonisani C; Krause, Jason; Adebiyi, Abayomi P; Muramoto, Koji; Naudé, Ryno J

    2009-10-01

    A myofibril-bound serine protease (MBSP) was partially purified from ostrich (Struthio camelus) skeletal muscle. MBSP was dissociated from the myofibrillar fraction by ethylene glycol treatment at pH 8.5, followed by partial purification via Toyopearl Super Q 650 S and p-aminobenzamidine column chromatographies. Ostrich MBSP revealed a major protein band of approximately 21 kDa on SDS-PAGE, showing proteolytic activity after casein zymography. Optima pH and temperature of ostrich MBSP were 8 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that the enzyme cleaved synthetic fluorogenic substrates at the carboxyl side of arginine residues. Kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max) values) were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. The kinetic characteristics of ostrich MBSP were compared to values obtained for commercial bovine trypsin in this study, as well as those obtained for MBSP from mouse and various fish species. The results suggest that ostrich MBSP is a tryptic-like serine protease. Ostrich MBSP exhibited low sequence identity to commercial bovine trypsin (44%), MBSP from lizard fish skeletal muscle (33%) and trypsinogen from ostrich pancreas (22%). PMID:19559097

  2. Preliminary studies of primary ostrich fibroblasts for the isolation of ratite viruses.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, S J; Vanhooser, S L; Welsh, R D; Silkwood, T G

    1994-01-01

    An ostrich egg at 21 days of development was used to propagate primary embryo cell cultures. Primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells (for fibroblasts) were prepared by routine typsinization techniques. The ostrich embryo fibroblasts were tested for their ability to propagate stock avian viruses of infectious bronchitis virus, paramyxiovirus-1 (PMV-1), PMV-2, PMV-3, infectious bursal disease virus, quail bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, turkey coronavirus, and two ostrich-originating specimens (one of which was a possible coronavirus identified by electron microscopy). Cytopathic effects were seen by light microscopy in cell cultures inoculated with PMV-1, turkey coronavirus, and the two ostrich specimens. Hemaglutinating titers of 4 or more were determined for PMV-1, turkey coronavrius, and the two ostrich specimens after inoculation onto monolayers of ostrich embryo fibroblasts. Hemagglutination-inhibition tests confirmed the identification of PMV-1 when homologous antisera were used as the specific inhibitor. Bovine coronavirus antisera inhibited the hemagglutination of one of the cultured ostrich specimens. PMID:7702522

  3. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P; Chwalibog, A; Du Preez, J J

    1999-09-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature South African Black ostriches and 10 adult Australorp cockerels per ingredient. TMEn values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 MJ/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common reed, lupins, SBOCM, SFOCM and fishmeal, respectively, were found for ostriches in comparison to lower (P<0.05) values of 8.55, 4.50, 2.79, 9.40, 9.04, 8.89 and 13.95 MJ/kg for cockerels. The higher (P<0.05) ME values for ostriches confirm that the ostrich is capable of digesting foodstuffs, especially those with high fibre concentrations such as drought-resistant fodders, more effectively than poultry. Plant protein sources could make a considerable energy contribution to diets for ostriches. It is concluded that it is essential to use energy values of foodstuffs determined using ostriches and not extrapolated values derived from poultry in diet formulation for ostriches. PMID:10579407

  4. Search for Salmonella spp. in ostrich productive chain of Brazilian southeast region.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Lages, Sonia Luisa Silva; Carrasco, Adriano Oliveira Torres; Berchieri Junior, Angelo

    2009-12-01

    We analyzed ostriches from an equipped farm located in the Brazilian southeast region for the presence of Salmonella spp. This bacterium was investigated in 80 samples of ostrich droppings, 90 eggs, 30 samples of feed and 30 samples of droppings from rodents. Additionally, at slaughter-house this bacterium was investigated in droppings, caecal content, spleen, liver and carcasses from 90 slaughtered ostriches from the studied farm. Also, blood serum of those animals were harvested and submitted to serum plate agglutination using commercial Salmonella Pullorum antigen. No Salmonella spp. was detected in any eggs, caecal content, liver, spleen, carcass and droppings from ostriches and rodents. However, Salmonella Javiana and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4, 12: i:- were isolated from some samples of feed. The serologic test was negative for all samples. Good sanitary farming management and the application of HACCP principles and GMP during the slaughtering process could explain the absence of Salmonella spp. in the tested samples. PMID:19390983

  5. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Regnault, Sophie; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich. PMID:25551024

  6. Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Kyle P; Regnault, Sophie; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich. PMID:25551024

  7. Comparison of the mineral and fatty acid profiles of ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Majewska, D; Szczerbińska, D; Ligocki, M; Bucław, M; Sammel, A; Tarasewicz, Z; Romaniszyn, K; Majewski, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral and lipid profiles in ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers. The highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found in turkey livers, at 3751.50, 2153.05 and 363.98 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively, whereas ostrich livers were the richest in calcium (82.77 mg/kg FW). Ostrich liver was the richest source of iron, calcium, zinc and silicon, at 947.8, 82.77, 47.50, 36.69 mg/kg FW, respectively. Ostrich livers proved to be the richest source of long-chain fatty acids (5.18% C20:4n+6, 0.48% EPA and 1.08% DHA). PMID:26963037

  8. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  9. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip-knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  10. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip–knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  11. Escherichia coli strains from ostriches and their sensitivity to antimicrobial substances.

    PubMed

    Ščerbová, J; Lauková, A

    2016-01-01

    Ostriches are bred especially for their high-quality meat. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the ostrich's microflora. Escherichia coli is a commensal microorganism of the poultry intestine, ostriches included. However, some strains may become pathogenic. This study was therefore undertaken to detect coliform bacteria in ostrich faeces and to test their antibiotic profile and sensitivity to enterocins. Faeces (n=54, 18 mixture samples from 3 different age groups of 140 ostriches) were sampled to isolate coliform bacteria. The counts of coliform bacteria varied from 5.69 ± 2.4 log10 CFU/g to 5.73 ± 2.4 CFU/g. Pure colonies were identified using MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry and confirmed by phenotypization. Seventy-one strains were allotted to the species E. coli. Sixty-four of those 71 strains caused hemolysis. They were mostly polyresistant to antibiotics. Thirty-two poly-resistant strains of E. coli were sensitive to enterocins. These strains were most sensitive to Ent 9296 (26 strains). Moreover, Ent EM41 produced by E. faecium EM41 (isolated from ostrich faeces) inhibited the growth of 20 strains, reaching activity of 100 AU/ml. Our results indicate the possibility of enterocins being used for prevention/reduction of coliforms. Of course, in vivo studies are also being processed. PMID:27487518

  12. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    PubMed

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  13. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals. PMID:10962154

  14. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. )

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  15. Effects of pretransport handling stress on physiological and behavioral response of ostriches.

    PubMed

    Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

    2014-05-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production is a relatively young industry and there has been little research on ostrich welfare during pretransport handling and the transportation process. A heavy body with a high center of gravity makes ostriches' handling and transportation problems different from other livestock. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the pretransport holding time duration on ostrich behavior and physiological responses. A second objective was to identify and validate behavioral indicator(s) that could be used to identify stressed birds during pretransport handling. Prior to shipping, twenty-four 2.5-yr-old ostriches were moved into a holding pen. Birds were then individually restrained, hooded, and walked from the holding pen (approximately 12 min/bird) to a sampling pen (visually isolated from the holding pen) where they were weighed and a 10-mL blood sample obtained. A second blood sample was taken from each bird after a 1,100-km transportation. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of blood metabolites, enzymes, corticosterone, and white blood cell and differential counts. Behavioral responses and physical damages of ostriches were also recorded before and after transport. Results indicated that birds that spent longer time in the pretransport holding pen had higher pretransport plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, and packed cell volume. Immobile sitting behavior, observed in 5 out of the last 11 birds handled, was positively correlated with higher pretransport handling stress, higher posttransport aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and glucose concentrations, and transport losses. Knowledge of pretransport handling impacts on ostrich stress and availability of behavioral indicators (e.g., immobile sitting response) could be used to improve handing processes, thereby decreasing potential weight loss, injury, and

  16. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  17. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Meagan M.; Snively, Eric; Cotton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomography (CT) reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE) model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy–Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics–FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches. Conclusions/Significance High safety factors suggest that bone

  18. [Animal welfare aspects regarding the raising of breeding ostriches in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wöhr, A C; Schulz, A; Erhard, M H

    2005-03-01

    The commercial housing of African Ostriches in Germany for the breed and meat production still represents a disputed topic under the criterion of the animal's welfare. Above all critics state that the frequently wet-cold weather in Germany impairs the well-being and health of the animals. So far however there are just a few scientifically documented data about requirements for housing conditions of ostriches in Central Europe and thus hardly answers whether housing in Germany is possible under the criteria of the animal's welfare. This study tried to evaluate ostrich housing under South German climatic conditions (Rhine level), on the basis of behavioral observations of breeding ostriches. The use of the stable and the influence of different climatic parameters on the behavior were considered. In addition the behavior of 18 adult animals in 5 breeding groups from January to December 2002 was observed. Parallel various climatic data were raised. The housing of the animals took place in open stables with unrestricted pasture possibility. The ostriches reacted in their behavior to different climatic conditions. Particularly at cold weather and adverse soil conditions they used the open stable increasingly as weather protection. In addition, with increased wind velocities the animals spent more time in the stables. The daily amount of precipitation showed no influence on the frequency or duration of the stable use. Rainfall did not animate the animals to look for protection within the stable, but more to set itself on the ground in the external enclosure. The locomotion activity of the animals was strongly in dependence to the reproduction time and the territorial behavior and therefore highest in spring. On cold days the animals performed their reproduction behavior mainly in the stable. For the comfort behaviour distinct weather dependence was seen particularly for sand bathing. Warm temperatures and dry sand were the preconditions for it. Regarding the results it

  19. Punishing the mine safety ostrich -- a primer on personal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.M.; Robertson, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Mine personnel, from firebosses to company presidents, who ignore or flaunt safety, face increasing peril of personal civil and criminal liability under the Mine Act and various federal criminal statutes. This article surveys the many ways none safety {open_quotes}ostriches{close_quotes} can be punished. The most common source for personal liability comes from {section} 110(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 {open_quotes}Mine Act{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}). Section 110(c) allows the Department of Labor`s Mine Safety and Health Administration ({open_quotes}MSHA{close_quotes} to seek both civil and criminal charges against corporate directors, officers and agents for {open_quotes}knowingly{close_quotes} authorizing, ordering or carrying out a violation of a mandatory safety or health standard or Mine Act provision. Similar charges may be brought against those individuals for failure to comply with an order of withdrawal or with an order incorporated in a final decision under the Act (except an order to pay civil penalties or an order in a discrimination case).

  20. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Werner, Ortrud; Hemberger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for European consumers. The EU regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, aPMV-1). After the detection of antibodies against aPMV-1 in one of five ostrich farms in Namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. No aPMV-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (aPMV-3) was isolated from five pharyngeal/cloacal swabs of clinically healthy farmed Namibian ostriches. Subtype determination proved that all isolates are members of the subtype aPMV-3 of psittacine bird origin and were designated as aPMV-3b. In the haemagglutination inhibition test, the aPMV-3b isolates cross-reacted with aPMV-1. This allows the conclusion that the antibodies originally detected in sera of the ostriches are due to the cross-reaction with aPMV-3b, rather than to an infection with aPMV-1.To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches. PMID:20329642

  1. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  2. Validation experiments on finite element models of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) cranium

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The first finite element (FE) validation of a complete avian cranium was performed on an extant palaeognath, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Ex-vivo strains were collected from the cranial bone and rhamphotheca. These experimental strains were then compared to convergence tested, specimen-specific finite element (FE) models. The FE models contained segmented cortical and trabecular bone, sutures and the keratinous rhamphotheca as identified from micro-CT scan data. Each of these individual materials was assigned isotropic material properties either from the literature or from nanoindentation, and the FE models compared to the ex-vivo results. The FE models generally replicate the location of peak strains and reflect the correct mode of deformation in the rostral region. The models are too stiff in regions of experimentally recorded high strain and too elastic in regions of low experimentally recorded low strain. The mode of deformation in the low strain neurocranial region is not replicated by the FE models, and although the models replicate strain orientations to within 10° in some regions, in most regions the correlation is not strong. Cranial sutures, as has previously been found in other taxa, are important for modifying both strain magnitude and strain patterns across the entire skull, but especially between opposing the sutural junctions. Experimentally, we find that the strains on the surface of the rhamphotheca are much lower than those found on nearby bone. The FE models produce much higher principal strains despite similar strain ratios across the entirety of the rhamphotheca. This study emphasises the importance of attempting to validate FE models, modelling sutures and rhamphothecae in birds, and shows that whilst location of peak strain and patterns of deformation can be modelled, replicating experimental data in digital models of avian crania remains problematic. PMID:26500813

  3. Wild ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) reproduction in Orbata, a nature reserve in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Kennou Sebei, S; Bergaoui, R; Ben Hamouda, M; Cooper, R G

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to determine wild ostrich reproductive behaviour in Orbata Nature Reserve by observing 16 hens and 28 cocks over a seven-year period. Intense laying commenced in January, one month after the cessation of the rainy season, and 92% of the eggs were produced during the dry season (January to May, peaking in March). Over the seven years, 1,322 eggs were laid in 69 nests, which corresponded to an annual average production of 19.2 +/- 9.1 eggs/nest and 11.8 eggs/hen. 24 nests (34.78%) were non-brooded, 17 nests (24.64%) were deserted in the course of incubation, and 28 nests (40.58%) possessed hatched eggs. All the non-incubated nests had egg losses equivalent to 46.6 +/- 12.6%. Hatchability success of incubated eggs was 41.9 +/- 12.0%. Ostriches tended to dig their nests adjacent to the reserve enclosure which had direct access by road and track, the latter subjecting them to human disturbance and predation. The systematic obstruction of these nests stimulated ostriches to build additional nests within the reserve perimeter. The authors discussed the results recorded in an ostrich flock in relation to the environmental factors (climatic factors, food disponibility and predation) and suggested possibilities for improved wildlife management. PMID:19340601

  4. Mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicola C; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-03-01

    It is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. The ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. Here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body size, relating to forces acting on the musculoskeletal structures, effective mechanical advantage (EMA) and mechanical work. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected through growth from running ostriches. Joint moments scaled in a similar way to the pelvic limb segments as a result of consistent posture through growth, such that EMA was independent of body mass. Because no postural change was observed, relative loads applied to musculoskeletal tissues would be predicted to increase during growth, with greater muscle, and hence tendon, load allowing increased potential for elastic energy storage with increasing size. Mass-specific mechanical work per unit distance was independent of body mass, resulting in a small but significant increase in the contribution of elastic energy storage to locomotor economy in larger ostriches. PMID:23155079

  5. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  6. Acellular ostrich corneal stroma used as scaffold for construction of tissue-engineered cornea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-Ning; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Jie; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Yin, Yong; Xiao, Xiang-Hua; Su, Xin; Kong, Bin; Pan, Shi-Yin; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Yan; An, Na; Mi, Sheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs) had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC) transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft. PMID:27158598

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and bioactivity of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in African ostrich.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keli; Xiao, Ke; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Shun; Zhong, Juming; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Liu, Huazhen; Peng, Kemei

    2015-09-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF), which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is testified to play a critical role in B cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. In the present study, the cDNA of open reading frame (ORF) in African ostrich (Struthio camelus) BAFF (designated OsBAFF) was cloned by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The OsBAFF gene encodes a 288-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a putative furin protease cleavage site like BAFFs from chicken (cBAFF), quail (qBAFF), duck (dBAFF), goose (gBAFF) and dove (doBAFF). RT-PCR analysis showed that the OsBAFF gene is strongly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. The soluble OsBAFF had been cloned into pET28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the soluble fusion protein His-OsBAFF was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Rosset (DE3). In vitro, purified OsBAFF was not only able to promote the survival of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, but also able to co-stimulate proliferation of mouse splenic B cells. The expression of OsBAFF in lymphocyte cells was higher than the control after LPS stimulation. These findings indicated that OsBAFF plays an important role in survival and proliferation of African ostrich bursal lymphocytes, which may provide valuable information for research into the immune system of African ostrich and OsBAFF may serve as a potential immunologic factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in African ostrich and any other birds. PMID:26256697

  8. A morphological classification of sperm defects in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lizette; Malecki, Irek; Bonato, Maud; Smith, Marna; Cloete, Schalk; Soley, John

    2014-11-30

    Commercial ostrich farming is constrained by the absence of a formal animal recording and evaluation scheme as well as by current farming practices. Artificial insemination may have an important role in overcoming these limitations, but requires a thorough knowledge of sperm morphology. Although the morphological characteristics of normal ostrich sperm have been documented, little information is available on the incidence and structural peculiarities of defective sperm in this species. Semen smears were prepared from the ejaculates of five ostriches (Struthio camelus), stained and evaluated. Defects were observed in 17% of sperm studied. Tail defects constituted the most common anomaly. Various forms of bending were the main tail defect, ranging from gentle to acute bends of the principal piece, Dag-like coiling at the head base, sharp reflexes of the midpiece as well as coiling of the endpiece. In contrast, head defects were comparatively low in frequency, with macrocephalic sperm being the defect most frequently observed in this region. Bent, microcephalic, acephalic and round sperm heads were also noted but were few in number. Cytoplasmic droplets occurred frequently in the fixed smears, either associated with the sperm or as free-lying droplets. A small percentage of sperm with multiple defects was recorded. The incidence of morphologically normal sperm in ostrich semen compared favorably with that reported in emu semen, another commercially farmed ratite. However, the range of defects differed appreciably between the two species. Sperm tail anomalies were the most frequent category in the ostrich, whereas head defects comprised the main grouping in the emu. PMID:25255781

  9. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  10. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  11. A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Texier, Pierre-Jean; Porraz, Guillaume; Parkington, John; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Poggenpoel, Cedric; Miller, Christopher; Tribolo, Chantal; Cartwright, Caroline; Coudenneau, Aude; Klein, Richard; Steele, Teresa; Verna, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing debates about the emergence of modern human behavior, however defined, regularly incorporate observations from the later part of the southern African Middle Stone Age and emphasize the early appearance of artifacts thought to reflect symbolic practice. Here we report a large sample of 270 fragments of intentionally marked ostrich eggshell from the Howiesons Poort at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa. Dating from ≈60,000 years ago, these pieces attest to an engraving tradition that is the earliest reliable evidence of what is a widespread modern practice. These abstract linear depictions were made on functional items (eggshell containers), which were curated and involved in daily hunter-gatherer life. The standardized production of repetitive patterns, including a hatched band motif, suggests a system of symbolic representation in which collective identities and individual expressions are clearly communicated, suggesting social, cultural, and cognitive underpinnings that overlap with those of modern people. PMID:20194764

  12. Increased Thymic Cell Turnover under Boron Stress May Bypass TLR3/4 Pathway in African Ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-bo; Xiao, Ke; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Zhong, Juming; Liu, Hua-zhen; Peng, Ke-mei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that thymus is a targeted immune organ in malnutrition, and high-boron stress is harmful for immune organs. African ostrich is the living fossil of ancient birds and the food animals in modern life. There is no report about the effect of boron intake on thymus of ostrich. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of excessive boron stress on ostrich thymus and the potential role of TLR3/4 signals in this process. Histological analysis demonstrated that long-term boron stress (640 mg/L for 90 days) did not disrupt ostrich thymic structure during postnatal development. However, the numbers of apoptotic cells showed an increased tendency, and the expression of autophagy and proliferation markers increased significantly in ostrich thymus after boron treatment. Next, we examined the expression of TLR3 and TLR4 with their downstream molecular in thymus under boron stress. Since ostrich genome was not available when we started the research, we first cloned ostrich TLR3 TLR4 cDNA from thymus. Ostrich TLR4 was close to white-throated Tinamou. Whole avian TLR4 codons were under purify selection during evolution, whereas 80 codons were under positive selection. TLR3 and TLR4 were expressed in ostrich thymus and bursa of fabricius as was revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). TLR4 expression increased with age but significantly decreased after boron treatment, whereas TLR3 expression showed the similar tendency. Their downstream molecular factors (IRF1, JNK, ERK, p38, IL-6 and IFN) did not change significantly in thymus, except that p100 was significantly increased under boron stress when analyzed by qRT-PCR or western blot. Taken together, these results suggest that ostrich thymus developed resistance against long-term excessive boron stress, possibly by accelerating intrathymic cell death and proliferation, which may bypass the TLR3/4 pathway. In addition, attenuated TLRs activity may explain the reduced inflammatory

  13. Increased Thymic Cell Turnover under Boron Stress May Bypass TLR3/4 Pathway in African Ostrich.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-bo; Xiao, Ke; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Zhong, Juming; Liu, Hua-zhen; Peng, Ke-mei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that thymus is a targeted immune organ in malnutrition, and high-boron stress is harmful for immune organs. African ostrich is the living fossil of ancient birds and the food animals in modern life. There is no report about the effect of boron intake on thymus of ostrich. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of excessive boron stress on ostrich thymus and the potential role of TLR3/4 signals in this process. Histological analysis demonstrated that long-term boron stress (640 mg/L for 90 days) did not disrupt ostrich thymic structure during postnatal development. However, the numbers of apoptotic cells showed an increased tendency, and the expression of autophagy and proliferation markers increased significantly in ostrich thymus after boron treatment. Next, we examined the expression of TLR3 and TLR4 with their downstream molecular in thymus under boron stress. Since ostrich genome was not available when we started the research, we first cloned ostrich TLR3 TLR4 cDNA from thymus. Ostrich TLR4 was close to white-throated Tinamou. Whole avian TLR4 codons were under purify selection during evolution, whereas 80 codons were under positive selection. TLR3 and TLR4 were expressed in ostrich thymus and bursa of fabricius as was revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). TLR4 expression increased with age but significantly decreased after boron treatment, whereas TLR3 expression showed the similar tendency. Their downstream molecular factors (IRF1, JNK, ERK, p38, IL-6 and IFN) did not change significantly in thymus, except that p100 was significantly increased under boron stress when analyzed by qRT-PCR or western blot. Taken together, these results suggest that ostrich thymus developed resistance against long-term excessive boron stress, possibly by accelerating intrathymic cell death and proliferation, which may bypass the TLR3/4 pathway. In addition, attenuated TLRs activity may explain the reduced inflammatory

  14. Monitoring of heavy metal contamination using tissues of two ardeids chicks, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Koo, Tae-Hoe; Oh, Jong-Min

    2010-06-01

    This study presents concentrations of iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium in livers and kidneys of Little Egret Egretta garzetta (n = 10) and Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax (n = 10) chicks from Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Essential element concentrations such as iron, zinc and manganese did not differ between both species chicks in livers and kidneys, but lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly greater in both tissues of Little Egret chicks (lead 2.78 +/- 4.06 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 10.3 +/- 12.8 kg/g wet weight) than in those of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks (lead 0.92 +/- 0.73 microg/g wet weight, cadmium 1.00 +/- 1.00 kg/g wet weight). Lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks were highly related to sediment and/or prey concentrations of their foraging sites in Korean studies. It shows that lead and cadmium concentrations in livers of heron chicks can reflect those of surrounding environment of breeding sites. In this study, cadmium concentrations were higher in kidneys than in livers and it's not recent high-level exposure but chronic background exposure to cadmium contamination around breeding site. Therefore, we suggest that cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys can be used as a bioindicator of acute and/or chronic local contamination. PMID:20464368

  15. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  16. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  17. New specimens of a fossil ostrich from the Miocene of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Leona M.; Dyke, Gareth J.; Walker, Cyril A.

    2006-08-01

    Fossilised hind limb bones from the late Middle Miocene (approximately 14 million-year-old [MYA]) Fort Ternan, Kadianga West and Ngorora localities in Western Kenya indicate the presence of a new representative of the ostrich genus Struthio. These new fossils represent some of the oldest known records for Struthio yet described, slightly younger than Struthio coppensi, from the Lower Miocene of Namibia. Because the four sub-species of the modern-day ostrich ( Struthio camelus camelus, Struthio camelus australis, Struthio camelus massaicus, and Struthio camelus molybdophanes) inhabit the plains of Africa, and as recently as the 1940s, a fifth sub-species was also present in the Middle East and Saudi Arabia ( Struthio camelus syriacus), records of Struthio from Kenya and Namibia testify to the much wider distribution of these cursorial birds in the relatively recent past. This is further supported by the very high frequency of ostrich eggshell fragments found across Africa and Eurasia, which vastly outweighs the amount of skeletal material uncovered over the last century.

  18. Macro-microscopic study on the toepad of ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, S A A; Derbalah, Amira; El-Magd, M E R Abu

    2012-06-01

    The ostrich foot has four toepads, two on the 3rd digit, one on the 4th digit and one at metatarso-phalangeal joint. Previous studies have not detailed the histo-morphological structure of these toepads. In this study, we have described the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the toepad of ostrich (Struthio camelus). Numerous papillae with different direction, length and thickness have been observed grossly on the ventral surface of each toepad. Histological examinations have revealed that the epidermis of the ostrich toepad, similar to other digitigrades, consists of an outer stratum corneum and an inner stratum germinativum (which is subdivided into basal, intermediate and transitional layers). The stratum corneum has several layers of flattened horny cells. The nuclei of basal cells have several mitotic figures. The cytoplasm of the stratum germinativum cells has multiple lipid droplets and multigranular bodies (in transitional cells only). Scanning electron microscopic examination revealed presence of collagen fibers in mid and deep dermis of each toepad. These fibers run parallel and connect to each other by very thin fibrils which are branched, crossed with each other in an oblique direction. Such arrangement of these collagen fibers, thin fibrils and presence of digital cushion are likely to be responsible for the protection of the underlying soft tissues and absorption of concussion. PMID:22382528

  19. Removal of methyl orange on modified ostrich bone waste--a novel organic-inorganic biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Faraji, A R; Amiri, M J; Mehravar, M; Gil, A

    2015-05-15

    The synthesis and growth behavior of the chemically modified ostrich bone wastes as bioadsorbents for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solutions have been investigated. The ostrich bone wastes were treated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The synthesized biomaterials were characterized by several physicochemical techniques. The modified ostrich bone with CTABr was found to be effective as adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The effect of the experimental conditions on the adsorption behavior was studied by varying the contact time, initial MO concentration, temperature, initial pH, chemical modification process, and amount of adsorbent. The contact time to attain equilibrium for maximum adsorption (90%) was found to be 50 min. The adsorption kinetics of MO has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models have also been applied to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:25646786

  20. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds. PMID:21943125

  1. Risk factors and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus) from a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2016-07-30

    Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. The parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in ostriches from a Brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites (MAT-HS); the parasite was isolated from 14/38 (36.84%) ostrich brain samples using the mouse bioassay; and the DNA was detected from 25/38 (65.79%), using PCR. In farms, the water tank was considered the main risk factor (OR=141.87; p-value<0.05), and oocysts were detected in 30% (6/20) in soil of paddocks before animals were slaughtered (1st sampling), and 40% (8/20) one-year after (2nd sampling) using microscopy and PCR. Non-ostrich fecal samples on the ground resulted negative. Bioassay isolation was confirmed by PCR. All PCR positive samples were sequenced and resulted in 100% homology to Toxoplasma gondii repetitive DNA sequence (GenBank access number EF648168-1). These samples were also typed through RFLP-PCR using 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico and CS3. Two isolates had a complete genotype, typed from the ostrich tissue. In ostrich samples, the parasite load ranged from 19,043 (TgOsBr1, avirulent) to 54,829 parasitesmL(-1) (TgOsBr2, virulent) using qPCR, whereas soil samples ranged from 11 to 2,275 parasitesmL(-1). Both typed isolates resulted on atypical clones, one previously reported to cause congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients (TgOsBr1, ToxoDB #206). Thus, these findings support the occurrence of T. gondii in slaughtered ostriches from Brazil, ostriches as sentinel for environmental contamination with T. gondii, the genotypic variability in

  2. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, Amir; Grabowski, Nils; Fohler, Svenja; Kittler, Sophie; Nagengast, Helga; Klein, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes. PMID:24963709

  3. Comparative distribution and arrangement of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Crole, Martina Rachel; Soley, John Thomson

    2014-07-01

    Herbst corpuscles are widely distributed throughout the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu in contrast to the general situation in birds. Knowledge of the comparative distribution of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of these two commercially important ratite species may assist in a better understanding of their feeding habits. Tissue sections representing all parts of the oropharynx of five ostrich and five emu heads collected after slaughter were prepared for light microscopy, the Herbst corpuscles counted, and the relative percentage of corpuscles calculated for defined anatomical regions. Herbst corpuscles were more widespread in the oropharynx of the emu (where they were additionally found in the tongue and laryngeal mound) than in the ostrich but were absent from the pharyngeal folds in both species. The results further indicated that Herbst corpuscles were strategically located to aid in the handling and transport of food. In this context, the high concentration of Herbst corpuscles in the prominent median palatine and ventral ridges in the ostrich denote these structures as sensory organs, namely the palatal and interramal organs. The presence of these sensory organs, coupled with the higher relative percentage of Herbst corpuscles located on the rostral oropharyngeal floor, indicate that the part of the oropharynx caudal to the mandibular and maxillary rostra forms an important sensory region in the ostrich. Additionally, species-specific concentrations of Herbst corpuscles within the oropharynx were identified which appear to assist in the accurate positioning of the tongue and laryngeal mound for cleaning the choana (internal nares) after swallowing. PMID:24782341

  4. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Identification of Ostrich Meat

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmawjood, Amir; Grabowski, Nils; Fohler, Svenja; Kittler, Sophie; Nagengast, Helga; Klein, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes. PMID:24963709

  5. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  6. Microstructure, crystallography and diagenetic alteration in fossil ostrich eggshells from Upper Palaeolithic sites of Indian peninsular region.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonal; Bajpai, Sunil; Kumar, Giriraj; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Biominerals studies are of importance as they provide an understanding of natural evolutionary processes. In this study we have investigated the fossil ostrich eggshells using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). SEM studies demonstrated the ultrastructure of fossil eggshells and formation of calcified cuticular layer. The presence of calcified cuticle layer in eggshell is the basis for ancient DNA studies as it contains preserved biomolecules. EBSD accentuates the crystallographic structure of the ostrich eggshells with sub-micrometer resolution. It is a non-destructive tool for evaluating the extent of diagenesis in a biomineral. EBSD analysis revealed the presence of dolomite in the eggshells. This research resulted in the complete recognition of the structure of ostrich eggshells as well as the nature and extent of diagenesis in these eggshells which is vital for genetic and paleoenvironmental studies. PMID:26994328

  7. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, John R; Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenbluth, Kate H; Siston, Robert A; Delp, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force-length or force-velocity properties in selecting postures). This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model's results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action) that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our results illustrate

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of two ostrich β-defensins: AvBD2 and AvBD7.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Peng, Kemei; Gao, Qishuang; Xiang, Min; Liu, Huazhen; Song, Hui; Yang, Keli; Huang, Haibo; Xiao, Ke

    2014-11-15

    Avian β-defensins (AvBDs) are a family of small antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the innate immunity of birds. Herein, we report on two new ostrich AvBD genes, AvBD2 and AvBD7, which were isolated from the bone marrow of ostriches (Struthio camelus). The coding regions of ostrich AvBD2 and AvBD7 comprised 195 bp and 201bp, which encoded 64 and 66 amino acids, respectively. Homology analysis showed that ostrich AvBD2 had the highest similarity (up to 86%) with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) AvBD2, while ostrich AvBD7 shared the highest similarity (up to 81%) with chicken AvBD7. Analysis of the codon-usage bias showed that the two ostrich AvBDs had different codon-usage patterns from other AvBDs. The two synthetic AvBD peptides exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and these activities decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AvBD2 and AvBD7 were widely expressed at different levels in 17 different tissues. This is the first report of the nucleotide sequences of ostrich AvBDs. Further investigations of these two AvBDs may help us to gain new insights into the immune defense system of the ostrich and to make subsequent therapeutic use of ostrich defensins. PMID:25127671

  9. Dating lacustrine episodes in the eastern Sahara by the epimerization of isoleucine in ostrich eggshells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G.H.; Wendorf, F.; Ernst, R.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.; Friedman, I.; Schwarcz, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The eggshell of the African ostrich, Struthio camelus, closely approximates a closed system for the retention of indigenous proteinaceous residues. Epimerization of the protein amino acid isoleucine follows linear first-order kinetics in laboratory simulations nearly to racemic equilibrium, and the variation in D/L ratio within a single fragment, or between fragments of the same age, is significantly less than in other carbonate systems. These observations suggest that the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile ratio) in ostrich eggshell offers the potential for high-resolution geochronology of Quaternary deposits. From the simulation experiments, and dated early Holocene samples for which we have in situ mean annual sediment temperature measurements, Arrhenius parameters have been calculated; the activation energy is 30.33 kcal mol-1, similar to that of other carbonate systems. We have measured the aIle/Ile ratio in ostrich eggshell associated with lacustrine episodes at Bir Tarfawi and Bir Sahara East, two depressions in what is currently the hyperarid eastern Sahara. The ratios can be used directly to indicate qualitatively the time represented by each series of lake sediment, and to correlate disjunct lacustrine deposits within and between the basins. Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of algal mats contained within some of the lake beds indicate that a major wet interval occurred about 130 ka ago. Using the U-series date for calibration, the amino acid ratios are used to date the most recent lacustrine interval to about 100 ka B.P., and two older intervals, one about 200 ?? 25 ka B.P., and an older interval that occurred prior to 250 ka ago. ?? 1991.

  10. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  11. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  12. Expression of prostaglandin synthesizing enzymes (cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2) in the ovary of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Rodler, Daniela; Sinowatz, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase is the rate limiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins. In birds two isoforms are present: cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Despite evidence implicating that cyclooxygenases and PGs are critical factors in female reproduction in birds, little is known about COX expression in the avian ovary. In birds, cyclooxygenases have been studied in very few species only. In this study we report on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovary of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) using immunohistochemistry and non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Our results demonstrate that COX-1 is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of oocytes of previtellogenic follicles, whereas COX-2 shows the strongest immunostaining in the granulosa cells of previtellogenic follicles. The signals of both isoenzymes fade significantly with increasing diameter and finally nearly vanish in the vitellogenic follicles with a size >1.8 cm. This expression pattern in the ostrich (S. camelus) is, therefore, completely different from the localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the hen (Gallus gallus), a finding which also suggests different functions of the cyclooxygenases in the ostrich species. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization confirmed that COX-1 is synthesized in the ooplasm and COX-2 in the granulosa layers of early previtellogenic follicles. According to the results of this study it appears unlikely that COX-1 or COX-2 play a major role in ovulation and oviposition in the ostrich. PMID:25528171

  13. Chicks from a high and low feather pecking line of laying hens differ in apomorphine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    van Hierden, Yvonne M; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Kost'ál, L'ubor; Výboh, Pavel; Sedlacková, Monika; Rajman, Marek; Juráni, Marian; Mechiel Korte, S

    2005-03-16

    Proactive rodents show a larger behavioral response to apomorphine (APO) than reactive copers, suggesting a more sensitive DA system in proactive individuals. Previously, chicks from a high feather pecking (HFP) and low feather pecking line (LFP) have been suggested to display a proactive and reactive coping strategy, respectively. Therefore, at approximately 4 weeks of age, the behavior of 48 LFP and 48 HFP chicks in response to an APO injection was studied using an open field. Another objective of the present study was to determine whether behavioral variation (in an open field) between HFP and LFP birds, after APO injection, is also reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain. Receptor binding capacities were assessed by measuring specific binding of tritiated D(1) and D(2) receptor ligands in different regions of the brain of control HFP and LFP chicks. In the present study, it is shown that indeed HFP chicks display a more enhanced behavioral response to acute APO treatment (0.5 mg/kg BW) than LFP birds in an open field. This difference was not reflected by variation of D(1) and D(2) receptor densities in the brain between both lines. PMID:15763586

  14. The effects of the visual environment on responses to colour by domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, A; Gonda, Zs; Osorio, D; Farzin, A

    2002-03-01

    It is well known that development of vision is affected by experience, but there are few studies of environmental effects on colour vision. Natural scenes contain predominantly a restricted range of reflectance spectra, so such effects might be important, perhaps biasing visual mechanisms towards common colours. We investigated how the visual environment affects colour preferences of domestic chicks ( Gallus gallus), by training week-old birds to select small food containers distinguished from an achromatic alternative either by an orange or by a greenish-blue colour. Chicks that had been raised in control conditions, with long-wavelength-dominated reflectance spectra, responded more readily to orange than to blue. This was not due to avoidance of blue, as increasing saturation enhanced the chicks' preference for the same hue. The advantage of orange was, however, reduced or abolished for chicks raised in an environment dominated by blue objects. This indicates that responses to coloured food are affected by experience of non-food objects. If colours of ordinary objects in the environment do influence responses to specialised visual signals this might help explain why biological signals directed at birds are often coloured yellow, orange or red; long-wavelength-dominated spectra being more prevalent than short-wavelength-dominated spectra. PMID:11919694

  15. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P < 0·001) and coliforms, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas-like bacteria (P < 0·001). We conclude that AL41 can be used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously. PMID

  16. Effects of vacuum packaging conditions on the quality, biochemical changes and the durability of ostrich meat.

    PubMed

    Brenesselová, Martina; Koréneková, Beáta; Mačanga, Ján; Marcinčák, Slavomír; Jevinová, Pavlína; Pipová, Monika; Turek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of vacuum packaging conditions on the concentrations of lactic acid, malondialdehyde, pH, microbial and sensory analysis were determined during chilled storage of ostrich meat. Meat was packed as follows: vacuum packed from 1st day (VP-1), vacuum packed from 3rd day (VP-3) and non-vacuum packed (NVP). Analysis were performed at 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st day after slaughter. Meat consisted of 74.69% water, 2.29% fats, 20.95% proteins. Package conditions had significant effect on the pH (NVP: 6.54 on the 14th day, VP-1: 6.05 and VP-3: 6.07 on the 21th day p<0.001), amount of malondialdehyde (NVP: 8.62mg/kg on the 14th day; VP-1: 1.95 and VP-3: 2.55 on the 21th day; p<0.001) and total microbial count (NVP: 7.4 log CFU/g on the 14th day; VP-1: 6.7 and VP-3: 6.8 on the 21th day p<0.01). Based on these results we can assess that vacuum packed from 1st day is necessary for the 21 days storage of ostrich meat. PMID:25462381

  17. Acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2016-09-01

    In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0.3-4 kHz, we used electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle and a laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the vibration response. At low frequencies, harmonic displacements were imposed on the columella using piezo stimulation and the resulting force response was measured with a force sensor. From these measurement data, the acoustic impedance of the inner ear could be determined. A simple RLC model in series of the impedance measurements resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20·10(12) Pa/m³, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652·10(6) Pa s(2)/m³, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57·10(9) Pa s/m. We found that values of the inner ear impedance in the ostrich are one to two orders in magnitude smaller than what is found in mammal ears. PMID:27473506

  18. Aeromonas species associated with necrotizing enteritis and septicemia in an adult male ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    França, M; Walker, R L; Kokka, R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2009-06-01

    A deceased 10-yr-old male ostrich was diagnosed with severe necrotizing enteritis and septicemia. The bird was inappetent for 3 wk and had neurologic signs 2 days prior to death. Macroscopically, no significant lesions were noted aside from congestion of the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis,associated with large numbers of gram-negative bacteria, multifocal fibrinoid necrosis in portal arteries, accumulation of fibrin in hepatic sinusoids, myocardial degeneration, and necrosis. There was also squamous metaplasia in the glands of the esophagus and external ears. A gram-negative rod was isolated in pure culture from intestine, liver, lungs, and trachea and identified as an Aeromonas species. The concentration of vitamin A in the liver was extremely low. The lesions seen in the intestine and liver and the isolation of an Aeromonas sp. from various tissues strongly suggest that this bacterium was the cause of the necrotizing enteritis, septicemia, and death of this ostrich. Vitamin A deficiency might have predisposed the bird to the Aeromonas infection. PMID:19630242

  19. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Kubba, M A G; Al-Azreg, S A

    2013-01-01

    A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders. PMID:26623324

  20. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  1. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  2. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  3. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  4. Some novel growth functions and their application with reference to growth in ostrich.

    PubMed

    Faridi, A; López, S; Ammar, H; Salwa, K S; Golian, A; Thornley, J H M; France, J

    2015-06-01

    Four novel growth functions, namely, Pareto, extreme value distribution (EVD), Lomolino, and cumulative β-P distribution (CBP), are derived, and their ability to describe ostrich growth curves is evaluated. The functions were compared with standard growth equations, namely, the monomolecular, Michaelis-Menten (MM), Gompertz, Richards, and generalized MM (gMM). For this purpose, 2 separate comparisons were conducted. In the first, all the functions were fitted to 40 individual growth curves (5 males and 35 females) of ostriches using nonlinear regression. In the second, performance of the functions was assessed when data from 71 individuals were composited (570 data points). This comparison was undertaken using nonlinear mixed models and considering 3 approaches: 1) models with no random effect, 2) random effect incorporated as the intercept, and 3) random effect incorporated into the asymptotic weight parameter (Wf). The results from the first comparison showed that the functions generally gave acceptable values of R2 and residual variance. On the basis of the Akaike information criterion (AIC), CBP gave the best fit, whereas the Gompertz and Lomolino equations were the preferred functions on the basis of corrected AIC (AICc). Bias, accuracy factor, the Durbin-Watson statistic, and the number of runs of sign were used to analyze the residuals. CBP gave the best distribution of residuals but also produced more residual autocorrelation (significant Durbin-Watson statistic). The functions were applied to sample data for a more conventional farm species (2 breeds of cattle) to verify the results of the comparison of fit among functions and their applicability across species. In the second comparison, analysis of mixed models showed that incorporation of a random effect into Wf gave the best fit, resulting in smaller AIC and AIC values compared with those in the other 2 approaches. On the basis of AICc, best fit was achieved with CBP, followed by gMM, Lomolino, and

  5. Phenotypic and genetic variability for body weight of ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ramos, S B; Savegnago, R P; Caetano, S L; Venturini, G C; Ramos, A A; Munari, D P

    2014-01-01

    1. objective of the present study was to estimate heritability for hatch weight (HW), body weight at 90 (W90) and 180 (W180) d of age in Brazilian ostriches. 2. The heritability estimates were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood method for an animal model. Least squares method was used to define possible fixed effects for consideration in the analysis model. 3. The estimates of heritability were 0.42 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04 and 0.24 ± 0.08 for HW, W90 and W180, respectively. 4. Heritability estimates showed that there are sufficient levels of additive genetic variation present in the traits studied, and these traits may respond to selection. PMID:25269694

  6. Lack of Dosage Compensation Accompanies the Arrested Stage of Sex Chromosome Evolution in Ostriches

    PubMed Central

    Adolfsson, Sofia; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome evolution is usually seen as a process that, once initiated, will inevitably progress toward an advanced stage of degeneration of the nonrecombining chromosome. However, despite evidence that avian sex chromosome evolution was initiated >100 Ma, ratite birds have been trapped in an arrested stage of sex chromosome divergence. We performed RNA sequencing of several tissues from male and female ostriches and assembled the transcriptome de novo. A total of 315 Z-linked genes fell into two categories: those that have equal expression level in the two sexes (for which Z–W recombination still occurs) and those that have a 2-fold excess of male expression (for which Z–W recombination has ceased). We suggest that failure to evolve dosage compensation has constrained sex chromosome divergence in this basal avian lineage. Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution. PMID:23329687

  7. Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostriches.

    PubMed

    Adolfsson, Sofia; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Sex chromosome evolution is usually seen as a process that, once initiated, will inevitably progress toward an advanced stage of degeneration of the nonrecombining chromosome. However, despite evidence that avian sex chromosome evolution was initiated >100 Ma, ratite birds have been trapped in an arrested stage of sex chromosome divergence. We performed RNA sequencing of several tissues from male and female ostriches and assembled the transcriptome de novo. A total of 315 Z-linked genes fell into two categories: those that have equal expression level in the two sexes (for which Z-W recombination still occurs) and those that have a 2-fold excess of male expression (for which Z-W recombination has ceased). We suggest that failure to evolve dosage compensation has constrained sex chromosome divergence in this basal avian lineage. Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution. PMID:23329687

  8. Harderian gland in Canadian ostrich (Struthio camelus): a morphological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Frahmand, S; Mohammadpour, A A

    2015-06-01

    Heads of ten healthy adult ostrich obtained from slaughter house were the constituted materials of the study. The Harderian gland (HG) was dissected out, and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight of left and right glands were recorded. Tissue sections were stained, using haematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) techniques. In ostrich, HG was an orbital organ located ventromedially around the posterior part of the eyeball. It was an oval flatted shape, light pink colour with irregular outline and was pointed in the dorsal end. Its mean length was 35.30 ± 2.84 mm and 35.55 ± 3.58 mm in left and right sides, respectively, and mean width 15.30 ± 1.20 mm and 15.65 ± 1.18 mm in left and right sides, respectively. There was no significant difference between length, thickness, weight and width of left and right glands. Histological results showed that the glandular epithelium was multilobular and compound tubuloalveolar. The gland was surrounded by a connective tissue capsule, and the epithelium was lined by simple columnar epithelial cells of varying height. The secretion of HG was mucous and the secretion type was apocrine. Mucosubstance analysis revealed that secretory units contained acidic and neutral glycoproteins. The granules within the epithelial cells lining the intralobular and inter-lobular excretory ducts of the gland were positive for periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue (pH 2.5). PMID:24895087

  9. A serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Cadman, H F; Kelly, P J; Zhou, R; Davelaar, F; Mason, P R

    1994-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-ostrich IgG was raised and used in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to detect antibodies reactive with 11 poultry pathogens in sera from 149 ostriches from nine farms around Zimbabwe. Antibodies were detected to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (99%), Newcastle disease virus (23%), avian reovirus (19%), infectious bursal disease virus (15%), avian encephalomyelitis virus (15%), Mycoplasma gallisepticum and/or M. synoviae (11%), reticuloendotheliosis virus (10%), Salmonella enteritidis (8%), avian leukosis virus (3%), infectious bronchitis virus (2%), and Pasteurella multocida (< 1%). Although evidence of prior infection with turkey rhinotracheitis and newcastle disease virus was present on all farms tested, there was marked variation between farms in the prevalence of exposure to other poultry pathogens. PMID:7832718

  10. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenbluth, Kate H.; Siston, Robert A.; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures). This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action) that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our results

  11. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  12. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Luptakova, Lenka; Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental data of carbamate pesticides are scarce although they generally possess low toxicity for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bendiocarb to liver and central nervous system of chick embryos. Bendiocarb (1600 μg/egg) was administered to the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic day 3 and 10. In the liver and central nervous system we observed no macroscopic or microscopic changes. These organs were also investigated for caspase activity in regard to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The embryolethality after bendiocarb respective dose was high (94 %) on the embryonic day 3, though following results indicated no toxicity to investigated organs and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in survived chick embryos on both the early (day 3 of incubation) and the later (day 10 of incubation) developmental stage. PMID:22540656

  13. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Fernando Luiz; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Kanashiro, Milton Masahiko; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Brom-de-Luna, João Gato; de Almeida, Claudia Maria Costa; Azevedo Junior, Romildo Rocha; Lemos, Môsar; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2012-01-01

    Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal) with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC) and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50μL aliquots were incubated in 850μL BHI broth containing 50μL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37°C. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm). Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05) growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals. PMID:24031862

  14. The effect of bile, bile acids and detergents on calcium absorption in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Webling, D. D'A.; Holdsworth, E. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. Bile from rachitic or normal chicks causes an immediate increase in the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium in rachitic and vitamin D3-treated chicks as tested in vivo by intestinal-loop and oral-dosing methods. 2. This effect is apparently solely due to the taurine-conjugated bile acids present in the bile and is independent of the action of vitamin D. 3. Chick bile and bile acids can increase the solubility and the absorption of calcium presented as sparingly soluble calcium hydrogen phosphate. 4. In addition, bile is necessary to some extent at least for the intestinal absorption of vitamin D3 in the chick and this would indirectly enhance the absorption of calcium. 5. Thus bile is capable of a threefold action in the absorption of calcium in the chick. It is suggested that the direct action on sparingly soluble forms of calcium is of considerable physiological importance since most of the calcium in the normal bird's diet would be in this form. 6. Bile acids enhance the absorption of calcium in all regions of the small intestine of the chick. 7. Of a range of bile acids and detergents tested for enhancement of calcium absorption, various taurine-conjugated bile acids and sodium lauryl sulphate, an anionic detergent, are effective. A non-ionic detergent (Tween 80) and a cationic detergent (Zephiran) are without effect. 8. The ability of a substance to increase directly the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium appears to depend to some extent on an anionic detergent action, i.e. the ability to form a salt or complex soluble to some extent in both aqueous and lipid phases. 9. In chicks the immediate deposition of calcium (45Ca) in the bones closely reflects any increase in plasma calcium radioactivity regardless of the cause of the increase and regardless of the vitamin D3 status. Although sodium lauryl sulphate can increase markedly the calcium absorption from the gut and the immediate deposition in the bones it has no significant effect on rickets

  15. Morphological features of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Crole, Martina R; du Plessis, Lizette; Soley, John T

    2015-05-01

    The distribution of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu has recently been documented. However, although the morphology of these mechanoreceptors is well known in neognathous birds, little structural information is available on the Herbst corpuscles of ratites. Tissue sections from those regions of the oropharynx known to possess a high concentration of Herbst corpuscles were sampled from ostrich and emu heads collected after slaughter and prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. Intra-oral Herbst corpuscles in the ostrich and emu displayed the same basic components (capsule, outer zone, inner core and axon) described in neognathous birds. However, some important differences were observed, notably, the presence of myofibroblasts in the capsule, sensory cilia in cells of the outer layers, a relatively larger, less organized outer zone and narrower inner core, and variations in the shape of the axon. The previously unreported presence of myofibroblasts in the capsule possibly indicates its ability to contract, thus altering the tension of the capsule, which in turn has implications for the conduction of vibrational stimuli. The sensory cilia in the myofibroblasts of the capsule bordering the outer zone, and in the fibroblasts of the outer zone itself, may play a regulatory role in controlling the contraction of the capsule. Such a function has not previously been reported for Herbst corpuscles in any species of bird. PMID:25382625

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

  17. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  18. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Julie C; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  19. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Julie C.; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  20. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production. PMID:26794839

  1. Efficient ectopic gene expression targeting chick mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kerby C; Pira, Charmaine U; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Ratz, Beate; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Eichele, Gregor

    2002-07-01

    The chick model has been instrumental in illuminating genes that regulate early vertebrate development and pattern formation. Targeted ectopic gene expression is critical to dissect further the complicated gene interactions that are involved. In an effort to develop a consistent method to ectopically introduce and focally express genes in chick mesoderm, we evaluated and optimized several gene delivery methods, including implantation of 293 cells laden with viral vectors, direct adenoviral injection, and electroporation (EP). We targeted the mesoderm of chick wing buds between stages 19 and 21 (Hamburger and Hamilton stages) and used beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to document gene transfer. Expression constructs using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the beta-actin promoter, and vectors with an internal ribosomal entry sequence linked to GFP (IRES-GFP) were also compared. After gene transfer, we monitored expression for up to 3 days. The functionality of ectopic expression was demonstrated with constructs containing the coding sequences for Shh, a secreted signaling protein, or Hoxb-8, a transcription factor, both of which can induce digit duplication when ectopically expressed in anterior limb mesoderm. We identified several factors that enhance mesodermal gene transfer. First, the use of a vector with the beta-actin promoter coupled to the 69% fragment of the bovine papilloma virus yielded superior mesodermal expression both by markers and functional results when compared with several CMV-driven vectors. Second, we found the use of mineral oil to be an important adjuvant for EP and direct viral injection to localize and contain vector within the mesoderm at the injection site. Lastly, although ectopic expression could be achieved with all three methods, we favored EP confined to the mesoderm with insulated microelectrodes (confined microelectroporation- CMEP), because vector construction is rapid, the method is efficient, and results

  2. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  3. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  4. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    PubMed Central

    Sivula, Christine P; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models. PMID:18922185

  5. Measurement of the Photoreceptor Pointing in the Living Chick Eye

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Maria K.; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in-vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (gallus gallus domestie beled) chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particul chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρl, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17 mm−2 for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20 mm−2 for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  6. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρL, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  7. The spiral fold of the caecum in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, A J

    1993-01-01

    The caecum of the ostrich was observed to contain a fold that spiralled approximately 30 times, transforming the lumen into a long, spiral-shaped cavity. The fold consisted of mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa. The proximal part of the fold also contained a central core of muscle originating from the inner circular muscle layer of the caecal wall. The distal part was expanded to form a 'frill', thereby enlarging the surface area of the fold. Blood vessels entered the fold at the mesenteric border from where they were distributed to the fold and caecal wall. From its origin near the caecorectal junction, the fold rapidly increased in height to attain 2.75 +/- 0.95 cm at the 9th turn of the spiral. Thereafter it gradually decreased and disappeared approximately 14 cm from the apex of the caecum. The surface area of the spiral fold averaged 955.75 cm2 and constituted 54% of the total caecal mucosal surface. It is suggested that the fold plays an important role in the absorption of volatile fatty acids and other metabolites produced by microbial fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 7 PMID:8300435

  8. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  9. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether. PMID:6711983

  10. Effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M W; Johnson, S L; Judith, F R

    1983-08-01

    Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of the broiler chick. Bacitracin, at levels of 11 and 55 ppm, significantly increased body weight, significantly reduced small intestine weight, but had no significant effect on liver weight of chicks fed a soybean protein and sucrose-based diet. The greatest effects were observed in the ileum where weight, moisture, length per unit of body weight, and dry matter per unit of length were all significantly reduced. The least effects were observed in the duodenum where weight and length per unit of body weight were significantly reduced and dry matter per unit of length was significantly increased. Intestinal weight, as a percent of body weight, was not significantly affected when body weight was suppressed with a high level of nicarbazin added to a practical diet, but it was significantly reduced when bacitracin was added to the semipurified diet and chicks were restricted in food intake to 70% of controls. A level of 55 ppm of bacitracin added to the practical diet had no significant effect on body weight, intestinal weight, or liver weight. As discussed, the observed changes in the intestine, due to bacitracin, are probably indirect and most likely reflect the action of the antibiotic on the intestinal microflora. PMID:6634597

  11. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-01-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  12. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hiroki; Sezaki, Maiko; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Nakaya, Yukiko; Lee, Hyung Chul; Ladher, Raj; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Han, Jae Yong; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-04-01

    Birds and mammals, phylogenetically close amniotes with similar post-gastrula development, exhibit little conservation in their post-fertilization cleavage patterns. Data from the mouse suggest that cellular morphogenesis and molecular signaling at the cleavage stage play important roles in lineage specification at later (blastula and gastrula) stages. Very little is known, however, about cleavage-stage chick embryos, owing to their poor accessibility. This period of chick development takes place before egg-laying and encompasses several fundamental processes of avian embryology, including zygotic gene activation (ZGA) and blastoderm cell-layer increase. We have carried out morphological and cellular analyses of cleavage-stage chick embryos covering the first half of pre-ovipositional development, from Eyal-Giladi and Kochav stage (EGK-) I to EGK-V. Scanning electron microscopy revealed remarkable subcellular details of blastomere cellularization and subgerminal cavity formation. Phosphorylated RNA polymerase II immunostaining showed that ZGA in the chick starts at early EGK-III during the 7th to 8th nuclear division cycle, comparable with the time reported for other yolk-rich vertebrates (e.g. zebrafish and Xenopus). The increase in the number of cell layers after EGK-III is not a direct consequence of oriented cell division. Finally, we present evidence that, as in the zebrafish embryo, a yolk syncytial layer is formed in the avian embryo after EGK-V. Our data suggest that several fundamental features of cleavage-stage development in birds resemble those in yolk-rich anamniote species, revealing conservation in vertebrate early development. Whether this conservation lends morphogenetic support to the anamniote-to-amniote transition in evolution or reflects developmental plasticity in convergent evolution awaits further investigation. PMID:25742796

  13. Strain in the ostrich mandible during simulated pecking and validation of specimen-specific finite element models.

    PubMed

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2011-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis is becoming a frequently used tool for exploring the craniofacial biomechanics of extant and extinct vertebrates. Crucial to the application of the FE analysis is the knowledge of how well FE results replicate reality. Here I present a study investigating how accurately FE models can predict experimentally derived strain in the mandible of the ostrich Struthio camelus, when both the model and the jaw are subject to identical conditions in an in-vitro loading environment. Three isolated ostrich mandibles were loaded hydraulically at the beak tip with forces similar to those measured during force transducer pecking experiments. Strains were recorded at four gauge sites at the dorsal and ventral dentary, and medial and lateral surangular. Specimen-specific FE models were created from computed tomography scans of each ostrich and loaded in an identical fashion as in the in-vitro test. The results show that the strain magnitudes, orientation, patterns and maximum : minimum principal strain ratios are predicted very closely at the dentary gauge sites, even though the FE models have isotropic and homogeneous material properties and solid internal geometry. Although the strain magnitudes are predicted at the postdentary sites, the strain orientations and ratios are inaccurate. This mismatch between the dentary and postdentary predictions may be due to the presence of intramandibular sutures or the greater amount of cancellous bone present in the postdentary region of the mandible and requires further study. This study highlights the predictive potential of even simple FE models for studies in extant and extinct vertebrates, but also emphasizes the importance of geometry and sutures. It raises the question of whether different parameters are of lesser or greater importance to FE validation for different taxonomic groups. PMID:20846282

  14. Functional anatomy of the lacrimal gland in African black ostrich Struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Nowaczyk, Renata; Krasucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was morphological and histochemical analysis of the lacrimalgland (LG) in African black ostrich Struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatalperiod. Studies were conducted on 50 ostriches aged between the 28th day of incubation until7 months old. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Azan trichrome,periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialysed iron. The LGin ostrich was classified as a tubulo-acinar type. The primordia of the lobes were determinedin the LG structure on the 28th day of incubation, whilst the weakly visible lobes with aciniand tubules were observed on the 40th day of incubation. Morphometric studies of the LGshowed steady growth, characterised by an increase in both length and width. Histometricmeasurements of lobe size showed little difference between the first, second and third agegroups, whilst in the fourth age group a marked increase in size of lobes was observed.The study showed that, apart from morphological changes, during the growth of the LGthe character of acid mucopolysaccharides changed. Sulphated acid mucopolysaccharideswere indicated, particularly with aldehyde fuchsin (AF) staining in the fourth age group.The Hale's dialysed iron (HDI) staining showed a low concentration of carboxylated acidmucopolysaccharides in the first and second age groups and a higher concentration in thethird and fourth age groups. Periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS)-positive cells were observedin each age group, but only a small number of cells with a weakly PAS-positive reaction weredemonstrated in the first age group. PMID:26017903

  15. Strain in the ostrich mandible during simulated pecking and validation of specimen-specific finite element models

    PubMed Central

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2011-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis is becoming a frequently used tool for exploring the craniofacial biomechanics of extant and extinct vertebrates. Crucial to the application of the FE analysis is the knowledge of how well FE results replicate reality. Here I present a study investigating how accurately FE models can predict experimentally derived strain in the mandible of the ostrich Struthio camelus, when both the model and the jaw are subject to identical conditions in an in-vitro loading environment. Three isolated ostrich mandibles were loaded hydraulically at the beak tip with forces similar to those measured during force transducer pecking experiments. Strains were recorded at four gauge sites at the dorsal and ventral dentary, and medial and lateral surangular. Specimen-specific FE models were created from computed tomography scans of each ostrich and loaded in an identical fashion as in the in-vitro test. The results show that the strain magnitudes, orientation, patterns and maximum : minimum principal strain ratios are predicted very closely at the dentary gauge sites, even though the FE models have isotropic and homogeneous material properties and solid internal geometry. Although the strain magnitudes are predicted at the postdentary sites, the strain orientations and ratios are inaccurate. This mismatch between the dentary and postdentary predictions may be due to the presence of intramandibular sutures or the greater amount of cancellous bone present in the postdentary region of the mandible and requires further study. This study highlights the predictive potential of even simple FE models for studies in extant and extinct vertebrates, but also emphasizes the importance of geometry and sutures. It raises the question of whether different parameters are of lesser or greater importance to FE validation for different taxonomic groups. PMID:20846282

  16. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  17. Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

    2009-05-01

    Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

  18. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  19. The toxicity of purified fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Henry, M H; Wyatt, R D; Fletchert, O J

    2000-10-01

    An investigation of the toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme, in broiler chicks was conducted. Purified FB1 (98.1% pure) was incorporated into the diets of broiler chicks at 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, and fed to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Dietary FB1, at concentrations of 80 mg/kg or less, did not adversely affect body weight, feed efficiency, or water consumption of broiler chicks. The relative weights of the liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius were also unaffected (P < 0.05) by any dietary concentration of FB1 compared with the control (0 mg/kg) group. Total liver lipids of chicks fed 40 or 80 mg FB1/kg were significantly lower than those of the chicks fed either 0 or 20 mg FB1/kg of feed. Liver sphinganine concentration and the sphinganine:sphingosine ratio were increased significantly in all treated groups. Chicks fed dietary FB1 at 80 mg/kg had significantly higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransaminase:aspartate aminotransferase ratios and levels of free sphinganine in the serum. The results of this investigation agree with the results previously described, in which FB1 was supplied to diets from the use of F. moniliforme-contaminated grain; therefore, the use of such material as the source of the mycotoxin in animal feeding studies is appropriate. PMID:11055840

  20. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  1. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  2. Expression of Wise in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Y; Itasaki, N

    2007-08-01

    We have performed in situ hybridization to study the expression of Wise in early chick embryos. Wise expression is first detectable in the ectoderm at posterior levels of late neurula. As development proceeds, Wise expression is seen in specific patterns in the ectoderm of the trunk region, pharyngeal arches, limb buds, and feather buds. In addition to these areas, particular cartilages such as the ones in the maxillary process and limbs start to express Wise at the late pharyngula stage, and the expression in these cartilages becomes stronger than that in epidermal components at later stages. Importantly, Wise is expressed in regions where other signaling molecules such as Wnt, Bmp, and Shh are known to function in morphogenesis and differentiation. Direct comparisons of the expression of Wise and these genes are also demonstrated. PMID:17654720

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus isolated from diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; El-Sabagh, I M; Al-Ankari, Abdul-Rahman

    2014-06-01

    During 2007, two outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) in backyard and commercial ostrich flocks were first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The infected ostriches suffered from depression, anorexia, and diarrhea and some exhibited sudden death. A rapid AIV-group antigen detection and real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rtRT-PCR) were initially performed on cloacal and tracheal swabs collected from diseased birds. Pools from positive-tested swabs for each flock were utilized for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. H5N1 AIV was identified in the harvested allantoic fluids by hemagglutination followed by hemagglutination inhibition and rtRT-PCR. The viruses responsible for these two outbreaks were sequenced and characterized as HPAIV H5N1 (A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/6732-3/2007 and A/ostrich/Saudi Arabia/3489-73VIR08/ 2007) from backyard and commercial flocks, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of both isolates revealed that the two viruses belong to clade 2.2 sublineage II and cluster with the HPAIV H5N1 isolated from falcons and turkeys during 2007 in KSA. PMID:25055639

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  5. Predicting ejaculate quality and libido in male ostriches: effect of season and age.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Maud; Malecki, Irek A; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, Paulina K; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Cloete, Schalk W P

    2014-12-10

    The success of artificial breeding program depends largely on the reproductive performance of males. Male performance can vary with season and age impacting on quality and quantity of semen collected for artificial insemination purposes and therefore fertility of inseminated females. We examined variation in semen output and male libido of seven male ostriches (aged 2-5 years) over a period of 24 months. We collected ejaculates using a dummy female and measured semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate, sperm motility and morphology) and male libido (willingness to mount the dummy). A total of 1006 ejaculates were collected. Across months, the volume of semen (mean ± SEM) ranged from 1.03 ± 0.12 mL to 1.85 ± 0.07 mL, the sperm concentration from 3.21 ± 0.12 × 10(9)/mL to 4.16 ± 0.74 × 10(9)/mL, and the number of spermatozoa from 3.42 ± 0.28 × 10(9) to 7.66 ± 0.47 × 10(9). The largest volume of ejaculates and the highest number of sperm were collected in spring. Ejaculates with higher number of normal sperm were also collected in spring-early summer, whereas ejaculates with higher numbers of live abnormal and dead sperm were collected in winter. Sperm motility was relatively constant over months, despite a reduction in summer (January-February), while male libido peaked in winter (June-July) and spring (October-November). Furthermore, we observed high individual variation between males for all variables tested, except for motility. These results indicate that collections conducted in spring yield higher number of spermatozoa, when the libido of males is also at a maximum. Therefore in this species seasonal variation in semen quality should be considered in breeding programmes by artificial insemination to maximise fertility. PMID:25282554

  6. Prediction of digestible energy and gross energy digestibility of feeds and diets in ostriches.

    PubMed

    Bovera, F; Nizza, S; Attia, Y A; Di Meo, C; Piccolo, G; Nizza, A

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess regression equations able to predict the digestible energy (DE) and gross energy digestibility (GEd) of feed ingredients and diets for ostriches. 2. Results of chemical-nutritional characteristics from 17 ingredients (two varieties of maize, two barleys, oat, triticale, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, beet pulp, maize silage, alfalfa hay, 4 alfalfa meals and lupin) and 12 experimental diets were used in a stepwise procedure. 3. Acid detergent lignin (ADL) was the first independent variable included in the model to predict the DE of all the samples (R(2) = 0.65 and Residual Standard Deviation (RSD) 1.02). When the concentration of ash, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and crude fibre were included in the model, the R(2) value of the regression equation increased (from 0.65 to 0.85) and RSD decreased (from 1.02 to 0.48). 4. The ADL concentration was also the first independent variable chosen by the stepwise regression analysis for the estimation of GEd from chemical-nutritional characteristics of feeds, explaining 57% of the total GEd variation. The concentrations of crude protein and ADF included at the second and third steps in the model increased the R(2) (up to 0.70 and 0.73, respectively) and decreased the RSD values (from 0.29 to 0.21 and 0.20, respectively). When other variables as crude fibre, ash and gross energy were included in the model, the coefficient of determination and the RSD strongly improved (0.85 and 0.12, respectively). PMID:24945235

  7. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    hatchings of chicks. After a lag period of 7 months, these households were also more likely to consume home-produced chicken meat. This 7-month period reflects the age when birds are consumed and sold and highlights the lag periods that should be expected before beneficial effects of interventions focussed on chicks occur. This field research has shown that I-2 vaccination markedly increases the prevalence of protective titres and reduces proportions of mortality attributed to disease and that chick management using confinement and supplementary feeding can improve health and production of village chickens. These interventions are simple and sustainable intervention strategies. PMID:19443062

  8. Gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial phase.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas; Heliams, Denham B.; Lloyd, David G.; Fournier, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that minimization of metabolic-energy costs is a primary determinant of gait selection in terrestrial animals. This view is based predominantly on data from humans and horses, which have been shown to choose the most economical gait (walking, running, galloping) for any given speed. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic costs is associated with the selection of other prevalent forms of terrestrial gaits, such as grounded running (a widespread gait in birds). Using biomechanical and metabolic measurements of four ostriches moving on a treadmill over a range of speeds from 0.8 to 6.7 m s(-1), we reveal here that the selection of walking or grounded running at intermediate speeds also favours a reduction in the metabolic cost of locomotion. This gait transition is characterized by a shift in locomotor kinetics from an inverted-pendulum gait to a bouncing gait that lacks an aerial phase. By contrast, when the ostrich adopts an aerial-running gait at faster speeds, there are no abrupt transitions in mechanical parameters or in the metabolic cost of locomotion. These data suggest a continuum between grounded and aerial running, indicating that they belong to the same locomotor paradigm. PMID:15293864

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis. PMID:26154957

  10. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Neurophysiological investigations of a recognition memory system for imprinting in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1995-04-01

    The responsiveness of neurons in a region of the chick brain involved in the learning process of imprinting, the right intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (right IMHV), has been investigated in unanaesthetized, trained and untrained chicks. The results demonstrate that neuronal responsiveness in this region reflects a variety of behavioural consequences of imprinting and is markedly altered as a result of the learning process. Groups of chicks (nine in each group) were either dark-reared or trained (imprinted) by exposure to a rotating red box or a rotating blue cylinder. Recordings of single or small groups of neurons were subsequently made from 156 sites in the right IMHV while the 2-day-old chicks were free to move in a running wheel. There was a highly significant increase in the proportion of sites responsive to the stimulus used to train the birds compared to the proportion responsive to that stimulus in dark-reared birds (30 and 9% respectively). These changes were found when either the red box or the blue cylinder was used to train the bird, the changes being similar for both stimuli. There was also a significant increase in the mean magnitude of the change in neuronal activity on stimulus presentation for the training stimulus compared to the same stimulus when not used in the bird's training. No significant effects of the training experience of the chicks were found upon either the magnitude of evoked activity or the proportion of sites responsive to a rotating stuffed jungle fowl or the sound of the maternal call. The presence of the training stimulus was selectively signalled by the response at certain sites. At other sites there was response generalization across stimulus shape or colour. A comparison with results for the left IMHV demonstrates both similarities and differences in neuronal responsiveness between the two regions. In both regions imprinting selectively enhances neuronal responsiveness to the training stimulus. However, for

  12. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  13. Tribasic copper chloride toxicosis in commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Malinak, Chad M; Hofacre, Charles C; Collett, Stephen R; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S; Myers, Elise; Wang, Yun-Ting; França, Monique

    2014-12-01

    Two broiler chicken houses containing 17,500 chicks each experienced an extreme elevation in chick mortality beginning on day 3 after placement. Clinical signs observed upon farm visit included numerous small chicks for their age; depressed, lethargic, and comatose chicks; and chicks huddling near feed pans and under heaters. Necropsied chicks were markedly pale and had atrophy of the thymus and bursa, swollen and edematous proventriculus, erosions in the koilin and in the proventricular-ventricular junction, pale kidneys, and yellowish to brownish-orange liver often with linear pale areas. The chicks had watery blood and hematocrits measured from 9.5% to 18%. Chicken infectious anemia was initially suspected based on the clinical signs and gross lesions. Histopathology revealed multifocal acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis with golden-brown pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, moderate to severe koilin degeneration and fragmentation, multifocal mild to moderate proventricular necrosis, mild to moderate necrosis and loss of enterocytes, blunting of small intestinal villi, lymphoid depletion in the thymus and bursa, erythrophagocytosis in the liver and spleen, and acute renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Special stains revealed mild to abundant accumulation of copper pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and iron pigment in the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells. Feed analysis revealed 2140 to 2393 parts per million of copper in the starter ration, and heavy metal analysis detected markedly elevated copper levels in formalin-fixed samples of the liver. Excessive amounts of tribasic copper chloride in the starter ration caused copper toxicosis in these chicks. Similar clinical signs and lesions were reproduced when the suspect feed was used in an experimental pen trial. PMID:25619012

  14. Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  15. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  16. Effect of TEX-OE(®) treatment on the development of heat shock proteins in commercial broiler chicks and the impact on performance indicators in the grow-out period.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Prins, C; Saliba, C; Gutierrez, G; Serrar, M

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, shown to protect organisms against physical and physiological stress. TEX-OE(®) is a patented total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, which has been demonstrated to accelerate the development of HSPs in several animal species. One-day-old commercial broiler chicks were treated with TEX-OE(®); HSP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a large commercial field trial investigated key performance indicators (KPIs) in treated versus untreated controls chicks. TEX-OE(®) significantly increased HSP concentrations in treated chicks versus controls. Final cumulative mortality, liveweight and percentage factory-rejects were better than in controls. The accelerated HSP response may enable chicks to cope with early stressors, which is reflected in improved KPIs. PMID:25181283

  17. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  18. Urate synthesis in the perfused chick liver

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Eileen; Buttery, Peter J.; Boorman, K. Neil

    1974-01-01

    Urate synthesis was studied in a perfused chicken liver preparation. The perfused liver had an ATP/ADP ratio of 0.29±0.05(6) compared with 0.34±0.07(10) in liver obtained from chicks under ether anaesthesia. Lactate/pyruvate ratios were 9.4±1.7(5) in the perfused liver and 14.8±1.8(5) in the rapidly sampled liver. Urate synthesis was only marginally stimulated by glycine, glutamine, aspartic acid or NH4Cl, but significant increases were observed with phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, aminoimidazolecarboxylic acid riboside, inosine, inosinic acid and xanthine. Urate synthesis from glycine, glutamine, NH4Cl, asparagine, alanine, histidine and a mixture of 21 amino acids was obtained on inclusion of insulin in the perfusion medium. Evidence for the inclusion of the carbon of histidine into uric acid was obtained. Aspects of the energy consumption associated with the conversion of excess of amino acid into uric acid are considered. PMID:4462579

  19. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. PMID:16287170

  20. Ventral vs. dorsal chick dermal progenitor specification.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ingrid; Viallet, Jean P; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The dorsal and the ventral trunk integuments of the chick differ in their dermal cell lineage (originating from the somatic and somatopleural mesoderm respectively) and in the distribution of their feather fields. The dorsal macropattern has a large spinal pteryla surrounded by semi-apteria, whereas the ventral skin has a true medial apterium surrounded by the ventral pterylae. Comparison of the results of heterotopic transplantations of distal somatopleure in place of somatic mesoderm (Mauger 1972) or in place of proximal somatopleure (our data), leads to two conclusions. These are that the fate of the midventral apterium is not committed at day 2 of incubation and that the signals from the environment which specify the ventral and dorsal featherforming dermal progenitors are different. Effectively, Shh, but not Wnt -1 signalling can induce the formation of feather forming dermis from the embryonic somatopleure. Shh is not able, however, to trigger the formation of a feather forming dermis from the extra embryonic somatopleure. This brief report constitutes the first attempt, by comparing old and new preliminary results, to understand whether dermal progenitors at different sites are specified by different signalling pathways. PMID:15272375

  1. ScienceToGo.org: Using 'Ozzie the Ostrich' to Build Local Partnerships around Climate Change Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    How can an informal science learning project about climate change facilitate alliances among unlikely parties? We found a sweet spot of collaboration among private, public, and the non-profit sectors by borrowing strength and leveraging common interests. Using mass transit and out of home media, we created a diverse community around a learning campaign that starred an ostrich named "Ozzie." In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring 'Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting a daily audience of 400,000+ riders. The curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. Phase I established the reality of climate change (3 months). Phase II helped T-riders appreciate the relevancy of climate change to the local environment of Boston (4 months). Phase III engaged Bostonians with an array of hopeful examples of how people, companies, and organizations are effectively creating a more sustainable future (5 months). The focus of this presentation will be on the relationships that emerged from the work that went into Phase III. Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities seem so removed from the 'natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for an urban subway system must complement the scary reality of a changing climate with hopeful solutions that exist for dealing with it effectively. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. Making our audience aware of the amazing efforts in this area was the goal of Phase III. There were three parts to our efforts: the signage on the subway, above ground ostriches, and social events. During the presentation

  2. Micro-Focus X-Ray Tomography Study of the Microstructure and Morphometry of the Eggshell of Ostriches (Struthio Camerus).

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Bronwyn; Steyn, Lindi; Bam, Lunga; Olivier, Adriaan J; Devey, Richard; Maina, John N

    2016-08-01

    In ostrich husbandry, economic losses have mainly been attributed to low hatchability of eggs, which has mostly been attributed to the structure of the eggshell. The main aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and the morphometry of the ostrich eggshell using micro-focus X-ray computer tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The mean weight and volume of the eggs were 1,312 ± 56SE g and 1,333 ± 44SE cm(3) , respectively. The mean thickness and the mean surface area of the eggshell was 1.83 ± 0.10SE mm and 619 ± 15SE cm(2) respectively and the mean total number of pores in the shell was 40,596 ± 1832SE. No significant correlations were found between the thickness of the shell and the weight of the eggs, the volume of the egg and the thickness of the shell, the diameter of the pores and the number of pores, the volume of the pores and the number of pores or the surface area of the pores and the number of pores. The mean diameters of the pores on the blunt (air cell) - (0.02 ± 0.04SE mm) and the sharp (0.26 ± 0.36SE mm) parts of the eggshell were significantly different (P = 0.0001) while the mean volumes and the surface areas of the pores in these parts were not significantly different (P = 0.203 and P = 0.089, respectively). The sizes of the pores differed in different parts of the eggshell, which consisted mainly of tightly arranged mammillary cones that that fused to the palisade columns. The external surface of the ostrich eggshell was covered by a cuticle. Anat Rec, 299:1015-1026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27097768

  3. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  4. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

  5. Expression of myelin genes in the developing chick retina.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hitosh; Ueda, Takayuki; Uno, Aoi; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2011-12-01

    In submammalian animals including chicks, the retina contains oligodendrocytes (OLs), and axons in the optic fiber layer are wrapped with compact myelin within the retina; however, the expression of myelin genes in the chick retina has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study, we examined the expression of three myelin genes (proteolipid protein, PLP; myelin basic protein, MBP; cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, CNP) and PLP in the developing chick retina, in comparison to the localization of Mueller cells. In situ hybridization demonstrated that all three myelin genes began to be expressed at E14 in the chick embryo retina. They are mostly restricted to the ganglion cell layer and the optic fiber layer, with a few exceptions in the inner nuclear layer where Mueller cells reside; however, PLP mRNA+ cells do not express glutamine synthetase, or vice versa. The present results elucidate that myelin genes are expressed only by OLs that are mostly localized in the innermost layer of the developing chick retina. PMID:21872683

  6. Combination effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the physical and thermal properties of ostrich meat sausage (yor).

    PubMed

    Supavititpatana, Thawatchai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2007-07-01

    Ostrich meat sausages (yor) were subjected to ultra-high pressures of 300, 500 and 700MPa for 40 and 60min at 40 and 60°C. Subsequently the physical properties of the products, colour, released and expressible water, gel strength and stress relaxation as well as their thermal characteristics (by differential scanning calorimeter, DSC) were determined. The effects of pressure, temperature and holding time significantly influenced the L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values. The amount of released plus expressible water significantly decreased with increasing pressure, temperature and holding time. The gel strength and equilibrium stress increased with increasing severity of treatment. DSC thermograms indicated that pressures of 700MPa yielded gel networks involving completely denatured protein with the ability to retain water. PMID:22061000

  7. Generalization of visual regularities in newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of learning and generalization of visual regularities in a newborn organism is provided in the present research. Domestic chicks have been trained to discriminate visual triplets of simultaneously presented shapes, implementing AAB versus ABA (Experiment 1), AAB versus ABB and AAB versus BAA (Experiment 2). Chicks distinguished pattern-following and pattern-violating novel test triplets in all comparisons, showing no preference for repetition-based patterns. The animals generalized to novel instances even when the patterns compared were not discriminable by the presence or absence of reduplicated elements or by symmetry (e.g., AAB vs. ABB). These findings represent the first evidence of learning and generalization of regularities at the onset of life in an animal model, revealing intriguing differences with respect to human newborns and infants. Extensive prior experience seems to be unnecessary to drive the process, suggesting that chicks are predisposed to detect patterns characterizing the visual world. PMID:27287627

  8. Thy hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus by chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T S

    1976-11-01

    The chromic oxide balance method was used to determine the amount of natural phytate phosphorus hydrolyzed by chicks and laying hens. Broiler chicks 4 and 9 weeks old and Single Comb White Leghorn hens were fed diets containing corn as the only grain source or diets in which wheat replaced one half of the corn. Feces were collected twice daily during the 7-day test period. The phytate phosphorus recovered in the feces of the 4 and 9 week old chicks and the laying hens fed the diet containing corn was 100, 98, and 92%. When wheat replaced one half of the corn the recovery was 92, 87 and 87%. The phytase activity in wheat was minimal in vivo; whereas, in vitro tests indicated enzyme activity. PMID:1019083

  9. Use of the Chick Embryo Model in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalirai, Helen; Shahidipour, Haleh; Coupland, Sarah E.; Luyten, Gregorius

    2015-01-01

    Animal models play a crucial role in basic and translational oncology research. Conventional rodent experiments, however, face ethical, practical and technical issues that limit their use. The chick embryo represents an accessible and economical in vivo model, which has long been used in developmental biology and for the study of angiogenesis. It is also a recognised xenograft model, and because of its lack of immune system in early development, the chick embryo has established itself as a key model system for cancer research, with which to study various steps in the metastatic process. In this chapter, we review the chick embryo model and the technical approaches adopted by cancer biologists, including advances in real-time imaging, and discuss how this has been or can be applied to improve our understanding of the biological events during uveal melanoma development and metastasis. PMID:27171889

  10. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  11. An estimation of Citrullus colocynthis toxicity for chicks.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, A O; Adam, S E

    1995-08-01

    Citrullus colocynthis seed was fed at 2% and 10% of the basal diet to 7-d-old Bovans-type chicks for 6 w. Average body weights and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly depressed in the chicks on 10% Citrullus feed, and the serum activities of LDH, AST and CK and concentrations of total lipid and zinc were significantly increased. The concentration of serum total iron binding capacity was particularly reduced in chicks on 2% Citrullus feed. The concentrations of other serum and blood constituents and of hepatic copper, manganese and zinc were not significantly changes. Lesions seen in the intestines, livers, kidneys and other tissues were fully reversed 4 w after removal from the experimental diet. PMID:8540228

  12. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  13. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    PubMed

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich. PMID:21555263

  14. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  15. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  16. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  17. Integument coloration signals reproductive success, heterozygosity, and antioxidant levels in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leclaire, S.; White, J.; Arnoux, E.; Faivre, B.; Vetter, N.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are important for immunity and as antioxidants, and carotenoid-based colors are believed to provide honest signals of individual quality. Other colorless but more efficient antioxidants such as vitamins A and E may protect carotenoids from bleaching. Carotenoid-based colors have thus recently been suggested to reflect the concentration of such colorless antioxidants, but this has rarely been tested. Furthermore, although evidence is accruing for multiple genetic criteria for mate choice, carotenoid-based colors have rarely been shown to reflect both phenotypic and genetic quality. In this study, we investigated whether gape, tongue, eye-ring, and bill coloration of chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla reflected circulating levels of carotenoids and vitamins A and E. We further investigated whether integument coloration reflected phenotypic (body condition and fledging success) and genetic quality (heterozygosity). We found that the coloration of fleshy integuments was correlated with carotenoid and vitamin A levels and fledging success but only in males. Furthermore, the coloration of tongue and eye-ring was correlated with heterozygosity in both males and females. Integument colors might therefore be reliable signals of individual quality used by birds to adjust their parental care during the chick-rearing period. ?? Springer-Verlag 2011.

  18. Integument coloration signals reproductive success, heterozygosity, and antioxidant levels in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, Sarah; White, Joël; Arnoux, Emilie; Faivre, Bruno; Vetter, Nathanaël; Hatch, Scott A.; Danchin, Étienne

    2011-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments are important for immunity and as antioxidants, and carotenoid-based colors are believed to provide honest signals of individual quality. Other colorless but more efficient antioxidants such as vitamins A and E may protect carotenoids from bleaching. Carotenoid-based colors have thus recently been suggested to reflect the concentration of such colorless antioxidants, but this has rarely been tested. Furthermore, although evidence is accruing for multiple genetic criteria for mate choice, carotenoid-based colors have rarely been shown to reflect both phenotypic and genetic quality. In this study, we investigated whether gape, tongue, eye-ring, and bill coloration of chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla reflected circulating levels of carotenoids and vitamins A and E. We further investigated whether integument coloration reflected phenotypic (body condition and fledging success) and genetic quality (heterozygosity). We found that the coloration of fleshy integuments was correlated with carotenoid and vitamin A levels and fledging success but only in males. Furthermore, the coloration of tongue and eye-ring was correlated with heterozygosity in both males and females. Integument colors might therefore be reliable signals of individual quality used by birds to adjust their parental care during the chick-rearing period.

  19. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  20. Elites, Masses, and Media Blacklists: The Dixie Chicks Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of ownership on media content in routine contexts, but none has quantitatively tested it in the context of a crisis. Recently the country musicians the Dixie Chicks were blacklisted from the radio for criticizing the president in wartime. I use this event to test the role of media ownership in a crisis.…

  1. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  2. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  3. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL MEMORY IN OCCLUSION-EXPERIENCED DOMESTIC CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At around day 11 of life, domestic chicks show a tendency to move out of sight of their mother before returning and regaining social and visual contact. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of this voluntary "out-of-sight" behaviour on the development of spatial memory in yo...

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  6. System for exposing chicks to experimental intermittent electric shock.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J M; Curtis, S E

    1988-12-01

    A system for imposing mild electric shock on chicks was developed to study effects on health, behavior, and performance. A floor of parallel steel rods was wired so that the chick's foot or feet completed an electric circuit. Droppings spanning the gap between energized rods and ground rods caused short-circuiting occasionally and temporarily, creating a random-interval/random-duration generator. In one 48-h period, on average, the floor remained electrified for 2.7 +/- .19 min (mean +/- SD) then off 4.5 +/- .64 min. Chicks seemed to habituate to the shock over time. Therefore, in one experiment, the current from one point on a foot to another was increased daily from an estimated 2.9 mA on Day 1 to 8.7 mA on Day 7. When exposed to this electric shock regimen between 10 and 17 days of age, chicks' weight gain was reduced by 12%, feed intake by 5%, and gain:feed by 8%. PMID:3241786

  7. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  8. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  9. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  10. Regionalization of the anterior hypothalamus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Caqueret, Aurore; Coumailleau, Pascal; Michaud, Jacques L

    2005-06-01

    Loss-of-function experiments in mice have shown that the transcription factors Sim1, Otp, Sim2, and Brn2 form a cascade essential for the differentiation of neuroendocrine cells of the anterior hypothalamus that produce vasopressin, oxytocin, somatostatin (SS), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Very little is known about how the differentiation of these cell types is regulated in chick. Here, we report the cloning of the chick homolog of Otp. Moreover, we have systematically compared the expression of Sim1, Sim2, Brn2, and Otp with that of the markers of terminal differentiation TRH, SS, CRH, vasotocin, and mesotocin during development of chick embryos. We have found that the cell types studied generally develop in domains expressing these transcriptional regulators but that the pattern of neuronal differentiation and the spatial distribution of some regulators were not the same as in mice. Our results provide a framework useful for the functional analysis of hypothalamus development in chick. PMID:15844192

  11. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  12. Chick Pcl2 regulates the left-right asymmetry by repressing Shh expression in Hensen's node.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shusheng; Yu, Xueyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zunyi; Chen, YiPing

    2004-09-01

    Asymmetric expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the left side of Hensen's node, a crucial step for specifying the left-right (LR) axis in the chick embryo, is established by the repression of Shh expression in the right side of the node. The transcriptional regulator that mediates this repression has not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel chick Polycomblike 2 gene, chick Pcl2, which encodes a transcription repressor and displays an asymmetric expression, downstream from Activin-betaB and Bmp4, in the right side of Hensen's node in the developing embryo. In vitro mapping studies define the transcription repression activity to the PHD finger domain of the chick Pcl2 protein. Repression of chick Pcl2 expression in the early embryo results in randomized heart looping direction, which is accompanied by the ectopic expression of Shh in the right side of the node and Shh downstream genes in the right lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), while overexpression of chick Pcl2 represses Shh expression in the node. The repression of Shh by chick Pcl2 was also supported by studies in which chick Pcl2 was overexpressed in the developing chick limb bud and feather bud. Similarly, transgenic overexpression of chick Pcl2 in the developing mouse limb inhibits Shh expression in the ZPA. In vitro pull-down assays demonstrated a direct interaction of the chick Pcl2 PHD finger with EZH2, a component of the ESC/E(Z) repressive complex. Taken together with the fact that chick Pcl2 was found to directly repress Shh promoter activity in vitro, our results demonstrate a crucial role for chick Pcl2 in regulating LR axis patterning in the chick by silencing Shh in the right side of the node. PMID:15294861

  13. Visual hierarchical processing and lateralization of cognitive functions through domestic chicks' eyes.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Patt, Francesco; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals. PMID:24404163

  14. Visual Hierarchical Processing and Lateralization of Cognitive Functions through Domestic Chicks' Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Patt, Francesco; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals. PMID:24404163

  15. Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Blévin, Pierre; Carravieri, Alice; Jaeger, Audrey; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ∼102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ13C) and trophic positions (reflected by δ15N) on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ15N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic). However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ13C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ13C values) south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ13C values). Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology. PMID:23349912

  16. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium

  17. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

    2009-01-01

    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of ‘normal’ eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 ± 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg ± 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P ≤ 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 ± 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 ± 0.018 (SE) mm2 day−1 for normal chicks, P ≤ 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 ± 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm−2 in the central cornea and 393 ± 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm−2peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P ≤ 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth. PMID:19245502

  18. Growth rates of great egret, snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Peterson, D.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Growth rates of Great Erget (Casmerodius albus), Snowy Erget (Egretta thula), and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks to 18 days-of-age were estimated from repeated measurements of chicks in broods of three young. Weight gain (g/day) or increase in length (mm/day) of forearm, tarsus, or culmen did not between Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks at a colony in Rhode Island and a colony in Texas (USA). In Black-crowned night-Herons and Great Egrets, the last chick (C-chick) to hatch had lower growth rates than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chick. Black-crowned Night-Heron and Great Egret A-chicks gained weight faster than Snowy Egret A-chicks; however growth rates of the forearm, tarsus, or culmen each were not different among the three species. Equations based on the growth rate of culmen, forearm, or tarsus for repeatedly measured A-chicks estimated age of Great Egret, Snowy Egret, and Black-crowned Night-Heron chicks collected elsewhere to within two days of known age.

  19. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  20. Modeling Pb (II) adsorption from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash using adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad J; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Sayed S; Mousavi, Sayed F; Hasheminejad, Hasti

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Adaptive Neural-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model in estimating the efficiency of Pb (II) ions removal from aqueous solution by ostrich bone ash, a batch experiment was conducted. Five operational parameters including adsorbent dosage (C(s)), initial concentration of Pb (II) ions (C(o)), initial pH, temperature (T) and contact time (t) were taken as the input data and the adsorption efficiency (AE) of bone ash as the output. Based on the 31 different structures, 5 ANFIS models were tested against the measured adsorption efficiency to assess the accuracy of each model. The results showed that ANFIS5, which used all input parameters, was the most accurate (RMSE = 2.65 and R(2) = 0.95) and ANFIS1, which used only the contact time input, was the worst (RMSE = 14.56 and R(2) = 0.46). In ranking the models, ANFIS4, ANFIS3 and ANFIS2 ranked second, third and fourth, respectively. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the estimated AE is more sensitive to the contact time, followed by pH, initial concentration of Pb (II) ions, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The results showed that all ANFIS models overestimated the AE. In general, this study confirmed the capabilities of ANFIS model as an effective tool for estimation of AE. PMID:23383640

  1. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from transesterification of palm oil over ostrich eggshell-derived CaO catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyi; Shan, Rui; Shi, Jiafu; Yan, Beibei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, waste ostrich eggshell-derived calcium oxide (denoted as CaO(OE)) particles were synthesized and explored as cost-effective catalysts for the ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of palm oil. The physicochemical properties of the resultant catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, XRF and Hammett indicator, while the catalytic activity was evaluated through transesterification of palm oil with methanol under ultrasonic conditions. More specifically, the CaO(OE) showed comparable catalytic activity to the one derived from commercial calcium carbonate (denoted as CaO(Lab)). Moreover, under ultrasonic conditions, the catalytic activity of CaO(OE) could be enhanced significantly. The maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters could reach 92.7% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 60 min with ultrasonic power of 60% (120 W), methanol-to-oil ratio of 9:1, and catalyst loading of 8 wt.%. The results indicated that the CaO(OE) catalysts showed good catalytic performance and reusability, and may potentially reduce the cost of biodiesel production. PMID:25226059

  2. A goose-type lysozyme from ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg white: multiple roles of His101 in its enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Somboonpatarakun, Chalermchai; Shinya, Shoko; Kawaguchi, Yuya; Araki, Tomohiro; Fukamizo, Tamo; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-01-01

    A goose-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (OEL) was produced by Escherichia coli expression system, and the role of His101 of OEL in the enzymatic reaction was investigated by NMR spectroscopy, thermal unfolding, and theoretical modeling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose, (GlcNAc)6. Although the binding of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, (GlcNAc)3, to OEL perturbed several backbone resonances in the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum, the chemical shift of the backbone resonance of His101 was not significantly affected. However, apparent pKa values of His101 and Lys102 determined from the pH titration curves of the backbone chemical shifts were markedly shifted by (GlcNAc)3 binding. Thermal unfolding experiments and modeling study of (GlcNAc)6 hydrolysis using a His101-mutated OEL (H101A-OEL) revealed that the His101 mutation affected not only sugar residue affinities at subsites -3 and -2 but also the rate constant for bond cleavage. His101 appears to play multiple roles in the substrate binding and the catalytic reaction. PMID:26428437

  3. Electrical tuning in hair cells isolated from the chick cochlea.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P A; Nagai, T; Evans, M G

    1988-07-01

    Tall (inner) hair cells were isolated from specific locations in the chick cochlea. The electrical membrane properties of these cells were recorded using the tight-seal whole-cell technique. Depolarizing current steps elicited damped voltage oscillations that ranged in frequency from 100 to 250 Hz among cells from the middle third of the cochlea (basal cells). The current-voltage relation obtained under voltage clamp was dominated by calcium-activated potassium current in the voltage range over which these oscillations occurred. Tall hair cells isolated from the apical tip of the cochlea (apical cells) exhibited action potentials and lower frequency voltage oscillations (5-14 Hz) during depolarizing current steps. Outward currents in these cells were 20-fold slower than those found in the basal cells. These results suggest that electrical tuning of hair cells may play a role in determining the frequency selectivity of the chick cochlea. PMID:3249237

  4. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  5. Detection and molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus associated with chicks that have an unusual condition known as "white chicks" in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Santander Parra, S H; Carranza, C; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Buim, M R; Piantino Ferreira, A J

    2016-06-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) is one of many viruses related to enteric diseases in poultry that are associated with Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), which affects young chickens. CAstV was also recently associated with an unusual condition in chicks called "white chicks." Some hatcheries in certain states of Brazil have reported several incubation problems, mortality, and the presence of chicks with white plumages over the past several months. These chicks were termed locally as "white chicks." The present work investigated 30 chicks with this unusual condition using a multidisciplinary approach. Postmortem examination of each chick showed enlarged livers and intestines that were full of liquid and gas (30/30). The pancreas, kidneys, and spleen were pale (30/30). The other organs did not show any macroscopic alterations. CAstV, chicken parvovirus (ChPV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), avian rotavirus (ARtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1) were tested in the intestines, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, liver, spleen, bursa, kidneys, thymus, lung, heart, brain, and yolk sac in each chick. All organs and yolk sacs were positive for CAstV in different titres and negative for the other tested viruses. The partial molecular characterization of the ORF 1b gene of CAstV using 28 sequences revealed a high similarity of the nucleotides and amino acids with sequences of CAstV from North America, Europe, and Asia, and our CAstV sequences clustered into a unique group that was separate from the other sequences. These results demonstrated that CAstV was associated with the white chick condition in Brazil. The virus was distributed in most organs, including the brain and yolk sac. These results suggest that the virus could be transmitted vertically. The molecular characterization also revealed that the CAstV associated with white chick condition was molecularly related to other CAstV sequences found worldwide. PMID

  6. The Use of Chick Embryos to Study Wnt Activity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Galli, Lisa M; Barnes, Tiffany; Burrus, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    The chick spinal cord provides a valuable model for assessing Wnt signaling activity. Loss or gain of function constructs that are transfected by electroporation can be directed to a single side of the spinal cord, thus leaving the contralateral side as an internal control. Here, we describe a method for measuring Wnt signaling via the use of BAT-Gal, a β-catenin dependent Wnt reporter. PMID:27590153

  7. A Chick Model of Retinal Detachment: Cone Rich and Novel

    PubMed Central

    Cebulla, Colleen M.; Zelinka, Chris P.; Scott, Melissa A.; Lubow, Martin; Bingham, Amanda; Rasiah, Stephen; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD) model in the chick. Methodology/Principal Findings Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG). Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP), proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas. Conclusions/Significance Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies. PMID:22970190

  8. Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

  9. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  10. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  11. Glutathione plays a role in the chick intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Tolosa de Talamoni, N; Marchionatti, A; Baudino, V; Alisio, A

    1996-10-01

    DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) administration to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol produces a rapid decrease in the Ca2+ transfer from lumen-to-plasma and in the intestinal glutathione content. This response was reversed by addition of glutathione monoester to the intestinal sac. Variables related to the Ca2+ homeostasis such as plasma Ca and P, and intestinal calbindin D28k were not modified by BSO given to vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with cholecalciferol. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity, on the contrary, was highly reduced by BSO in vitamin D-deficient chicks treated with vitamin D3. This effect showed time and dose-dependency. Although the mechanism/s of action of BSO on the intestinal Ca absorption is unknown, it is quite possible that thiol groups of protein involved in the Ca2+ transport are affected by the GSH depletion and/or by block of the antioxidant ability of vitamin D3. Thus, reactive oxygen compounds would be increased and, therefore, the Ca2+ movement from lumen to plasma decreases. PMID:8916550

  12. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

  13. Ontogeny of the estrogen receptor in the chick oviduct.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, T K; Tuohimaa, P J

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ER) in the chick oviduct was studied immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody H222, known to recognize chick ER [1]. The ontogeny of ER appeared to be very dependent on cellular differentiation. In the undifferentiated oviduct ER was located in the epithelial, mesothelial, stromal and smooth muscle cells. During differentiation ER disappeared from the surface epithelium, mesothelium, stromal and smooth muscle cells. At the onset of differentiation the protodifferentiated gland cells invaginated into the underlying stroma; these cells expressed ER. In the fully differentiated chick oviduct ER was located only in the tubular gland cells, which correlates with the known transcriptional activity of estrogen-induced ovalbumin-gene. However, we have reported estrogen dependency of PR also in ER-negative stromal cells, the mechanism being so far unknown. It is possible that there are mechanisms other than ER regulating the expression of PR. Estrogen-induced differentiation did not differ from normal maturation in regard to the distribution of ER. Since stromal, epithelial, mesothelial and smooth muscle cells were ER-negative in the mature oviduct, the concentration of ER, i.e. ER binding sites/cell is underestimated when whole tissue homogenates are used. PMID:2626020

  14. Acephate immunotoxicity in White Leghorn cockerel chicks upon experimental exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripathi, Syamantak Mani; Thaker, A. M.; Joshi, C. G.; Sankhala, Laxmi Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Immunotoxicity for subacute exposure to acephate (O,S-dimethyl-acetylphosphoramidothioate) was assessed in day old White Leghorn (WLH) cockerel chicks. The chicks were divided into five groups. Groups C1 and C2 served as plain control and vehicle control respectively. Chicks of groups T1, T2 and T3 were administered acephate suspended in groundnut oil at 21.3 mg/kg, 28.4 mg/kg and 42.6 mg/kg respectively orally for 28 days. A non-significant reduction in total leukocyte count was observed. Although, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibody titer, serum total protein (TP), serum globulin, serum albumin and organ:body weight ratios of immune organs were significantly suppressed. The delayed type hypersensitivity response to 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) was not significantly altered. Histopathologically, bursa and spleen showed mild depletion of lymphocytes. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assay was performed and detected ladder pattern (180 bp) in DNA. It was concluded that subacute acephate exposure at low concentrations may affect immune responses in avian species.

  15. Biological chick procedure to determine fluoride availability in sepiolite.

    PubMed

    Tortuero, F

    1992-12-01

    1. A modified fluoride (F) bioassay procedure based on the method of standard additions and using chicks was tested for the determination of F availability in sepiolite. Chicks were distributed between a control group fed on a basal diet and experimental groups fed on this diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg F as sodium fluoride. A further group was fed on the basal diet plus 2 g/kg sepiolite. 2. Body weight gain and food consumption during a 60 or 90 d study were similar for all treatments. 3. Ileal digestibility of F from the basal diet or from the diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg F as sodium fluoride was higher (0.907) than for chicks fed on the sepiolite diet (0.152). 4. Increases in the F contents of tibia ash were linearly related to dietary F concentration as sodium fluoride. 5. F contents of tibiae from the sepiolite group (at 60 or 90 d of age) were plotted against tibia F concentrations from groups receiving additional sodium fluoride in the diet. A weighted regression was performed. The values obtained for the relative available F from sepiolite were 0.213 and 0.150, respectively, at 60 and 90 d of age. PMID:1493555

  16. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  17. [Maintenance of African ostriches (Struthio carnelus) under Hessian climatic conditions--analysis of metereological data for the application of BML's expert recommendations of 1996].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2000-07-01

    A report is given on an analysis of meteorological data on five locations in the region of Hessia in order to apply the BML's expert recommendation concerning ostrich farming. According to this recommendation black ice, very strong frost and continuous rain should not make it necessary to keep the animals in pens longer than 3 days or more often than 10 days per month. Otherwise a dry paddock must be provided. It was investigated whether and how often the above mentioned weather conditions exceeded the critical duration or frequency in the last decades at the different locations. Previously the weather related terms which were used in the BML-recommendation were defined more precisely in order to provide an objective basis for the analysis. Frequent periods of frost lasting longer than 3 days with temperatures below -5 degrees C were found to be a critical factor. They occurred in 79 to 90% of the winter seasons under investigation, although the climate was thought to be rather mild in comparison to other regions. Frost can not be remedied by a dry paddock. Therefore the locations in question are not suitable for ostrich farming. The same conclusion holds at least for all locations with a colder climate. Black ice occurred only scarcely. At none of the investigated locations periods of continuous rain were longer than 3 days or occurred more often than 10 days per month. This result might not only be due to the given climatic conditions but also due to methodological reasons. It seems that the meteorological definition of continuous rain is too restricted to take the relevant precipitation for ostriches into account. It is suggested to find a new definition and consider factors like humidity and wind speed as well. PMID:10954999

  18. Sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Charuta, A; Dzierzecka, M; Pierzchala, M; Cooper, R G; Polawska, E; Horbanczuk, J O

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. The study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (Struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. The following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bone mineral content (BMC), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical content (CRT_CNT), cortical density (CRT_DEN), trabecular content, trabecular density (TRAB_DEN), bone area (TOT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A), cortical area (CRT_A), cortical thickness (CRT_THK_C), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endocortical circumference (ENDO_C), and strength-strain index (SSI) in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the bones. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results was performed using Student's t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the investigated parameters was determined. The obtained results have shown significant differences in proximal metaphysis between males and females when evaluating such parameters as CRT_DEN, TOT_A, TRAB_A, PERI_C, SSI in tibia (P < 0.05), and BMC, vBMD, TRAB_DEN, CRT_CNT, TOT_A, TRAB_A, cortical area, PERI_C, ENDO_C, SSI in tarsometatarsus (P < 0.05). Significant differences between the 2 sexes were found in all the investigated parameters of diaphysis of tibia, except for CRT_DEN and ENDO_C (P < 0.05). Significant positive correlations between BW and bone weight were found (P < 0.05). Furthermore, numerous correlations of morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of metaphysis and diaphysis of the tibia and tarsometatarsus were stated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated sex-related differences in morphometric, densitometric, and geometric properties of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo

  19. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected immune responses in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Fritsche, K L; Rottinghaus, G E

    1999-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate immune responses in chicks fed fumonisin B1 (FB1). Day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to dietary treatments: 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg FB1/kg diet. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed diets for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6x10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected after 180 min. Chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet had significantly higher numbers of bacterial colonies in blood, spleen, and liver (P<0.05) than control chicks. In Experiment 2, chicks were placed on the diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL inactivated Newcastle Disease virus vaccine on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment, and primary and secondary antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. The secondary antibody response in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control chicks. In Experiment 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to FB1 in vivo or in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens was lower (P<0.05) in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet than in control chicks. For the in vitro study, cell proliferation was lower (P<0.05) when cells were exposed to > or = 2.5 microg FB1/mL. Data of the current study suggested that FB1 is immunosuppressive in chicks when present in the ration at 200 mg FB1/kg diet. PMID:10515357

  20. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  1. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  2. Non-co-ordinate development of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase in chick heart.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R W; Galper, J B; Neer, E J; Smith, T W

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the properties of beta-adrenergic receptors and of their interaction with adenylate cyclase in the chick myocardium during embryogenesis. Between 4.5 and 7.5 days in ovo the number of receptors determined by (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA) binding is constant at approx. 0.36 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. By day 9 the density decreases significantly to 0.22 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. At day 12.5--13.5 the number was 0.14--0.18 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. This number did not change further up to day 16. The same results were obtained with guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) added to the assay mixtures. There was no significant change in receptor affinity for the antagonist [3H]DHA between days 5.5 and 13. Despite the decrease in numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors, there was no change in basal, p[NH]ppG-, isoprenaline- or isoprenaline-plus-p[NH]ppG-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity between days 3 and 12 of development. We conclude that beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase are not co-ordinately regulated during early embryonic development of the chick heart. Some of the beta-adrenergic receptors present very early in the ontogeny of cardiac tissue appear not to be coupled to adenylate cyclase since their loss is not reflected in decreased activation of the enzyme. PMID:6289805

  3. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  4. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  5. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are deprived of feed and water between hatching and the moment of chick pulling (d E21.5), and a patio system, in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined, and chicks have immediate posthatch feed and water access. Climate conditions in patio also differ with about 3°C lower temperature and 20% lower RH compared with conventional hatchers. At E18, fertile eggs were transferred to either a hatcher or the patio until the end of incubation. From each system, 50 newly hatched chicks were collected at 3 hatching times: at 468 h (early), 483 h (midterm), and 498 h (late) of incubation, of which 25 chicks were decapitated for analyses of physiological parameters. The other 25 chicks were returned to the hatching system for analyses after 515 h of incubation (E21.5). At hatch, weights of the heart, lungs, stomach, and intestine increased with hatching time, concurrent with a decrease in residual yolk weight, regardless of hatching system, and indicating that later hatching chicks are more matured. Weights of the heart, liver, stomach, and intestines were lower in hatcher than in patio chicks. Between hatch and E21.5, residual yolk weight decreased, whereas organ weights increased in both fasted hatcher and fed patio chicks, but at a higher rate in the latter. At E21.5, plasma glucose and triiodothyronine had increased with time after hatch in patio chicks, whereas levels were similar among hatching times and lower in hatcher chicks. Early feed and water access seems to enable early hatching chicks to compensate for their apparent disadvantage in development at hatching, whereas chicks subjected to fasting show metabolic adaptations to preserve nutrients. Chick physiology at

  6. Assessing chick growth from a single visit to a seabird colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, J.; Suryan, R.M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We tested an approach to the collection of seabird chick growth data that utilizes a one-time sampling of chick measurements obtained during a single visit to a seabird colony. We assessed the development of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla chicks from a sample of measurements made on a single day during six years and compared these results to linear growth rates (g/day), determined from repeated measurements of the same chicks. We used two one-time sampling methods to obtain indices of chick-condition, 1) overall body-size (wing, head-plus-bill, tarsus) vs. mass, and 2) wing vs. mass; both were consistent with repeated measurements in identifying annual variations in chick growth. Thus, we suggest that chick-condition indices obtained from measurements collected on a single visit to a seabird colony are a useful tool for monitoring chick growth, especially at colonies where multiple visits and/or repeated measurements of individual chicks are impractical.

  7. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    PubMed

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  8. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  9. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  10. Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

  11. Individual and combined effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and moniliformin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Broomhead, J N; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2003-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 100, 200 mg FB1/kg) and moniliformin (M; 0, 100, 200 mg M/kg) were evaluated using a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Significant mortality (P < 0.05) occurred in chicks fed all diets containing 200 mg M/kg (50%-65%). Compared with controls and chicks fed FB1, both feed intake and body weight gain were decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed diets containing 100 mg M/kg. Chicks fed M had heavier heart weights (P < 0.05) than control chicks or chicks fed FB1. Compared with controls, chicks fed diets containing 200 mg M/kg or a combination of 200 mg FB1/kg and 100 mg M/kg had increased kidney and liver weights (P < 0.05). Significant FB1 by M interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for serum total protein and aspartate aminotransferase. Mild to moderate periportal extramedullary hematopoiesis and mild focal hepatic necrosis were observed in chicks fed FB1 alone. An increased incidence of large pleomorphic cardiomyocyte nuclei, loss of cardiomyocytes, and mild focal renal tubular mineralization were observed in chicks fed M alone. Both cardiac and renal lesions were observed in chicks fed combinations of FB1 and M. Data indicate FB1 and M, alone or in combination, can adversely affect chick performance and health at these dietary concentrations. The interactive effects of FB1 and M were not synergistic and were less than additive in nature. At the dietary concentrations studied, M is much more toxic to broilers than FB1. PMID:14708984

  12. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  13. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on post-thaw sperm characteristics. It was observed that post-thaw sperm characteristics were significantly compromised in semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival. PMID:24988847

  14. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  15. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  16. Effects of Antitumor Drug Sorafenib on Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Sen; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Chen, Yue-Lei; Chuai, Man-Li; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xue-Song

    2015-07-01

    Sorafenib has been used as an oral anti-cancer drug because of its ability to inhibit tumor growth. However, the pharmacological effect of sorafenib is still the lack of in vivo experimental evidence. Tumor and embryonic cells share some similar features, so we investigated the effects of sorafenib on the development of gastrulating chick embryos. We found that sorafenib exposure was markedly attributed to the number of embryonic cell in proliferation and apoptosis. We also detected sorafenib significantly interfered with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, sorafenib treatment impaired the production and migration of neural crest cells. PMID:25810088

  17. ChickScope: An Interactive MRI Classroom Curriculum Innovation for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, B. C.; Carragher, B. O.; Damon, B. M.; Dawson, M. J.; Eurell, J. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Lauterbur, P. C.; Marjanovic, M. M.; Mason-Fossum, B.; Morris, H. D.; Potter, C. S.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-01-01

    Describes ChickScope, a 21-day chick embryonic development project, to demonstrate the remote control of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instrument through the World Wide Web. Topics include remote instrumentation and the Web, teacher-based implementation, impact in elementary and secondary school classrooms, and future directions. (Author/LRW)

  18. Effects of Low Phytic Acid Barley on Zinc Utilization in Young Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21 day experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of low phytic acid barley (LPB) on Zn utilization by young broiler chicks, and to determine the contribution of endogenous phytase, present in LPB. In the first experiment, 96 d-old male chicks were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangeme...

  19. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  20. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  1. Routes for Campylobacter coli colonization of the intestinal track of chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly hatched chick may be exposed to significant levels of Campylobacter from various sources in the hatchery and grow-out environments. Once the Campylobacter reach the ceca of the young chick they are able to multiply to high levels in a relatively short time period. This creates a situatio...

  2. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  3. Can acaricide-impregnated leg bands fitted to female red grouse reduce sheep tick parasitization of chicks and increase chick survival?

    PubMed

    Baines, D; Taylor, L

    2016-09-01

    In parts of northern England, North Wales and the Scottish Highlands, increasing numbers of sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the louping ill virus they can carry, are considered to be important factors that reduce red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica productivity. The present study tested this hypothesis by fitting adult female grouse with leg bands impregnated with the acaricide cypermethrin to experimentally control ticks on their chicks on two managed grouse moors in northeast Scotland. The chicks of females fitted with acaricide leg bands showed reduced tick infestations and improved survival in one of the two study years, relative to chicks of control females. Acaricide leg bands constitute a potential management technique that may be adopted by grouse moor managers in circumstances of high tick infestations on grouse chicks. PMID:27377883

  4. Imprinted Numbers: Newborn Chicks' Sensitivity to Number vs. Continuous Extent of Objects They Have Been Reared with

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Newborn chicks were tested for their sensitivity to number vs. continuous physical extent of artificial objects they had been reared with soon after hatching. Because of the imprinting process, such objects were treated by chicks as social companions. We found that when the objects were similar, chicks faced with choices between 1 vs. 2 or 2 vs. 3…

  5. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (?? SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ?? 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ???66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ?? 0.002 day-1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ?? 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ?? 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  6. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

  7. Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenic/toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OTA) in various internal organs of Plymouth Rock chicks were determined. The number of OTA-induced neoplasms was similar in chicks given 25 ppm L-β-phenylalanine (PHE) in addition to 5 ppm OTA compared to chicks given only 5 ppm OTA, which showed that PHE cannot be used as a real protector against the carcinogenic or toxic effects of OTA in chicks. OTA was found to provoke strong degenerative changes in liver and kidneys, degenerative changes and depletion of cells in lymphoid organs, oedematous and degenerative changes in the brain, muscular haemorrhages and fatty changes in the bone marrow. The target organs for carcinogenic effect of OTA in chicks were found to be kidneys and liver. PMID:22069604

  8. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  9. Dual foraging and pair coordination during chick provisioning by Manx shearwaters: empirical evidence supported by a simple model

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Akiko; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Fayet, Annette; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Christopher; Guilford, Tim

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The optimal allocation of time and energy between one's own survival and offspring survival is critical for iteroparous animals, but creates a conflict between what maximises the parent's fitness and what maximises fitness of the offspring. For central-place foragers, provisioning strategies may reflect this allocation, while the distance between central-places and foraging areas may influence the decision. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the link between life history and foraging in the context of resource allocation. Studying foraging behaviour alongside food load rates to chicks provides a useful system for understanding the foraging decisions made during parent–offspring conflict. Using simultaneously deployed GPS and time–depth recorders, we examined the provisioning strategies in free-living Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus, which were caring for young. Our results showed a bimodal pattern, where birds alternate short and long trips. Short trips were associated with higher feeding frequency and larger meals than long trips, suggesting that long trips were performed for self-feeding. Furthermore, most foraging was carried out within 100 km of sea fronts. A simple model based on patch quality and travel time shows that for Manx shearwaters combining chick feeding and self-maintenance, bimodal foraging trip durations optimise feeding rates. PMID:25964419

  10. Dual foraging and pair coordination during chick provisioning by Manx shearwaters: empirical evidence supported by a simple model.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Akiko; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Fayet, Annette; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Christopher; Guilford, Tim

    2015-07-01

    The optimal allocation of time and energy between one's own survival and offspring survival is critical for iteroparous animals, but creates a conflict between what maximises the parent's fitness and what maximises fitness of the offspring. For central-place foragers, provisioning strategies may reflect this allocation, while the distance between central-places and foraging areas may influence the decision. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the link between life history and foraging in the context of resource allocation. Studying foraging behaviour alongside food load rates to chicks provides a useful system for understanding the foraging decisions made during parent-offspring conflict. Using simultaneously deployed GPS and time-depth recorders, we examined the provisioning strategies in free-living Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus, which were caring for young. Our results showed a bimodal pattern, where birds alternate short and long trips. Short trips were associated with higher feeding frequency and larger meals than long trips, suggesting that long trips were performed for self-feeding. Furthermore, most foraging was carried out within 100 km of sea fronts. A simple model based on patch quality and travel time shows that for Manx shearwaters combining chick feeding and self-maintenance, bimodal foraging trip durations optimise feeding rates. PMID:25964419